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CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY

UNIT 2
AGGREGATES

M. Irfaan Mungroo
Civil Engineering Department
JSS ATE, Mauritius

CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY
Unit 2

Aggregates

VTU SYLLABUS
Grading Analysis
Specific gravity
Bulking
Moisture content
Deleterious materials
Importance of size, shape and texture.
Sieve Analysis
Specific Gravity
Flakiness & Elongation Index
Crushing, impact and abrasion Tests

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INTRODUCTION
Concrete is the most used material after water for the following reasons:
i)

Versatile

ii)

Strong & Durable

iii)

Workable when mix

iv)

Does not rust or rot

v)

Does not need coating

vi)

Resist fire

vii)

Almost suitable for any environmental conditions

The ingredients of concrete are:


1) Portland cement
2) Coarse aggregate
3) Fine aggregate
4) Water
5) Admixtures (Optional)
INGREDIENT

SIZE

SHAPE

SPECIFIC GRAVITY

TEXTURE

Cement

50 microns
(average)

Nearly
Spherical

3.00 3.20

Smooth

Coarse Aggregates

80 mm 4.75
mm

Round,
angular,
cuboidal, flaky,
elongated

2.6 2.8

Glassy, Smooth,
Granular,
Crystalline,
Honeycombed
and porous

Fine Aggregates

4.75 mm 150

Angular or
rounded

2.5 2.6

Smooth,
Granular

Water

1.0

Mineral Admixtures

< 40 microns
(Average)

Nearly
Spherical

Varies

Glassy, smooth

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Aggregates

AGGREGATES
Aggregates are very important in concrete. They give the body to concrete, reduce shrinkage and
effect economy. They occupy 70 80 % of the volume of concrete. Hence it is vital to know their
various characteristics and properties.
The following properties will be studied:
i.

Size

ii.

Shape

iii.

Texture

iv.

Specific Gravity

v.

Absorption and Moisture Content

vi.

Bulking

vii.

Soundness

viii.

Grading

ix.

Deleterious Materials

1. SIZE
The largest maximum size of aggregates used for concrete making is usually 80 mm.
Using the largest possible maximum size will result in:
i.

Reduction in water requirement

ii.

Reduction in cement content

iii.

Reduction in drying shrinkage

However, the maximum size aggregate that can be used in any given situations may be
limited by the following conditions:
i.

Thickness of section

ii.

Spacing of reinforcement

iii.

Clear cover

iv.

Mixing, handling and placing techniques

Generally, the maximum size of aggregates should be as large as possible within the
specified limits but in any case not greater than the minimum thickness of the member.
Based on size, aggregates are divided into two categories:

i.

Coarse Aggregates (> 4.75 mm)

ii.

Fine Aggregates ( 4.75 mm)

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2. SHAPE
The shape of aggregates is very important since it affects the workability1 of concrete.
The shape of aggregates is very much influenced by the type of crusher.
From an economic point of view, for a given water/cement ratio, rounded aggregates are
preferred to angular aggregates.
On the other hand, using angular aggregates in some cement will results in higher strength
and durability as a result of the inter locking of the aggregates.
Flat particles in concrete aggregates will have poor influence on the workability, strength
and durability of concrete while excessively flaky aggregates makes very bad concrete.
CLASSIFICATION

DESCRIPTION

EXAMPLES

Rounded

Fully water worn or completely


shaped by attrition (wearing)

River or seashore gravels;


desert, seashore and windblown sands

Irregular or Partly Rounded

Angular

Flaky

Naturally irregular or partly


shaped by attrition, having
round edges
Possessing well-defined edges
formed at the intersection of
roughly planar faces
Material, usually angular, of
which the thickness is small
relative to the width of length.

Pit sands and gravels, cuboid


rocks
Crushed rocks of all types

Laminated rocks

Round Aggregates

A workable concrete is one which can easily be manipulated or worked with.

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Angular Aggregates

Flaky Aggregates

There has been controversy whether the angular aggregate or rounded aggregate makes
better concrete.
Generally, angular aggregates are superior to rounded aggregates for the following reasons:
i.

Angular aggregates exhibit a better interlocking effect in concrete, hence it is used a


lot in concrete used for roads and pavements.

ii.

The total surface area of rough textured angular aggregate is more than smooth
round aggregate for a given volume. Hence, the angular aggregate may show higher
bond strength (strength of bond between aggregates and cement) than rounded
aggregates.

However, due to greater surface area, angular aggregates require more water for a given
workability than rounded aggregates.

