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at

NAME:Pravin biswakarma
JALPAIGURI GOVT. ENGG.
COLLEGE
ELECTRICAL ENGG.
DEPARTMENT.
DATE OF TRAINING: From 13th June,14 to 03th
July,14

VOCATIONAL TRAINING PROJECT REPORT ON MEJIA THERMAL


POWER STATION (M.T.P.S),DAMODAR VALLEY
CORPORATION(D.V.C)

ABOUT M.T.P.S
Mejia Thermal Power Station is located at Durlovpur, Dist: Bankura,
26 km from Durgapur city in West Bengal. Commissioned on 1996,
MTPS is the largest thermal power plant, in terms of electricity
generating capacity in the state of West Bengal as well as among other
DVC power plants.

Power Plant:
Mejia Thermal Power Station has an installed capacity of 2340 MW. The
plant has 8 units under its operation. The individual units have the
generating capacities as follows:
Unit No.

Generating Capacity

Commissioned on

U#1

210 MW

1996

U#2

210 MW

1998

U#3

210 MW

1999

U#4

210 MW

2005

U#5

250 MW

2008

U#6

250 MW

U#7

500 MW

2010

U#8

500 MW

2010

2009

Units 1 to 6 are collectively named as MTPS-phase1, while the


extension of Units 7 & 8 is called MTPS-phase 2. All the units

have boilers, turbines and generators manufactured by Bharat Heavy


Electrical Limited (BHEL).

SUBJECT OF TRAINING: THERMAL POWER STATION


GENERATING TRAINING

PLACE OF TRAINING:

DAMODAR VALLEY CORPORATION


Mejia Thermal Power Station
P.O:MTPS,Dist:Bankura-722183,West Bengal
Phone:03241-232201

FAX-

03241-262231

ENGINEERS UNDER WHOM TRAINING IS PERFORMED:


1. Mr. Bidhayak Dutta
(Deputy Chief Engg. Elec)
2. Mr. P.K Dubey
(Training Advisor)
DURATION OF TRAINING: 13TH JUNE,2014 to 03TH
JULY,2014

DAMODAR VALLEY CORPORATION


Mejia Thermal Power Station

P.O:MTPS,Dist:Bankura-722183,West Bengal
03241-262231

Phone:03241-232201

FAX-

No.MT/PL/Voc.Trg./Vol.XII/1682
Dated:29th March2014
TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN
This is to certify that Mr.Pravin Biswakarma, student of
electrical engineering of Jalpaiguri Government Engineering
College, Jalpaiguri-735102(W.B) undertook vocational training
at Mejia Thermal Power Station, DVC, for the period of
21(Twenty One) days w.e.f 13.06.2014 under Electrical Dept.,
MTPS.
During his training he has been found sincere, hard
working and well disciplined.

..........................

...............

(Shri Bidhayak Dutta)


Chief Engineer (Elect.)
MTPS, DVC

The Dy

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Any project is the fruitful outcome of the hard work of
many. Through this document we would like to express
our gratitude towards those who supported us in
making us an outcome from us.

Firstly, we would like to thank Shri. Bidhayak


dutta(Deputy Chief Engg. Elec.). He inspite of his
tremendous workload helped us admirably. Our humble
thanks to Shri.P.K Dubey(Training Advisor) who guided
us in each and every step till our completion of our
training. We are thankful to them for their continued
guidance and support with their vast pool of
knowledge, which was essential for the completion of
this project. Along the way , we were also ably
supported and guided by staffs of the various
departments. And like we mentioned, the help is even
more credible, considering that the workload of the staff
was immense.

We would also like to thank our friends and family for


providing encouragement and moral support at every
step. We recognise everybodys helping hand.

