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Comparative Vertebrate Embryology SY 2014-2015

DEVELOPMENT OF THE FROG EMBRYO


4MM FROG EMBRYO
WHOLE MOUNT
characterized by the presence of tail, neural tube, notochord, and segmented mesoderm and fin folds
neural system: prosencephalon foremost part, mesencephalon middle part, rhombencephalon hind part
epiphysis slight mid-dorsal evagination of the brain vesicle, will become the pineal body in adult
olfactory placodes
thickenings on the lateral surface of the head anterior
have cavities known as olfactory pits
lens placode
paired thickenings of the head endoderm
will evaginate to form the lens vesicle, then eye lens
notochord
extends from the midbrain up to the posterior end of
the body
somites subdivided mesoderm that flanks the
notochord on each side

TRANSVERSE SECTION
Level of Prosencephalon and Nasal Rudiments
prosencephalon
anterior part of the embryonic brain
cavity is prosocoel
mesenchyme
embryonic connective tissue
mesoderm and neural crest cell derived
later forms predominantly connective tissues
head mesenchyme
fills the spaces between the presumptive epidermis and walls of prosencephalon
olfactory placodes
paired pigment invaginations on either sides of prosocoel
epidermis
outermost skin layer
ectoderm derived
Level of Mesencephalon and Optic Cups
mesencephalon
appears dorsal to portion of prosencephalon called infundibulum
mid-region of the developing embryonic brain with thick roof
mesocoel brain cavity
also known as midbrain

Sacha Pajarillo

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Comparative Vertebrate Embryology SY 2014-2015


oral cavity
cavity at the cranial end of alimentary canal
more or less spherical in appearance
stomodeum
ectodermal rudiment of mouth
formed by invagination of ectoderm at anteroventral region of head
hypophysis
small knot of tissue ventral to infundibulum, develops as an inward growing cord of ectoderm from
stomodeum, will form anterior portion of pituitary gland
solid ingrowth or nodular aggregation of cells lying between the oral and brain cavity
may be used to describe:
o invagination of the stomodeum which fuses with the infundibulum to form pituitary gland
o endocrine gland formed from an ingrowth from the stomodeum (Rathkes pocket) and infundibulum
also known as pituitary gland
infundibulum
funnel-like depression of prosencephalon, part of which forms the posterior lobe of pituitary gland together with
stomodeum
seen as smaller, ventral component of diencephalon with thin roof and thick sides
mandibular arch
most cranial branchial arch
forming the caudal border of stomodeum
maxillary process cranial to stomodeum
adhesive glands
paired ectodermal thickenings found in ventral surface of anuran embryos
secrete adhesive mucus for attachment to floating objects
also known as cement glands, mucous glands, oral suckers
optic vesicle
evagination from lateral wall of prosencephalon
first indication of formation of eye
its walls will give rise to various ectodermal parts of eye, except lens and cornea
optic cup
double-walled structure formed by invagination of distal portion of optic vesicle
inner layer should be thicker than outer layer
optic stalk
connection of optic cup with the brain
Level of Rhombencephalon
Section through the anterior pharynx
rhombencephalon
most caudal region of the brain of developing embryo with a thin roof
rhombocoel cavity
also known as hindbrain

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Comparative Vertebrate Embryology SY 2014-2015


notochord
round structure originating from mesoderm
lying dorsal to gut and ventral to hindbrain
defines the anterior/posterior axis in developing embryo
provides skeletal support during early development
pharynx
broad region of foregut
paired evagination corresponds to pharyngeal pouches
otic
paired invagination of otic placode
laterally located and slightly ventral to brain
when separated from head ectoderm, will form inner ear
also known as auditory vesicle
Section through the embryonic heart
heart
located beneath enlarged foregut
appears suspended within pericardial coelom by dorsal mesocardium
pericardial coelom delimited by thin layer of somatic mesoderm called pericardium (membrane enclosing the
heart)
pericardium formation is brought about by migration of heart mesoderm to midventral region of pericardial
cavity
two layers of the heart
o endocardium inner endothelial layer of heart, will form the lining of heart wall
o epimyocardium outer layer, will form the muscle
Section through the liver diverticulum
mesomeres
paired bulges of tissue just below the horizontal level of notochord
have begun to develop pronephric tubules
may be called pronephros or pronephric kidney
liver diverticulum
extremely deep groove at the floor of the pharynx
rudiment of the liver
Section through the pronephros
spinal cord
cavity that replaces the hindbrain
smaller than the hindbrain
thick lateral sides almost touches at the roof part
pronephros
paired structure located on lateral side of specimen
appear as spherical/elongated structures clustered together
initial organ found in developing vertebrate embryos
functional in larval amphibians and fish
degenerates and is replaced by mesonephric kidney in adults

