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CHILD AND ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT

1. Yuan always waits at his neighbor Gerald every morning.


He enjoys seeing him while biking and imitates the actions
of Gerald while he rides his own bike. Who is the
proponent of Social Learning Theory which applies in the
situation?
A. Bandura
C. Bruner
B. Kohlberg
D. Skinner
RATIONALIZATION: A- Albert Bandura developed the Social Learning Theory and advocated that children learn
from what they see in the environment.

2. A child submitted a poor written report but packaged


with brightly colored paper. This showcases_______.
A. Art over academics
C. art over science
B. Substance over porma D. porma over substance
RATIONALIZATION: D- When a student focuses more on designs and embellishments rather than of content of a
report, then it shows porma over substance.

3. With the use of mnemonics, the students are able to


_____information.
A. Analyze
C. understand
B. Apply
D. remember
RATIONALIZATION: D-mnemonics like My Dear Aunt Sally to mean multiplication, division, addition and
subtraction help students remember information easily

4. According to Krathwohls affective domain of


objectives,________ is the lowest level of affective
behavior.

A. Valuing
B. Organization

C. responding
D. characterization

RATIONALIZATION: C-the arrangement of Krathwohls affective domain is responding, valuing, organization and

.
5. A boy is closer to his mother and a girl is close to her
father. These instances are under_.
A. Oedipal complex
C. phallic stage
B. Latent stage
D. Pre-genital stage
characterization

RATIONALIZATION: C-when a boy is closer to the mother (Oedipus complex) and a girl is closer to her father
(Electra complex), these instances are under Freuds phallic stage in the Psychosexual Development Theory.

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SOCIAL DIMENSIONS OF EDUCATION


1. Teacher Abi asks one of her students, What do you want
to become when you grow up? This question is an
indication of what kind of philosophy?
A. Progressivism
C. Existentialism
B. Naturalism
D. Idealism
RATIONALIZATION: D-idealism because it stresses the existence of ideas independent from the material world.
Ideas that which exist in the mind are the only reality.

2. Teacher Jessy has not only explained the concept of


Philosophy of Education but also imparted this to her
students. This demonstrates what kind of philosophy?
A. Naturalism
C. Realism

B. Idealism

D. Perennialism

RATIONALIZATION: C-realism concerns with what is real, actual. For ideas to be realized, they must be transferred
or demonstrated.

3. Which pillar of learning aimed in the acquisition of the


instrument of understanding in order to develop the
students learn-to-learn skills?
A. Learning to do
C. learning to live together
B. Learning to know
D. learning to be
RATIONALIZATION: B- learning to know implies learning how to earn by developing ones concentration, memory
skills and ability to think, acquiring the instrument of understanding.

4. In his class, Teacher Jakob always presents principles and


values so as to encourage his students to examine them
and decide for themselves whether to accept them or not.
What kind of philosophy does he practice?
A. Idealism
C. Humanism
B. Essentialism
D. Existentialism
RATIONALIZATION: D-Existentialism is a philosophy that emphasizes subjectivity, freedom and responsibility.

5. When a teacher emphasizes that mans sense should be


trusted because they are the only way to acquire
knowledge, the teacher can be regarded as____.
A. Naturalist
C. Empiricist
B. Realist
D. Pragmatist
RATIONALIZATION: C-empiricism upholds that the only source of knowledge is the senses and sense-based
experience.

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NATURALISM
Naturalism stands for a democratic and universal way-everyone
must be educated in the same manner
Education is in accordance to human development and growth
Emphasis is given more on the physical development-informal
exercise-and hygiene of the person rather of the 3 Rs
Aims to unfold the childs potential not to prepare him for a
definite vocation or social position-but to prepare him to adapt
to the changing times and needs
Consequently, ones conduct is governed by impulse, instincts
and experience.
It puts the child at the center of educational process and
prepares him to experience life as it is.
IDEALISM
Ideas are the only true reality, the ultimate truths for matter is
nothing but just a mere representation of ideas.
Emphasis is given on knowledge obtained by speculation and
reasoning for its central tenet is that ideas are the only things
worth knowing for
Focus is on conscious reasoning of the mind in order to attain
truth. This includes the activities pertinent to the human mind
such as introspection and intuition and the use of logic
Its aim is to discover the full potentials in child and cultivates it
in order to prepare him for a better position in the society and
for him to serve the society better
Emphasis is given on subjectsphilosophy, literature, religion
and historythat will develop and enhance the mind of the
child
Methods used in teaching include lecture, discussion and
Socratic dialogue
Character development is through emulation of examples and
heroes
REALISM

