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ISBN: 978-960-603-303-2

Copyright , 2015

Creative Commons -
- 3.0.
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9, 15780

www.kallipos.gr


........................................................................................................................ 13
................................................................................................................................................... 14
1. . 15
1.1 = .......................................................................................................................15
1.2 , , ....................................................................................16
1.3 .............................................................................................................................................17
1.3.1 .................................................................................................. 18
1.4 ................................................................................................................................... 20
1.4.1 .......................................................................................................................................... 21
1.4.2 .................................................................................. 22
1.4.3 ........................................................................................... 22
1.4.4 ...................................................................................................................................... 23
1.4.5. ................................................................................................................................... 23
1.4.6. ................................................................................................................... 24
1.4.7 ............................................................................................ 24
1.4.8 ............................................................................................................................. 25
1.4.9. - - ................................................. 26
1.4.10 ...................................................................................... 26
1.4.11 ........................................................................................................................... 27
1.4.11.1 ................................................................................................................. 27
1.4.11.2 ................................................................................................................................. 27
1.4.11.3 .................................................................................................. 27

............................................................................................................... 29
....................................................................................................................... 33
1...................................................................................................................................33
2...................................................................................................................................33
3...................................................................................................................................33

2. .................................................................................. 34
2.1 ................................................................................................................................34
2.2 DNA RNA .............................................................................................................................................35
2.3. .................................................................................................................................35
2.4 (homunculi).....................................................................................................................36
2.5 .................................................................................................................38
2.5.1 ................................................................................................................................................................... 38

2.5.1.1 ............................................................................................................................................................ 38
2.5.1.2. .......................................................................................................................................................... 38

2.6 ..................................................39
2.7 ..................................................................................................................39
2.7.1 ................................................................................................................................... 40

2.8 1960 1980 .........................................................................40


2.8.1. : , , ................................................................................................. 41

............................................................................................................... 42
....................................................................................................................... 43
1...................................................................................................................................43
2...................................................................................................................................43

3. ...................................................... 44
3.1 Big Bang ..................................................................44
3.2 Big Bang ........................................................................................................44
3.3 Big Bang ...................................45
3.4 Big Bang .......................................................................45
3.5 Big Bang ......................................................................46
3.6 ...............................................................................................................48

............................................................................................................. 49
....................................................................................................................... 50
1...................................................................................................................................50
2...................................................................................................................................50

4. 19 20
.......................................................................................................................................................................... 51
4.1 ........................................................................................................................................................51
4.1.1 William Rowan Hamilton ....................................................................................................................................... 51
4.1.2 James Clerk Maxwell .............................................................................................................................................. 52
4.1.3 Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck ................................................................................................................................ 53
4.1.3.1 ............................................................................................................................................... 54
4.1.3.2 Planck Wien ...................................................................................................... 54
4.1.3.3 Planck Einstein ........................................................................................................................... 55
4.1.3.4 ............................................................................................................... 55

4.1.3.5 Planck ..................................................................................................................................... 56


4.1.3.5.1 Planck ................................................................................................... 56
4.1.3.6 Planck ............................................................................................................. 57

4.2 ...................................................................................................................................................57
4.2.1 EinsteinPodolskyRosen ( EPR ) ................................................................................ 59
4.2.2 Bose................................................................................................................................................... 60
4.2.3 ............................................................................................................................. 60
4.2.3.1 ................................................................................... 61

4.3 Wolfgang Ernst Pauli .................................................................................................................................61


4.3.1 Pauli .............................. 62
4.3.2 ............................................................................................................................................ 62
4.3.3 Hund .............................................................. 63
4.3.4 ........................................................................................................................................ 63
4.3.5 - .................................................................................................................... 64

4.4 .........................65
4.4.1 (SM) ............................................................................................................................ 65
4.4.1.1 Big Bang ................................................................................................................. 67
4.4.1.2 chirality .............................................................................................................................. 67
4.4.1.3 (SM) .............................................................................................................. 67

............................................................................................................. 69
...................................................................................................................... 74
1...................................................................................................................................74
2...................................................................................................................................74
3...................................................................................................................................74
1...................................................................................................................................74

5. .................................................... 75
5.1 ..................................................................................................................................75
5.1.1 ...................................................................................................................................... 76

5.2 ..........................................................................................................76
5.3 ....................................................76
5.4 , .......................................................77

............................................................................................................... 79
....................................................................................................................... 79
1...................................................................................................................................79
2...................................................................................................................................79
6

6. .................................... 80
6.1 .........................................................................................................................................80
6.2 ...................................................................................................81
6.3 .......................................................................................................82
6.4 ..................................................................................................................83
6.5 ....................................................83

............................................................................................................... 84
...................................................................................................................... 84
1...................................................................................................................................84
2...................................................................................................................................84

7. 85
7.1 RNA ..........................................................................................................................................85
7.2 .............................................................86
7.3 RNAi ....................................................................................................................................87
7.4 microRNAs miRNAs .........................................................................................................................87
7.5 - .........................................................................................87
7.6 dicer, RISC, siRNAs ...................................................................................88
7.7 (3) , (2) , (23000)
...........................................................................................................................................................88
7.8 .........................................................89
7.9 ............................................................................................................................................89
7.10 .........................................................................................90
7.11 ..................................90
7.12 - ...................................................................................................91
7.13 ............................................................................................91
7.14 ......................................................................................................................92
7.15 .......................................................................................................93
7.16 ...................................................................................................93
7

7.17 ....................................................................................................................................94
7.17.1 ...................................................................................................................... 94
7.17.2 ......................................................................................................... 94

7.18 ..................................................................................................................................94
7.19 ncRNAs .............................................................95
7.20 RNA ....................................................................................................95

............................................................................................................. 97
....................................................................................................................... 99
1...................................................................................................................................99
2...................................................................................................................................99

8. .................................................................... 100
8.1 ......................................................................................................................................100
8.1.1 - ................................................................................................................................................. 100
8.1.2 .................................................................................................. 100
8.1.3 Dirac ................................................................................................................................... 101
8.1.4 , ........................................................................................................................................... 101
8.1.5 ..................................................... 102

8.2 ..................................................................................................................................................102
8.2.1 ................................................................................................................... 103
8.2.2 ........................................................................................... 103
8.2.3 ..................................................................................................................................... 104

8.3 .................................................................................................................104
8.3.1 I .............................................................. 105
8.3.2 ............................................................. 105
8.3.3 ........................................................................................................................................................ 106
8.3.4 .............................................................................................................................................. 106
8.3.4.1 ........................................................................................................................ 106
8.3.4.2 ....................................................................................................................... 107
8.3.5 .......................................................................................................................................................... 107
8.3.6 = stem cells ...................................................................................................................... 108
8.3.7 .......................................................................................................................................................... 108

8.4 ........................................................................................................108
8.5 Chirality ....................................................................................................................................................108
8.5.1 chirality ................................................................................................................ 109
8.5.2 ......................................................................................................................... 109

8.6 ...................................................................................................109

............................................................................................................. 111

..................................................................................................................... 113
1.................................................................................................................................113
2.................................................................................................................................113

9. .............. 114
9.1 .........................................................................................114
9.2 .............................................................................................................115
9.3 .....................................................................................................115
9.4 ......................................................................................115
9.5 ................................................................................................................116
9.5.1 ............................................................................ 117

9.6 ......................................................................................117
9.6.1 ................................................................................ 118

9.7 .....................................................................................118
9.8 ...............................................................................................................119
9.8.1 ............................................................................................................................................. 119
9.8.2 ....................................... 119
9.8.3 .......................................................................................... 120

9.9 ..............................................................................120
9.10 ......................................................................................................120

........................................................................................................... 121
..................................................................................................................... 122
1.................................................................................................................................122
2.................................................................................................................................122

10. .................................... 123


10.1 - ....................................................................123
10.1.1 ......................................................................................................................................... 123
10.1.2 ........................................................................................................................................................... 124
10.1.3 .............................................................................................................................................. 124
10.1.4 ............................................................................................................................................... 124