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3. TEXTURE
Surface texture is the relative degree to which particles surfaces are polished or dull,
smooth or rough.
It depends on hardness, grain size, pore structure, structure of rock and the degree to which
forces acting on the particle surface have smoothened or roughened it.
Hard, dense fine grained materials will generally have smooth fracture surfaces.
Laboratory experiments have shown that the adhesion between cement paste and
aggregates is influenced by several factors including surface texture.
As surface smoothness increases, contact area decreases (a rough surface has greater
contact area), hence a highly polished particle will have less bonding area than a rough
particle for the same volume.
A smooth particle will however require a thinner layer of paste to lubricate its movements
with respect to other aggregates properties.
Surface texture characteristics of aggregates are classified as shown below:
Group

Surface Texture

Examples

Glassy

Black flint

Smooth

Marble, Slate, Chert

Granular

Sandstone; oolites

Crystalline

Fine: Basalt; trachyte


Medium: Dolerite; granulite
Coarse: Gabbro; granite; syenite

Honeycombed and porous

Scoria; Pumice; trass

Measurement Of Surface Texture:


A large number of possible methods are available to measure the surface texture of aggregates and
this may be divided into direct and indirect methods.
Direct methods include:
-

Making a cast of the section and magnifying a section of this

Getting a section of through the aggregates and examining a magnified image

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Indirect methods include:


-

Measurement of the degree of dispersion of light falling on the object

Determining the weight of fine powder required to fill up the interstices of the surface to a
truly smooth surface

4. SPECIFIC GRAVITY
The specific gravity of aggregates is an important parameters used in the design of concrete
mixes.
When the specific gravity of the aggregates is known, they can be converted into solid
volume and hence, a theoretical yield of concrete per unit volume can be calculated.
Specific gravity of aggregates is also needed to calculate the compaction factor for
measurements of workability.
The average specific gravity of rock varies from 2.6 to 2.8

5. ABSORPTION AND MOISTURE CONTENT


Some aggregates are porous and absorptive.
Porosity and absorption of aggregates will affect the water/cement ratio and hence, the
workability of concrete.
The porosity of aggregate will also affect the durability of concrete when the concrete is
subjected to freezing and thawing (melting) and also when the concrete is subjected to
chemically aggressive liquids.
The water absorption of aggregate is determined by measuring the increase in weight of an
oven dry sample when immersed in water for 24 hours. The ratio of increase in weight to
the weight of the dry sample expressed as percentage is known as absorption of aggregate.
The aggregate absorbs water in concrete and thus affect the workability and final volume of
concrete.
To compensate for the loss of water by absorption by aggregates, extra water is added to a
concrete mix.
In the proportioning of materials for design mix, the aggregates are always taken to be
saturated and surface dry. But in practice, such aggregates are rarely met. Aggregates are
either dry or absorptive to various degree or they have surface moisture.

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If the aggregates are dry, they absorb water and affect workability of concrete while on the
other hand, if the aggregates contain surface moisture; they contribute extra water to the
mix and increase the water/cement ratio. Both these conditions are harmful for the quality
of cement.
Hence, in making quality concrete, it is very essential that corrective measures are taken for
both absorption and free moisture so that the water/cement ratio is kept exactly as per
design.

6. BULKING
Surface moisture or free moisture content in fine aggregates results in bulking
(increase) of volume.
The bulking phenomenon can be explained as follows:
Surface moisture forms a film around each particle. This film of moisture exerts what
is known as surface tension which keeps the neighbouring particles away from it.
Similarly, the force exerted by surface tension keeps every particle away from each
other. Therefore, no point contact is possible between the particles. This causes bulking
of the volume.
The extent of surface tension and consequently how far the particles are kept away
from each other will depend upon the percentage of moisture content and the particle
size of the fine aggregate.

Bulking increases with increase in moisture content upto a certain limit and beyond
that the further increase in moisture content results in decrease in the volume and at a
moisture content representing the saturation point, the fine aggregate shows no
bulking.

Coarse aggregates also bulks but the bulking is so little that it is always neglected.
Extremely fine sand bulks as much as 40%.
It is necessary to consider the effect of bulking in proportioning of concrete by volume.
The extent of bulking can be estimated by a simple field test.