Sacha Pajarillo

4Bio2

Comparative Vertebrate Embryology SY 2014-2015


somites
segmented mesodermal blocks located on either side of spinal cord
arise from dorsal mesoderm
will differentiate into:
o sclerotome located above the neural tube and notochord, forms part of the axial skeleton
o myotome forms muscle
o dermatome forms the dermal layer of skin
Section though the midgut
spinal cord
gradually tapers off in diameter form rhombencephalon to caudal end
diameter approximates that of notochord
subnotochordal rod
small knot of cells wedged between notochord and midgut
transient structure of endodermal origin
unknown function, will later disappear
Section through the hindgut
proctodeum
ectodermal invagination that meets with the endoderm of the hindgut
cloacal membrane (ectodermal and endodermal plate)
delicate strands of tissue between proctodeum and hindgut
will become perforated to form the posterior opening of the digestive tract
dorsal fin
flat extension of the body wall along the dorsal midline of the trunk and tail
degenerates during the metamorphosis of tadpole
hindgut
posterior most region of embryonic gut
will form cloaca, colon, small intestine, and rectum
proctodeum
ectodermal invagination on the ventral side of the trunk at the base
later breaks into the hindgut forming the anus
also known as anal pit

Sacha Pajarillo

4Bio2

Comparative Vertebrate Embryology SY 2014-2015

Sacha Pajarillo

4Bio2

Comparative Vertebrate Embryology SY 2014-2015

Sacha Pajarillo

4Bio2

Comparative Vertebrate Embryology SY 2014-2015

Sacha Pajarillo

4Bio2

Comparative Vertebrate Embryology SY 2014-2015

7MM FROG EMBRYO


WHOLE MOUNT
well-formed external gills and a functional heart
embryo has changed its shape and has become a tadpole
tail serves as a powerful swimming organ, provided with lateral segmented somites and finfolds on the dorsal
ventral sides
forebrain has further differentiated into telencephalon (two hemispheres) and diencephalon
stomodeum deeply invaginated
olfactory pit surrounded by large
pigmented cells
epiphysis formed by circular knob of cells
that are separated from the brain
notochord extends up to tail, head and
trunk are bloated, midgut is excluded
hindgut does not lose its cavity but persists
as cloaca
dorsal wall of hindgut becomes extended
into tail rudiment as post anal gut, which
later is broken down and will disappear
in amphibians, hindgut gives rise to ventral
evagination, urinary bladder

TRANSVERSE SECTION
Level of the Telencephalon and Olfactory Pits
large indentation on the ventral surface of the embryo marks the beginning of the oral cavity
oral plate has become perforated
embryo now has an open mouth
telencephalon
paired hemispheres occupying the anterior region of forebrain
diencephalon
posterior division of the prosencephalon
olfactory pit
will subsequently develop into nasal passages with olfactory receptors
appears as a cavity on the lateral surface of the head
epiphysis
slight middorsal evagination of the brain vesicle
will become the pineal body in the adult
head mesenchyme
loose mesenchymal cells formed between the head ectoderm and the brain

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Comparative Vertebrate Embryology SY 2014-2015


Level of the Diencephalon and Optic Cups
oral cavity is visible surrounded by presumptive jaw cartilages
diencephalon
posterior half of forebrain
appears as deep, laterally compressed region
optic stalks, infundibulum, and epiphysis are attached
mesencephalon
part of brain located posterior to the eye
center for reflexes associated with vision, hearing, and movement of head
optic cup
seen lateral to the brain
outer pigmented layer and inner retinal portion of the optic cup can be distinguished
lens vesicle lies in its concavity
pharynx
large and more rounded
clustered mass of cells on each side will give rise to mandibular arch (posterior border of stomodeum)
stomodeum
appears as deep invagination of the pigmented, midventral ectoderm at the anterior end of pharynx
adhesive glands
paired ectodermal thickenings found on ventral surface of head
secrete adhesive mucus for attachment to floating objects
also known as cement glands, mucous glands, oral suckers

