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B1

Understanding Ourselves

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Revision Lessons

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The Circulatory system

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Heart muscle contracts to make the


heart beat. This squeezes blood through
blood vessels called __(1)____We need
blood under pressure around the body
because blood contains ___(2)___ and
___(3)___. These are needed so that
all the __(4)__ in our bodies can
produce ___(5)__ through ___(6)___.
Blood is pumped at high pressure. Blood
pressure is measured in mmHg
(millimetres of __(7)__). Diastolic and
systolic measurements are used. Normal
pressure is about 120/80 mmHg.
Words energy, mercury, arteries,
glucose, respiration, oxygen, cells

High Blood Pressure

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High blood pressure is a condition where the __(1)__ and


blood vessels experience extra strain. It can be caused by:
Excess weight
High stress levels
__(2)__
Excess ___(3)___
Diets that are high in saturated __(4)__, sugar or salt
Long term high blood pressure can cause blood vessels to
weaken or even ___(5)___.
Words alcohol, burst, smoking, heart, fat

Now try these!

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1) Nikkis blood pressure is 150/90mmHg. Which


number is the systolic measurement?
2) What does mmHg mean?
3) Her blood pressure is high. What are the
dangers of high blood pressure?
4) What lifestyle changes can she make to
reduce her blood pressure?
Answers
150

Millimetres of mercury

Blood vessel burst - Stroke, kidney, brain damage

better/low fat diet, regular exercise, not smoking, low

or no alcohol intake, not overweight, reduce stress


levels . Extreme cases = drugs

Heart Disease

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1. Smoking increases BP
- carbon monoxide-combines with haemoglobin
reduces oxygen, heart rate increases
- nicotine stimulant increases heart rate
2. Saturated fat cholesterol builds up-forms a
plaque-narrows artery
3. High salt levels body retains too much water
higher volume of blood pumped
Qu. Fatty deposits can build up on coronary arteries.
Explain how this can lead to a heart attack
Blood flow is restricted, heart muscle receives less
oxygen. A thrombosis may occur blocking blood flow
to areas of the heart restricting oxygen so it will die
heart attack.

Deep Vein Thrombosis (Higher)


When we dont move for a long time (e.g. on a plane journey), our leg
muscles cant squeeze the veins in our legs, so blood in the veins
begins to move very slowly. A blood clot (thrombosis) may eventually
form, blocking the vein and leading to Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT).

Flight socks can help


prevent DVT by applying
pressure to the legs,
which helps squeeze
blood through the veins.
Leg exercises can also
help to prevent DVT.

Measuring fitness - higher


Flexibility:
amount of joint
movement
Strength: amount
of weight lifted

Agility: ability to
change direction

Speed: ability to
sprint

Stamina: time of
sustained
exercise

Balanced diet

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A balanced diet should contain fats, proteins and


carbohydrates in roughly these amounts:

It should also contain water, vitamins, minerals and fibre.

Balanced diets

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Nutrient

Function

Carbohydrate

Make haemoglobin

Protein

To prevent Scurvy (bleeding gums)

Vitamin C

Energy store and insulation

Water

Growth and repair

Iron

Provides energy

Protein

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Proteins are long chains of amino acids.


There are two main types of these:
Essential amino acids (must be eaten)
Non-essential amino acids (can be made
in the body)

Meat and fish are


first class proteins

People who do not eat enough protein will not grow


properly. Protein deficiency can result in a disease
called kwasiorkor, where the muscles waste away
and the belly swells.

How much protein should we eat?