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a. A sample of moist fine aggregate is filled into a measuring cylinder in the
normal manner.
b. The level of the fine aggregate is noted, h1
c. Water is poured into the cylinder and the sand is completely flooded. The
cylinder is then shaken.
d. The new level of sand is noted, h2
e. The percentage of bulking is given by:
Percentage of bulking =

x 100

7. SOUNDNESS
Soundness refers to the ability of aggregate to resist excessive changes in volume as a result
of changes in physical conditions.
These physical conditions may be freezing, thawing, change in temperature, alternate
wetting and drying under normal conditions or in sea water.
Aggregates which are porous, weak and containing any undesirable extraneous matters
undergo excessive volume change when subjected to the above conditions.
Aggregates which undergo more than the specified amount of volume change is said to be
unsound aggregates.
If concrete is to be exposed to the action of frost, the coarse and fine aggregate which will be
used have to be subjected to soundness test.
The soundness test consists of alternative immersion of carefully graded and weighed test
sample in a solution of sodium or magnesium sulphate and oven drying it under specified
conditions.
Loss of weight is measured for a specified number of cycles.
As a guide, it can be taken that the average loss of weight after 10 cycles should not exceed
12 % and 18 % when tested with sodium sulphate and magnesium sulphate respectively.

8. GRADING
Aggregates consists of about 55 % of the volume of mortar (cement & fine aggregates) and
85 % of mass concrete (cement, fine and coarse aggregates). Mortar consists aggregates of
size 4.75 mm and concrete contains aggregates up to a maximum size of 150 mm.
Grading of concrete means the variety in size of the aggregates being used.

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It is well known that the strength of concrete is dependent on the water/cement ratio
provided the concrete is workable. To produce workable concrete, good grading of
aggregates is important.
Good grading means that a sample of aggregates must contain all standard fractions of
aggregates in the required proportion such that the sample contains minimum voids.
A sample of well graded aggregates containing minimum voids will require minimum paste
to fill up the voids in the aggregates. Minimum paste means less quantity of cement and less
quantity of water, hence, increased economy, higher strength, lower shrinkage and greater
durability.
The advantage of good grading can be viewed from another angle. Concrete is assumed to
be a two-phased materials; paste phase and aggregate phase. The paste phase is weaker and
more vulnerable to chemical attacks. Hence the lesser the paste phase, the better will be the
concrete. This objective can be achieved by having well graded aggregates.
One of the practical methods of arriving at the practical (reasonable) grading by trial and
error method is to mix aggregates of different sizes in different percentages and to choose
the sample which gives maximum weight or minimum voids per unit volume, out of all the
alternative samples.

9. DELETERIOUS MATERIALS
The term deleterious materials encompasses materials that are dangerous to health or
which are the causes of failures in buildings, and has been increasingly referred as materials
which are environmentally damaging.
Deleterious substances present in aggregates that influence concrete properties. The
substances that are harmful to concrete performance are:
i.

Organic Impurities

Organic impurities interfere with the hydration reaction.

They are mostly found in sand and consists usually of products of decay of vegetable
matter (mainly tannic acid and its derivatives) and can be removed from sand by
washing.

To determine the organic content of aggregate, a colorimetric test recommended.


However, this test does not confirm the adverse effect of the organic impurity,

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because high organic content does necessarily mean that the aggregate is not fit for
use in concrete.

For this reason, strength test on mortar with questionable sand is recommended.
This strength has to be compared with the strength of mortar with washed sand

ii.

Clay and other Fine Materials

Clay present on the surface of the aggregate particles interfere with the bond
between aggregate and the cement paste, adversely affecting the strength and
durability of concrete.

Other fine materials which may be present in aggregate are silt (2 - 60 m) and
crusher dust.

Silt and dust, owing to their fineness, increase the surface area and therefore
increase the amount of water necessary to wet all the particles in the mix. Hence, it
is necessary to control the amount of clay, silt and fine dust in aggregate

Since no test is available to determine separately the clay content, silt and dust, the
limits of fine materials are prescribed in terms of the percentage of material passing
75 m sieve.

Generally, the limits of the percentage of fines passing 75 m are sieve as follows:
-

Fine Aggregates: 3% when concrete is subjected to abrasion and 5% for other


concrete

iii.

Coarse Aggregates: 1%

Salts

Sand from seashore or dredged from the sea or desert sand contains salt while
coarse aggregate dredged from sea also contains salt. These salts cause
reinforcement corrosion and also absorb moisture from the air.

The limits on the chloride ion content of aggregate by mass, expressed as a


percentage of the mass of total aggregate, are as follows:

iv.

