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When it is most likely and where

Note the high frequency areas in western Minnesota and western Iowa, and the
band from central Illinois eastward through northern Indiana, Ohio, and eastward.
In the high frequency band in the Midwest, an average of 12 to 15 hours of freezing
rain occurs annually. While freezing rain can occur anytime between November and
April, most freezing rain events occur during December and January.
Source: http://mrcc.isws.illinois.edu/living_wx/icestorms/
Why it is most likely:
During the winter, an approaching warm front is likely to bring about hazardous winter weather
conditions. Along the warm front, near the surface, where temperatures are relatively warm, rain will
be the likely precipitation form. Outside of this rain area ahead of the warm front, sleet or freezing
rain will persist in an area that is at or just below freezing. Snow will be the likely precipitation
component further ahead of the warm front where the temperature profiles are completely below
freezing.
Precipitation increases over an area as the front approaches. Winds ahead of the approaching warm
front will be out of the south or southeast in the Northern Hemisphere. After the warm front has
passed, and the air temperatures will have warmed and leveled off. Behind the warm front is a warm
sector, where the air mass is usually relatively warm and moist. Severe storms could possibly be
located in this warm sector that is ahead of the approaching cold front if the air mass is unstable.
Source: https://climate.ncsu.edu/edu/k12/.fronts
Atmospheric Conditions
Precipitation

Graupel: Snowflakes that have become encrusted with ice. This happens when snowflakes
pass through a chilly cloud on their way down and water droplets freeze on them.
Ice pellets: Frozen raindrops, also known as sleet. They are usually quite small in size and
unlike snowflakes, do not have a crystal shape.
Hail: A frozen raindrop or graupel that is kept from falling to the ground by the upward flowing
air of a thunderstorm. The more droplets that freeze onto the hailstone, the longer the hailstone
spends in the sky. When it finally grows too heavy to be held up by the flowing air, it falls to the
ground.
Source: https://eo.ucar.edu/webweather/blizzard2.html
Temperature- Freezing rain is just rain that falls onto a surface with a temperature below

freezing. This causes it to freeze to surfaces, such as trees, cars, and roads, forming a
coating or glaze of ice.
Source: www.weatherwizkids.com/weather-winter-storms.htm
Dew Point- While the feed of Arctic air from the north meant cold air near the ground, that air
was also quite dry, with surface dew points in the single digits. The moisture needed for
precipitation came from a pair of low pressure systems -- one to our east and one to the
west.
Source: http://climate.ncsu.edu/climateblog?id=168
Relative Humidity
When the humidity is high, there is enough water in the air to make rain or snow. Humidity can change a lot
during the day. Why? A change in temperature causes a change in pressure. If the humidity was 100% and the
temperature goes down, the air pushes together and squeezes out water. This is our rain and snow!

Cloud type
Precipitation type has more to do with the temperature of the layers of the atmosphere vs. the
type of cloud in which it is forming. Clouds that produce precipitation are called nimbostratus,
stratus, cumulus congestus and cumulonimbus clouds. Freezing rain or sleet can fall from any of
these clouds. Hail falls almost always from cumulonimbus clouds.
Source: https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090404182620AA45DzP
Cloud Cover
Covers more that 60% of the sky
Source: Previous Knowledge
Wind speed and direction
24.5 m/s (89 km/h, 55 mph) or more winds will shift to out of the south or southwest
Source: Unknown

Source:https://weather.com/storms/winter/news/winter-storm-jonas-high-winds-coastal-flood-threats
Impact on Citizens
Forests

The loading of tree branches with an accumulation of ice results in branch as well as stem
breakage. Smaller diameter trees bend over while others may become uprooted. Breakage
of tree stems and uprooting are much more serious problems than just the loss of a few

major limbs. Forested properties that have experienced a substantial amount of this type of
damage should receive immediate attention to assess the extent of the problem.
Trees periodically experience branch breakage due to wind storms and snow and ice
loading. Scientists at the NYS College of Environmental Science and Forestry have found
that sugar maple for instance, can experience a 40% loss of crown and still survive.
Damage to trees can result in altered growth rates, possible infestation of decay organisms
or insect pests, and impact the aesthetic quality of individual trees and forested landscapes.
Environmental conditions subsequent to storms, including drought, flood, or additional storm
damage can add to the stresses of trees.
Source: http://www.dec.ny.gov/lands/26414.html
Impact on Humans
when a ice storm happens it leaves thick, thick layers of ice that covers pretty much
everything that is in its way. that includes our cars, planes, trains, buses, railroads
ect. this leaves us pretty much stranded for mobility unless you wanna walk every
where you go, which in case might work if you live in town but if you live in the
country then you will be outta luck. For any economic issues, it can cause huge
amounts of financial problems. power lines, trees and hydro towers can collapse
under all the stress put on them from the weight of the ice, which can cost over
millions in fix and repairs.