EAR of protein (in g) = 0.6 x body mass (in kg)

Food storage - higher

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How are fats, carbohydrates and proteins stored in


the body?
Carbohydrates stored in liver as glycogen or
converted to fats
Fats stored under skin and around organs adipose
tissue
Proteins cant be stored. First class proteins (meat,
fish) contain all essential amino acids that cant be
made by the body. Second class proteins (plant
proteins) dont contain all essential amino acids

Body-Mass Index

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A commonly-used way to indicate is someone is overweight or


underweight is the Body Mass Index (BMI):
BMI =

Mass (kg)
Height2 (m2)

BMI

Meaning

<18.5

Underweight

18.5-25

Ideal

25-30

Overweight

30-40

Obese

Try these

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1) Elaine is 1.78m tall and has a mass of


66kg. Calculate her BMI.
2) Anthony is not overweight. Why could
his BMI be so high?
3) What is EAR of protein and why is it
important?
4) What does EAR depend on? (higher)
5) What can a balanced diet depend on?
-

66/(1.78)2

Age and pregnancy

Doesnt account for muscle mass


Estimated Average daily requirement

protein kwashiorkor

of protein, eating too little

Age, gender, physical activity, religious, personal, medical reasons

Eating disorders

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Anorexia nervosa this is a condition where


sufferers restrict what they eat and
sometimes starve themselves, leading to
possible weight loss, abdominal pains,
discoloured skin, irregular periods etc.
Bulimia nervosa this is when people vomit or
take laxatives straight after eating to get the
food out as quickly as possible. It can lead to
weight fluctuations, poor skin, hair loss,
irregular periods, tiredness etc.

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Now try this!


1) Link each food type to the correct product.

Food

Enzyme

Product

Carbohydrate

Amino acids

Protein

Fatty acids

Fat

Glucose

Fitness and Health


Joe catches a cold. He is surprised because he
is very fit.
His coach explains that being fit does not stop
bacteria and viruses entering his body and
causing infections.
Q. What is the difference between fitness and
health?
Fitness is the ability to do physical activity.
Healthy is being free from disease.

Malaria

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Now try this!


1)
2)
3)
4)
o
o
o
1)
2)
3)

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What is a pathogen?
Give 4 examples of pathogens
What is the best way to control malaria?
A mosquito is which of the following?
Parasite
Prey
Vector
A micro-organism that causes disease.
Fungi, bacteria, viruses, protozoa
Spray/drain stagnant water, Insecticides,
mosquito nets
4) Vector

Microbes: our defence against them


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Our bodies have defence mechanisms against invading


microbes:
Tears contain
lysozyme, an enzyme
that kills bacteria
The skin acts as
a waterproof
barrier
If our skin is
cut platelets
seal the wound
by clotting

The breathing
organs have hairs
and produce mucus
to cover the lining
of these organs and
trap the microbes

Our blood contains


white blood cells

Cleaning our air

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Our respiratory system has two types of specialised cell that


help to keep our lungs clean:

1. Mucus is produced and traps


dust, bacteria etc

2. The mucus is swept


upwards to the mouth by
cilia (cells with tiny hairs)

White blood cells


If microbes enter our body they need to be
neutralised or killed. This is done by
WHITE BLOOD CELLS:
White blood cells do 3 things:
1) They eat the microbe (these
white blood cells are called
phagocytes)
2) They produce antibodies to
neutralise the microbe
(lymphocytes)
3) The produce antitoxins to
neutralise the poisons produced
by microbes (lymphocytes again)

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Producing antibodies

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Youre going
down
Step 1: The lymphocyte sees the
pathogen (microbe)

Step 2: The cell produces


antibodies to fit the pathogen

Step 3: The antibodies fit onto the


pathogens and cause them to clump

Step 4: The pathogens are


eaten by the white blood cells.
Some memory cells stick around!

Specific antibodies

Antibodies are specific they will neutralise


the microbe they have been made for.