CONTENTS
SL
N
O
1

TOPIC
INTRODUCTION AND HISTORY

OVERVIEW OF A POWER PLANT

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
a)

GENERATOR & AUXILIRIES


1. BASIC PRINCIPLE & CONSTRUCTION
2. EXCITATION SYSTEM
3. AVR
4. COOLING SYSTEM
5. PROTECTION SYSTEM
6. GENERATOR METERING & INSTUMENTATION
7. ELECTRICAL PROTECTION AND SAFETY
INTERLOCKS

b)

c)

OVERVIEW OF GT, UT, UAT,UST, ST,


SAT,SST, NGT
SWITCHYARD
1.VARIOUS COMPONENTS
2.PROTECTION

d)

STATION GROUNDING SYSTEM

e)

MOTORS

f)

DC SYSTEM

g)

DG SET

INTRODUCTION & HISTORY


DVC, a legacy to the people of India, emerged as a culmination of
attempts made over a whole century to control the wild and erratic
Damodar river. The river spans over an area of 25,000 km2 covering the
states of Bihar (now Jharkhand) & West Bengal.
Damodar Valley Corporation was established on 7 th July 1948.It is one of
the most reputate company in the eastern zone of India. DVC is
established on Damodar river. It also consists of the Durgapur Thermal
Power Plant in Durgapur. The hydel project in Mython is one of the most
flourishing part of DVC. The MTPS(Mejia Thermal Power Station) under
DVC is one of the largest thermal power plant in West Bengal. It is one
of the four thermal power stations of DVC in the states of West Bengal.
The total power plant campus area is surrounded by boundary walls
and is basically divided into two major parts, first power plant area itself
and second is the colony area for the residence and other facilities for
MTPSs employees.

SALIENT FEATURES
Location: Mejia in Bankura District in West Bengal.
Installed Capacity: (210*4 MW+250*2 MW + 500*2 MW)=2340MW
Coal source: B.C.C.L and E.C.L, also imported from Indonesia
Fuel quantity:126 TPH(for unit 1 to 4 only)
150 TPH(for unit 5 and 6 only)
272 TPH (for unit-7 only)

Height of chimney: 220m[205+15](for unit 1 to 6)


279m (for phase II)
Water source: DAMODAR RIVER
Beneficiary State: WEST BENGAL, JHARKHAND

OVERVIEW OF POWER PLANT


OPERATION
A power plant is basically an energy conversion mechanism. Thermal
power plants operate on modified Rankin Cycle with reheating and
superheating. In essence , it is modified from of the basic steam cycle
to increase the cycle efficiency. Coal is burnt in a boiler, which converts
water into steam. The steam is expanded in a turbine, which produces
mechanical power driving the alternator coupled to the turbine. The
working of the power is divided into four main circuits:

Fuel and ash circuit.


Air and Fuel gas circuit.
Feed water and steam circuit.
Cooling water circuit.

THE ENERGY CONVERSION


Chemical energy to heat energy
---- In Boiler
Heat energy to kinetic energy
---- In Turbine
Mechanical energy to electrical energy --- In Generator

FLUE
GASES
WATER
FUEL
AIR

THERMAL POWER
PLANT

ASH

ELECTRIC
ITY

ENERGY FLOW DIAGRAM OF DIFFERENT PART :

CHEMICAL ENERGY
ENERGY
(COAL)
(STEAM)

HEAT ENERGY
ENERGY
(STEAM)
(TURBINE)

MECHANICAL ENERGY
ENERGY
(TURBINE)
(GENERATOR)

HEAT

MECHANICAL

ELECTRICAL

OVER VIEW OF A POWER PLANT

VARIOUS COMPONENTS OF A POWER PALNT:


DEAERATOR: The condensed water from the condenser is taken to
deaerator where the water is made free from oxygen mainly i.e. free
from air. The deaerator is a direct heat exchanger because the steam
from IPT is sprayed to the condensed water from the bottom and the
water is sprayed from the top part of the deaerator. This results in deoxyfication i.e. removal of oxygen from the water.