Level of the Rhombencephalon


Section through the thyroid
below mesencephalon, small portion of the wall f infundibulum is evident
lateral to floor of mesencephalon, developing cranial nerve ganglion can be observed
cranial nerve ganglion part of the peripheral nervous system, derived from neural crest cells
shape of pharynx width of pharyngeal cavity greatly exceeds the height
thyroid arises as an invagination of the endodermal cells from pharyngeal floor

Section through the otic vesicle


rhombencephalon
roof composed of single layer of flat cells
third brain vesicle which expands anteriorly to form the IV ventricle
internal organization shows an unmistakable similarity to that of the spinal cord
will further differentiate into the metencephalon (anterior) and myelencephalon (posterior)
notochord
round structure originating from mesoderm
lying dorsal to gut and ventral to hindbrain
defines the anterior/posterior axis in the developing embryo
provides skeletal support during early development

Sacha Pajarillo

4Bio2

Comparative Vertebrate Embryology SY 2014-2015


otic vesicle
irregularly hallow organ on each side of hindbrain
closed chamber formed by invagination of the otic placode
will develop into inner ears
heart
lies beneath the pharynx
truncus arteriosus most anterior part, evident within pericardial coelom
has four subdivisions (anterior-posterior):
o truncus arteriosus
o ventricle
o atrium
o sinus venosus
blood flows through embryonic heart from posterior to anterior
bulbus cordis
most anterior heart chamber
pericardial coelom
cavity that surrounds the heart
bounded by pericardium
Section through the heart
esophageal plug
mass of cells that temporarily blocks the esophagus before the amphibian larva begins to feed
atrium
chamber of the heart that receives blood from the sinus venosus and delivers blood to the ventricle
seen above the ventricle, observed as thin-walled chamber almost filled with blood
external gills
filamentous respiratory organ, has finger-like projections that protrude from sides of the head
arises from the branchial arches 3 to 6
replaced by internal gills
Level of the Spinal Cord
Section through the pronephros and midgut
glomus
two triangular-shaped structures seen ventral to dorsal aorta that hang down into the coelomic cavity
tufts of small blood vessels surrounded on their lateral and ventral surfaces by thin wall of coelom
functional components of pronephric kidney
where waste products are diffused from into the coelomic fluid
spinal cord
arises from the posterior most region of neural tube
somite
segmented mesodermal blocks located on either side of developing spinal cord
arises from dorsal mesoderm
will differentiate into: sclerotome (located above neural tube and notochord) which forms part of the axial
skeleton, myotome which forms muscle, and dermatome which forms the dermal layer of skin

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Sacha Pajarillo

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Comparative Vertebrate Embryology SY 2014-2015


dorsal aorta
primitive, paired longitudinal arteries of the trunk
lying beneath notochord anterior to gut
pronephros
initial excretory organ found in developing vertebrate embryos
nitrogenous wastes are passed from pronephric tubules pronephric ducts hindgut (cloaca) exterior
functional in larval amphibians and fish
later replaced by mesonephric kidney
nephrostomes
funnel-shaped opening of pronephric tubules
where coelomic fluid is swept
midgut
middle part of gut with a small lumen and having a thick, yolky floor
derived from archenterons
will give rise to small intestine
Section through cloaca
dorsal fin
extension of body wall along mid-dorsal side of trunk and tail
degenerates in older specimens
cloaca
posteriormost chamber in the vertebrate digestive system
proctodeum
ectodermal invagination on the ventral side of the trunk at the base of the tail
will give rise to anus

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Comparative Vertebrate Embryology SY 2014-2015

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Comparative Vertebrate Embryology SY 2014-2015

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Comparative Vertebrate Embryology SY 2014-2015

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Comparative Vertebrate Embryology SY 2014-2015


10MM FROG EMBRYO
WHOLE MOUNT
(same as whole mount 7mm)

TRANSVERSE SECTION
Level of the Telencephalon and Olfactory Organs
telencephalon
anterior division of the prosencephalon
is paired and each unit is roughly hemispherical but flattened at midline
each contains a cavity (lateral ventricle) formed by evagination of side of neural tube at the anterior end of
neurocoel
Layers of brain wall:
ependymal layer
o one-cell think, ciliated layer immediately surrounding the neurocoel
o cilia aid in movement of cerebrospinal fluid in ventricles of brain and in central canal of the spinal cord
mantle layer
o broad layer adjacent to ependymal layer
o will form gray matter of central nervous system
marginal layer
o outermost layer
o contains neuroblasts from inner layers and fibers
o will form the white matter of central nervous system
nasal organ
found at the region of telencephalon and lying ventrolateral to it
tubular organ formed by invagination of ectoderm
olfactory nerve connecting the olfactory lobes to the brain arises from the olfactory epithelium
also known as olfactory organ
external naris
opening of the nasal cavity to the outside

