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Anatomy 6.

3 (Appendix)

February 7, 2012
Dr. Esguerra

General Somatic Afferent


GENERAL SOMATIC SENSATION OF THE BODY (EXCEPT THE FACE)

A.

SPINOTHALAMIC (ANTEROLATERAL) SYSTEM



PATHWAYS
RECEPTORS

LATERAL SPINOTHALAMIC
TRACT
(fast sharp pain, thermal
sense)

ANTERIOR SPINOTHALAMIC
TRACT
(light touch, itch, tickle, sexual
sensation)

NEURON 1

NEURON 2

NEURON 3

dorsal horn of spinal cord


substantia gelatinosa(internuncial neurons)
rexed laminae I V (tract cells)
axons cross to CONTRALATERAL side of spinal cord in
the ventral commissure ascend at lateral
funiculus
- fibers from lower cord levels: DORSOLATERAL
- fibers from higher cord levels: VENTROMEDIAL

VPL of thalamus
- thalamic radiations
in posterior limb of
internal capsule

dorsal root ganglion (DRG)


- axons enter spinal cord (via lateral
division of dorsal root) at zone of
Lissauer

-
-
-

DRG

dorsal horn of spinal cord


- some fibers cross ascend spinal cord at
CONTRALATERALanterior funiculus
- others ascend at IPSILATERAL anterior funiculus
- fibers are not well-laminated

PRIMARY
SENSORY CORTEX

BA 3, 1, 2

VPL of thalamus
- thru posterior limb
of internal capsule



B.

DORSAL COLUMN (MEDIAL LEMNISCAL) SYSTEM



PATHWAYS
RECEPTORS


(conscious proprioception,
vibratory sense, pressure, deep
touch, tactile discrimination)

NEURON 1

DRG
- axons enter IPSILATERAL dorsal
funiculus (via medial division of
dorsal root) and form:
fasciculus gracilis: fibers from
sacral, lumbar, and lower 6 thoracic
fasciculus cuneatus: fibers from
upper 6 thoracic and all cervical

NEURON 2
nucleus gracilis and nucleus cuneatus in medulla
- axons cross to CONTRALATERAL side as internal
arcuate fibers form medial lemniscus

NEURON 3
VPL of thalamus
- thru posterior limb
of internal capsule

PRIMARY
SENSORY CORTEX

BA 3, 1, 2







Group 16 | Joice, Aria, Khey, Joy, Chari, Judge, Geli, Mik

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C.

OTHERS

PATHWAYS
ANTERIOR SPINOCEREBELLAR TRACT (ASCT)
(general aspects of posture and movements
of the entire lower limb)

Receptors

Neuron 1
DRG

DORSAL SPINOCEREBELLAR TRACT (DSCT)


(concerned with fine coordination of
individual muscle during posture and
movement)
CUNEOCEREBELLAR TRACT (CCT)
(upper limb)

Neuron 2
dorsal horn of spinal cord
- fibers cross to CONTRALATERAL side of spinal cord thru white commissure and form the
ACST at anterior part of lateral funiculus; crossed fibers enter the cerebellum thru the
superior cerebellar peduncle and recross within the cerebellum
- some fibers remain uncrossed and enter the IPSILATERAL cerebellum thru the inferior
cerebellar peduncle
dorsal horn of spinal cord
- nucleus dorsalis or Clarkes column at T1T12 or C8-L3
- fibers from DSCT in posterior part of IPSILATERAL lateral funiculus enter cerebellum
thru inferior cerebellar peduncle
accessory cuneate nucleus, medulla
- fibers proceed laterally as external arcuate fibers and enter IPSILATERAL side of
cerebellum thru inferior cerebellar peduncle


cerebellum, vermis



GENERAL SOMATIC SENSATION OF THE FACE (TRIGEMINOTHALAMIC TRACTS)


PATHWAYS
For PAIN,
TEMPERATURE and
LIGHT TOUCH

For TACTILE SENSATION


(two-point discrimination)
and VIBRATORY SENSE

For CONSCIOUS
PROPRIOCEPTION

Receptors

Neuron 1
Gasserian ganglion CN V, geniculate
ganglion CN VII, superior ganglia CN IX
and X
- fibers enter brainstem at appropriate level
for each nerve descend enter spinal
tract of CN V, IPSILATERALLY

Gasserian ganglion CN V, geniculate
ganglion CN VII, superior ganglia CN IX
and X

mesensephalic nucleus of V

Neuron 2

Neuron 3

spinal nucleus V (mainly)


- fibers cross to CONTRALATERAL side of
brainstem enter ventral
trigeminothalamic tract

VPM of thalamus or
arcuate nucleus or
semilunar nucleus
- fibers enter posterior limb
of internal capsule

main sensory nucleus of V and rostral


part of spinal nucleus of V
- most fibers cross
- some do not and form dorsal
trigeminothalamic tract
main sensory nucleus of V or reticular
formation
- fibers ascend brainstem in dorsal
trigeminothalamic tract