10.2 ...........................................................................................................................125
10.3 .......................................................................................................................126
10.4 : ; ...................................................................................................................126
9

10.5 ........................................................................................................................................127
10.6 .................................................................................................................................127

........................................................................................................... 129
..................................................................................................................... 130
1.................................................................................................................................130
2.................................................................................................................................130

11. .............................. 131


11.1 ...................................................................................................................................................131
11.1.1 ..................................................................................................... 131
11.1.2 ................................................................................................................................ 132
11.1.3 = ................................................................................... 133

11.2 .............................................................................................................................................134
11.3 .............................................................................................................................134
11.3.1. James Papez Paul MacLean ...................................................... 135

11.4 .......................................................................................................135
11.4.1 .................................................................................................................................... 136
11.4.2 ................................................................................................................. 136
11.4.2.1 .................................................................................................................................................. 136
11.4.2.2 ............................................................................................................................................ 137
11.4.2.3 .................................................................................................................................................. 137
11.4.3 ......................................................................................................................................... 137
11.4.4 ....................................................................................................................................................... 138
11.4.4.1 ............................................................................................................................................... 139
11.4.4.1.1 dentate gyrus ................................................................................................................................... 139
11.4.4.2 .............................................................................................................................................. 139

11.5 -- ...............................................................................................................................140

............................................................................................................. 143
..................................................................................................................... 145
1.................................................................................................................................145
2.................................................................................................................................145

12. ,
............................................................................................................................................... 146
12.1 , , Brodmann, Damasio
..........................................................................................................................................................................146
12.1.1 ......................................................................................................................................... 146

10

12.1.2 ......................................................................................................................................................... 147


12.1.3 ............................................................................................. 148
12.1.4 o .................................................................................................................................. 149
12.1.5 . Damasio ..................................................................................... 149
12.1.6 ............................................................................................................................................. 150
12.1.6.1 ......................................................................... 150
12.1.7 ................................................................. 151
12.1.7.1 ............................................................................................................................................ 151
12.1.7.2 ............................................................................................................................................... 152
12.1.7.3 ................................................................................................................ 152

12.2 .................................................................................................................................152
12.2.1 , .......................................................... 152

12.3 , ...............................................................................154
12.3.1 ...................................................................................................................................... 154
12.3.2 ......................................................................................................................... 155
12.3.3 .................................................................................................................................... 158
12.3.4 Broca .............................................................................................................................. 159

12.4 , Chirality, , ,
..................................................................................................................160
12.4.1 ...................................................................................................................................................... 160
12.4.2 - ......................................................................................................... 160
12.4.3 ........................................................................................................................................................... 161
12.4.4 1910 1940 ............................................................................................................... 162
12.4.5 CHIRAL ............................................................................................................................................. 164
12.4.6 .................................................................................................................................. 165
12.4.7 .................................................................................................................................................. 165
12.4.8 ..................................................................................................................................... 166
12.4.9 .................................................................................................................................. 166
12.4.9.1 Casimir ................................................................................................................................. 166
12.4.9.2 ............................................................................................................................ 167
12.4.9.3 ....................................................................................................................................................... 167
12.4.9.4 ................................................................................................................................................. 168
12.4.9.5 ............................................................................................................................ 169
12.4.9.6 ...................................................................... 169
12.4.9.7 .......................................................................................... 169
12.4.10 ...................................................................................................................................... 170
12.4.10.1 - ......................................................................................................... 170

............................................................................................................ 174
..................................................................................................................... 178
1.................................................................................................................................178
2.................................................................................................................................178
3.................................................................................................................................178

13. ............................................................................ 179


13.1 ...................................................................................179

11

13.2 ...................................................................179
13.2.1 ................................................................................................................. 180
13.2.2 ......................................................... 180

13.3 .......................................................................................................................................180
13.3.1 ..................................................................................................................................... 181
13.3.2 : ....................................................................... 181

13.4 .................................................183
13.5 ............................................................................183
13.5.1 ....................................................................................................... 183

13.6 ............................................................................................................................................184
13.6.1 Bottom-up Top-down ...................................................................... 184

13.7 ................................................................................................................................................186
13.7.1 ; .................................................................................................... 186
13.7.2 ................................................................................................................................ 187
13.7.3 ....................................... 188

13.8 ........................................................................................................................188
13.8.1 ..................................................................................................................................... 189

13.9 ..............................................................................................................190
13.9.1 - ................................................................................................... 190

13.10 .................................................................................192
13.11 ...........................................................................192
13.12 ................................................................................................................193
13.12.1 ..................................................................................................................................................... 193
13.12.2 .............................................................................................. 193
13.12.3 ............................................................................................................................. 193
13.12.4 ............................................................... 194

13.13 - .........................................................................................................................................194
13.14 ..............................................................................................................................195
13.15 ...............................................................................................................................195

............................................................................................................. 197
..................................................................................................................... 202
1.................................................................................................................................202
2.................................................................................................................................202

.................................................................................................. 203

12

CDM

BNST
CA
COBE
CMBR
CRH
DCN
DS
EPSP
ERAN
ESA
fMRI
GA
GTP
IHC
IPSP
IRAS
LUCA
MEG
MIT
M-RNA
MSC
MNS
NHGRI
NIH
NC-RNA
OCD
OFC
OHC
PET
PMA
PTGS
REM
RISC
SAD
SCN
siRNAs
SLAC
SM
SMA
snRNPs
SS
TGS
TRN
TU
VPC
VTA
VMPFC
WMAP



-Cold Dark Matter





Bed Nuclei of Stria Terminalis
Cornu Ammonis
Cosmic Background Explorer
Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
Deep Cerebellar Nuclei
Double Strand
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential
Early Right Anterior Negativity
European Space Agency
functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Gigaannum
Guanosine Triphosphate
Inner Hair Cells
Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential
Infrared Astronomical Satellites
Last Universal Common Ancestor
MagnetoEncephaloGraphie
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Messenger RNA
Miles of Standard Cable
Mirror Neuron System
National Human Genome Research Institute
National Institute of Health
Non Coding for Protein RNA
Obessive-Compulsive Disorder
OrbitoFrontal Cortex
Outer Hair Cells
Positron Emission Tomography
Pre Motor Area
Post Transcriptional Gene Silencing
Rapid Eye Movements
RNA-Induced Silencing Complex
Seasonal Affective Disorder
SupraChiasmatic Nuclei
small interfering RNAs
Stanfords Linear Accelerator Center
Standard Model
Supplementary Motor Area
Small Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins
Single Strand
Transcriptional Gene Silencing
Thalamic Reticular Nucleus
Transmission Unit
Ventral Premotor Cortex
Ventral Tegmental Area
Ventro Medial PreFrontal Cortex
Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

13



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14

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17

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(, 2008).
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(phase-locked) (Tallon-Baudry et al., 1996; Cheron et al., 2007; Frund et al., 2007; Lewis et
al., 2011).
[ (unisensory), (multisensory)], , ,
, , .. (Petrides & Pandya, 2009; Skoe & Kraus, 2012).
, - .
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RNA , , : ,
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(Strait et al., 2009; Strait et al., 2010; Strait et al., 2014).

1.3.1

,
.
1800 ,
.

. , ,
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1906, Cajal Golgi, 1887
, Golgi
18

,
! .
Cajal . .. Feynman (1965; 2000)
:

Wheeler
, )Feynman
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---. ,
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. , :
, Otto Loewi .
()
. 1902
Bayliss, Starling, Eliot Dale, ()
.
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Otto Loewi ,
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.

. ,
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sir Henry Dale, , (1929
1936) ,
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1936. (Sabbattini, 2003).
.
Hans Berger, (1924),
(--).
, 1937 , Berger
. , 1941, , Berger .
. 1963, Hodgkin
Huxley, , Eccles,
Loligo pealei. (1939),
,
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19

-,
, . 1934
, Eccles . Katz
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! Katz .

