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CENTRIFUGAL CASTING

1. INTRODUCTION

Centrifugal casting is the manufacturing process used to cast symmetrical


objects having axis of revolution such as pipes, tubes gear blank etc.
The centrifugal casting process uses rotating molds to feed molten metal
uniformly into the mold cavity. The centrifugal force of the rotating mold forces the
molten against cavities of the mold under constant pressure until the molten metal has
solidified. There are essentially two basic types of centrifugal casting machines the
horizontal type, which rotates about horizontal axis and vertical type, which rotates
about horizontal axis and vertical type, which rotates about a vertical axis.
Different types of molds are used in centrifugal casting process. Mold is
designed according to various design considerations. Tubular casting produced in
permanent molds by centrifugal casting usually have higher yields and higher
mechanical properties.

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2. CLASSIFICATION

Centrifugal casting process is classified as,


True centrifugal casting: It is used to produce cylindrical or tubular castings by spinning the mold about
its own axis castings produced by this method will always have a true cylindrical bore
of inside diameter regardless of shape or configuration. Castings produced in metal
molds by this method have true directional cooling or solidification from the outside
of the casting or solidification from the outside of the casting toward the axis of
rotation. This directional solidification results in the production of high quality
edfect0free casting without shrinkage.
Semicentrifugal casting: It is used to produce castings with configurations determined entirely by the
shape of the mold on all sides inside and out, by spinning the casting and mold about
is own axis. Cores may be necessary if the casting is to have hallow sections.
Directional solidification is obtained by proper gating. Casting that are difficult to
produce statically can often produced by this method, because centrifugal force feeds
the molten metal under pressure higher than static casting. Thinner castings sections
can be produced with this method than with static casting. Typical castings of this
type include great blanks pulley sheaves, wheels, impellers and electric motor rotors.
Centrifuge Centrifugal Casting: It has the widest field of application. In this method the casting cavities are
arranged about the center axis of rotation like the spokes of a wheel, thus permitting
the production of multiple castings. Centrifugal force provides the necessary pressure
on the molten metal in the same manner as in semicentrifugal casting. This casting
method is typically used to produce valve bodies and bonnets, plugs, yokes, brackets
and a wide variety of various industrial castings.
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3. HORIZONTAL CENTRIFUGAL CASTING

Principle: Horizontal centrifugal casting is used to cast pieces having an axis of


revolution. The technique was the centrifugal force generated by a rotating cylindrical
mold to throw the molten metal against the mold wall and from the desired shape.
Equipment: A horizontal centrifugal machine has following importing important parts.
1)

Mold

2)

Roller track

3)

End plate

4)

Spinning pot

5)

Cooling track

6)

Spout

7)

Housing

Process Details: Molten metal can be introduced into the mold at one end, at both ends, or
through channel of variable length. Pouring rate widely according to the size of the
casting being produced and the metal being used. For example, a pouring rate of 1.1 t
2.2 tons/min. has been used to cast6 alloy steel tubes of 500mm in outside diameter
with 50mm thick walls. Pouring rates that are too slow can result in gas porosity while
high rates slow solidification are one of the main causes of longitudinal cracking.
Cast temperatures: The degree of superheat required to produce a casting is a function of the
metal or alloy being poured. The following empirical formula has been suggested as
general guideline to determine the degree of super heat.
L = 2.4 T + 110

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Where the length of spiral fluidity (in mm) and T is the degree of superheat
(in degrees centigrade) Mold Temperatures Initial mold temperatures vary over a
wide range according to the metal being cast, the mold thickness, and the wall
thickness of tube being cast. Initial mold temperature does not affect the structure of
the resultant casting as greatly as the process parameters discussed above do.