BOILER FEED PUMPS (BFPs): The outlet of the deaerator is


connected to boiler feed pumps, there are three BFP in a row out of
which two are in running condition and one is at standby,in unit #1 to 6
all BFP are MDBFP,consumes highest power in the plant 4.6MW in full
load and unit#7 and 8 one of these is MDBFP( motor driven), and other
two are TDBFP(steam driven).MDBFP consumes the highest power in
this plant i.e. 10MW. MDBFP is used only at the starting time for its huge
power consumption.
HIGH PRESSURE HEATER: The HPHs are also mechanical heaters
that receives the heating medium from exhaust of HPT and IPT. There
are two HPH named as HPH#5 and HPH#6. HPH#5 receives steam from

IPT and HPH#6 receives steam from HPT . The BFP outlet is connected
to the HPH#5 and HPH#6 is connected to HPH#5. Steam of HPT and IPT
heats the water up to 253C and the pressure is also increased up to
175kg/sq. cm, which is then passes through economiser this done to
increase the efficiency of the boiler. Extn. Steam Pressure to HPH#5:
16.65 kg/sq. cm and temp. 415C. Extn. Steam pressure to HPH#6:
42.84 kg/sq. cm. and temp. 337.8C.
ECONOMISER: Economiser is another heat exchanger type heater.
Here the water from HPH comes to get more heated up for better steam
production and high enthalpy resulting in greater efficiency of the boiler
and unit as well. The economiser receives the heat for heating the
water from the flue gas. The flue gas which has very high temperature
comes from air pre-heater to the economiser and heats up the water
mechanically which finally reaches the boiler drum. Economiser inlet
tepm. is 254C and outlet temp. is 315C.
BOILER DRUM: Boiler drum is the part of boiler where the demineralized water is stored and is inserted into the boiler through three
BCW(Boiler circulating water pump). It is also houses the steam that is
formed in the boiler. Water stored in the drum comes down to the top of
the boiler and forms a water ring which is then inserted into the
boiler through the 6 water walls. Water walls are basically tubes along
the walls of the furnace, it is here where the water is converted into
steam at 130C and then the produced steam is taken back to the boiler
drum. The drum has a propeller that rotates at high speed and makes
the steam and water separated due to centrifugal force. The pressure of
boiler drum is 192 kg/sq. cm and must be always maintained. Water in
the drum comes from feed control station via economiser.

FURNACE AND BOILER:-Boiler is the main section where the


steam is produced by coal combustion. Boiler consists of boiler drum,
water walls, wind box, heaters. The boiler has 8 elevations named as AB-C-D-E-F-G-H. Coal is inserted into the boiler from A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H.
There is 8 mills for feeding the pulverized coal to the furnace. Each mill
has 4 pipe for firing in the four corners of furnace. Furnace is divided
into two parts named as first pass and second pass. The combustion

takes place in the first pass and the heating of steam through SH takes
place in the second pass.

SUPER HEATER: The important point is to be always kept in mind that


all the heaters that are used in thermal power plant are mechanical
type heaters i.e. heat exchanged phenomena heats one medium by
exchanging heat from another hotter medium. Super heaters are
actually suspended pipes in the second pass section of the boiler, the
flue gas having very high temperature heats the steam that comes from
the drum before they hit the turbines to a temperature up to 540C. The
pressure of steam is kept constant when passing through super heater.
The main concept behind making the steam super heated is to make
the steam absolutely moisture free before they hit the turbine because
moisture content of steam will damage the blades of turbine by
corrosion.