For pre-stressed concrete: 0.01

For Reinforced Concrete made with sulfate resisting cement: 0.03

For other reinforced concrete: 0.05

Unsound Particles

The following are the two broad types of unsound particles found in aggregates:

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a) Materials failing to maintain their integrity
b) Materials leading to disruptive expansion on freezing or even on exposure
to water

Unsound particles if present in large quantities (over 2- 5% of the mass of the


aggregate) may adversely affect the strength of concrete and should certainly not be
permitted in concrete which is exposed to abrasion.

Shale and other particles of low density are regarded as unsound together with clay
lumps, wood, and coal. Mica, gypsum, iron pyrites, etc. are also regarded as unsound.
While mica is very effective in reducing strength, gypsum and iron pyrites are
mainly responsible for expansion of concrete

v.

Alkali- Aggregate Reactions

The most common reaction is that between the active silica constituents of the
aggregate and that alkalis in cement, called as alkali-silica reaction

Another type of the alkali-aggregate reaction is that between dolomitic limestone


aggregates, containing carbonate, and alkalis in cement, called as alkali-carbonate
reaction

vi.

Both types of the reactions cause deterioration of concrete, mainly cracking.

Alkali-Silica Reaction

The following are the reactive forms of silica:


i.

Opal (amorphous, i.e. shapeless)

ii.

Chalcedony (cryptocrystalline fibrous)

iii.

Tridymite (crystalline)

The main sources of the above forms of reactive silica include: opaline or
chalcedonic cherts and siliceous limestones

Na20 and K2O are the alkalis in cement which form alkaline hydroxide in pore water
facilitating the alkali-silica reaction.

As a result of alkali-silica reaction, an alkali-silicate gel is formed either in pores of


aggregate or on the surface of the aggregate particles.

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The gel formation on the surface of aggregate particles destroys the bond between
the aggregate and cement paste.

The swelling nature of the gel exerts internal pressure and eventually leads to
expansion, cracking and disruption of the hydrated cement paste.

In order to control the alkali-silica reaction, standard tests for aggregate reactivity
should be conducted on the aggregate samples.

TESTS ON AGGREGATES
A. DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF AGGREGATES
IS : 2386 gives various procedures to find out the specific gravity of different sizes of aggregates.
The following procedures are applicable to aggregate size larger than 10 mm:

A sample of aggregate not less than 2 kg is taken.

It is thoroughly washed to remove finer particles and dust adhering to the aggregates.

It is then placed in a wire basket and immersed in distilled water at a temperature between
22 32 0C.

Immediately after immersion, the entrapped air is removed from the sample by lifting the
basket containing the aggregates 25 mm above the base of the tank and allowing it to drop
25 times at the rate of about one drop per second.

During the operation, care is taken that the basket and the aggregates remain completely
immersed in water.

They are then kept in water for a period of 24 hours afterwards.

The basket and aggregates are then jolted and weighed in water at a temperature between
22 32 0C. (WA1)

The basket and aggregates are then removed from water and allowed to drain for a few
minutes and then the aggregate is taken out of the basket and placed on dry cloth and
further dried.

The empty basket is then immersed in water, jolted 25 times and weighed in water. (WA2)

The aggregate is exposed to the atmosphere away from direct sunlight for not less than 10
mins until it appears completely surface dry. Then the aggregate is weighed. (WB)

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Then the aggregates are kept in the oven at a temperature of 100 110 0C and maintained
at this temperature for 24 hours.

It is then cooled in an air-tight container and weighed. (WC)

The specific gravity is given by:

Specific Gravity =
Where: A = weight of the saturated aggregate in water (A1 A2)
B = weight of saturated surface dry aggregate in air
C = weight of oven dried aggregate in air

B. SIEVE ANALYSIS OF AGGREGATES

The sieve analysis is the operation of dividing a sample of aggregate into various fractions
each consisting of the sample size.

The aim of the sieve analysis is to determine the particle size distribution in a sample of
aggregate (a.k.a gradation).

A convenient system of expressing the gradation of aggregate is one which the consecutive
sieve openings are constant doubled, such as 10 mm, 20 mm, 40mm, etc.

The aggregates used for making concrete are normally of the maximum size 80 mm, 40 mm,
20 mm, 10 mm, 4.47 mm, 2.36 mm, 600 microns (0.6 mm), 300 microns and 150 microns.

Aggregates from 80 mm to 4.75 mm are termed coarse aggregates and those from 4.75 mm
to 150 microns are termed fine aggregates.

