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VENTURI METER

BASIC TERMS
Flow Rate(v)

Turbulent Flow
Laminar Flow

## Fluid undergoes irregular fluctuations,

discontinues.
No disturbances in the flow, continues.

## DEFINITION & MAIN PARTS

Venturimeter
device used for
measuring the rate of flow of a fluid flowing
through a pipe.
It consist of three parts,
Converging part
Throat
Diverging part

WORKING PRINCIPLE
Venturi meter works under the principle of Bernoulli's
equation and Continuity equation.

Bernaullis Equation
Continuity Equation
Where, P
V
1
2
A1
A2
V1
V2

PV = a constant
1A1V1 = 2A2V2

Pressure
Velocity
Density of converging fluid
Density of throat fluid
Pipe area
Throat area
Velocity of converging fluid
Velocity of throat

TYPES OF VENTURIMETER
Horizontal venturimeter

Inclined venturimeter

Vertical venturimeter

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## SOME ASSUMPTIONS TAKEN

Incompressible fluids

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B(m2,2,p2,v2)
A(m1,1,p1,v1)
Z1

Z2

At pt:-A

Datum
At pt:-B

P.E = g.z1

P.E = g.z2

V.E = v12

V.E = v22

Pre.E = P1/

Pre.E = P2/

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## Energy equation (horizontal arrangement)

g(Z1-Z2)+1/2(V12+V22)=(P2-P1)/
If Z1=Z2

## (v12-v22)= (P2-P1)/ ----- (1)

As per law at continuity
A1V1=A2V2

V1= A2/A1 V2

&

V2= A1/A2 V1

## Sub V1 value in (1)

[(A2/A1)*V22-V22]=P/
V22=(A12/A22-A12) * 2P/

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Q2=A2.V2= A1.A2 *

2P/

(A22-A12)

Q 2P
Theoretical--

Original--

Q2=M.(2Pg)/
Q2=CdE M(2P)/
M- velocity approach factor
Q-over all volumetric flow rate
Cd-coefficient of discharge
E- thermal expansion factor

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## Q2 in terms of specific gravity

Q2=Cd.E.M.A22g {hm(sg-1)-(Zx-Zy)}

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## When a venturimeter is placed in a pipe carrying the fluid whose

flow rate is to be measured, a pressure drop occurs between the
entrance and throat of the venturimeter. This pressure drop is
measured using a differential pressure sensor and when
calibrated this pressure drop becomes a measure of flow rate.

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CONSTRUCTION
The entry of the venture is cylindrical in shape to match the size of
the pipe through which fluid flows. This enables the venture to be
fitted to the pipe.
After the entry, there is a converging conical section with an
included angle of 19 to 23.
Following the converging section, there is a cylindrical section
with minimum area called as the throat.
After the throat, there is a diverging conical section with an
included angle of 5 to 15.
Openings are provided at the entry and throat of the venturi meter
for attaching a differential pressure sensor.

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MANOMETER
The differential pressure sensor used here is
Manometer.
Manometer is a device to measure pressure.
A common simple manometer consists of a U shaped
tube of glass filled with some liquid.
Manometers measure a pressure difference by
balancing the weight of a fluid column between the two
pressures of interest. Large pressure differences are
measured with heavy fluids, such as mercury (high
density).
Small pressure differences, such as those experienced in
experimental wind tunnels or venturi flowmeters are
measured by lighter fluids such as water .

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OPERATION
The fluid whose flow rate is to be measured enters the entry
section of the venturi meter with a pressure P1.

## As the fluid flows into the converging section, its pressure

keeps on reducing and attains a minimum value P2 when it
enters the throat. That is, in the throat, the fluid pressure P2
will be minimum.

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## The Manometer attached between the entry and throat section of

the venturi meter records the pressure difference(P1-P2) which
becomes an indication of the flow rate of the fluid through the
pipe when calibrated.

## The diverging section has been provided to enable the fluid to

regain its pressure and hence its kinetic energy. Lesser the angle
of the diverging section, greater is the recovery.

converging

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SAMPLE PROBLEM
A horizontal venturimeter with 15 cm inlet . 7.5 cm throat is used for
measurement of flow of water .The differential pressure between inlet
and throat is 17.5 cm, when measured using U-TUBE manometer. Make
the calculations for the water flow rate where Cd for venturi is 0.97.
Specific gravity =13.6.
Sol: Q2= Cd . E . M . A2 2g{ hm [(m/ )-1]}
M=A1/A12-A22
A1=*d2/4=*152/4=176.71 , A2=*d2/4=*7.52/4=44.178
M= 1.03
Q2=0.97

* 1* 1.03* 44.1782*9.8*17.5(13.6-1)
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PRESSURE IN PIPELINE

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APPLICATIONS
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