TURBINE SECTION: The turbine section consists of three parts named


as HPT(High pressure turbine), IPT(Intermediate pressure
turbine),LPT(Low pressure turbine). The superheated steam from the
Superheater enters the HPT and hits the blades at 176.2 kg/sq. cm and
540C and rotates the shaft. The exhaust steam of HPT is taken to IPT
through a reheating section called Reheater(RH) for enabling the steam
to regain its previous steps. The exhaust steam of IPT enters LPT
directly. The exhaust of LPT is taken to condenser.
CONDENSER: The exhaust steam of LPT is fed to the condenser where
the steam is converted into water by the principle of condensation. The
condenser has three extraction pumps known as Condensate Extraction
Pumps (CEP-A, CEP-B, CEP-C).
These pumps create a negative pressure i.e. vacuum in the condenser
for better suction of the condensate. The outlet of the CEP is connected
to low pressure heater(LPH); where the temperature of condensed
water is raised to little higher temperature for better efficiency of

overall unit.

FLUE GAS PATH :


AIR PREHEATER: The flue gas produced as a result of combustion of
fossil fuel in the furnace is taken to the air pre heater. The air pre heater
is used to heat up the atmospheric air to make hot air used for
combustion and transport of coal dust from mill to furnace; which called
secondary air. This heater has a unique process of heating, it has a
shaft attached to rotating wheel type structure(like turbine but
arrangement blades are different). Atmospheric air are sucked by FD
fans passes through one side of the rotating shaft and the hot flue gas
passes through another side. This way heat of the flue gas gets
transferred to the atmospheric air and gets heated. There are two air
pre heaters for each unit named as AH-A and AH-B.
ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR (ESP)

:-

Under government rules and regulation for industrial pollution control,


ESP is must to each and every industry which deals high ash as
residing. An electrostatic precipitator is a large , industrial emissioncontrol unit. It is used in industries like thermal power plant, cement,
paper, chemicals, metallurgical industries etc, which emit particles. In
the thermal power plant it is designed to trap and remove ash particle
from the exhaust gas of boiler. Clean gas, up to 99.9% cleaner than
when it enter is then passes out of the precipitators.
collecting

electrode

weakest

field

Emitting electrode
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF ESP

An ESP is a chamber in which flue gas from the furnace is forced into FD
fans. Electrostatic precipitation is a physical process by which particles
suspended in gas stream are charged electrically, and under the
influenced of electric field are separated from the gas stream. The
precipitation system consists of negatively charged high voltage
discharged electrode wire suspended amidst positively charged
collecting electrode surfaces. At a very high DC voltage of the order of
20KV-35 KV, a corona discharged occurs close to the negative
electrode, setting up an electric field between the emitter and the
charged surface. When the particle laden gas passes through the ESP
fields, the gas close to the negative electrode is thus ionised upon
passing through the corona . As the negative ions and electrons migrate

towards the charged surface, they in turn charge the passing particle.
The electrostatic field then draws the particles to the collector surface
where they are deposited. Periodically, the collected particles are
removed from the collecting surface by rapping or vibrating the
collector to dislodge the particles. The dislodged particles drop below
the electrical treatment zone and are collected through hoppers for
ultimate disposal.
The major components that accomplished above activities in ESP are
as follows:
High voltage discharge electrodes
Grounded collecting electrodes
Rapping systems
Power supplies and control components
Hoppers

In practice the ESP shall consists of several such fields in series


in the direction of gas flow. There may be two or more parallel passes of
such series combination to meet the desire level of dust removal from
the flue gas . Here four passes and 72 fields are in place.

DRAFT FANS:
There are basically three types of fans in a thermal power
plant.
i.
ii.
iii.

INDUCED DRAFT (ID FAN)


FORCED DRAFT FAN (FA FAN)
PRIMARY AIR FAN (PA FAN)

INDUCED DRAFT FAN/ ID FAN:


This fan is used to create
negative pressure in the furnace i.e. furnace pressure is lower than
atmospheric pressure, as a result of which fire balls inside the furnace
can not come out of the furnace.ID fans also drives the flue gas through
out its path and finally ejects it out of chimney. It sucks air from the
furnace and ejects it to the atmosphere. Mechanically ID fan is coupled
with one 3-ph synchronous type motor. It is the only synchronous motor
in the power plant because it gives more accurate control to its speed
by V/f method for maintaining negative pressure as controlling of
negative pressure is the most vital factor in any thermal power plant.
There are two ID fan for each unit.
FORCED DRAFT FAN:Unlike ID fan, the FD fan is meant for creating
positive pressure in the furnace and also supplies air from PA fan and
secondary air for combustion. The FD fan takes air from atmosphere
and expel it to the plant (i.e. in the furnace, wind box etc).Mechanically
FD fan consist of one 3-ph induction motor, main bearing (antifriction
bearing) and lube oil system.
PRIMARY AIR FAN/PA FAN: Primary air fan is used for mixing of
cold air of FD fan outlet with hot air of air pre-heater outlet. The main
function of this is to transport pulverised coal from the mill to furnace.
Mixing of hot air and cold air is necessary because it is needed to
maintain the temperature of the pulverised coal from 80C to 90C for
better transport of coal and better combustion in the furnace.
Mechanically the construction of PA fan is same as FD fan.

The Electrical System:The electrical system basically starts at the turbo alternator and
through the GT(generator transformer) to the switchyard and finally to
the transmission lines. In between the network consists of many
isolators, circuit breakers, CT, PT and other mechanisms. At MTPS the
turbo alternator generates a voltage of
15.75KV(Unit#1/2/3/4),16.6KV(Unit#5/6), 21 KV( Phase II). The GTs
steps this up to 220 KV(400KV for Phase II). The transmission is to
Kalyaneswari ,Burnpur,Borjora,Durgapur and for phase IIthe
transmission is to Mython, DSTPS, Jamshedpur.

Therefore the electrical system is :


For Unit#1 to 6 :
Generator
GT
Transmission Lines
For Unit#7 and 8:
Generator
GT
Transmission Lines

220 KV switchyard

400 KV switchyard

Apart from these, the electrical system is intricately intertwined with


the entire plant, considering that the entire protection and control is
somehow done electrically.

GENERATOR
BASIC PRINCIPLE AND
CONSTRUCTION:
Principle:
Generator converts mechanical power into electrical form and feeds it
into the power system network . The working principle behind the
operation of generator is Faradays Laws of electromagnetic induction.
The induced alternating voltage in a generator can be expressed as-

E=4.44fT Volt
Where,
E= Voltage induced in volt.
f=frequency of rotation in Hz.
T=No. of turns
=flux per pole in Wb.
The frequency of the alternating voltage is given by the following
equation
f=PNs/2
where,
f=freq in Hz.
P=no. of poles
Ns=revolution/sec.
Components of Generator:
The main components of a Generator are:
1.Stator

2.Rotor

3.Bearing and lubrication


duct
5.Excitation system
assembly
7.Cooling system

4.Terminal Bushing and Bus


6. Slip ring and Brush gear
8. Sealing system

Stator:
The stator embodies the core, stator winding and hydrogen coolers and
provides a gas tight enclosure for hydrogen gas. It comprises of an
inner and an outer frame. The outer frame is a rigid fabricated structure
of welded steel plates capable of bearing the pressure due to minor
explosion of H within the casing. Within the cylindrical barrel, a fixed
cage is formed by grider built circular and axial ribs. These ribs divide
the yoke into annular components through which cooling gas flows into
radial ducts in the stator core and