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Speed of rotation: Generally the mold is rotated at a speed that creates a centrifugal force ranging
from 75 to 120g speed of rotation is varied during the casting process.
The cycle can be divided into three parts: At the time of pouring, the mold I rotating at a speed sufficient to throw the molten
metal against the mold wall.
As the metal reaches the opposite end of the mold, the speed of rotation is
increased. Speed of rotation is held constant for a time after pouring the time at
constant aped varies with mold type, metal being cast, and required wall thickness.
The ideal speed of rotation causes rapid adhesion of the molten metal to the
mold wall with minimal vibration. Such conditions tend to result in a casting with a
uniform structure.
As the molten metal enters the mold a pressure gradient is established across
the tube thickness by centrifugal acceleration.
Too low a speed of rotation can cause sliding and result in poor surface finish.
Too high speed of rotation can generate vibrations, which can result in circumferential
segregation.

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4. VERTICAL CENTRIFUGAL CASTING

Principle: In vertical centrifugal casting uses the centrifugal force generated by a


cylindrical mold about vertical axis throw the molten metal against the mold wall and
form the desired shape.
Equipment: A vertical centrifugal casting machines have following important parts.
1)

Mold

2)

Adapter table

3)

Funnel

4)

Spinner machine

Process details: Casting Inside Diameters: When making castings on a vertical centrifugal casting machine, the inside
diameter (bore) of the casting will be tapered in accordance with the following
formula.
n =264

h
r12 r22

Where n is speed of rotation, r1 is the inside radius at the top of the casting, r2
is the inside radius at the bottom of the casting and h is casting height.

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Speed of rotation: To establish a temperature gradient of the molten metal from the outside
diameter towards the centre of rotation. It is usually necessary for the mold to be
spinning when the metal is poured. In some cases, in order to eliminate defects such
as erosion and dirt in sand molds, it is desirable to pour at a slow speed of rotation.
However, true centrifugal castings having a wall section of 12.7mm or less must be
poured at spinning speed because the metal in this thin section.
Nomographs are available for determining the proper speed of rotation
for centrifugal casting. Equation used to calculate spinning speed.
G = 0,0000142Dn
Where g is the centrifugal force, D is the inside diameters of the casting, and n is the
speed of ration.

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5. POURING TECHNIQUES

Pouring Techniques In Centrifugal Casting


For permanent molds, the metal is generally poured about 400 C higher than
the temperature used for the same casting if poured statically in a sand mold. This is
because of the more rapid chilling effect of permanent molds.
The pouring rates required for successful permanent mold centrifugal casting
are quite high compared to those for static casting in sand molds. It is particularly
important that the initial rate of pour at the beginning be very high to prevent cold
laps and cold laps and cold shuts. For most types of centrifugal castings weighing less
than 45 kg, a pour rate of about 9 kg/s, is recommended. For castings weighing up to
450 kg, an initial pour rate of g to 23 kg/s is recommended. When pouring into
spinning mold, it is recommended. For castings weighing more than 450kg, pour rate
of 45 to 90 kgs are recommended. When pouring into spinning mold, it is important to
introduce the molten metal into the mould in such a way as to prevent or minimize
turbulence of the molten metal, which can cause splashing, spraying, of droplets and
can result in undesirable defects.
Although many vertical centrifugal castings can be poured directly into the
mold from the ladle to produce a quality centrifugal casting it is more often desirable
to use a pouring funnel. With a pouring funnel, the nozzle can be lined to the required
diameter so that, with a certain raises height of molten metal in the funnel, a
controlled pour rate can be obtained for a particular casting weight. In addition, with a
pouring funnel, the entry of molten metal into the mold can be made to impinge upon
the body of the mold with initial metal floe in the direction of mold rotation. This type
of pouring will provide superior casting quality by minimizing or eliminating any
upsetting turbulence in the flow of molten metal that might cause defects.
Extraction of castings: Commercially available casting pulling tongs (Fig. 7) are recommended for
extracting vertical centrifugally cast castings. These pullers engage onto the inside
diameter of the casting and are used to lift the casting from the mold.
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6. SOLIDEFICATION