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Comparative Vertebrate Embryology SY 2014-2015


marks the point of original ectodermal invagination
internal naris
opening of the nasal cavity into the buccal region
also known as choana
frontal organ
arises as an evagination of diencephalic roof together with epiphysis
beneath epidermis, migrates forward from region of diencephalon to region of telencephalon
contains photoreceptors and may function as a third eye
Jacobsons organ
saccular structure formed by evagination of nasal organ
may function in picking up the smell of food from buccal region
also known as vomeronasal organ
buccal cavity
region where nasal cavity and mouth opens
lined with epithelium and is derived from stomodeum
jaws are tipped with horny material and tooth germs
oral papillae lobose structures external to jaws
prechordal cartilage
hyaline cartilage beneath telencephalon
will form cartilaginous cranium (chondrocranium)
also known as trabecular cartilage
melanocytes
stellate cells scattered over dorsolateral region of brain and lateral to nasal organs
fine granules of melanin light brown individually, black in aggregate
mesenchyme
stellate, mesodermal cells filling up the space between organs and epidermis
form a loose reticulum, with outermost cells forming the dermis of integument
epidermis
outer layer of skin composed of two strata of ectodermal cells
Level of the Diencephalon and the Eye
diencephalon
posterior subdivision of prosencephalon
ventrally elongated and possesses a cavity (III ventricle)
infundibulum
funnel-like evagination of diencephalic floor
subsequently evaginates posterior or neural lobe of pituitary together with stomodeum
in more posterior sections, seen as smaller, ventral component with thin roof and thick sides
mesencephalon
middle region of brain dorsal to diencephalons
rd
th
bears 3 and 4 cranial nerves

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Comparative Vertebrate Embryology SY 2014-2015


possesses a cavity known as cerebral aqueduct
pituitary body
oval mass beneath the thin floor of infundibulum
endocrine gland derived from infundibulum and solid ingrowth from stomodeum
also known as hypophysis
Structures of eye:
optic cup
o retina thick inner layer of optic cup, differentiated into following layers:
layer of ganglian cells innermost sublayer of retina, axons of nerve cells in this sublayer form the optic
nerve, optic chiasma is the region where optic nerves cross in the floor of diencephalon
layer of bipolar neurons middle layer of cells that will synapse the receptor and ganglian cells
rods and cones outermost sublayer of retina where photoreceptoral process is formed
o pigmented epithelium outer wall of optic cup formed from medial half of optic vesicle, forms iris of the eye
lens spherical body, partly enclosed by optic cup is formed by thickenings of inner wall of lens vesicle
o lens epithelium one-cell thick outer layer
o lens fibers columnar cells at the core of lens, will become long fibers arranged in layers
cornea superficial covering of eye formed by assembly of ectodermal and mesodermal cells between ectoderm
and lens
choroid and sclera outer investments of optic cup, represented by mesodermal cells aggregating outside the
pigmented epithelium
pharynx
broad gut
lined by endodermal cells
hypobranchial cartilages
long masses of cartilages under the floor of foregut
make up parts of visceral skeleton and support the pharynx
thyroid
pair of small endocrine bodies associated with pharynx
located beneath hypobranchial cartilages
skeletal muscle
mesodermal masses lying on lateral and ventral side of pharynx
oral suckers
pair of glandular structures on ventral surface of tadpole
composed of elongated columnar cells
produce a sticky slime for attachment to floating objects
also known as cement glands, mucous glands, adhesive glands
Level of the Myelencephalon and Auditory Vesicle
myelencephalon
most posterior region of brain with a thick floor (basal plates)
thin roof becomes vascularized to form posterior choroids plexus
cavity is the IV ventricle
auditory vesicle completely hallow organ on each side of medulla