TURBO GENERATOR

Exchanges heat in the Hydrogen gas coolers housed horizontally


parallel to the rotor shaft in the frame. The inner cage is usually fixed to
the yoke by an arrangement of springs to dampen vibration. Rigid end
shields close the stator ends and supports and shaft seals.
ROTOR:
The rotor forms the rotating magnetic poles of the generator. This is
cylindrical type and constructed form a cast Chromium , Nickel,
Molybdenum and Vanadium steel through several stages of machining.
Slots are machined on the outer surface to incorporate windings .
Holes are also drilled for ventilation purposes. High grade copper with
0.03% to 1% silver is used for the windings with layers of mica or epoxy
impregnated glass cloth as the insulation. A mechanically strong
insulation (e.g. micanite) is used for lining the slots. With increase in
generator capacity rotor windings used to carry a fairly high direct
current for sufficient magnetic strength. This higher loading causes
considerable amount of heat loss and large rotors incorporate
combination of hollow conductors with slots or holes arranged to
provide for circulation of the cooling gas through the actual conductors
by gap pick up method .Due to very high rotational speed centrifugal
force tries to lift the winding out of the slots.
So they are contained in proper place by duralumin wedges. The end
turns outside the slots are covered by non-magnetic steel retaining end
rings and are secured to the rotor body. The end winding are insulated
from retaining rings with the help of glass epoxy molded segments. The
retaining ring is a single piece forging which protects the rotor end
winding from high centrifugal force.
EXCITATION SYSTEM OF TURBO GENERATOR:The purpose of excitation system is to continuously provide the
appropriate amount of D.C field current to the generator field winding.
The excitation system is required to function reliably under the following
conditions of the generator and the system to which it is connected .
i)During start up of the generator.
ii)During steady state operating condition.
iii)At the time of transient disturbances (due to sudden applications or
removal of load).
iv)During prolonged system disturbances.

The simplest case is that of during start up


when the generator is running at rated speed with generator circuit
breaker open(armature open circuited). The terminal voltage will
increase with the increase in field current. Amount of field current
required will be a function of only the terminal voltage. Because of
magnetic saturation more field current will be required to produce an
increment of armature voltage at high voltage than at low voltage. This
will be governed by open circuit characteristics(O.C.C) of the machine.
After the closing of generator circuit breaker the machine is connected
to the system and operates in parallel with other machines connected
to the system. The amount of field current required will be a function of
the terminal voltage as before and also the load current and the power
factor. This will be governed by the V-curves of the machine. Unlike the
previous case if the generator is connected to a large system change in
excitation current controls the reactive power(VAR) and the power
factor only with a very minor influence of the terminal voltage. More
severe duty the excitation system requires to perform upon is during
system disturbances. At the time of transient disturbances the
generator voltage may dip or rise momentarily. The excitation system
must response fast to correct this quickly and stably. During prolonged
disturbances(which may last from several seconds to several minutes)
the excitation system may require to operate at it maximum or ceiling
output. Thus properly designed excitation system should permit
a)Close control of the generator voltage to match closely to the system
voltage before synchronization.
b)Close control of VAR after synchronization of the machine, without
loss of stability or overheating of the field system.
c)Operation of the system at its maximum or ceiling at the time of
disturbances in the system.
DEVELOPEMENT OF EXCITATION SYSTEM:
With increase in
generator capacity and complexity of interconnection in power system,
improved techniques in generator excitation have been developed with
the aim to achieve higher capacity, ideal rate of response, simplicity,
reliability, accuracy, sensitivity etc. In the earlier designs several
concepts govern the majority of the excitation system, such as
a) Exciters were commutator type and self excited.
b) Exciters were shaft driven and motor driven rotating machines.

c) Voltage regulators included magnetic or rotating amplifiers or


combination of both.
d) Manual control was by means of a rheostat.
Next generation of excitation system introduced newer
concepts. Some of which were
a) Use of semiconductors for rectification.
b) AC(automatic) voltage regulator with transistor pre-amplifiers and
thyristors .
c) New concepts of manual control.
d) Elimination of commutators.
e) New physical arrangements,
f) New maintenances procedures .
Present day excitation system have been promoted by
a) Capacity to meet very high values of excitation suitable for unit
capacities as high as 500MW or even more.
b) Use of HF AC exciters as source of powers.
c) Use of digital technologies for control, protection and switching.
d) Higher stability unit and excellent performance during transient and
fault conditions.
e) Elimination of carbon brushes in brushless excitation system.
TYPES OF EXCITATION SYSTEM:The types of excitation system
are
i) DC excitation
ii) Static excitation
iii) Brushless excitation
In MTPS Carbon Brush Excitation is used in Unit#1 to 4 and in Unit#5to
8 brushless excitation system is used.
BRUSHLESS EXCITATION:Supply of high current by means of carbon
brush involves considerable operational and maintenance problems.
These problems are eliminated in brushless excitation system which
consists of AC main exciter ,a PMG, a rotating non-controlled rectifiers,
all mounted on the T.G shaft and static AVR. Field of the PMG which is
permanent salient pole magnet rotates along with the generator shaft