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, . (
) . (
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(). ,
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(EPSP) (IPSP).
. .. ,
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,
von Euler Axelrod Katz
1970. von Euler
Axelrod
.
70 ,
, 1904 Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, 1906
Camillo Golgi Santiago Ramon y Cajal, 1932 Charles Sherrington Edgar Adrian,
1936 Henry Dale Otto Loewi, 1944 Joseph Erlanger Herbert Gasser, 1963 Alan
Hodgkin, Andrew Huxley Sir John Eccles, 1970 Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler Julius
Axelrod, 1986 Stanley Cohen Rita Levi-Montalcini , 1991 Erwin Neher Bert Sakmann
2000 Arvid Carisson, Paul Greengard Eric Kandel.
, , :
Aslin, Baddeley, Barlow, Brenowitz, Campbell, Carew, Changeux, Chomsky, Condon, Crick,
Dobbing, Edelman, Fantz, Faure, Gardner, Gazzaniga, Gold, Gould, Hawking, Hebb, Hobson, Hubel, Jacob,
Kaas, Kesner, Kimmelberg, Krauss, Krupa, Lakoff, Lashley, LeDoux, Luria, MacLean, McCormick,
McEwen, McGaugh, Morais-Cabral, Mountcastle, Nottebohm, Papez, Penfield, Pinker, Rakic, Reeves,
Routtenberg, Sapolsky, Schreiber, Shatz, Sperry, Starkmann, Swindale, Szent-Gyorgyi, Thompson, Tomatis,
Tulving Wiesel.
(Levi-Montalcini, 1982;
Marshall & Magoun,1998; Finger, 2000; Sabbattini, 2003).

1.4
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.
86
(Hercoulano-Houzel, 2002; Azevedo et al., 2009), -
, 3,72 .
20

. ..,
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:
Driving Mr Albert, Fields (2008:114)
Thomas Harvey. , 1955,
. , ,
,
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1.4.1
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21

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(250.000) (!)
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1.4.3
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(Fielder et al., 1993; Graven & Browne, 2008)


(Dwyer, 2006) . ,
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() (Haines,
Mihailoff & Yezierski, 2006).
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(stem cells). , ,
,
(Naftel, Ard, Fratkin & Hutchins, 2006).

22

1.4.4
.
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- ,
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(1015) . , , 1015
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23

1.4.6.
, , .
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6 : , , , ,
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: ( -,
24

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(Gerald, 1942). (Bertalanffy, 1950; 1973).
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25

1.4.9. - -
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26

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Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potentials).
27

. , ,
(Rosenzweig et al., 1996).

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1
.

2
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43

3.


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44

3.3 Big Bang


, (1917),
Hubble. , . , De Sitter
(Dodelson, 2003). Friedmann (1922),
,
(Tropp, Frenkel & Chernin, 2006). Zeitschrift fr
Physik .
Friedmann .

. Friedmann 1925
. 1931, ,
Tolman (1934). , ,
.
. ,
.
George Lematre, , , Leuven,
Friedmann,
Annals of the Scientific Society of Brussels (Lematre, 1927).
Hubble , Sir Arthur Eddington
Lematre 1931 Monthly Notices of the Royal
Astronomical Society. .
(Bartusiak, 2009).
. , Lematre
.
1935 Howard Percy Robertson (Rabi, 2006) US Arthur Geoffrey Walker (Hitchin,
2006) ,
, .

. Friedmann, Lematre,
Robertson Walker (FLRW) . .

3.4 Big Bang


Hubble 1924
. 1929
(Bartusiak, 2009).

. Hubble,
. ,
, ()
.
.
Hubble .
. .
, , , 1950, Hoyle
, (Big Bang) C
, The Listener. Hoyle Big Bang,
. .
, ,
Fred Hoyle (Gregory, 2005)
.
.
,
45

,
.
. , 1957, E.M. G. R. Burbidge W.A. Fowler
, BBFH . .
Hoyle ,
. Big Bang
. (1032) Kelvin
, ,
(1023) Kelvin ,
, , ..
1940 1950 . Hoyle, ,
. , ,
. ,
, .
, (23%),
. George
Gamow (1904 - 1968) , (Hot) ig
ang. Hoyle Big Bang
(380000)
Big Bang .

3.5 Big Bang



( 1961 Gagarin)
(cosmic microwave
background radiation = CMBR) (Penzias & Wilson, 1965). (
CMBR) .
(background)
, --- / .
( ) . , ,
. ,
,
, / .
Big Bang.
CMBR , Penzias Wilson 1978
. ..
.
. (Sarkar, 2008)
- . ..
,
, .
. . (Sakharov, 1965).

.
RELIKT-1 1983. ,
, 1992. ,
, . 1989,
, L
Aquila : 25 .

1992. , .
RELIKT-2 . , 2006
46

(dark matter),
(dark energy) , Smoot
Mather, 1992, ,
. COsmic Background
COBE (COsmic Background Explorer).
: (2,7) elvin,
Big Bang ,
(5 x 10 -5) ,
.
COBE 1974. 1976 COBE.
. IRAS
(Infrared Astronomical Satellites = )
. .
1989, , -
.
.
Wilkinson
MAP (WMAP = Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, 2003)
NASA 2003. WMAP MAP
2001
. 2003
S WMAP,
,
.
:

( Big Bang).
.

, ,
(-Cold Dark Matter = CDM).
.
.
.
,
- .

, . , ,
1. 1. 1,02
+/- 0,02.
, CDM ,
, , , : 13,75 +/- 0,11
. 4,56 % +/- 0,15 % ,
22,8% +/- 1,3% (-CDM), ()
0,7 CDM
. 72,6% +/- 1,5% . 1%
, WMAP
4,4 +/- 1,5% 3,06% . , S 2009,
Planck, .
, Big Bang. ,
,
.
, , , , ,
. - . ( )
47

, . ,
.. .
. () (Singh, 2005; Silk,
2009).

3.6
.
. .
, .

. ,
.
. ,
, .
,
. ;
, ,
. , .
, . , ,
, , ,
( 10-37 )
, ,
(Sakharov, 1965; 1967; 1969; 1972; 1979; 1980).
, , .
.
.
, .
, , , ,
.
(Galison, 2003)
(Eddington, 1919).
. . , ,
;

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Universe Expand. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.


1
Big Bang;

2

;

50

4. 19
20


(19 20)
Hamilton, Maxwell, Gibbs, Boltzmann, Planck, Leibnitz, Fourier, Einstein, Millikan, Born,
Pauli, Stoner, Bohr, Rydberg, Hund, Fermi . ,
, chirality.

.

4.1

, ,
,
. ,
.
,
, .. . ,
. .
.. .., , , .
.

4.1.1 William Rowan Hamilton


William Rowan Hamilton (1805-1865), , ,
.
, James Hamilton, Talbots Castle
.
. 1827 ( ) Trinity College
. ,
, , ,
(fluctuating functions), Fourier, .
quaternions, , Robert Percival Graves,
W.R Hamilton, Life of sir William Rowan Hamilton (1882, 1885 1889)

quaternion .
: ,
, ,
, ...
Hamilton. quaternions to 1843. ,
Trinity College
, : i2
= j2 = k2 = ijk = -1. ,
. quaternions
. , ,
,
.
Hamilton () ()
, .
51

. 1840
Benjamin Olinde Rodrigues (Altman, 1986).
Hamilton , . , , , Rodrigues
, Hamilton
Hamilton-Jacobi, Hamilton-Cayley
. Hamilton 1833 1853,
, William Edwin Hamilton,
(Joly Fiacre O Cairbre).

4.1.2 James Clerk Maxwell


James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879), .
(Nahin, 1992).
( , 1855), ,
.
, ,
, .

