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Margarita Jimenez

Genomes, Chromosomes, and DNA Web Quest


Topic: Genomes and Chromosomes
Go to: http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/hgp/genome
1. What is a genome?
Genome is an organisms complete set of DNA, including all of its genes.

2. On the left hand side, click on cells and DNA. Explore this site to answer the
following questions:
a. What is a chromosome? In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is
packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes.
b. When are chromosomes visible? The DNA that makes up chromosomes
becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under
a microscope.

c. What is a centromere? Each chromosome has a constriction point called


the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or
arms. The short arm is p arm the long arm is q arm. The location on
each chromosome gives it characteristics shape, and can be used to help
describe the location of specific genes.

d. How many chromosomes do people have? Each cell normally contains 23


pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46. Twenty-two of these pairs, called
autosomes =, look the same in both males and females. The pair, the sex
chromosomes, differ between males and female. Females have two
copies of the x chromosome, while males have one x and one y
chromosome.

Modeling Instruction AMTA 2012

Unit 6 Growth and Reproduction

Go to: http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/traits/karyotype/
3. What is a karyotype? An organized profile of a persons chromosomes.

4. Match the chromosomes to complete the karyotype (turn on hints for help). Is the
karyotype from a male or female? How do you know?
Male. Because its X and Y which is male.
5. Predict what would happen if a person has the incorrect number of
chromosomes. Write your prediction here.
Something is alike as a female and male.

6. Do a quick google search to find the answer to question 5. Its possible and its
called aneuploidy.

As a class you determined that chromosomes must be duplicated before the cell can
divide. This process is called DNA Replication.
Topic: DNA Replication
Go to: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/dna/shockwave.html
Click: DNA replication (upper left) and then click unzip Read the script, answer the
questions below, and then, click OK.
1. In a real cell, what does the DNA molecule do before it unzips? The molecule
unwinds from spools made of protein, then untwists. The DNA resembles a ladder.

2. What molecules break the rungs (bases) apart? Enzymes, special kinds of proteins,
move up the ladder, breaking the rungs.

Modeling Instruction AMTA 2012

Unit 6 Growth and Reproduction

Drag the correct bases over to synthesize the new DNA halves.
Read script, answer questions, and then click OK.
3.

How many base pairs are in the real human genome? Nine bases.

Go to: http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/dna_double_helix/
Click on Play DNA Game; Click next and reading each page, continue to click next
until you come to the game.; Click on organism #1 and match the base pairs as fast as
you can! It is hard.
Click Next and then click on each organism until you identify the one that belongs to
chromosome #1; continue playing the game with the other two chromosomes, filling in
the chart below.
Be careful, other teams may get different results.
Chromosome #
1

How many
chromosomes?
5

How many
base pairs?
125

How many
genes?
25000

What is the
organism?
Thale cress

4.4

3900
M tuberculosis

278

13700

Malaria
mosquito

Topic: Mutations
Go to: http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/mutations_03
Read the information and fill out the table below:
Type of mutation
Substitution

Description
A mutation that exchanges one base
for another (ie a change in single
chemical letter such as switching an

Modeling Instruction AMTA 2012

Effect on resulting protein

Unit 6 Growth and Reproduction

Insertion
Deletion
Frameshift

A to a G)
Mutations in which extra base pairs
are inserted into a new place in the
DNA.
Mutations in which a section of DNA
is losts, or delete.
Insertions and deletions can alter a
gene so that its messages is no
longer correctly parsed.

Modeling Instruction AMTA 2012

Unit 6 Growth and Reproduction