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Fighting disease

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Immunisation

Can be done in two ways:


1) A vaccine with dead microbes is injected the body
is tricked into producing antibodies ready for the
real thing. This is called ACTIVE IMMUNISATION
2) The antibodies made by another organism are
injected directly into the body this is called
PASSIVE IMMUNITY
Name two differences between passive
and active immunity.
Active has a lasting effect but may take a
few weeks to become effective

Vaccinations

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Some people argue that the MMR vaccine is a good idea,


others think it is a bad idea. Briefly summarise each side of
the argument:
For

Against

MMR vaccine

Using Antibiotics

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Antibiotics can be used to kill bacteria. However, there are


two problems:
1) Overuse of antibiotics can lead to
bacteria becoming resistant (e.g.
the MRSA superbug). This means
that antibiotics must be used
sparingly.
2) Antibiotics have no effect on a
virus, like the common cold. It is
difficult to kill a virus without
damaging body tissue. A virus is
usually allowed to run its course
or with the use of antivirals

Now try these!

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1) Fill in the gaps!


Antibodies are made by our ________. Antibodies
lock onto ___________ on the surface of a
_____________. Antibiotics do not kill pathogens
such as ____________.
A ________ is a harmless pill that can have a positive
psychological effect.
A ______ is where volunteers dont know which
treatment theyre receiving
A________ is where the doctors dont know either

White blood cells, passive, blind trial, antigens,


pathogen, double blind trial, active, viruses, placebo

The Nervous System

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The CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) enables us to react


to our surroundings. It consists mainly of the brain, the spinal
chord, nerve cells (neurones) and receptors.
Types of receptor:
1) Light receptors in the eyes
2) Sound receptors in the ears
3) Taste receptors on the tongue
4) Smell receptors in the nose
5) Touch, pressure and temperature receptors in the skin
6) Changes of position receptors in the ears (balance)

Conscious actions

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A conscious action is one where the brain makes a considered response.


Heres what happens:
4) The brain
3) Here another sensory neurone
decides to move
carries the signal to the brain
away the hand
5) This impulse is
sent by MOTOR
NEURONES to the
hand muscles (the
effectors) via the
spinal chord

2) The impulse is carried


by SENSORY NEURONES
to the spinal chord
1) Receptors in
your skin detect
a stimulus

Stimulus

6) Which then
moves the hand
away
Receptor

Motor Neurone

Sensory Neurone
Effector

Coordinator

Response

Examples of reactions
Stimulus

Bright light

Sour taste

Losing balance

Sit on a drawing
pin

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Receptor

Effector

Response

(i.e. the thing


that detects the
stimulus)

(i.e. the thing


that will do the
reaction)

(i.e. action
taken)

Types of nerve cell


Nucleus

Cell body

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Muscle strands
(effector)

Dendrites

Nerve cells (neurones) are elongated with branched


endings to connect to many muscles fibres.
1) Motor neurone

2) Sensory neurone

Impulse

Impulse

3) Relay neurone

Synapses - higher

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Neurones never ____ each other there is a small gap


between them called a _____. A signal is sent from one
_______ to the next by a _______ transmitter across
the synapse. These transmitters are then ________.
Words chemical, synapse, neurone, touch, destroyed

Reflex actions

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Sometimes conscious action is too slow to prevent harm, e.g

In situations like this


the body bypasses the
brain to produce a
quicker response.
Heres how it works

Reflex actions

2. Sensory
neurone
1. Receptor

3. Relay
neurone in the
spinal chord
4. Motor
neurone
5. Effector

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6 mark question - Higher

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The quality of written communication will be assessed in


your answer to this question.

Describe how neurones are adapted to


carry and pass on nerve impulses quickly
from one neurone to the next.

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Level 3
Answer correctly applies knowledge of how and why neurones are adapted
being long, having branched endings and insulated by a fatty sheath There
should be reference to the synapse and how this allows impulses to travel in
one direction (see diagram). All information in answer is relevant, clear,
organised and presented in a structured and coherent format. Specialist
terms are used appropriately. Few, if any, errors in grammar, punctuation and
spelling. (56 marks)
Level 2
Answer applies knowledge of how neurones are adapted and how the synapse is
the gap between two neurones to allow nerve impulses to travel in one
direction . For the most part the information is relevant and presented in a
structured and coherent format. Specialist terms are used for the most part
appropriately. There are occasional errors in grammar, punctuation and
spelling. (34 marks)
Level 1
An incomplete answer, states simple neurone and synapse description. Answer
may be simplistic. There may be limited use of specialist terms. Errors of
grammar, punctuation and spelling prevent communication of the science. (12
marks)
Level 0
Insufficient or irrelevant science. Answer not worthy of credit. (0 marks )

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6 marker question - Foundation


The quality of written communication will be
assessed in your answer to this question.

