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## )^thrcq C,,Iann( ,Vtn\hn( ,Tawuru, \rnarl

Statistics Activity

This activity has two parts. The first part involves matching statistical analyses terms and
definitions from Chapters L9 &20. The second part involves problem solving ofbasic
statistical problems. [One person in the group can write the answers in and then
Part I
Matching. Match the term on the left with a definition from the right,
1. Range

Definition
A. failing to reject the null hypothesis when it is false

2. Mode

3. Variance

## three assumptions: 1) samples come from populations

that are normally distributed, 2) there is homogeneity of
variance, and 3) data generated from the measures are
interval level
C. rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true

t/

4. Mean

## D. estimate range of values in which an unknown

5. Type I

Term

H
It

t--

h
r/
M
&

error

6. Statistic
7. Type II

error

8. Interquartile range
9. Dispersion
10. Descriptive Statistics
11. Associational Statistics

7
4

## poDulation Darameter is likelv to exist

point in a distribution atwhich 500/o ofthe cases fall
above and 50% below
F. number derived from a mathematical procedure as part
of the analytical process in experimental-type research
G. type ofstatistic to draw conclusions about population
Darameters. based on findinss from a samDle
H. difference between the highest and lowest observed
value in a collection of data
I. set of procedures designed to identify relationships
between multiDle variables
J. distribution ofvalues for a given variable and the number
of times each value occurs
K. average score calculated by adding the objects or items
and then dividing the sum by the number ofobjects or
E.

Items.
12. Parametric Statistics

L. indicator

D
.t?-

13. Median

## 14. Standard Deviation

N.

D.

1-5.

Non-Parametric Statistics

D
G

## 17. Inferential Statistics

18. Levels of Significance

mean

O.

## that describes distribution of observed values

probability that defines how rare or unlikely the sample
data must be before the researcher can reiect the null
hvDothesis
value that occurs most frequently in a data set

## formulas used to test hypotheses when 1) normality of

variance in the population is not assumed, 2)
homogeneity ofvariance is not assumed,3) data
generated from measures are ordinal or nominal, and 4)
samDle sizes mav be small
procedures
used to reduce large sets ofobservations into
Q,
more comoact and internretable forms
R. descriptive statistic for interpreting variability; derived
by squaring the difference between each score from the
mean, which are then summed
P.

S.

U.

T
Cha

## associated with a confidence interval

measure ofvariability in experimental-type research that
refers to the range of scores that compose the middle
500/o of subiects, or the maiority of the

r 20
1.

triangulation

B
2. constant comparison

## A. term used in naturalistic inquiry to refer to the accuracy

of interpretation or how closely the analytical scheme
reflects the natural context or focus ofthe investisation
B. use of multiple strategies or methods as a means to
strengthen credibility of an investigator's findings
related to the phenomenon under study
truthfulness and accuracy offindings in naturalistic

3. categories

C.

4. truth value

D.

## naturalistic data analysis technique in which each datum

is compared and contrasted with previous information
to fit all the pieces together inductively into a bigger

5. taxonomic analysis

E.

## analrtical process used in naturalistic inquiry in which

the investigator ldentified patterns and topics from

lnoulrv

puzzle

which

theme is derived

6.

interpretation

F.

## point at which an investigator has obtained sufficient

information from which to obtain an understandins of

7.

saturation

G.

## analytical step in naturalistic inquiry in which the

investigator examines the derived categories and themes
and develops a conceptual understanding ofthe

8.

credibility

## H. naturalistic data analysis technique in which the

9, theme

the Dhenomena

Dhenomenon.
researcher organizes similar or related categories into
larger categories and identifies differences between sets
of subcategories and larqer or overarchins cateeories
I. basic analytical step used in naturalistic inquiry in which
the investigator groups phenomena according to
similarities and labels the groups

## Chapter l9 Terms Ref'erence:

DePoy E, Gitlin LN. Statistical analysis for experimental-type re,search. ln: Introduclion
to Reiearch [Jnderstaruling antl Applying Multiple Sttotegies.4'n ed' St' Louis' MO;
Elsevier Inc. 201 1: 242-268.
Chapter 20 Terms Reference:
DePoy E, Gitlin LN. Analysis in naturalistic inquiry' In: Introduction to Research
Understanding antl Applying Multiple Strutegies.4'h ed. St. Louis. MO; Elsevier Inc.
2011:270-281.