, , , ,
. , .
(
/ ), ( ) .
, Brown,
. , .
.
, .. .
, . , , (
) ( ). ,
. ;
.
,
. .
, .
.
, .
Maxwell Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839-1903, ,
(Gibbs, 1873 Perrot, 1998) Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906),
( Kalinin Kononogov, 2005), ,
Gibbs . .., Boltzmann, k,
, ,
.
. R
Avogadro ().
k = R/NA = 1,3806488(13) erg/K.
, . , ,
,
(
). , ,
.
. , ,
,

52

,
.
.
, Boltzmann ( 1.3)
. :
S = k log W

4.1.3 Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck


, Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (1858-1947),
.
Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, ,

. , ,
, , ,
, , , ,
.
.
Planck ( )

0,0000000000000000000000000000000000662606957
(6,63 x 10 -34) .
. , , quanta;
Planck -
.
Planck (Bronstein, 1929, 1936a, 1936b;
Einstein, Tolman & Podolsky, 1931; Klein, 1966; Kuhn, 1987; Gorelik, 1992 & 1994; Stachel, 1995 & 1999;
Nugayev, 2000; Darrigol, 2001; Gearhart, 2002 & 2009; Baum Frampton, 2007)
Planck , ,
.
Max Planck
(Mastin, 2009). , , ,
. : (
), . ,
. , , ,
(Darrigol, 2001). Einstein .

.
. 1892 ( )
.
, Otto Hahn Liza Meitner.
( 1909)
. , . ,
. 1933
, Planck . ,
. , 1936
. ,
Gttingen
.
. 89 .

. - . ,
, . Planck
53


. .. Big Bang,
. Planck
.

Planck . ,
(Gottfried Wilhelm
Leibnitz, 1646-1716, , ,
) ,
(Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier, 1768-1830,
,
). Planck
,
.

4.1.3.1
, ,
(Gearhart, 2009). , :
1. ,
2.
3. .
, , ,

. , ,

. . : ,
. ,
. ,
/ / , (
)
.
,
, , ,
. .
, ,
, ,
() . -
( ) .
, ,
, .
, .

4.1.3.2 Planck Wien


Planck
. , Boltzmann
, , . Planck,
, 1899 Wien
1893. Wien (1864-1928)
Wien,

54

,
, , .
, , max = b, max
, b
,
(1/). (max) (Wien,
1893).
, Wien
adiabatic, . Planck
Wien. (max)
() (max x 1/ = max/), Planck ,
, ,
, b , .
, .
, Brown. ,
Planck.
Planck ( )
. :
1. c: .
.
2. G: .
3. h: ( = h/2).
4. k: Boltzmann.
.
5. 0: Coulomb.
1899. ..
, Planck
Bronstein (1936a). Planck
b, h 1899
, , ,
(),
, (Planck, 1899, pp. 479-480).

4.1.3.3 Planck Einstein


Planck
Planck-Einstein. E=hv , h Planck
v . . , .
. ,
Big Bang ,

. , ,
.
,
, , .
, , c/, = c/ = hv =
hc/.

4.1.3.4
1900 Planck
, Big Bang
55

. ,
. . Planck
. ,
1905 (1905a) Albert Einstein (1879 - 1955). , ,
.
Planck, (1900)
. .
. ,
quantum, , ;
(quantum), . ,
Planck, ,
. Planck Einstein ,
.

4.1.3.5 Planck
Planck h h ,
h/2,
, Paul Dirac (1902 - 1984) .
, , Dirac Big Bang
. , , , , ,
,
Dirac (1931; 1949; 1982),

(relativistic wave equation).
Planck.
4.1.3.5.1 Planck
To Planck ,
.
.
Planck. , ,.,
(sec), 5,39121 x
10-44. , (kg) 2,17645 x 10-8.
(m), 1,616252 x 10-35. , ,
Planck,
.
.. ,
Planck.
,
. ,
(-35). , , (-8)
( -35). -
,
.
Planck ,

/ Planck, . ,
,
- .
.. ,

56

(CD players) ,
.

4.1.3.6 Planck
, Planck , , adiabatic.
. , . Planck, ,

resonators . ,
--, --. , ,
harmonic oscillators = . Planck resonators
.
(Serway & Jewett, 2003).

4.2
,
20 .
. : Planck, Bohr, Feynman ..
.
, 1905 .
1905 annus mirabilis,

. . 1905, ,
.
Planck ,
, ,
.
1905 (a)
,

= , .
,
--. LASER,
.
. , 1916, Robert Andrews Millikan, 18681953,
( 1923)
.
(1905b)

, Brown .
1905 (c), ,
. ,
.
.
. ()
.
Maxwell ()
. . .
:
(1905 d).
, 1901 1917 (b),
. 4 , 1905, . ,
1907 1917. 1915 (a & b)
57

.

, ,

. ,
: ()
. , ,
(Eddington, 1919) ,
.
:
.
() .
..
,
.
,
,
(
). .. . .
.
, , . , ,

. .

/,

.
,
.
, ,
. ( )
/ 180 .
, , ,
180
270 .

.
2r, r , 3,14.
,
2r.

, .
. ( ),
.
; .
, ,
, . ,
, ; .
, , .
mc2.
, Big Bang,
,
().
, . 1916

58

. de Sitter (
Dodelson, 2003) Friedmann ( Tropp, Frenkel & Chernin, 2006)
. , .
, , 1917 ,
. 1910
, Rayleigh
,
.
Smoluchowski
, , ,
, . Rayleigh,
(Klein, 1993).
1907 (
). 1911 .
, Feynman (1965; Brown, 2000), ,
. 1921,
1907.
, ,

.
Hoffmann [Banesh Hoffmann (1906 1986)] Albert Einstein: creator and rebel (The
collection of biography and autobiography) (1972)
, .
( ) ,
.
, ,
(.. ),
. Hubble , Hubble
( ), . ,
, .
. .
.
, 1921 ,
Max Born (1882 - 1970) ,
Born . Born .
:
(Stachel, 2001).

4.2.1 EinsteinPodolskyRosen ( EPR )


(1935), ,
. ,

.
, ( = ) .
, .
, ;
;
, 1935,
. .
, . ,
. , , ,
,
.
59

. . Heisenberg
[Werner Karl Heisenberg (1901 - 1976), , 1932],
( )
.
, , ( ) .
, . ,
Heisenberg. :

. , () (Hardy, 1993; Haroche &
Raimond, 2006; Baylock, 2010).

4.2.2 Bose
Satyendra Nath Bose, , 1922
Dhaka ,
Roentgen .
Bose .

() .
h ,
. Bose 1924
. . Bose (Plancks Law
and Hypothesis of Light Quanta) , ,
(Clark, 1971).
, ,
, x
, .
. Bose .
Bose- , -,
Pauli
. , , (Griffiths, 2005).
Jayant Narlikar, , The Scientific Edge (2003)
S.N. Bose ,
-
,
.

Bose; . Bose ,
,
:

4.2.3
, 1913 Otto Stern, 18881969,
1943,
Nullpunktenergie, Nullpunkts-energy zero point energy
(Beiser, 1967; Loudon, 2000).
,
. ,
, , .
, (perturbations),
60

.
Heisenberg,
,
. , Heisenberg, ,
. (Sciama, 1991).
.
-
, , Higgs (Jaffe, 2005).
,
( , ),
, .
, Stern .
Planck 1900 resonator (
) , h,
, v, Boltzmann, k, ( ) .
Stern, , 1913
1/2hv.
(Nullpunktenergie). 1916, Walter Nernst
(Hoffman, 1992; Milonni, 1994; Stachel, 2001).

4.2.3.1
,
.
.
,
. , Feynman
(loops) (propagators),
.
,
,
, ( )
, , / (
, , ..) , ;
,
. , /
; : ;
. ,
, Princeton .

4.3 Wolfgang Ernst Pauli


Wolfgang Ernst Pauli - . 18
. 1921
, ,
, (Enz, 2002).
,
Zeeman (1897,
Commins, 2014), E.C. Stoner (1924)
,

Pauli (1925).

61

, Pauli ,
.
.

4.3.1
Pauli
, /
.
, ,
Lewis (1916) ,
.
, . 1919,
Langmuir ,
. , Bohr,
1922, ,
, , (2),
(8) (18) ,
.
Pauli Zeeman.
, Stoner, Rydberg (1888, Martinson & Curtis,
2005) Bohr (1913; Rozental, 1967) ,
:
,
, .
( ) ,
.
.
Aufbauprinzip. .
Pauli
() ( Stoner),
(1), (
) .
. , 1946 (1998)

.
.
Pauli. , 1925 Pauli
, ,
, . , . ,
, ( ) ;
Pauli
. (Enz, 2002)
,
,
.