o The most effective way to find about reality is to study it through


organized, separate and systematically arranged matter
emphasis is on subject matter concerning Science and
Mathematics
o Methods used in teaching include recitation, experimentation
and demonstration
o Character development is through training in the rules of
conduct
EXIXTENTIALISM
o Subject matter is personal choice
o Learning is based on the willingness of the student to choose
and give meaning to the subject
o Emphasis is given on the students rather than on the curriculum
content
o Students should not be treated as objects to be measured and
standardized
o Methods are geared on giving opportunities for the students for
self-actualization and self-direction
o Character development is through the responsibility of every
individual in making a decision
ESSENTIALISM
o Schooling is practical for this will prepare students to become
competent and valuable members of the society
o Focuses on the basics-reading, writing, speaking and the ability
to compute (arithmetic)
o Subjects that are given emphasis include geography, grammar,
reading, history, mathematics, art and hygiene
o Stresses the values of hard work, perseverance, discipline and
respect to authorities
o Students should be taught to think logically and systematicallygrasping not just the parts but the whole
o Methods of teaching center on giving regular assignments, drills,
recitation, frequent testing and evaluation

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PRAGMATISM
Involves students to work in groups
Methods of teaching include experimentation, project making
and problem solving.
Stresses on the application of what have learned rather that the
transfer of the organized body of knowledge
PERENNIALISM
Some of the ideas in the past are still being taught because they
are significant
Curriculum should contain cognitive subjects that cultivate
rationality, morality, aesthetics and religious principles. This
includes history, language, mathematics, logic, literature,
humanities and science.
Curriculum must be based on recurrent themes of human life for
it views education as a recurring process based on eternal truths
The teacher must have the mastery of the subject matter and
authority in exercising it.
Aims for the education of the rational personto develop mans
power of thoughtthe central aim of this philosophy
PROGRESSIVISM
Focuses on the child as a whole rather than of the content or the
teacher
Curriculum content comes from the questions and interests of
the students
Emphasis is given on the validation of ideas by the students
through active experimentation
Methods of teaching include discussions, interaction (teacher
with students) and group dynamics
Opposes the extreme reliance on bookish method of instruction,
learning through memorization, the use of fear and punishment
and the four walled philosophy of education
CONSTRUCTIVISM

o A philosophy of learning which asserts that reality does not exist


outside of human conceptions. It is the individual who
constructs reality by reflecting on his own experience and gives
meaning to it.
o Learning is the process of adjusting ones mental modes to
accommodate new experience.
RECONSTRUCTIVISM
o Schools should originate policies and progress that will bring
social reforms and orders
o Teachers should be an instrument to encourage and lead
students in the program or social reforms
o Curriculum emphasizes on social reforms as the aim of
education. It focuses on student experience and taking social
actions on real problems
o Method of teaching include the problem-oriented type (students
are encouraged to critically examine cultural heritage), group
discussions, inquiry, dialogues, interactions and communitybased learning
o The classroom will serve as a laboratory in experimenting school
practices bringing the world into the classroom
BEHAVIORISM
o Asserts that human beings are shaped entirely by their external
environment
o The only reality is the physical world
NATIONALISM
o The most important development was the creation of common
language
o Stresses on the teaching of the principles of democracy, and
duties of citizenship
o Stimulates the development of the state which includes the
control and support of public school system
o Curriculum includes the teaching of grammar, geography and
history

o Method of teaching gives emphasis on the content regarding on


nature studies, physical exercises and play activities
HUMANISM
o Education is a process and should not be taken abruptly. The
unfolding of human character proceeds with unfolding of nature
o The learner should be in control of his destiny
o Concern is more on methods which include theme writing rather
than oral discussions, drills and exercises, playing
o Asserts the importance of playing in the curriculum
o Emphasizes motivations and the use of praise and rewards
o Curriculum includes subjects concerning literary appreciation,
physical education, social training in manners and development
- See more at:
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PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIES OF TEACHING


1. The school conducted a general student election for the
Supreme Student Council. The election is patterned after
the COMELEC system. The school is using what kind of
technique?
A. Symposium
C. Panel discussion
B. Simulation
D. Dramatization
RATIONALIZATION: B-simulation is an activity that simulates almost real-life situation. Other applications of
simulation are the following: simulated flight for aviation students, assigning student to be the mayor of the day.