In centrifugal casting, heat is removed from the solidifying casting only


through the water-cooled mold wall. Solidification begins at the outside diameter of
the casting, which is in contact with the mold, and continued inward toward the
casting inside diameter. Several parameters influence solidification:
The mold, including the mold material, its thickness, and initial mold temperature.
The thickness and thermal conductivity of the mold wash used.
Casting conditions, including degree of superheat, pouring rate and speed of
rotation.
Any vibration present in the casting system.
Thermal Aspects of Solidification: It appears that the mold-related parameters listed above have relatively little
influence on solidification. Large variations in mold thickness, however, could
become significant. The parameters with the greatest effect are the degree of
superheat in the molten metal and the thickness of the mold wash employed. Both of
these process variables affect local solidification conditions and therefore modify the
structure of the casting.
Metallurgical Aspects of Solidification: The as-cast structures obtained in the horizontal centrifugal casting of steels
vary according to composition. Regardless of the phase of phases that solidify first,
certain features are common to the structures of centrifugally cast ferrous alloys.
Very thin, fine columnar skin.
Well-oriented columnar structure to the skin.
More or less fine equiaxed structure.
In the case of steels that solidify as ferrite, the columnar areas may bye
nonexistent if superheat and mold wash thickness are low. In steels that solidify as
austenite, it is relatively easy to obtain well-oriented 100% columnar structures.

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CENTRIFUGAL CASTING

7. MOLDS

Molds used in centrifugal casting: Molds consist of four parts, the shell the casting spout, roller tracks and end
heads. The mold assembly is placed on interchangeable carrying rollers that enable
the use of different mold diameters and fine adjustments. Molds are cooled by a water
spray, which can be divided into severed streams for selective cooling.
Different types of molds are generally used according to the geometry and
quantity of castings needed and the characteristic of the metal or allow being cast.
Expendable Molds: Expendable molds lined used in centrifugal cooling, especially for producing
relatively few casting. A single mold case can be used with different thickness of sand
linings to produce tubes of various diameters within a limited range.
Green Sand Molds: Green sand is commonly used as the liner in expendable molds. Various
mixtures and binders are used for example, a mixture of 60% silica sand and 40%
calcined and crushed asbestos or sand bound with resin.
Dry Sand molds: a) Dry sand molds can also be employed in this cases, the sand is pressed
down around a pattern having the same dimensions as the casting. Hardening is
sometimes accomplished with carbon dioxide.
Permanent Molds: The most common materials for permanent molds are steel, copper and
graphite.

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CENTRIFUGAL CASTING

Steel Molds: It is used to cast large quantities and for some casting alloys that require
specific solidification conditions. Steel molds are sensitive to thermal shock, alumina
or circonial base mold sprays are used to lesser thermal shocks to the mold and to
improve the mold surface, Mold coatings are also important in regulating the
solidification rates of some casting materials.
Copper Molds: These are sometimes used for their high thermal conductivity. Their relatively
high cost and the difficulty of calculating the correct dimensions of these molds limit
their field of application.
Graphite Molds: Because of their relatively low cast, graphite molds can be an economical
alternative to sand in the production of small quantities of parts. Graphite is the mold
material of choice in the casting of 80% a bronze, high phosphorus brass, and other
copper alloys. Graphite has excellent thermal conductivity and resistance to thermal
shock.