Partll
Problems Solving.

,
y'l.

## Measures of Central Tendency

Retailers who sell travel packages want to know the average age at
which people get married. Travel professionals believe that couples
who are older when they marry spend significantly more on
honeymoons than those who marry younger, therefore they will
create more elaborate packages ifthe average age of marriage is
getting higher. The following ages of bridal couples were gathered in
an unscientific sampling at a bridal show.

Women

Men

22

24
28
26

30
27

L9

a. women: rr1sanlS,7,1"4i^n24Jvod"

uZ.

men:

zs
37
20
25
24
25

39

b,

27

27
22

23
22
25

LL

## Advertising executives are working on a campaign to sell a blood pressure medicine.

These executives want to select (3) actors to use in the ads that will appeal to the
broadest market in need of such medications.

,""!:: ;)1Y
i
! fu t l,^
;[
F
T,:'
izx
#" i i.',li',1,
^,,
't "'(^: ta'5
d. African-American men fvvctn : l1L[ '71 -."*
e. Latino-on,,"n 6^.r'i'rl i'A:i,t r o#:. N L l.'^;Y,ii"'fb'e''".
" 'v"r", ctl u'1 -- o
yq
:]'il*ffi1ffii:"'fffdffg"
l :il::::T#:l" #: fi "' n
f.

g.

h'

B,J,r?E

, vu'

--

Nq

Ii
: l1A
,, ,YJ*Y,
*oy
,
:: '- ^ ^ ^r trtn
v'' : lvj .f
m ad! = [1L ) fvwc^/'

## Latino men v-r.'te n = l\.0( ,

',ry
All women combinei r"1<g'm13i 'l
All men combined q/(^n =- I Ut? 'L

Note: In some cases there may be no mode. Also, depending on the text/instructor, a data set may be
viewed as having no mode (rather than 2 modes) since no single solitary number was replicated
more often than any other. With no consensus on the correct definition of mode, we will use 'no

## mode'for any data set with 2 modes.

Race/Gender
Caucasian
Caucasian
Caucasian
Caucasian
Caucasian
Caucasian

Women
Women

women
Women

women

Women
African-American Women
African-American women
African-American Women
African-American Women
African-American Women
African-American women
Latino Women
Latino Womn
Latino Women
Lalino Women
Latino Women
Latino women

Age

Systolic

Range

BP

30-39
40-49
50-59
60-69

110
115

70-79

129

80-89
30-39
40-+9
50-59
60-69
70-79
80-89
30-39
40-49
50-59

127

60.69
70-79
80-89

125
130

726

r32
141
147

160
122

r30
136
145
151

Race/Gender
Caucasian
Caucasian
Caucasian
Caucasian
Caucasian
Caucasian

Men
Men
Men
Men
Men
Men
African-American Men
African-American Men
African-American Men
Africen-American Men
African-American Men
African-American Men
Latino Men
Latino Men
Latino Men
Latino Men
Latino Men
Latino Men

Age

Systolic

Range

BP

30-39
40-49
50-s9
60-69

141

70-79

158
173
179

80-89
30-39
40-49
50-59
60-69

t?5

70-79

188
147
146
150
159
167
172
172

80-89
30-39
40-49
50-59
60-69

70-79
80.89

155
161
172
183

Measures of Variability

u/

S. fina

## the range forthe following sets of data in problem #2:

State the range with low to high values and the difference (e.g, 109
Di+krtn c(
a, Caucasian women ( ltJ
b. Caucasian
Di+krf n,f^._n , o
11 ol
I
c. African-American women I LA | e-0
Dl ff<r '-'' '<-