and generates permanent voltage (usually 400 v at 400 Hz freq.) at the


stator windings. These outputs from the PMG is connected to the
thyristors located in the AVR panel. The controlled DC output from the
AVR panel is connected to the stationary field of the main exciter. The
output from the rotating armature is connected to the diodes placed
along with the rotating at the same speed that of the rotating armature
of the exciter and generator field winding. Thus there is no flow of
current between any moving part and stationary part and hence they
use of brush gear is eliminated. The diodes are arranged on rectifier
wheels in a three phase configuration .These are protected with fuse
and RC network. During operation the fuses are monitored with the help
of stroboscope. The entire arrangement is totally enclosed and the hot
air is cooled in two or more cooler arranged alongside the exciter.
Apart from the fuse monitoring unit, other features provided in
brushless excitation system are ground fault detection,field current
measurements etc.
AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATOR(AVR):Automatic voltage regulator (AVR) is the heart of excitation system of
generator. Now a days the AVR uses semiconductor elements to achieve
high reliability with very fast response. It has two independent
channels, the Auto channel with closed loop voltage regulation and the
Manual channel with open loop regulation. The two channels of the
voltage regulator are designed for operation either on i) a station
auxiliary AC power supply and ii) power supply from generator terminal
or pilot exciter as the case may be. Both the auto and manual channels
consist of a power part and a control part.
Some of the salient features of AVR are :
a) Capability of maintaining constant terminal voltage over a wide
operating range and maintaining proper share of reactive load
among the parallel running machines.
b) Provision for raising the excitation level quickly (field forcing ) in
case of fault or voltage dip to increase the transient stability limit
of the system.
c) In corporation of suitable circuitry to make the reference voltage
as a linear function of frequency or turbo generator up to the edge

frequency can be set depending on the requirement and constant


reference voltage beyond edge frequency.
d) Provision of automatic follow up circuit to supervise and match the
firing angles of the pulses in auto-channel and manual channel so
that the disturbance on the generator terminal is minimum during
transfer from auto regulation to manual regulation.
e) Provision of stator current limiter , rotor current limiter and rotor
angle limiter circuits for optimum utilisation of the lagging and
leading reactive capabilities of the generator.
f) Provision of automatic transformer from auto regulation to manual
regulation in case of measuring PT fuse failure or some internal
faults in the auto channel.
g) Facility for remote control of voltage both in auto and manual
channel.
Generator Cooling and Sealing System:STATOR WATER SYSTEM
Stator water-cooling is a closed loop system
There are two full capacity single stage centrifugal pumps with
change over facility 3Ph.415V A.C motors drive the pumps
The stator water cooler is shell and tube type heat exchanger
DM water flows through shell
There are two mechanical filters and one magnetic filter
Mechanical filters are of wire mesh type
Magnetic filter is having permanent magnet

GAS SYSTEM
Generator gas system constitutes of hydrogen gas used to cool the
rotor and certain parts of stator. H-air mixture is explosive. So filling
the Generator with H by replacing air which is dangerous. So initially
air is replaced by CO and since CO is heavier than air CO is being
filled from the bottom. Purging of air with CO is being done till the
purity of CO.

