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OMDE 601 Section 9040

Essay 2

Developed versus developing: An Analysis of the UK Open University (OOUK) and the
Tanzanias Institute of Adult Education (IAE)

Jessica Ransome

March 21, 2016

Turnitin.com Originality Score: 35

Developing versus Developed Jessica Ransome

Jessica Ransome
OMDE 601 Section 9040
March 21, 2016
Essay 2
Developed versus developing: An Analysis of the UK Open University (OOUK) and the
Tanzanias Institute of Adult Education (IAE)
In both developing and developed countries alike there are still challenges that must be
overcome in order to provide distance education to the masses, when, where, and how they want
it. Hakikur Rahman, chairman of the SchoolNet Foundation of Bangladesh, says by 2020
Learning will not be limited by age or sex; it will not be discriminated by regions or religions; it
will not be narrowed down due to culture or history (as cited by Anderson, 2012). In this paper,
I will compare and contrast the Tanzanias Institute of Adult Education (IAE) and the United
Kingdom Open University (OUUK); developing versus developed respectively. My goal is to
examine similarities and differences between the two institutions in the areas of history, mission,
values, population, organizational structure, teaching and learning models, and technologies.
Lets begin with a brief look at their humble beginnings.
History
According to its website, The Tanzanias Institute of Adult Education (IAE) was
established in 1960 as a part of the Extrea-Mural Studies of the Makerere University College of
East Africa in Uganda. In 1963, the institute was upgraded to a department and placed under the
University College of Dar Es Salaam having more activities including research, Distance
Education, and training of adult educators (IAE, 2016, Welcome from the Director). Later, the
Parliamentary Act No. 12 of 1975 established The University as an autonomous institution
under the then Ministry of National Education, presently called Ministry of Education and
Vocational Training (MoEVT). Since that time, according to their Director, Dr. Fidelice M.S.
Mafumiko, this developing institution has gone through various transformations ranging from
offering Basic Education to Higher Education (under NACTE accreditation), from Knowledge
Based Education and Training (KBET) orientation to Competence Based Education and Training

Developing versus Developed Jessica Ransome

(CBET) programmes of study, and from fully using print media to relatively electronic
technology in offering Open and Distance Learning (ODL) based programmes (IAE, 2016,
Welcome from the Director). The UK Open University was established by the British
government in 1969 by Royal Charter and according to its website, is the worlds first
successful distance teaching university founded on the belief that communication technology
could bring high quality degree-level learning to people who had not had the opportunity to
attend traditional campus universities (The Open University, 2016, The OU Story). Next, lets
take a look at the mission and value systems of these two learning institutions.
Mission and Values
The IAE and OUUK are both single, mode learning institutions that share a similar
mission of improving educational opportunities for adult learners but each institution has a
different area of focus. IAEs mission is To design, develop and implement quality adult and
continuing education, and training programmes that will enable people to acquire knowledge and
skills required for sustainable development and dealing with global challenges (IAE, 2016,
Mission). OUUKs mission is to become a leading world institution that creates a continuously
learning society (The Open University, 2016, Mission). While both institutions share common
threads of wanting to provide education to the masses, the IAE is mainly focused on the
Tanzanian population while the Open University has a much broader goal to create international
development programs.
When the British government started the Open University in 1969, its focus was adults
who desired an education but were unable to obtain one due to various situations such as
personal, familial, or employment (Peters, 2004, p. 57). Today, according to former ViceChancellor, Martin Bean, There is no typical OU student. People of all ages and backgrounds
study with us, for all sorts of reasons to update their skills, get a qualification, boost their
career, change direction, prove themselves, keep mentally active. The OU is open to them all
(The Open University, 2016, Mission). So far, we have covered some of the similarities between
these institutions. In the next section, we will look at one of the major differences; the size of the
population.
Population

