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Biology: B1

The whole topic

Diet

and Exercise

Healthy diet = Balanced Diet


Exercise increases the amount of
energy used by the body and
decreases the amount of stored fat
Inherited factors can affect your
metabolic rate and your blood
cholesterol levels.

Pathogens
Bacteria are 100 times smaller than body
cells, and they reproduce quickly
Some Bacteria can damage your cells or
produce toxins
Virus are 100 times smaller than bacteria
They invade the body cells and replicate
inside the cell until the cell bursts.

White

Blood Cells

White blood cells travel in the blood. If they


come across an invading microbe they act
in theses ways :
Engulf these microbes and digest them
Produce antibodies
Produce antitoxins

Engulfing

and Digesting

Producing

Antibodies

Every pathogen has an antigen on its surface, when white


blood cells come across one they dont know they start
producing proteins to kill them. These are called antibodies

White blood cell


microbes attacked
detects microbe
new antibodies

It produces an
antibodies

New
by

Producing antitoxins
These are produced by the white
blood cells to counteract the toxins
made by the invading bacteria

Vaccination
Pros

Cons

Help control infectious


Vaccines dont always work,
diseases, to stop death in that so they wouldnt give
country
immunity
Epidemics are less likely to
spread even if only a
percentage of the population
is vaccinated

People can have reactions to


the vaccines such as swelling
or even seizures. However
these are uncommon

Sense

organs

Sense organs detect stimuli


They all contains different receptors
i.e eyes have light receptors. This
means it is sensitive to light
They are: eyes; nose; ears; mouth;
tongue and skin

CNS
The central nervous system is where
the information from the sense
organs is sent, so reflexes and
actions can be coordinated.
It consists of the brain , spine and
the neurone path way

Neurones
Sensory- nerve cells that carry electrical
signals from the receptors to the CNS
Relay- nerve cells that carry electrical
signals from the sensory neurons to the
motor neurons
Motor- nerve cells that carry electrical
signals from the CNS to the effecter
muscle/gland
Recepto
r

CN
S
Sensory
Motor

CN
S
Relay

Effect
er

Hormones

and Nerves

Nerves

Hormones

Very FAST

SLOWER action

Act for a SHORT time

Act for a LONG time

Act in a PRECISE area

Act in a GENERAL way

Menstrual

Cycle
STAGE 1: This is the
break down of the
uterus lining

STAGE 4: The wall


is maintained for
these days. If no
fertilised egg
implants then the
cycle starts again

STAGE 2: The lining


of the uterus builds
up

STAGE 3: An egg is
released on day 14.
These are the most
fertile days

Hormones
FSH- Produced by the pituitary gland
- Causes eggs to mature in the ovaries
- Stimulates the ovaries to produce oestrogen
Oestrogen- Produced in the ovaries
- Causes pituitary to produce LH
- Inhibits the release of FSH
LH- Produced in the pituitary gland
- Stimulates the release of an egg at the middle of
the menstrual cycle

Plant

Hormones

Auxin is plant hormone that controls


growth near the tips of the shoots
and the roots
Phototropic, Hydrotropic, or
Geotropic
If auxin move backwards it will
stimulate cell elongation
If the tip is removed, no auxin is
available so may stop growing

Shoots

Gravity

reaction to stimuli

Gravity

Testing
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

medicines

Drug tested on human cells/tissues


Drug tested on live animals
Healthy human volunteers (small)
People suffering (includes placebo)
Ongoing reporting from doctors

Recreational

Drugs

Hard drugs- are seriously addictive


and normally more harmful
People use them for stress relief,
enjoyment, peer pressure or
relaxation
Tobacco and Alcohol are both legal
but they both can cause serious
damage to your body

Second Part
WHOOP WHOOP

Adaptations
Cold places
Small surface area compared to
volume
Well insulated (blubber
Hairy coats and/or greasy fur

Adaptations
Hot places
Large surface area compared to
volume
Excellent water storage tissues
Good absorbers of water

Adaptations
Other
An armour
Poisons
Warning colours ( i.e wasps are
bright yellow)

Competition For survival


Plants: light, space, water and
minerals

Animals: space(territory), food, water


and mates

Changes Causes by different factors


Living things: Occurrence of diseases
Number of predators
Availability of food
Number of
competitors
Non- Living: Average Temp
Average Rainfall
Air/Water pollution

Population
Increases
because of more food,
this means they will
survive for longer =
more children

Population
Decreases
because there is less
food, or more disease
or more pesticides.
This means they will

Indicators

They measure environmental change

Lichen- show levels of air pollution


Mayfly (or other invertebre that need
oxygenated water) they show levels of water
pollution
Rat-tailed maggots and sludgeworms
indicate high level of water pollution
Satellites- measure temp of the sea surface and
levels of snow fall
Rain gauges- measure rainfall
Automatic Weather Station- atmospheric
temps

Pyramids of Biomass

100 flowers
500 fleas

15kg

10 rabbits

10kg

1 fox

6kg

1kg
Fleas

Fox
Rabbits
Flowers

Decay

and Decomposers

Plants take in carbon, oxygen,


hydrogen and nitrogen. They turn
these elements into complex
compounds which they pass on
through the food chain
Microorganism work best in warm,
moist conditions.
The decomposers secrete enzymes
to break down the products

Carbon Cycle shows how carbon is recycled

Burn
ing

Burning

CO2 in the air

Photosynthes
is

Carbon compounds being decayed by microorganisms


Fossil Fuels

Variation
Caused when two gametes meet and
fuse. The offspring will have a mix of
the two DNAs causing Variation
The environment can also cause
variation, the exposure to the sun
causes a lot of variation
Most characteristics are determined
by the mix of genetic and
environmental variation

Genes Chromosomes and DNA


,

A human cell has 23


pairs of
chromosomes
Most cells have a
nucleus. This
contains genetic
information.

GENE- This is a long strand


of DNA

Chromoso
mes carry
genes.
These
control
developme
nt of
different

Different versions of the same


gene give different
characteristics

Sexual Reproduction
Two organisms (father and mother) that have
different genetic information
Parents produce gametes
In humans a gamete has 23 chromosomes
(half the normal number)
The gametes then fuse together,
so the offspring then has the normal number
of chromosomes
The offspring has mixture of characteristics
from mother and father
This produces Variation

Asexual Reproduction
An ordinary cell divides in two, this is
a clone because it has the same
genetic information

Cloning

Cuttings

Cloning

Embryo transplants

1) Sperm and eggs cells are taken from a prize winning bull
and cow
2) Embryo splits, divides and develops
3) These are implanted into surrogate cows

4)All offspring will be genetically identical

Adult cell cloning

Nucleus
removed

Cell removed

Electri
c
shock

Implant
ed into
a
surrogat
e
mother.

Live
animal

Issues

of cloning

There is reduced gene pool so one disease could


wipe out the population
Animals might be less healthy because of the
cloning
Worry about human cloning and the implications
However
Could lead to greater understanding of
development of embryos, ageing and agerelated disorders
Preserve endangered species

Genetic

engineering

Example of using enzymes to cut and paste genes

A useful gene is cut out of a


chromosome using enzymes.
This is put in to a bacteria.
This then reproduced. This is
how they make insulin

GM

Crops

Increase the yield of crops


Crops made for people to add
nutrients where they are lacking
Grown elsewhere without any
problem
Reduce biodiversity
Some weeds could become resistant
and create a superweed variety

THE END
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