For UNCONSCIOUS PROPRIOCEPTION:
N2 fibers pass into cerebellum

VPM of thalamus

VPM of thalamus

Primary Sensory
Cortex
BA 3, 1, 2
(face area)

post-central gyrus





Group 16 | Joice, Arya, Khey, Joy, Chari, Judge, Geli, Mik

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SUBSERVES

RECEPTOR

-
-
-
-

-
N1
-
ST
(1 ORDER NEURON)
-

N2
(2 ORDER
NEURON)
ND

-
-
-
-

N3
RD
(3 ORDER
NEURON)
SENSORY CORTEX

-
-


PATHWAYS FOR SENSATIONS FROM THE BODY

DORSAL COLUMN (MEDIAL LEMNISCAL) PATHWAY
LATERAL SPINOTHALAMIC TRACT
ANTERIOR SPINOTHALAMIC TRACT
conscious proprioception, vibration, deep pressure,
pain and thermal sensation
light (crude) touch, itch, tickle, sexual sensation
deep touch and tactile discrimination
pathway for free, sharp pain
Meissners corpuscles
- Hair follicle nerve endings
Pacinian corpuscles
- Merkels discs
Ruffinis corpuscles (pressure)
Free nerve endings (myelinated and unmyelinated)
- Meissners corpuscles
Golgi tendon organ (w/in joints, determine muscle
- Pacininan corpuscles
contraction)
Dorsal Root Ganglion
Axons enter ispilaterally to the dorsal funiculus via
Dorsal Root Ganglion
medial division of the dorsal root
- Pseudounipolar neuron
Fasciculus gracilis fibers from sacral, lumbar and
- Axons enter the spinal cord via the lateral division of the dorsal root
lower 6 thoracic
- Axons enter the Zone of Lissauer with fibers running 1 or 2 segments up (usually) or down this explains why
Fasciculus cuneatus fibers from upper 6 thoracic
dermatomal levels are overlapping
and all cervical
Dorsal Root Horn Cells
- Substantia gelatinosa (internuncial neurons) - Lamina II/III
- Rexed laminae I-V (tract cells) - Entire span of dorsal horn
- Fibers from lower spinal cord will be pushed dorsolaterally, fibers at higher levels are located more
Dorsal Root Horn Cells
ventromedially
Nucleus gracilis in the medulla
Axons cross to contralateral side via ventral commisure
Nucleus cuneatus in the medulla
(area of white matter thats anterior to central canal)
Axons cross to opposite side as internal
Axons cross to contralateral side via ventral commisure
and ascend at the anterior funiculus. However, there
arcuatefibers
(area of white matter thats anterior to central canal)
are fibers that continue ipsiliaterally/stay on the same
From the medial lemniscus in the contralateral side
and ascend at the lateral funiculus then goes up to the
side/do not cross.
brainstem (medulla pons midbrain)

When fibers reach medulla, AST merges with LST at
medulla as spinal lemniscus
Ventral Posterolamina (VPL) of the Thalamus
Thalamic radiations in posterior limb of internal capsule
Axons from corona radiata to the sensory cortex
PostcentralGyrus (Brodmann areas 3, 1, and 2)












Group 16 | Joice, Arya, Khey, Joy, Chari, Judge, Geli, Mik

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ASCT
-
NOTES

Conveys muscle joint information


from receptors of trunk, upper, &
lower limbs to cerebellum
Believed to transmit info coming
from skin & superficial fascia to
cerebellum

RECEPTOR
N1
ST
(1 ORDER NEURON)

RSCT

Dorsal Root Ganglia


-

N2
ND
(2 ORDER
NEURON)

PATHWAYS FOR UNCONSCIOUS PROPRIOCEPTION



PSCT
- Fibers receive muscle joint info &
info concerning tension of muscle
tendons & movement of muscles &

joints
- Info used by cerebellum for
maintenance of posture &
coordination of limb movements
-
Neuromuscular spindle
-
Golgi tendon organ
-
Touch endings

Dorsal Horn of Spinal Cord


Fibers cross to the contralateral
side of spinal cord through the
white commissure and forms the
ASCT at the anterior part of the
lateral funiculus
Crossed fibers enter the cerebellum
through the superior cerebellar
peduncle and re-cross within the
cerebellum
Some fibers remain uncrossed &
enter the ipsilateral cerebellum via
the inferior cerebellar peduncle

CEREBELLUM & VERMIS



Group 16 | Joice, Arya, Khey, Joy, Chari, Judge, Geli, Mik

Dorsal Horn of Spinal Cord


- Nucleus dorsalis or Clarkes column
at T12-L1 or C8-L3 Lamina VII
(medial intermediate horn) (T1-L2)
- Fibers from DSCT in the posterior
part of the ipsilateral lateral
funiculus enter the cerebellum via
the inferior cerebellar peduncle

CCT
- Fibers are known as posterior
external arcuatefibers
- These convey info about the muscle
joint sent to the cerebellum

Fasciculus Cuneatus (C1-T5)

Nucleus Centrobasalis Lamina VI


(dorsal horn cervical enlargement)

Accessory Cuneate Nucleus in the


Medulla
- Lateral to the cuneate nucleus at the
level of the medulla
- Fibers proceed laterally as external
arcuate fibers & enter ipsilateral
side of the cerebellum via the
inferior cerebellar peduncle

Cerebellum and Vermis

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