Developing versus Developed Jessica Ransome

According to their website, the IAE has made notable advancements in offering postprimary education through open and distance learning in which Integrated Post Primary
Education Program (IPPE) has been piloted in 13 districts of Tanzania mainland in collaboration
with United Nations Children Education Fund (UNICEF) (IAE RSP, 2014-2015, p. 4). It is now
a Learning, Research and Training centre in the Adult Education arena and the number of
students pursuing Secondary education through Open and Distance Learning (ODL) has
increased from 12,144 students in 2009 to 22,456 students in 2014. Following IAEs mandate to
register and establish open schools in Tanzania, it has also registered 272 open schools (IAE
RSP, 2014-2015, p. 4).
The Open University, on the other hand, has a much larger population and is committed
to delivering more innovative educational offerings. As Vice Chancellor Peter Horrocks
eloquently states, Nearly 200,000 people, from many different backgrounds, are studying for
qualifications with us, often combining work and family commitments. Millions more watch our
TV programmes, produced in partnership with the BBC, and use our free learning resources on
iTunes U, Open Learn and our global platform FutureLearn, which provides free online courses
in partnership with over 50 universities and institutions worldwide (The Open University, 2016,
Mission). Their student population is diverse, with approximately 8,400 oversees students and 71
percent working full or part time, 21 percent from impoverished areas, and 30 percent under the
age of 25 (The Open University, 2016, Facts & Figures).
Organization & Structure
According to Peters, the two main tasks of an Open University model is organizing
teaching and research and constructing and running a reliably functioning technologicalorganizational system that enables faculty to use technical media in order to communicate with
students who do not assemble on a campus, but live and learn elsewhere (Peters, 2010, p.72). In
both cases, their national governments played a large role in the implementation of these distance
education programs. The Institute of Adult Education is still formally a part of the Ministry of
Education and Culture and the Open University of Tanzania was formed from the offices of the
Institute (SAIDE, 1999). The IAE has campuses within the regional centres and offers various
Certificates and Diploma programmes within the regions and has plans to establish more
campuses. The Morogoro campus at WAMO has recently been established and Mwanza campus

Developing versus Developed Jessica Ransome

at Luchelele is expected to open in October 2015. In the future, IAE is also looking to integrate
new innovations in their programs in an effort to increase internal income (IAE, 2016, Mission).
In contrast, The Open University is governed by two statutory bodies: The Council and
The Senate. In Chris Jones paper comparing three open universities, he says OUUK provides
open access to undergraduate degree courses and does not require formal qualifications. The
institution has a full postgraduate program with Masters Degrees, research training, PhDs and
professional doctorates such as the EdD. In addition, it is research active and ranks in the top 50
UK research universities (Jones, 2008, p. 2). In an effort to further increase student support, they
are now planning to close seven smaller locations, and to open three larger support centers (The
Open University, 2016, Strategy). In the next section, we will look at their teaching and learning
models.
Teaching and learning models
Print-based distance learning is currently operational in Tanzania, however, in his article,
Idowu Biao, points out the main constraint is the limited availability of course materials for
students due to the printing cost and the unreliability of the postal service (Biao, 2012, p. 15).
Basic education in Tanzania has been and is being delivered traditionally, where most of the time
teacher centered approach is commonly practiced with a little of student centered strategy
(Kardo, 2015, p. 1.). Conversely, The Open University was a pioneer in the use of innovative
course delivery methods, including print, BBC radio, television, student support, and adult
learner perspective (Peters, 2010, p. 73). The Open University teaches through its own unique
method of distance learning, called supported open learning, which is flexible, all-inclusive,
supportive, and social (The Open University, 2016, Teaching & Learning). The success of any
distance program rests largely on itstheir Technology. It the next section, we will discuss the
technology used by these institutions.
Technology
Technology has a huge role to play in the future success of distance education particularly
in many developing countries. In Tanzania, according to Biao, there are strong challenges with
delivering computer-and internet-based distance learning modalities due primarily to students
poor computer access and limited computer skills, in addition to Tanzanias varying degrees of

Developing versus Developed Jessica Ransome

electricity coverage (Baio, 2012, p. 15). The high cost and slow speed of internet access also
inhibit the delivery of internet-based courses (Baio, 2012, p. 15). According to the Chancellor of
The Open University, The Open University has an astonishing track-record of using new and
emerging technologies to make higher education available to all people around the world. (The
Open University, 2016, Strategy). Through the use of a variety of multimedia technology and an
internet connection, the Open University provides millions of students access to free online
courses in partnership with over 50 universities and institutions worldwide (The Open
University, 2016, Vice Chancellor). This includes telephone, printed materials, video, DVD, live
broadcasts, mobile, social media, virtual, and Web 3.0. With Internet access, students can
connect to a suite of tools: OpenLearn, YouTube, iTunes U, FutureLearn, and Open Research
Online (The Open University, 2016, Vice Chancellor). In the future, technological improvements
will continue to provide opportunities for developing countries to meet the goals of providing
education to their masses.
Summary
According to Peters, The university of the future will probably be based on four
fundamental pedagogical approaches: distance education, online learning, scientific discourses
face-to-face, and many forms of intensified professional support, all of them have already been
developed, tested, experienced and consolidated at open universities (Peters, 2010, p.82). In this
paper, I compared two distance learning institutions; one developing and one developed. After
examining the similarities and differences in their history, mission, values, population,
organizational structure, teaching and learning models, and technologies, it is easy to see how
The Open University became a model for all new developing open learning institutions. When it
was established, The Open University was more than just another distance teaching university; it
was an entirely new type of higher education institution (Peters, 2010, p. 58). Their website
states, The key to The Open Universitys success has been excellence in scholarship, in
teaching, in research and, above all, in the systems and methods which help people to learn and
to succeed (The Open University, 2016). It is time for other developing institutions, such as
IEA, to follow suit.