2. During problem solving method, the teachers primary


role is:
A. Director
C. lecturer

B. Clarifier

D. judge

RATIONALIZATION: B-during problem solving activities, the teacher acts as a clarifier especially when students are
in doubt how to go about the problem.

3. Which among the following devices can be a scaled


replica of a certain object?
A. Mock ups
C. globes
B. Models
D. maps
RATIONALIZATION: B- models like Heart Models are scaled replicas.

4. Which of the following would be the best choice if a


teacher would like to focus on attitudinal change?
A. Dramatization
C. role play
B. Field study
D. simulation
RATIONALIZATION: C-role playing allows the child to shows his own personal emotions and therefore is a good
option when focusing on attitudinal change.

5. This method relies heavily upon showing the learners a


model performance.
A. Activity
C. reporting
B. Demonstration
D. field study
RATIONALIZATION: B- demonstration includes Teacher-Directed Demo, Student-Directed Demo, Teacher-Student
Directed Demo and Resource Person-Directed Demo.

LIST OF LAWS, ACTS AND DECREES AS LEGAL BASES OF PHILIPPINE


EDUCATION
Act #74-enacted in January 21, 1901. It provides for the establishment of Department of
Public Instruction and establishment of PCAT now TUP and PNS now PNU
Act #1870 founding of UP (June 18, 1908)
Act #2706 Private School Law (enacted March 10, 1917)

Commonwealth Act #1- preparatory military training shall begin in Elementary grade
school at age 10. This act was amended by PD 1706 (August 8, 1980) requiring all
citizens to render civil welfare service, law enforcement service and military service.
Commonwealth Act #80- (October 26, 1936) established the Office of Adult Education
(vocational training in an effort to eliminate illiteracy)
Commonwealth Act#578 (June 8, 1940) conferred the status of PERSONS IN
AUTHORITY upon teachers
Commonwealth Act #586 Education Act of 1940-reduction of number of years in
elementary (from 7 to 6), fixing school entrance age 7 years old, national support of
elementary education, compulsory attendance in the primary grades for all children
enrolled in grade one, introduction of double single session
Commonwealth Act #589-(August 19, 1940) established school rituals in private and
public schools
RA #137 (June 14, 1947) enacted the Board of Textbooks
RA #896 (June 20, 1953) Elementary Education Act of 1953. This law repealed
Commonwealth Act #586 (restoration of grade 7, abolition of double single session,
compulsory completion of elementary, compulsory enrolment of children in public
school upon reaching 7 years old)
RA #1124 (June 16, 1954) created the Board of National Education
RA #1265 (June 11, 1955) compulsory daily flag ceremony in all educational institutions
RA #1425 (June 12, 1956) teaching life, works and writings of Rizal especially Noli and
Fili in all public and private schools
RA #4760 (June 18, 1966) Magna Cart of Public School Teachers
RA #1079 (June 15, 1959) provided that civil service eligibility shall be permanent and
valid lifetime
RA #6655 (May 25, 1988) Free Public Secondary Act of 1988
RA #7722 (May 18, 1994) created CHED
RA #7743 (June 17, 1994) established public libraries and reading centers in every
barangay
RA #7784 (August 4, 1994) established Centers of Excellence and Teachers Education
Council
RA #7796 (August 25, 1994) established TESDA
RA #7836 (December 16, 1994) Phil Teachers Professionalization Act (supercedes PBET)
RA #7877 (February 14, 1995) Anti-Sexual Harassment Act
EO #27 (July 4, 1986) inclusion of human rights courses or subjects
EO #189 (June 10, 1987) Basic Salary and COLA of public school teachers will be paid
for by national government
PD 6-A-(September 29, 1972) Education Development Decree of 1972
PD 146-(March 9, 1972) NCEE (superceded by RA7731 on June 2, 1994)
PD 688-(April 22, 1975) gave power to CSC the authority to give appropriate exam to all
public school teachers
PD 907-(March 11, 1976) all honor graduates of colleges and universities are granted
civil service eligibility
PD 1006 (September 22, 1976) PBET
DECS Order #30 s 1993- NEAT
DECS Order #30 s 1994- NSAT

- See more at: http://syndicaeduc.blogspot.com/2012/09/legalbases-of-philippine-education.html#sthash.aouLrGEl.dpuf