4.3.2

. ,
62

Pauli ,
. , ,
, -
,
. , . Pauli .
,
-.
George Eugene Uhlenbeck (1900-1988) Samuel Abraham Goudsmit
(1902-1978) (Enz, 2002; Heisenberg, 2007).
, Pauli ,
. ,
, , ,
.
Pauli , , , ,
: () ().
. ,
( ).
, 1940, Pauli
Fermi-Dirac
, , Einstein-Bose .

Pauli.
, Pauli
,
,
(Atmanspacher & Primas, 2006).

4.3.3 Hund

.
, . , :
, .
, -,
. .
, Friedrich Hermann Hund (1896-1997) ,
, ,
.
.. - l (
), s, p, d f.
,
.
, 1970,
( )
(Ellison, 1975).

4.3.4
Enrico Fermi (1901- 1954),
Pauli Fermi-Dirac
Bose-Einstein. ;
, ,
.
63

.
- - (1/2, 3/2
). -,
, FermiDirac (Farmello, 2009) Pauli (1925).
(force carriers)
. , Pauli, (1, 2
..), Bose-Einstein. , Dirac (1945
Farmello, 2009).
Higgs. (Standard
Model) ( )
. :

, - ,
(= g) - ()

W(+), W(-) Z, () .

4.3.5 -
, Big Bang ,
- ,
,
.
, ,
, , , ..
.

, .
. up .
, up down
up down, up down.
, -,
, kaons ( ) pions,
. .
Sakharov (1965; 1967; 1969; 1972; 1979; 1980) ,
(Kokkedee, 1969; Griffiths, 1987; Sozzi, 2008).
,
, ,
. , , .
, , ,
, .

, ,
(Skyrme, 1959, 1962).
.
Higgs (Weiner, 2010)
,
. , ,
,
Pauli. . ,
;

64

4.4


, . , ,
- ,
. , . ;
,
- , ,
, , ,
.
(Standard Model = SM), :
1. ,
2. , , .
, :
(
) , , ,
.
, ,
. Big Bang
, .
. ,
/. , , /
, 1900
, ,
. ,
(;),
.
,
.
, Wigner (1960). Dirac Equation,
, Westminster,

. Dirac (1928; 1982)
,
.
Dirac, Wigner , 1940 .
.

4.4.1 (SM)
SM Glashow (1961)
. , 1964, Gell-Mann
Zweig (Carithers & Grannis 1995) ,
, Gell-Mann
, Zweig. Weinberg
(1967) Salam (1968). SM. , ,
, .. 1897 Joseph John Thomson
(1856 1940), , 1906, Nils Bohr, Rutherford
65

. Gell-Mann 1969 ,
1968 Richard E. Taylor, Jerome Isaac Friedman
Henry Way Kendall Stanfords Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC).
1990. 1974 Burton Richter SLAC Samuel Chao
Chung Ting Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), charm (c) .
1976. tau lepton SLAC 1975 Martin Lewis
Perl 1995 (Schumm, 2004; G.D. Coughlan, Dodd, & Gripaios 2006;
Oerter, 2006).
O Glashow 1960,
.
Weinberg 1967, Salam
1968, .
, (Darwin, 1859),
.
,
.
, .
/
, CERN, .
. SM
.
SM
.
SM :

(6) ,
(6)-,
(6) ,
(6) -
(4)

SM, 61 :

(36) [ 3
= 6 (up(u)--down(d) // charm(c)--strange(s) // top(t)--bottom(b) + 3 + 3
],
(12) [3 = 6 -- // muons--muon
// tau--tau ) + 3 2 = 6],
(8) ( 8 ),
(2) W ( W(+) W(-) ),
(1) , (),
(1)
(1) Higgs.

.
, ,
, ,
.
.
. taus, muons ,
(), /
. .

66

.
, charm, bottom, top, tau neutrino, W, gluon ,
.

4.4.1.1 Big Bang


, Big Bang .
Big Bang 13,7 Gas ( : Ga =
gigaannum = ) :
, Big Bang ( nucleosynthesis)
,
, ,
(Grupen, 2005; Bertulani, 2013).
, . , chirality.

4.4.1.2 chirality
1904 ( Bentley, 1995)
chiral chirality ,
, . ,
, , ,
, .
. . ,
, . .
.

(Positron Emission Tomography Scan). Dirac ,
Pauli
,
(helicity).
, ,
, . ,
, .

4.4.1.3 (SM)
SM WMAP. 1933 (Anderson)
( ).
Anderson .
( ).
. , .
.

,
.
.
: , . H
W (+), W (-) Z , g.
, Higgs.
2012.
(;).

67

1/3 2/3,
, .
:
(1). , ,
.
.
.
, , superpartners.
.

68


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1
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1
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. , ,
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. , , ,
,
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, ncRNA,
.
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) (
) ,
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.

. .

7.13
:
- , ,
; RNA, ncRNAs
(Joyce, 2002). ,
ncRNAs ;
.
.
, ,
x , , ,
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91

.
,

, (Pavlov, 1996).
,
.

, (Orgel, 2004). ,
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), , ( ) , ,
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, ,
,
(Cottingham & Greenwood, 2002).
. , ,
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) .
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;
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.
, .. RNA, / ;

7.14
(Berry & Watson, 2003).
,
, ,
ncRNAs RNA ,
. , ,


, , , ncRNAs. ,
RNA ncRNAs ,
. ,
& , (2011, . 64)

)
) Broca
,
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,
,
,
Broca


.
,
. . Broca
92

. .

, ;

, (
) . .. .
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. .
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. ,
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.
, , -.
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RNA.

7.15
, ,
, , ,

.
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.
, Big Bang .
, .
, . .
, .
,
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. , x ,
,
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.

7.16
Big Bang .
: .. -, , , . ,
, , .. , , , - : -.
. ,
, . ,
, /
.
, .
, .
, , ,
( ) .
, .

93

. ,
. . .

7.17
, (equafinality).
( 1.4.7) von
Bertalanffy (1950; 1973), ,
, (..
),
, .
. .. ()
. /
, . ,
.
, , . , ,
x , .
. ,
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,
, .

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. ,
... .
.
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.

7.17.2
, . ,
-.
- /
. :

, , . ,
, .

, .

7.18
,
, , , , .
,
, . ,
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, ,
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94

, .. , ..
,
.
; ,
, ,
. ,
, .

7.19 ncRNAs
Mattick (2005),
. RNA

: RNA
.
() RNA ,
DNA / RNA. , RNA-RNA RNA-DNA

. , , RNA
, . RNA
. .

7.20 RNA
, ,
, , , ,
RNA ,
. ;
-RNAs ,
, ,
. RNAs - / - (Mattick, 2005).
, ,
, , , RNAs
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, , , ,
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mRNAs.
,
,
(Calladine et al., 2002). , ,

. ,
, . ,
, .
, RNA, , ,
. .
. RNA :
4. ncRNAs.
5. , , .
6. RNA
.

95

(Ruiz-Trillo et al., 2007)



. ,
,

.

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1
.

2
.

99

8.


, ,
chirality
.

.
DNA
DNA ,
, .
- ,
.
, , ..
Hawking ( ), ,
, , Big Bang,
, -, .
-, ,
. , .
Pauli (1930) Tbingen
. , ,
.

8.1
, , ( ), ,
. .. . .
( ). , ,
,
: (, 2011; , 2011).

8.1.1 -
Big Bang, , -, , x , x (spin).
-, -,
, , , , ..

, , . .
, .. .
( ) ,
/ (,
..), ,
Mendeleev (, 2011).

8.1.2
,
, ,
100

(Farmello, 2009) . ,
, , .
Higgs
. . ().
. ,
.
, (Cheng & Li, 1984; Peskin & Schroeder, 1995)
chiral .
- (= L), .
(T) (V) (L = T- V).
( Dirac)
. , chiral .
(vector
symmetry)
(axial symmetry). Dirac ,
, ----, ,
.