Human health was another area of major impact. There were 39 known
deaths due to vehicle and train accidents. Five died in snowmobile
accidents, two froze to death, and another 32 died of heart attacks resulting
from overexertion, due mainly to snow shoveling. The storm also induced
numerous illnesses and created a blood shortage in the nation since the
Midwest is the prime source of fresh blood supplies and many donors could
not reach hospitals to give blood.

Read more: http://www.weatherexplained.com/Vol-1/WinterStorms.html#ixzz48CYaULZt

Source: http://icestormsmsfrank.weebly.com/human-system-impact.html
Two times in History

The South
You can certainly vouch for grumpy moods around Christmas 2000 in parts of the South.
In mid-December, an ice storm left more than 500,000 without power in parts of Texas,
Oklahoma and Arkansas. At the time, one Arkansas official called it the most destructive ice
storm he'd seen to the electrical utility infrastructure, there.
Just under two weeks later, the weather grinch delivered a lump of coal to stockings from
New Mexico to Oklahoma and Arkansas in the form of another ice storm.
Christmas 2000 ice storm facts:

Over 1 inch of accumulated ice in many locations from northeast Texas


into southeast Oklahoma, Arkansas and northern Louisiana.

At least 600,000 customers were without power.

These were the two most widespread, damaging ice storms of record in
Arkansas history at the time, dating to 1819, according to the National Weather
Service.

Much of cities of Texarkana, Hot Springs and Little Rock, Ark. were
without power.

Water systems in Texarkana and Hot Springs, Ark. were also down.

FEMA Director James Lee Witt's western Ark. farm also lost power.

Source: https://www.wunderground.com/news/top-10-worst-ice-storms-20131205?pageno=4
Minnesota, Duluth
March 3-5, 1935 Probably the most damaging ice event for the Duluth area before 1950 was
the event of March 3-5 th , 1935. At the time it was called The worst ice storm in Duluths
history. The area covered by this storm was centered at Duluth and extended up the Lake
Superior coast to Beaver Bay. The damage extended eastward along the south coast of Lake
Superior to Ashland. Swan Lake to the Northwest was the farthest west the storm reached

and on the southern side, Moose Lake and Solon Springs, WI. The worst of the storm
extended about 40 miles to the west and south of Duluth. There was no damage farther to the
south at Sandstone. The storm began with rain and moist snow falling at the Duluth Weather
Bureau in at 7 th Ave West and 8 th Street in Duluth (elevation 160 m (526 feet) above Lake
Superior and 1km from the lake) at 10pm on March 3. The temperature was 26 degrees. By
the morning of the 4 th , the snow stopped but the rain continued. At 11:00 am a half-inch rod
was 7/8 inch by 1 5/8 inch and at 4pm the same rod was 1 3/8 inch by 2 inches. The lights
started going out in Duluth by 6pm on the 4 th due to power lines breaking. By the morning of
the 5 th Duluth was virtually isolated from the outside world except for short wave radio. A
local ham radio operator sent the Duluth National Weather Service reports. The final ice
coating on a half-inch rod was 2 inches by 2 inches and weighted 2 pounds to the foot at
7:00 am of the 5 th . It is unknown where the Duluth Weather Service was measuring the ice
on this rod, but it is likely that it was at their office since they mention that the total amount of
precipitation for the storm was 1.02 inches. Smooth hard ice of 5/8 inches thick was noted on
sidewalks in Duluth at 7pm on March 5 th . This storm was different in the fact that it affected
areas closer to the lake such as the city of Superior, Wisconsin and downtown Duluth. There
was mention that the areas hardest hit were in the western section of Duluth west of 57 th
Avenue. Four streetcars had to be abandoned in the storm, three of them in the western part
of the city. A heavy salt mixture and pick axes were used to try to free the stuck streetcars. A
one-mile stretch of telephone poles along Thompsons Hill was broken off as if they were
toothpicks due to the ice. A Duluth, Masabi & Northern Railway engineer measured some of
their cables at Proctor on March 6, 1935 and found that the ice in some instances was 7
inches in circumference. 75% of shade trees reported ruined in Moose Lake. Thousands of
trees were stripped of their limbs leaving just a center stub. Conifers appeared to hold up
better. Hibbing also had damage due to ice with the breaking of large and small branches.
The Portal Telephone Company in the city of Superior, Wisconsin noted ice from to 1
inches in diameter with the thickest ice at 73 rd Street and Grassy Pt.
Source:
http://files.dnr.state.mn.us/natural_resources/climate/summaries_and_publications/ice_storm
s_in_minnesota.pdf