Developing versus Developed Jessica Ransome

References
Anderson, J., Boyles, J., & Raine, L. (2012, July). Main findings: Higher educations destination
by 2020. Pew Research Center, Internet, Science & Tech. Retrieved from:
http://www.pewinternet.org/2012/07/27/main-findings-higher-educations-destination-by2020/
Biao, Idowu (2012). Open and Distance Learning: Achievements and Challenges in a
Developing Sub-Educational Sector in Africa, Distance Education, Dr Paul Birevu
Muyinda (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0756-9, InTech, DOI: 10.5772/48080. Retrieved from:
http://www.intechopen.com/books/distance-education/open-and-distance-learningachievements-and-challenges-in-a-developing-sub-educational-sector-in-afr
Institute of Adult Education. (2016). Mission. Retrieved from: http://www.iae.ac.tz/iae-mission/
Institute of Adult Education. (2016). Rolling strategic plan 2014/2014 2018/2019.
Retrieved from:
http://www.iae.ac.tz/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/RSP- 2014-2019-.pdf
Institute of Adult Education. (2016). Welcome Note. Retrieved from:
http://www.iae.ac.tz/welcome-note-2/
International Training and Education Center on HIV (I-TECH). Tanzania Distance Learning
Assessment: Assessing the Use of Distance Learning to Train Health Care Workers in
Tanzania. 2009.
Retrieved from: http://www.go2itech.org/resources/publications-presentations/
Jones, Chris, & Aoki, K; Rusman, E & Schlusmans, K. (2009). A comparison of three open
universities and their acceptance of technology enhanced learning. Retrieved from:
https://www.ou.nl/Docs/Campagnes/ICDE2009/Papers/Final_paper_081jones.pdf
Kardo, J. M. (2015). Reaching all through open and distance learning in Tanzania. Chanakya
International Journal of Business Research, Vol 1 (1), 68-78. Retrieved from:
http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/CIJBRIIM/article/download/66984/57741
Mtebe, J. S., & Raisamo, R. (2014). Investigating perceived barriers to the use of open
educational resources in higher education in Tanzania. International Review of Research
in Open & Distance Learning, 15(2), 43-65.
Peters, O. (2010). The greatest achievement of industrialized education: Open universities. In O.
Peters, Distance education in transition: Developments and issues (5th edition) (pp. 5781). Oldenburg, Germany: BIS-Verlag der Carl von Ossietzky Universitt Oldenburg.
Retrieved from: http://www.box.com/s/ktx7ipccetotqrr11mct

Developing versus Developed Jessica Ransome

References, contd
SAIDE. Distance Education in Tanzania. (1999). Retrieved from:
http://colfinder.net/materials/Supporting_Distance_Education_Through_Policy_Develop
ment/resources/worldbank/countries/tanzania/tanoverview.htm
Simonson, M., Schlosser, C., & Hanson, D. (1999). Theory and distance education: A new
discussion. American Journal of Distance Education, 13(1), 60.
doi:10.1080/08923649909527014
The Open University. (2016). Facts and figures. Retrieved from
http://www.open.ac.uk/about/main/strategy/facts-and-figures
The Open University. (2016). Main. Retrieved from: http://www.open.ac.uk/about/main/
The Open University. (2016). Mission. Retrieved from:
http://www.open.ac.uk/about/main/mission
The Open University. (2016). Securing the mission. Retrieved from
http://www.open.ac.uk/about/main/sites/www.open.ac.uk.
about.main/files/files/ecms/web-content/Strategic-Plan-2012-17.pdf
The Open University. (2016). Strategy. Retrieved from:
http://www.open.ac.uk/about/main/strategy
The Open University. (2016). Vice-Chancellor. Retrieved from:
http://www.open.ac.uk/about/main/vice-chancellor
World Economic Situation and Prospects (2014). Table E & F. p 148, 149. Retrieved from:
http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2014wesp_country_
classification.pdf
Jessica,
Good work. Your paper is well written, well organized, and you have covered the main attributes
for comparison outlined in the assignment. You do have some periodic errors in your citations
and reference list please review APA manual per my comments.
I would have liked to have seen a small discussion on cultural and socio-economic differences
between the UK and Tanzania different worlds for education to function and this is the
challenge for DE in developing countries.
I will reduce grade due to word count you have exceeded the assignment (1250-1500) this is
important because it is more difficult and challenging to write clearly and succinctly when you
only have a specified space.

Developing versus Developed Jessica Ransome

Overall, good work.


Cheers,
Don
GRADE: 87