Explain why active immunity is used for


an outbreak of a disease over passive
immunity.

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Level 3
Answer correctly applies knowledge of active immunity to give a well-reasoned
explanation of how dead or inactive pathogens are injected into the body and
how they trigger your immune system to make their own antibodies and that
this is usually permanent. There should be reference to passive immunity and
how this is only temporary involving injecting antibodies directly. All
information in answer is relevant, clear, organised and presented in a
structured and coherent format. Specialist terms are used appropriately.
Few, if any, errors in grammar, punctuation and spelling. (56 marks)
Level 2
Answer applies knowledge of active and passive immunity to give a partial
explanation of how immunity is different and why active is better in this case.
For the most part the information is relevant and presented in a structured
and coherent format. Specialist terms are used for the most part
appropriately. There are occasional errors in grammar, punctuation and
spelling. (34 marks)
Level 1
An incomplete answer, states simple immunity description, recognising that
active immunity is different to passive immunity. Answer may be simplistic.
There may be limited use of specialist terms. Errors of grammar, punctuation
and spelling prevent communication of the science. (12 marks)
Level 0
Insufficient or irrelevant science. Answer not worthy of credit. (0 marks )

Vision

Binocular vision

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Monocular vision

The Eye
Iris
Lens

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Sclera

Retina

Pupil
Optic
nerve
Cornea
Ciliary muscles

Suspensory
ligaments

Seeing things

Rays of light are refracted


(bent) first by the cornea
and then by the lens. They
focus on the retina.

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Focussing on different distances


For distant objects the
ciliary muscles relax
and the suspensory
ligaments pull tight
making the lens pull
thin the light doesnt
bend as much.
When an eye focuses this is known as accomodation
For close objects the
ciliary muscles contract
allowing the lens to go
fat, thus bending the
light more.

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Correcting eye sight problems

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Long sighted people are unable to focus on ______


objects. The eyeball is too ________, so the image of
near objects are brought into focus behind the retina.
You can use glasses or contact lens with a ________ lens
to correct it
Short sighted people are unable to focus on _______
objects. The eyeball is too _________, so the image of
distant objects are brought into focus in front of the
retina. You can use glasses or contact lens with a
_________ lens to correct it.

Concave, convex, short, long, near, close

Drugs

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Depressant

Build muscle to allow


athletes to train harder

Asprin

Hallucinogen

Distort what is heard or


seen

Alcohol,
solvents

Stimulant

Decrease activity of the


brain

Anabolic
steroids

Painkiller

Increase the activity of


the brain

Nicotine,
ecstasy

Performance

Reduce no. of painful


stimuli

LSD

Try these

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1. Which class of drug is the most dangerous, give


some examples.
2. Higher Explain how the effects of alcohol are
different from nicotine.
3. Why do people get smokers cough?
Class A heroin, LSD, ecstasy, cocaine
Nicotine is a stimulant so more neurotransmitter will cross
to the next neurone, whereas alcohols a depressant so binds
to receptors to block impulses/slow down
Smoke stops cilia from moving and makes goblet cells
produce more mucus. Dust collects and irritates

Smoking

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Cigarettes contain 3 harmful things:

1. NICOTINE, which is an ___________ drug that raises the


heart beat, narrows the arteries and so causes ____
_____ _____. This leads to heart _________.
2. TAR, which coats the lining of the _______ making them
less able to take in oxygen. It also contains carcinogens
which cause ______________.
3. CARBON MONOXIDE, which is a _______ ____ which
joins up with ____ blood cells making them incapable of
transporting _____________ around the body. In
pregnant women it can cause oxygen deprivation, leading to
low birth ______.
Words high blood pressure, oxygen, red, addictive,
disease, poisonous gas, lungs, cancer, mass