8.1.3 Dirac
Dirac, ( Pauli) ()
(bispinors). Schrdinger
. , Schrdinger ,
Dirac .
Dirac ,
, . ,
, . Dirac ,
, , .
, Anderson (1933).
Dirac (1928; 1931; 1949. The Strangest Man: The Hidden Life of Paul Dirac, Mystic of
the Atom Farmello, 2009)
. Pauli
. , (Hole
Theory), - ( )

, , . Pauli.
, Dirac . Weyl
, , 1800 .
Anderson . ,
.
Dirac
.

8.1.4 ,
, . ,
, , -. ..
, ,
. - (Fermi)
.
, (Wu, 1957).
, .
, spin,
101

.
, .
(Nambu, 1960; Nambu, Y & Jona-Lasino, 1961a; 1961b; Goldstone, 1961; Nambu, 2009).
,
( spin). ,
( ), (). ,
, spin. ( +
spin + )
/ (Goldstone, 1961) .
, . , ,
, , ,
-, , ,
. , , ,
, -.
(, 2011).
, ,
(81) 1 () . , ,
- , () ,
. H ()
- . Dirac :
, . .
.

8.1.5
,
,
, .
,
. ( ,
, , ) -,
, , , .
, .
/
, ()
( , ) .
;
; ;

8.2
, , . ,
. =
, . . ,
(Spector, 2012; Moore, 2015).
, .
.. . , = invariance,
, ,
.

, .. , .., ,
, Minkowski Poincare .
(, ..),
102

. .
, ,
.

8.2.1
, , =
(Waddington, 1942). .
, , , .
, ,
,
- ( ),
.
. ; Waddington
, .
. Robin Holliday 1990 (1990; 2006)
(), ()
DNA.
.
.. , .
. ,
Akhtar & Cavalli (2005),
, , ,
, .
, Akhtar & Cavalli (. 177) :
DNA - -,
, ,

. , , , ,
. .

8.2.2
, .
, :
1. RNA
DNA. , , .
DNA RNA ,
, -
DNA .
2. RNA . (holoenzyme),
-- DNA
.
, DNA,
( 30
100 upstream).
,
. ,
. (),
DNA,
,
. ,
103

DNA,
,
.
3. mRNAs ncRNAs.
,
, ncRNAs, ,
.

8.2.3

(Meissner, 2010; Carrey, 2011). ,

.
, .

O (Reprogramming):
. DNA.
. , DNA
.
. , -. ,
.
RNAi : RNAi . .
, .
X (Xinactivation). Xa (X active)
Xi (X inactive).

, :

(paramutation).
.
(bookmarking).
(transvection).
(maternal effect),
.
.
, ,
, .
, ,
(Baharloo et al., 1998; Gregersen, 2001; Deutsch, 2006;
Elmer et al., 2015). ,
,
, , ;

8.3
, ,
. ,
.
,
, , .. ,
- , ,
104

. , .. ,
.
( ), , ,
.
.
, ,
: , ,
. ,
.
(cytokinesis),
.
. ()
, .
.
- ,
DNAs,
DNA ().
, , G0,
. .
:

G1 ( Gap 1 1 / 1)
, ,
S (Synthesis phase )
DNA ,
G2, .

, .
,
. , , , (20) .
.

8.3.1 I
;
in utero,
. ,
,
. , , .

. .., , (stem cells),
, , .
.
.
. , ,
, ,
. ,
. .

8.3.2
, , (Lopata,
2009). . , ,
105

( + + )
(). . ,
(Gilbert, 2003), .
,
, (Raven, Evert & Eichhorn, 2005).
, , ,
,
. ,
(23) (23) , ,
(46),
. ; , Mitalipov & Wolf (2009).

8.3.3

. (16) , .., (compactation).
(32) (morula). (cavitation)
. ,
(150) , (blasto-coel), ,
, zona pellucida,
, .
(4) (6) .
(blastocyst) (implantation) .
,
, ,
.

8.3.4
.
,
, , .
, (
)
. , , ..
, , ..,
, , .. ,
. ,
3,5 ,
. , , .

8.3.4.1
cleavage, .
.
(Forgcs & Newman,
2005). .
cleavage ,
( ), / ,
. cleavage
. ( =
holoblastic) ( = meroblastic).
( ) .
106

, (Gilbert, 2000; Wilt &


Hake, 2004).

8.3.4.2
cleavage, (Sastry & Shukal, 2010):
( )
. ,
() (cyclin dependent kinases =
). ,
. , ,
cleavage, .

8.3.5
, . ,
(central spindle)
. (),

, .
( ), ,
(contractile ring)
(actin).
. . ,
cleavage .
(midblastula transition).
,
(1/6).

. .
.
(Lokeshwar & Nanjundiah, 1981; Dan, 1987; Damen, Klerkx, van Loon, 1996;
Yamazaki, Kidachi & Minikawa, 2012)
. , Rossant Tam (2009)
:
.
, / , , /
. ,
.
, . (incidental
partners) , - (zona
pellucida). ,
(lineage allocation)
.
Huttner Kosodo, , 2005,
.
,
cleavage, G , -.

107

8.3.6 = stem cells


Ernest A. McCulloch James E. Till
1960 (Becker et al., 1963; Siminovitch et al., 1963) ,
stem cells. :
. , ,
, ,
.
,
. , (-).
. ,
, . .
(stochastic differentiation)
, , ,
, .

8.3.7
gastrulation,
,
(Arnold & Robertson, 2009). , .
16 , morula
(ICM) .
,
.
(17) . Yamanaka (Takahashi & Yamanaka, 2006) Gurdon (2006)
2012

.
( )
, () , -
(, , ); ,
, .
() ( )
;

8.4
,
(totipotent stem cells), DNA (
DNA), (pluripotent stem cells),
.
- ;

8.5 Chirality
Chirality .

. , ,
, .
.
.

108

.
. ,
mirror image, chiral, chirality achiral. To mirror image ( )
, -
. ,
, . .
, .., (),
( ) ..

: .
, , :
.
() .
,
. .
chirality ()
.

- , .
chirality . ,
, chirality, , dissymmetry.
.. chirality ,
( ) (360 )
, achiral.
, , chiral (Meierhenrich, 2008).

8.5.1 chirality
chiral , chirality
(homochirality),
chirality. (50%) (50%)
, .
,
, , , .
50%-50%. .
(enantiomeric excess e.e).

8.5.2

.
chiral .
.
, (0).
,
. . achiral .
chiral , chirality. , achiral,
, .. , .

8.6
, , , ,
, totipotent , .
109

, (.. RNA)
( RNA ), -
,
.
(, , ..)
, RNA-DNA ,
(100%)
, . , - - ,
, e.e. (100%),
. .

. , Big Bang
, , ,
(100%) ,
. ,
(100%) e.e.
(.. ) .
, , , , ROSETTA.
().

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, . (2011). . : .
, . (2011). (). https://spacezilotes.wordpress.com/2011/12/21/5230/


1
.

2
chirality.

113

9.


.
.

.

. .

.
.
(
) ( ) (VanPutte, Regan, & Russo, 2013).
, ()
(). ()
, , . ,
2,5 , ,
.
,
,
.
.

9.1
.
.
. (7) ,
(Dobbing, 1976). ,
, ()
. .
, .
, .
. - . ,
, alar basal . alar
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(Evans & Hutchins, 2006).
. (),
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, , tectum cerebral peduncle.
, , . ,
, , . A
, , .
, , ,
, , insular .
( , ) . ,
, , , .
, ,
. . ,
114

.
, .
,
.

9.2
, .
, : ,
.
: = , ,
= . ()
() ().
( ).
.
, , ,
.
, ,
, .
.
, (Haines, 2006; Warren, Capra & Yezierski, 2006).
: .

9.3
(20) ( )
. , ,
. ,
.
, .
/ , , ,
, , () ,
()
postcentral gyrus,
.
.. , , / .
(nociceptive),
, (neuropathic),
/ . , ,
, ,
, .
.
: (Nicolelis &
Ribeiro, 2006). , .