- lt\
L0
men q\, Zb
, aLl
d. African-American men r (ln-, rt,, '.to r-r; lP?r-(" *

e. Latino*o^"n ffi
f. Latino men I L(L/ - l-1 Z ,'ZV pic{{C!4n<L
g. Atl women rl 0 - \LZc a'c, Dtl+(!ef,<a
h. All men l,t I - | g ?t ', u'i Dt kf(r'(rtu

,/4.

tLL-15I

,LI

a-tf4rPnu

## is an interim step to finding the

standard deviation. Use the test score data sets below and find the sum ofthe
squares. Remember, you must first find the mean, then subtract the mean from each
score, then square the answer. Add all the squared numbers for each data set.
Sum of the Squares

I
94

Set

Mean

*1q.t^r''^

76

Sum

t14,5'B

Squared

US,4taq*7

## '11titotarn - "\AA! t!1 tl.44c4ltt!

'-ltr9.qqwz
52 *1q uatLl '21,wvu1
^
98 ^ 1q -t,i.dt|' )Q),53t12' '44t'lt9eA
B0 -l .ttUtAt' ,3;9bt 1' .||lu?)\tf)
78 - -tq t^tuti - t ,\,/tjtJtrl ' Z;11n Xb?)
''tr////////rt l3lLt,\13
T//A

Set

II

98
94
88
90
84
UCr

## SD= l3l4 ,t)3312/q--Z\!,,ffi,"vr4 >

,/s.

- 725,16)

Stanclard Deviation

Mean
4t's

qa
q0

qi)

qa

qo

Sum

0"L
t,t L

\/

4L
L

,)

- i/t't

()

4/
It!

l'5v

## - using thetum ofthe scuares from question 4, find

"'::111i"'il".{i \

Squared
UL

the

jr-1

b. Setil 5 -L\t3(o112-\

/6.

Find the standard deviation for the following sets of data representing the number
of bocks read by students in (4) different classrooms.

a.
b.
c.
ci.

Class I q.q11qt4
Class II !,11u|'1u
Class ili L.q5415t-l
Class IV .3.5b5t!3iI

\- 5,US

7.

Z-scores: Z scores translate data from numbers specific to a data set to a score that
represents where that number would fall on a normal curve that represents the data
set. The z-score is the distance, in standard deviations, from the mean. Z-scores can
be negative, the number is less than the mean, or positive, more than the mean. The
closer the z-score is to 0 the closer the number is to the mean.
Using the data for Class I in question 6, find the z-scores for the 16 scores.
(-,vZz6SOz)
a. Score =+,r= .
( -r. uloqOZO-'tl\
b. Score = l,y=
c. Score = to,z= ,
, abLLzqS)
d. Score =7,7= - .615 G,oZ9ULtl'L) .

- bZ7

- I,LIIO
'
6gL |
e. Score=6,2= -, LLh,, (-.zztgy6as)
f. Score= 2,2= - i. u-c0 l-t,or1tg1 ,t,tb\
g. Score = n,z= , 105. i,tOq-tqrlvY
h. Score =6,2= - ,LLb (_. U_-rbz_t,c1rS
-?':_= b,?)+ a. ,r.',,so;i1
:::::
[
-.,\2u
(-.''u oios!
i. l:::: =i:,X=
r, score =Lo,z= , iUr, ,l;;tr1:;:?,ii'{
m. Score = 3, z =
. irlS'(1-.Eirl-r rsi)
n. Score=a,z= -i_.i.tzgSOz\',
"u45 l.giq1t43(r'L\
o. Score=e,z= .1gO
gLbq|l
p, score 6,
.it-O

= -

1: ,tL-t

L .er rvlu4lq i

'

(sco"t

- *^"Y*'v:ah*)

References

Questions I . 2. 3, 4" 5, 6:
DePoy E. Gitlin LN. Statistical analysis for experimental-type research. Inl Introduction
to Research L,nderstanding und Applying Multiple Strategies.4'n ed. St. Louis, MO;
Elsevier Inc. 201 I : 247 -252.
Question 7:

## My friend Z. [Video]. You'Iube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v:bDw0+T4a_1.

Published Januar1 20.20l l. Accessed April 15, 2016.