Grading pattern is assessed by sieving a sample successively through all the sieves mounted
one over the other in order of size, with the larger sieve on top.

The amount of aggregates retained on each sieve after shaking represents the fraction of
aggregate greater (coarser) than the sieve in question and finer than the sieve above.

Sieving can be done manually or mechanically. Sieving is done until no particle is passing
through. (around 15 minutes)

From the sieve analysis, the particle size distribution in a sample of aggregate is found.

In this connection, a term known as fineness modulus (F.M) is used. F.M is an index of
coarseness or fineness of the material.

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It is an empirical factor obtained by adding the cumulative percentages of aggregate
retained on each sieve ranging from 80 mm to 150 micron and dividing this sum by an
arbitrary number 100. The larger this number, the coarser the material.

Coarse Aggregates
IS Sieve
Size

Fine Aggregates

Weight
retained
/ kg

Cumul.
Weight
retained
/ kg

Cumul.
%
retained

Cumul.
%
passing

Weight
retained
/ kg

Cumul.
Weight
retained
/ kg

Cumul.
%
retained

Cumul.
%
passing

80 mm

100

40 mm

100

20 mm

40

60

10 mm

11

73.3

26.7

100

4.75 mm

15

100

10

10

98

2.36 mm

100

50

60

12

88

1.18 mm

100

50

110

22

78

600
microns

100

95

205

41

59

300
microns

100

175

380

76

24

150
microns

100

85

465

93

< 150
microns

35

500

Total

15

713.3

500

246

F.M

.
= 7.133

= 2.46

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C. DETERMINATION OF FLAKINESS INDEX

The flakiness index of aggregates is the percentage by weight of particles in it whose least
dimensions (thickness) is less than 3 5 of their mean dimensions.

Note that the test is not applicable to sizes smaller than 6.3 mm. This test is conducted by using
a metal thickness gauge as shown below.

A sufficient quantity of aggregate is taken such that a minimum number of 200 pieces of any
fraction can be tested.

Each fraction is gauged in turn for thickness on the metal gauge. The total amount passing in the
gauge is weighed to an accuracy of 0.1 % of the weight of sample taken.

The flakiness index is taken as the total weight of the material passing the various thickness
gauges expressed as a % of the total weight of the sample taken.

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S/N

Aggregates
Size of Aggregate Thickness

Length of Gauge / mm *

Passing through IS Sieve

Retained on IS Sieve

63 mm

50 mm

33.90

50 mm

40 mm

27.00

40 mm

25 mm

19.50

31.5 mm

25 mm

16.95

25 mm

20 mm

13.50

20 mm

16 mm

10.80

16 mm

12.5 mm

8.55

12.5 mm

10.0 mm

6.75

10.0 mm
6.3 mm
4.89
This dimension is equal to 0.6 times the mean Sieve size
* E.g: 0.6 ((63+50) / 2)

D. DETERMINATION OF ELONGATION INDEX

The elongation index on an aggregate is the % by weight of particles whose greatest


dimension (length) is greater than 1.8 times their mean dimension.

The elongation index is not applicable to sizes smaller than 6.3 mm. This test is conducted by
using a metal length gauge as shown below.

A sufficient amount of aggregates is taken to provide a minimum number of 200 pieces of


any fraction to be tested. Each fraction is gauged individually for length on the metal gauge.

The total amount retained by the gauge length shall be weighed to an accuracy of at least 0.1
% of the weight of the test samples taken.

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The elongation index is the total weight of the material retained on the various length
gauges expressed as a % of the total weight of the sample gauged.

The presence of elongated particles in excess of 10 15 % is generally considered


undesirable.

S/N

Size of Aggregate Thickness

Gauge / mm ~

Passing through IS Sieve

Retained on IS Sieve

63 mm

50 mm

50 mm

40 mm

81.0

40 mm

25 mm

58.5

31.5 mm

25 mm

25 mm

20 mm

40.5

20 mm

16 mm

32.4

16 mm

12.5 mm

25.6

12.5 mm

10.0 mm

20.2

10.0 mm

6.3 mm

14.7

~ This dimension is equal to 1.8 times the mean Sieve size

E. DETERMINATION OF AGGREGATE CRUSHING VALUE

The aggregate crushing value gives a relative measure of the resistance of an aggregate to
crushing under a gradually applied compressive load.

The standard aggregate crushing test is made on aggregate passing a 12.5 mm I.S Sieve and
retained on 10 mm I.S Sieve. If required, other sizes up to 25 mm may be tested.