9.4

, ,
(transduction).
1970, Martin Rodbell (19251998), (GTP =
guanosine triphosphate), -, .

115

/ 1994,
.
:
4. , .
, ,
.
5. ,
,
6. , -
.
, 1977
signal transduction,
48.377 ,
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116

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, , .

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117

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9.7
,
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, :
() , ()
( & -, 1989 & 2000).
,
, ,
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. ,
, -

118

. rest and digest,


.
,
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.
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9.8
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. (Mai & Paxinos, 2009).
.
. .

9.8.1
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.
.

9.8.2


, . ,
.
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.
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,
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, graphesthesia, kinesthesia, stereognosis, ..),
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.

119

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, , , . ,
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,
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. (sensory plan),
(motor plan) (master plan). ,
, .

120


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, . . & , . (1989). . :
.
, . . & . (2000). . :
.
, . . & , . . (2011). . : University Studio
Press.


1
/ .

2
.

122

10.

,
, , . ,
.

.

10.1 -
A . - ,
, ,
-
.
, , :
,
..
.
, ,
( ) /
.

. . ,
,
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,
(Saladin, 2012).
.
. , ,
. ,
.
, .
, , .
, ,
(Kandel, Schwartz & Jessel, 2000). ,
tegmental basilar .
, (limbic system)
, , substantia innominata, , ,
, , , , ,
, insular , , ,
(Parent & Carpenter, 1995).
: , association, commissural ()
projection ( ).

10.1.1
.
. .
, , , ,
. ( ).

123

10.1.2
.
. .
(cerebellar peduncle) .
, , , , ,
, , , ,
.
(rapid eye movements REM).

10.1.3
,
. , ,
.
,
,
( ).
,
. , , .
. Purkinje, ,
, , Golgi, /

(DCN = Deep Cerebellar Nuclei). (mossy, moss = )
(climbing).
(Oscarsson, 1979; Apps &
Garwicz, 2005). .
, , , ,
. /
, . , .
, .
Brodmann. Oscarsson Purkinje
.
. ,
, , -,
, .
.
, , . ,
.
Eccles, Ito Szentagothai (1967, . 335) :
(
) ,
,
,
.

10.1.4
. ,

. , ,
.

124

, ,
, , .
:
) , ,
tegmental basilar . D2 .
.
, , .
( ),
.
, ,
,
,
, / , ,
.. , ,
.
) ,

. , .
locus coeruleus.
.
, ,
, - ( ) (Simon, 1997;
Tortora & Derrickson, 2009; Saladin, 2012).

10.2
,
,
. , ,
, .
circa diem
. , -,
(24) , DNA
.
. , ,
,
, . ,
,
. dOrtous de Mairan
1729 : Mimosa pudica
, .
(Gardner et al., 2006).
, 1971, Konopka Benzer
Drosophila, , , (period gene).
1984 Takahashi et al. (clock gene). Reppert
(1994)
, , 2001, Lee ( Reppert)
-. , 2010, Buhr et al.,
akahashi, .

125

10.3
, .
(Dunlap, Loros &
DeCoursey, 2003; Koukkari & Sothern, 2006). , ,
(SupraChiasmatic Nuclei = SCN).
(.. ) ,
/ .
, , .
,
, SCN. ,
, (entrains) SCN
: ,
, melanopsin, ,
. retinohypothalamic
, SCN.
SCN
. , .
. ( )
: .
, , :
SCN tim (timeless) per (period) , PER.
.
( ) (heterodimer) /PER.
3 . ,
.
.
, CLK (clock) CYC (cycle)
, , DNA S ,
. , , ,
. PER , ,
CLK/CYC.
DNA . mRNA tim per,
, /PER
(Refinetti, 2006). !
-- ,
(24) . ,
--,
. (24)
.

10.4 : ;
,
, . , ,
. , ,
,
.
,
.
.
,
. .

126

, .
, , .
, , , ..
, , ..
() -, ()
. ,
, , /
DNA , .
. , DNA ,
. , , DNA ,
.

10.5
, ;
, (Johnson & Xu, 2009) =
, Synechococcus elogatus,
in vitro.
(22) (). ,
SCN ,
.
-
.
,
, (24) (11) ,
(16) . ,
24 .
-.
. . ,
. ,

.
, . ,
, ,
.
, , ,
(Nagoshi et al., 2004). , ,
. SCN, , ,
, .

10.6
SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder ),
, , ,
, libido, , ..
()
( ) .
,
.
, ,
(Foster & Kreitzman, 2004; Johnson, 2004).
;
:

127

.
, .
,
. , ,
, .
Norman E. Rosenthal 1984 (Rosenthal et al.)
, !

128


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1
.

2
.

130

11.



.
.

.
H
. ,
. ,
.
(relay
station) . .
, ,
, ,
. , .
, . .
, , .
,

, , , ,
(top-down), (Greenfield,
1980; Lerdahl & Jackendoff, 1983; Givon, 1998; Maess et al., 2001; Koechlin & Jubault, 2006; Patel, 2008;
Stout, 2008; Jackendoff, 2009; Donnay et al., 2014).

11.1
.
, .
.
.
. ,
, sensory plan,
.
.
:
-, - -.

11.1.1
, ,
-, , , / ,
. , ,
, , , ,
.
, ()
(). .
.

131

()
. -
( ), -

( )
. , ,
.

,
. , . ,
;
, , . , ,
.

, .
. . ,
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.
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, .
,

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, () ,
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.
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. , ,
.
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. , .., ,
,
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.
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.

11.1.2

. ,
,
, . ,
,
, -. -
.
132

,
. ,
. . ,
, .
. ,

- (Pavlov, 1996). .
. , ; .
; ( ).
.
.
.
.
.
. ,
, . , ,
, .
,
.

. , , , ,
, , per se.
: ; ; ;
; ; ..
.
, (
)
( !),
() . , ,
,
,
.

11.1.3 =
,
, , releasing , / ,
, ,
, ,
. . , ,
, , .
, , .
. ,

. , , ,
. , , .
, .
. ,
Big Bang, , , ,
,
. , .

133

11.2

. ,
.
(1884, in Cannon, 1927) James
Lange , . ,
, (feeling),

, ( + -, = , -. : motion-emotion).
, , Cannon Bard
. Cannon Bard
(Friedmann, 2010).
, , Schachter Singer (1962)
: (184) ,
.
, ().
, :

: , ,
.
,
, , , .
.
,
/ .
, .

. .
,
-.
, ,
, .
, , ,
,
, .
:

, ,
,
,
.
.

, ,
() ,
.
.

11.3
Paul Broca
, ,
.
134

, ,
, , .
, .
Broca
. ,
Broca, 1937, Papez
(Eysenck, 2004) , 1952,
Paul Mac-Lean ,
/ (Newman & Harris,
2009).

.

11.3.1. James Papez Paul MacLean


MacLean : (), ,
R (R-complex) ( ).


, .
MacLean
,
, , , ,
. ,
( ) ,
.

.
, .
,
, .
, , , , / ,
,
, , ,
, .
, MacLean
.

11.4
,
1839,
, , .
, .
, , limbic
(Limbic System) limbus , , .
Paul Broca, , 1878 , le
grand lobe limbique (Rajmohan &
Mohandas, 2007).

: , , , , , , septum, fornix,
mammillary bodies, para-hippocampal gyrus, fornicate gyrus, cingulate gyrus, dentatae gyrus, entorhinal
cortex, piriform cortex, nucleus accumbens, postcentral gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex ventromedial
prefrontal cortex. , ,
135

(sensory) (motor) .
(Kotter & Stephan, 1997).

11.4.1
,
, .
, ,
. ventral tegmental ,
.
(nucleus accumbens), -
.. . ,
.
, , .. ,
, .

. ,
.

11.4.2
,
. ,
. , ,
,
, , ,
, , ,
.

11.4.2.1
, ,
,
.
. ,
, ,
.
()
.
.