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Comparative Vertebrate Embryology SY 2014-2015


endolymphatic duct thick-walled tube between medulla and ear vesicle, marks the course of invagination of
auditory vesicle form ectoderm
utriculus large dorsal chamber of ear vesicle
semicircular canals three mutually perpendicular folds of auditory vesicle, sensory epithelium is the thickened
horizontal canal
sacculus ill-defined ventral chamber of auditory vesicle, forms the lagena in lower invertebrates, gives rise to
cochlea in higher vertebrates
auditory capsule
mesenchymal cells surrounding the auditory vesicle
will form the cartilaginous ear capsule that surrounds and protects the inner ear
auditory ganglion
mass of nerve cells in medial side of auditory vesicle
also known as acoustic ganglion
notochord
round structure originating from mesoderm
lying dorsal to gut and ventral to hindbrain
defines the anterior/posterior axis in the developing embryo
provides skeletal support during early development
mesenchymal cells will give rise to notochordal sheath
parachordals
cartilages flanking the notochord on each side
heart lightly coiled tube twisted to the right
pericardial cavity chamber enclosing the heart
conus arteriosus most anterior region of heart connecting the ventricle with the ventral aorta, also known as
bulbus cordis
ventricle heart chamber with thick muscular wall that follows and is connected to conus
atrium dorsal, thin-walled chamber that receives blood from sinus venosus and delivers it to ventricle
sinus venosus most posterior chamber lying on the right, anterior to liver, receives venous blood and delivers it
to atrium
opercular cavity
paired chamber continuous with gut and lying on each side of the heart
contains internal gills with branchial blood vessels
also known as gill chamber
dorsal aorta
blood vessel located above each gill chamber
aortic arches
blood vessels lying within the branchial arches and encircling the pharynx
connect the dorsal aorta with ventral aorta
ganglia
facial ganglion (VII) large mass of nerve cell bodies anterior to auditory ganglion, acoustico-facialis ganglion is
the body arising from fusion of facial and auditory ganglia, also known as geniculate ganglion

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Comparative Vertebrate Embryology SY 2014-2015


trigeminal ganglion (V) larger mass of nerve cell bodies anterior and dorsal to acoustico-facialis ganglion, also
known as semilunar ganglion
glossopharyngeal ganglion (IX) mass of nerve cell bodies below each auditory vesicle
operculum
external wall of opercular cavity formed by body fold
metencephalon
anterior subdivision of rhombencephalon, lies behind optic lobes and medial to V ganglion
Level of the Pronephros and the First Spinal Ganglion
spinal cord
derived from posterior region of neural tube
neural canal
cavity that is laterally compressed by thick lateral walls of spinal cord
ependymal cells that line the central canal possess cilia and pigment granules
also known as central canal
gray matter
inner layer of spinal cord close to ependyma
composed of compact mass of neuroblast and neuroglia
white matter
peripheral layer of spinal cord
containing axons of neurons in gray matter
meninges
membranous covering of central nervous system
first spinal ganglia
masses of nerve cell bodies ventrolateral to spinal cord
myotomes
thickened primordial of skeletal muscles on each side of notochord
skeletal muscle fibers are arranged longitudinally
pleuroperitoneal cavity
coelomic cavity containing viscera except heart
pleural cavity that contains lungs and peritoneal cavity that contains digestive organs, associated glands, kidney,
and reproductive organs are still continuous
esophagus
tubular organ with folded mucosal lining located below notochord
dorsal aorta
paired blood vessel between notochord and esophagus
will fuse into a single blood vessel posteriorly
pronephros
paired excretory organs that arise from nephrotome

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Comparative Vertebrate Embryology SY 2014-2015


located at ventrolateral region of body cavity
pronephric tubules
ducts of pronephros lined by cuboidal epithelium
posterior cardinal veins
blood vessels within pronephros
supplies latter with blood
nephrostome
opening of pronephric tubules into coelom
nephric duct
lone duct observed at most caudal section of pronephros
moves medially and eventually joins cloaca where it empties its contents
glomus
two triangular-shaped structures seen ventrally to dorsal aorta that hang down into the coelomic cavity
tufts of small blood vessels surrounded on their lateral and ventral surfaces by thin wall of coelom
functional components of pronephric kidney
where waste products are diffused from into the coelomic fluid
stomach
posterior continuation of esophagus with folded lining and thick muscular walls
evaginations of endodermal lining form rudiments of gastric glands
duodenum
region of gut between the pyloric end of stomach and intestine
represented in upper right corner of body cavity
intestine
located posterior to duodenum
filled with abundant yolk platelets
liver
highly vascularized and enlarged organ to the right of midline
sinusoids spaces
gall bladder
once-cell thick, large vesicle associated with liver
bile duct
thick-walled tube that appears in place of gall bladder
pancreas
large organ within curvature of stomach
located to the right of liver and bile duct
identified by presence of nest cells (alveoli) surrounding small ducts

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