Homeostasis

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Homeostasis means controlling internal conditions:


Waste products that need to be removed + how

CO2

Produced by respiration, removed via lungs

Urea

Produced by liver breaking down amino acids,


removed by kidneys and transferred to bladder

Internal conditions that need controlling + how

Temperature

Increased by shivering, lost by sweating

Ion content

Increased by eating, lost by sweating + urine

Water content

Increased by drinking, lost by sweating + urine

Blood glucose

Increased and decreased by hormones

Maintaining Body Temperature

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Cold

Hot

Vasodilation

Vasoconstriction

6 marker -Foundation

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The quality of written communication


will be assessed in your answer to this
question.
It is important to keep the body temperature
at 37oC as this is the optimum temperature
for many enzymes.
Explain what would happen if a person gets
too hot and how homeostasis helps us to cope
with this.

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Level 3
Answer correctly applies knowledge of dangers of overheating, such as heat
stroke and dehydration. Understanding shown that blood flowing at the
surface of skin increases heat loss and explanation of how sweating cools the
skin down by evaporation. All information in answer is relevant, clear,
organised and presented in a structured and coherent format. Specialist
terms are used appropriately. Few, if any, errors in grammar, punctuation and
spelling. (56 marks)
Level 2
Answer applies knowledge of overheating and brief explanation of sweating.
For the most part the information is relevant and presented in a structured
and coherent format. Specialist terms are used for the most part
appropriately. There are occasional errors in grammar, punctuation and
spelling. (34 marks)
Level 1
An incomplete answer, states simple description that people sweat to cool
down and brief description of dangers of overheating. Answer may be
simplistic. There may be limited use of specialist terms. Errors of grammar,
punctuation and spelling prevent communication of the science. (12 marks)
Level 0
Insufficient or irrelevant science. Answer not worthy of credit. (0 marks )

6 marker -Higher
The quality of written communication
will be assessed in your answer to this
question.
Explain using negative feedback how
the hypothalamus helps to maintain
body temperature.

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Level 3
Answer correctly applies knowledge of increased temperature of blood
detected by hypothalamus so increased sweat production and vasodilation in
an attempt to lose more heat. This increases concentration of blood which
results in less urine production to conserve water. Understanding of negative
feedback change in environment trigger a response that counteracts the
changes. All information in answer is relevant, clear, organised and presented
in a structured and coherent format. Specialist terms are used appropriately.
Few, if any, errors in grammar, punctuation and spelling. (56 marks)
Level 2
Answer applies knowledge of how the hypothalamus helps to keep our body in
balance by detecting when the blood is too hot or cold. For the most part the
information is relevant and presented in a structured and coherent format.
Specialist terms are used for the most part appropriately. There are
occasional errors in grammar, punctuation and spelling. (34 marks)
Level 1
An incomplete answer, states simple description that hypothalamus detects
blood temperature change. Answer may be simplistic. There may be limited
use of specialist terms. Errors of grammar, punctuation and spelling prevent
communication of the science. (12 marks)
Level 0
Insufficient or irrelevant science. Answer not worthy of credit. (0 marks )

Hormones

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Hormones are chemical messengers produced by endocrine


_____. They control the way in which parts of the body work
and are transported to their target organs in the _______.
Some examples...
Words testosterone, glands, bloodstream, insulin, adrenaline

Controlling Blood Sugar levels

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We need glucose in our bodies to help our cells to respire and


produce energy. What happens if we have too much glucose?