. ,
TRN (Thalamic Reticular
Nucleus).
.
-- , (,
), ( ).
--
.
. , E. G. Jones, ,
1975 2002, relay . M = matrix C =
core: ,

136

, . C ,
.

, . (Xiuping et al.,
2011) - . ,
,
(Ward, 2011).

11.4.2.2
.
, , , . ,
. magnocellular
, , .
parvocellular releasing
.. CRH (Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone).
.

11.4.2.3
. ,
.
, , .
, .
,
, , .
, . ,
,
releasing .
, - (ACTH) - (TSH).
(
) .. ,
(
, )
, .
,
, , ,
, .
,
. , .
. , fornix,
mammillary bodies, septum, cingulate Parahippocampal
, .

11.4.3
(nucleus accumbens )
. . ,
, .. nucleus accubens core, nucleus accumbens shell (olfactory
tubercle), (ventral striatum),
, . ,
.
137

Blood Zatorre (2001),


PET , (
). (
), , , -
(OrbitoFrontal Cortex, OFC) (Ventro Medial PreFrontal Cortex,
VMPFC)
.
, ,
. , ,
,
.
Menon & Levitin (2005)
, ( )
.
(timing = ).
. , ,
(Singer, 2007).

,
. , Salimpoor et al. (2009)
,
.
. , ,
, .
.
,
. Menon & Levitin .

11.4.4
, , , .
.
.
, , , ,
tegmental , locus coeruleus tegmental
. , -.
, , .
,
. , / ,
. ,
, / ,
.
,
, , ,
, , .
long-term potentiation. Tim Bliss & Terje Lomo
1973
( ).
, . long-term
potentiation (LTP = ),
.
. , , baso-lateral
complexes , .
. lateral
138

, 1) central 2)
stria terminalis (bed nuclei of stria terminalis = BNST).
.
, .
.. decision making,
1) , 2) 3)
. , , !
.

11.4.4.1
,
, . :
dentate gyrus Ammons horn Cornu Ammonis,
CA (Cornu Ammonis): CA1, CA2, CA3 CA4.
, .
, , U,

dentate gyrus.
11.4.4.1.1 dentate gyrus
dentate gyrus, U, : (molecular), (granular)
(polymorphic). (), .
, , (85%)
, (110)
.
dentate gyrus entorhinal . dentate
- ().

11.4.4.2
.
.
.
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139


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141

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144


1
,
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2
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145

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149

Wisconsin Card Sorting Test ( )



, Descartes Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain, 1994, :
, , 1994.
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on the Making of Consciousness, 1999, :
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: , , 2003 Self Comes to Mind:
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151

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152

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153

,
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/ (
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12.3 ,
80, Giacomo Rizzolatti, Giuseppe Di Pellegrino,
Luciano Fadiga, Leonardo Fogassi Vittorio Gallese ,
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12.3.1

,
.. Empathy (Keysers, 2011, 154

Groningen , ) (Empathy)
( Keysers Krznaric, 2011), , Greg Hickok (2009), UC Irvine, ,
Rizzolatti.
, 2011, Antonino Casile, Vittorio Caggiano Pier Francesco Ferrari,
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MNS, MNS
.
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155

empathy. , , -,
.
, Dinstein et al. (2008)
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2009)
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(2001) empathy.
Rizzolatti , Rizzolatti , ,
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x (Fogassi et al., 2005). (Rizzolatti & FabbriDestro, 2010) (Rizzolatti &
Sinigaglia, 2008).
Jaime A. Pineda
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156

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158

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12.3.4 Broca
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. , , ,
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Broca .
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12.4.1

. . , , . , ..
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1987).

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Meierhenrich (2008),
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160

DNA . Standard
Model .
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Uwe Meierhenrich Amino Acids and the Asymmetry of Life,

:
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. ,
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12.4.3

, () , ()
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161

proper
improper,
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. .

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162

--, Hermann Minkowski, 1864-1909


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163

12.4.5 CHIRAL
, , :
;
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.

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), o , ,
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( L)
.
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symmetry) ,
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), ().

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e.e. 100%,
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Maria Goeppert-Mayer J. Hans D. Jensen
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164

12.4.6

Dirac. -.
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, , , , .
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166

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173


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196


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, . . (2002). , . : .
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, . . & , . . (2011). . : University Studio


Press.


1
.

2
.

202



Adenine
Axial Symmetry
Base Pairs
Blasto-coel
Blastocyst
Bottom Up
Cavitation
Cleavage
Clock Gene
Compactation
Conformal Disk Model
Contractile Ring
CA: Cornu Ammonis
Cortical Homunculus
CMBR: Cosmic Microwave
Background Radiation
Cyclin Dependent Kinases
Cystine
Cytokinesis
Dark Energy
Dark Matter
DNA
DCN: Deep Cerebellar Nuclei
Dorso-Lateral Pre-Frontal
Cortex
DS: Double Strand
Equafinality
Equiconsistency
EPSP: Excitatory Postsynaptic
Potential
Exons
Explicit Symmetry Breaking
Fluctuating Functions
Force Carriers
fMRI: Functional Magnetic
Resonance Imaging
Gastrulation
Generator Potentials
GA: Gigaannum
Guanine
GTP: Guanosine Triphosphate
Harmonic Oscillators
Helicity
Heterodimer
Hole Theory
Holoblastic
Homunculi
Implantation
Interneurons
IRAS: Infrared Astronomical
Satellites


()

203

34
100
34
105
105
36
105
105
125
105
163
106
139
36
45

106
34
104
46
46
34
124
151
34
93
163
19
40
162
50
63
148
107
115
66
34
115
56
66
126
100
105
35
105
147
46

IPSP:Inhibitory Postsynaptic
Potential
IHC: Inner Hair Cells
International Commission on
Stratigraphy
International Stratigraphic
Chart
Introns
Invariance
Knots
Limbic System
Lineage Allocation
Loops
LUCA: Last Universal
Common Ancestor
Master Plan
Maternal Effect
Meroblastic
M-RNA:Messenger RNA
MNS: Mirror Neuron System
Motor Plan
microRNAs, miRNAs
Morula
Multisensory Cell
Multisensory Integration
Music Syntactic Incongruities
NHGRI: National Human
Genome Research Institute
NIC: National Institute of
Health
Neuropathic
ociceptive
NC-RNA:Non Coding for
Protein RNA
Nucleus Accumbens
Olfactory Tubercle
OFC: OrbitoFrontal Cortex
OHC: Outer Hair Cells
Period Gene
Pluripotent Stem Cells
PET: Positron Emission
Tomography
PMA: Pre Motor Area
PRE-RNA
Propagators
Pseudoknots
PTGS: Post Transcriptional
Gene Silencing
Radiation Pressure
Receptice Fields
Relativistic Wave Equation
Reprogramming
Resonator

RNA


RNA




()
()
RNA



-



T


RNA

204

19
172
77
77
40
101
85
123
106
60
82
25
103
105
35
155
25
86
105
17
158
185
82
82
114
114
35
136
137
138
172
125
107
66
148
37
60
85
86
167
89
55
103
60

Ribozymes
RNA
RNAi (interference)
SAD: Seasonal Affective
Disorder
Sensory Plan
SS: Single Strand
snRNPs: Small Nuclear
Ribonucleoproteins
Signal Transduction
Spin
Spliceosome
Splicing
Spontaneous Symmetry
Breaking
Stem Cells
Stochastic Differentiation
Stomatolites
Striatum
Stromatolites
Superior Colliculus
SMA: Supplementary Motor
Area
SCN: SupraChiasmatic Nuclei
Synthesis Phase
Thymine
Top Down
otipotent Stem Cells
TGS: Transcriptional Gene
Silencing
Transduction
T-RNA: Transfer RNA
Unisensory Cell
Uracile
VMPFC: Ventro Medial
PreFrontal Cortex
Vector Symmetry
Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

Zero Point Energy


RNA

RNA

M


()

205

85
34
86
127
25
34
85
115
100
40
40
162
107
107
79
153
81
154
148
126
104
34
36
107
86
114
84
17
34
138
100
150

59