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CENTRIFUGAL CASTING

8. MOLD DESIGN

Metal Mold Design: Machining allowances for casting depend of melting practices, the condition
and thickness of the mold insulation coating, the volumetric shrinkage of the metal
being cast, and the susceptibility of the metal to causing defects such as dross
formation.
With minimum allowances, the mold can be refashioned to allow for more
machining allowance as determined by experience and the specific melting practices
used, Patternmakers shrinkage is the shrinkage allowance built into the pattern to
compensate for the change in dimensions caused by the contraction of the cast metal
as it cools. This shrinkage allowance is the factor with which the mold maker is
concerned.
Mold wall Thickness: Wall thickness may vary depending on the specific equipment and application
involved. Mold wall thickness is independent of casting wall thickness for watercooled steel molds.
End Plate Thickness: End plate thicknesses depend on casting wall thickness and end plate material.
Commonly used and end plate material are ASTM A 36, steel, 1015 steel, or 1018
steel plate.
End Plate Recess: The end plate recess in the mold provides an effective to prevent leakage of
the molten metal from the mold. The amount of end plate recess used depends on
mold inside diameter and can be as high as the mold inside diameter plus 25mm (1
in.) for mold inside diameters of 150mm (6 in.) or more.
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End Plate Mold Lock Design: Various removable end plates are shown in Fig. These end plate types are
recommended for all vertical molds. Preferred end plate types are those shown in Fig
(a), (b) and (c). Mold end plate diametric clearance fit into the mold recess diameter
should be a minimum of 1.2 mm. This clearance is effective for end plates upto about
380 mm (15 in.) in diameter. On large end plates, clearances as large as 2.5 mm. (3/ 32
in.) may be necessary for easy removal and assembly. The standard draft angle of 3 0
will permit easy removal and assembly.
End Plate Wedge and Pin Design: Wedges for holding the end plate secure in the mold are principally of two
different types: the tapered wedge and the tapered pin. The maximum allowable stress
for tapered wedges and pins is 69 Mpa.
Mold Adapter Tables: A mold adapter table is usually furnished or required with a vertical
centrifugal casting machine to facilitate attachment of the molds to the machine. Also
furnished or required with the mold adapter table is a mold centering boss or index
boss/plug for aligning and centering the mold so that it is concentric with the spinner
shaft of the machine.

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9. DEFECTS

Segregation Banding: It occurs only in true centrifugal casting, generally where the casting wall
thickness exceeds 50to 75 mm. It rarely occurs in thinner-wall castings. Banding can
occur in both horizontal and vertical centrifugal castings. Bands are annular
segregated zones of low melting constituents, such as eutectic phases and oxide or
sulfide inclusions.
Causes: a) Banding has been found when some critical level of rotational speed is attained,
and it has been associated with very low speeds, which can produce sporadic of
molten metal.
b) Vibration is the principle cause and that during solidification a zone of low melting
liquid exits immediately adjustment to the main crystal growth, nucleation can occur
and it disturbed by vibration banding result.
c) If there are irregularities in the flow of the liquid metal as it enters the rotating
mold.
Raining: In a horizontal Machine, raining can occur if the mold is rotated at too low
speed or if the metal is poured into the mold too fast. In this phenomenon, the metal
actually rains or falls the top of the mold to the bottom.
Vibration Defects: Vibration can cause a laminated casting. It can beheld to a minimum by proper
mounting, careful balancing of the molds, and frequent inspection of rollers, bearing,
and other vital parts.

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10. APPLICATIONS

Applications: The flexibility of the centrifugal casting process, in terms of both materials
and the wide range of part sizes that can be produced, has led to the application of
centrifugally cast parts in many industries. Some of the most common applications are
outlined briefly in this section.
Iron and Steel industry: Centrifugally cast parts are used in the production of iron and steel for
continuous casting rollers, rolling mill rolls, furnace rollers, special pipelines, winding
spools, and other applications.
Petroleum production: Off shore production platforms in the oil and gas industry use centrifugally
cast tubes in various application. Hot extruded bimetallic tubes are used in pipelines
and gathering systems.
Other Applications: Other applications for centrifugally cast tubes include hydraulic cylinders,
rollers for glass production, pipelines for the transport of abrasive materials, rollers in
the pulp and paper industry, tubes for the chemical processing industry, foundation
piles, and building columns. Gears, disked wheels, propellers and pulleys also
produced by centrifugal casting.

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CENTRIFUGAL CASTING

11. CONCLUSION

Centrifugal casting id the most economical method of producing a superior


quality tubular or cylindrical casting with regard to casting yield, cleaning room cost
and mold cost. Tubular castings produced in permanent molds by centrifugal casting
usually have higher yields and higher mechanical properties than castings produced
by the static casting process.
An economic advantage of centrifugal casting is the elimination or
minimization of gates and risers.

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CENTRIFUGAL CASTING

12. REFERENCES

1. ASM HANDBOOK

CASTINGS

MATERIALS

VOL 15
2. BLACK AND KOSHER

AND PROCESSES IN MFG.


3. HAJRA CHOUDHARI

ELEMENTS OF WORKSHOP
TECHNOLOGY
VOL 1: Manufacturing.

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