If blood sugar is too high the


pancreas releases insulin

The liver then converts


glucose into insoluble
glycogen and is removed
from the blood

Diabetes

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Diabetes is a ________ in which a persons blood sugar


(i.e. glucose) level may rise to a _______ level. This is
because the ______ doesnt produce enough _________.
Type 1 diabetes is when the pancreas doesnt produce
insulin. Glucose is removed from the blood by the kidneys
glucose is excreted in the urine. It usually occurs in
teenagers.
Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body either produces too
little or the cells wont react to insulin. It is more common
in older people and is linked to obesity.
Diabetes can be treated by __________ carefully or by
injecting extra insulin when needed. Diabetics have to
test their blood sugar level before they decide how much
insulin to _______ themselves with. A new technique is
the insulin pump, its constantly changed for you.

Defining tropisms

Higher - Hormones and


phototropism

Uses of plant hormones

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Describe 4 uses of plant hormones


Take a cutting - A cutting is taken from the plant and dipped in
this powder. This stimulates the roots to grow quickly and
enables gardeners to grow lots of exact copies of a particular
plant.
Selective weedkillers -They kill the weeds by making the weed
grow too fast, so it dies off faster.
Seedless fruit - Synthetic auxins are sprayed on un-pollinated
flowers. The auxins make the sterile flowers produce fruit. The
fruits produced will have no seeds (pips) e.g. Seedless grapes
To ripen fruit in transport - Bananas are picked when they are
green and unripe and less easily damaged. Application of a
hormone ensures that when they arrive at the shops they are
yellow and ripe.

Sexual Reproduction

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We have similar characteristics to our parents due to genetic


information being passed down in genes through gametes:
The human egg
and sperm cell
(GAMETES)
contain 23
chromosomes
each.
When fertilisation happens the
gametes fuse together to make
a single cell called a ZYGOTE.
The zygote has 46 chromosomes
(23 pairs) and contains
information from each parent.

Sexual vs. Asexual reproduction

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Sexual reproduction:
2 parents are needed
Offspring will have pairs of chromosomes
This will cause genetic variation

Asexual reproduction:
Only 1 parent needed
Offspring are GENETICALLY IDENTICAL to
parent (clones)

Snuppy the
first cloned dog
(Aug 05)

Mother

Boy or Girl?

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Son
Father

Daughter

Eye colour

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In eye colour the brown eye allele is dominant, so we call it


B, and the blue eye is recessive, so we call it b:

BB

Bb

bb

Homozygous
brown-eyed
parent

Heterozygous
brown-eyed
parent

Blue-eyed parent

What would the offspring have?

Eye colour
Example 1: A homozygous
brown-eyed parent and a
blue-eyed parent:

BB

Parents:

Gametes:

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Example 2: 2 heterozygous
brown-eyed parents

bb

Bb

Bb

Bb

Bb

Bb

Bb

BB

Bb

bB

bb

(FOIL)
Offspring:

All offspring have brown eyes

25% chance of blue eyes

Another method
Example 3: A heterozygous brown-eyed
father and a blue-eyed mother:
Father

Bb

bb

Bb

bb

Mother

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Example questions

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1) In mice, white fur is dominant. What type of offspring


would you expect from a cross between a heterozygous
individual and one with grey fur? Explain your answer with a
genetic diagram.

2) A homozygous long-tailed cat is crossed with a homozygous


short-tailed cat and produces a litter of 9 long-tailed kittens.
Show the probable offspring which would be produced if two
of these kittens were mated and describe the characteristics
of the offspring (hint: work out the kittens genotype first).

Inherited diseases

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1) Cystic fibrosis a disease that causes thick and sticky mucus to coat
the lungs, gut and pancreas. Its caused by recessive alleles:

Cc

Cc

Gamete
Zygote

Key words

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This allele determines the development of a


characteristic
This is formed when an egg is fertilised by a sperm

Allele

This allele will determine a characteristic only if


there are no dominant ones

Dominant

This word refers to a pair of chromosomes being


made of two different alleles of a gene

Recessive
Homozygous

An egg or a sperm are called this


This word refers to a pair of chromosomes being
made of two of the same alleles of a gene
An alternative form of a gene

Heterozygous