About 6.5 kg material consisting of aggregates passing 12.5 mm and retained on 10 mm sieve is
taken. The aggregates must be surface dried. (can be left to dry in the sun for a day or two)

The aggregates are filled into the standard cylindrical measure in three layers of approximately
equal depth.

Each layer is tamped 25 times with a tamping rod and finally leveled off using a straight edge.

The weight of the container is measured as A. That same weight must be used for any
subsequent test.

The cylinder with the aggregates is put in position on a base-plate and the aggregate is carefully
leveled and the plunger is inserted horizontally on the surface. The plunger must not be
jammed.

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The apparatus, with the test sample and plunger in position is placed on a compression
machine and is loaded uniformly up to a total of 40 tons in 10 minutes time.

The load is then removed and the whole of the material is removed from the cylinder and sieved
on a 2.36 mm I.S Sieve. The fraction passing the sieve is weighed as B.

The aggregate crushing value, ACV= x 100


A

Where: B = weight of fraction passing 2.36 mm sieve


A = weight of surface-dry sample taken in the mould

The ACV should not be more than 45% for aggregates used for concrete other than wearing
surfaces and 30 % for concrete used for wearing surfaces such as runways, roads and air field
pavement.

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F. DETERMINATION OF AGGREGATE IMPACT VALUE

The aggregate impact value gives a relative measure of the resistance of a aggregate to sudden
shock or impact.

The test sample consists of aggregate passing the 12.5 mm I.S sieve and retained on the 10 mm
I.S sieve.

The aggregates shall be dried in an oven for a period of 4 hours at a temperature of 100 0C
1100C and cooled.

The aggregate is filled about 1/3 full in the cylindrical cup of the apparatus and tamped with 25
strokes by the tamping rod. The measure is filled to over-flowing and then struck off level.

The net weight of the aggregate in the measure is determined (A) and this weight of aggregate
shall be used for subsequent tests.

The cylindrical cup is firmly fixed on the base of the apparatus.

A hammer weighing about 14 kg is raised to a height of 380 mm above the upper surface of the
aggregate in the cup and allowed to fall freely on the aggregate.

The test sample shall be subjected to a total of 15 such blows, each being delivered at an
interval of not less than 1 second.

The crushed aggregate is removed from the cup and the whole sample is sieved on 2.36 mm I.S
sieve.

The fraction passing the sieve is weighed to an accuracy of 0.1 g (B) and the retained fraction is
also weighed. (C).

Note that if the total weight of the crushed aggregates (B+C) is less than the initial weight A by
more than 1 gram, the result shall be discarded and a fresh test is made.

The aggregate impact value, AIV= x 100


A

Where: B = weight of fraction passing 2.36 mm sieve


A = weight of oven-dried sample taken in the mould

The AIV should not be more than 45 % by weight for aggregates used in concrete other than
wearing surfaces and 30 % by weight for concrete used as wearing surfaces such as runways,
roads and pavements.

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G. DETERMINATION OF AGGREGATE ABRASION VALUE

The Los Angeles Abrasion test is used for finding the abrasion value of coarse aggregates.

The table below gives the details of abrasive charge which consists of cast iron spheres
approximately 48 mm in diameter and each weighing 390 to 445 grams.

Grading

Number of spheres

Weight of charge (gm)

12

5000 25

11

4584 25

3330 20

2500 15

12

5000 25

12

5000 25

12

5000 25

The standard steel balls produce an abrasive action when mixed with the aggregate and rotated
in a drum for specific number of revolution. The % wear due to rubbing with steel balls is
determined and is known as abrasion value

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The test consist of clean aggregate which has been dried in an oven at 1050C 1100C (weight A)
and should conform to one of the grading.

The test sample and abrasive charge are placed in the Los Angeles Abrasion testing machine
and the machine is rotated a speed of 20 33 revolutions / minute.

For grading A, D, C and D, the machine is rotated for 500 revolutions and for grading E, F and G,
it is rotated at 1000 revolutions.

At the completion of the above number of revolution, the material is discharged from the
machine and is then sieved on a 1.7 mm sieve. The aggregate coarser than 1.7 mm IS sieve is
washed, dried in an oven at 105OC - 110 OC and is accurately weighed. (B)

The % loss due to Abrasion is obtained by calculating the difference between the retained
material (larger particles) compared to the original sample weight. The difference in weight is
reported as a percent of the original weight and called the "percent loss or percentage of wear".

The % of wear should not be more than 16% for concrete aggregates.