Cooling fans- Propeller type cooling fans at both the ends of rotor are
provided for forced
circulation of H(H cooled machines )
or air(air cooled machines )inside the generator. Fan hubs are made
from alloy steel forgoing and are shrunk fitted on the rotor shaft. The
alloy steel cast fan blades are fixed on the fan hub throughout its
periphery with the help of strength alloy steel non-magnetic conical
pins. These fan blades are easily removable from the hub. Fan shields
are provided to guide the gas flow. Fan shields are fixed to the end
shields.

SPECIFICATION OF TURBO GENERATOR:For unit#1 to 4


KW:210MW
p.f:0.85 lag
KVA:247,000
Stator voltage:15.75 KV
Stator ampere:9050 A
Rotor voltage:310 V
Rotor ampere:2500A
Rpm:3000
Frequency:50 Hz
Connection: Y Y
Coolant: Water & Hydrogen
Gas pressure: 3.5 bar(G)
Insulation class: F
Specification: IS:5422
IEC:34
For unit#5 and 6
KW:250MW
p.f:0.85 lag

KVA:294100
Stator voltage:16.5 KV
Stator ampere:10291 A
Rotor voltage:292V
Rotor ampere:2395A
Rpm:3000
Frequency:50 Hz
Connection: Y Y
Coolant: Hydrogen
Gas pressure: 3 bar(G)
Insulation class: F
Specification: IS:5422
IEC:34
For Unit#7 and 8
KW:500 MW
p.f:0.85 lag
KVA:588,000
Stator voltage:21 KV
Stator ampere:16,200 A
Rotor voltage:340 V
Rotor ampere:4040 A
Rpm:3000
Frequency:50 Hz
Connection: Y Y
Coolant: Water & Hydrogen
Gas pressure: 3.5 bar(G)
Insulation class: F
Specification: IS:5422
IEC:34
SPECIFICATION OF PILOT & MAIN EXCITER(Unit#5 & 6)
Main Exciter
Pilot Exciter
Apparent Power:
-35KVA

Active Power:
-Current:
105A
Voltage:
220+/-22V
Speed:
50/S
Freequency:
400Hz

1344KW
3200A
420V
50/S
150Hz

SPECIFICATION OF PMG(Unit#7 & 8):KW:39


KVA:65
Volts:220
Amps:195
Rpm:3000
Phase:3
Coolant: Air
Insulation Class: F
Connection: Y Y Y Y
YYYY
Specification: IFC-34
SPECIFICATION OF BRUSHLESS EXCITER(Unit#7& 8):KW:3780
Volts DC:600
Amps DC:6300
Excitation Volts DC:107
Excitation Amps DC:142
Rpm:3000
Coolant: Air
Insulation Class: F
Specification: IFC-34
GENERATOR PROTECTION:-

With the ever increasing size of the


generator cost of the machine, the expenses for repair and loss of
energy during the outage of the machine are very high. Hence it is
necessary to provide a reliable elaborate protection system to
safeguard against damage and loss of generation and ensure long life of
the machine.
Generator protection concerns especially the electrical protection of
machines and associated circuits. The purpose of generator protection
is to provide protection against abnormal operating condition and
during fault condition. In the first case the machine and the associated
circuit may be in order but the operating parameters (load, frequency,
temperature) and beyond the specified limits. Such abnormal running
condition would result in gradual deterioration and ultimately lead to
failure of the generator. It may be possible to correct the running of the
generator. It may be possible to correct the running condition after the
protective relay gives an alarm, there by avoiding the loss of revenue
and damage of the machine. In the later case , it is necessary to restrict
the damage of the machine and associate circuit to a minimum by
taking it out from the service.
PROTECTION UNDER ABNORMAL RUNNING CONDITIONS: a)Over current protection: The over current protection is used in
generator protection against external fault as back up protection.
Normally external short circuits are cleared by protection of the faulty
section and are not dangerous to the generator. If this protection fails
the short circuit current contributed by the generator is normally higher
than the rated current of the generator and caused over heating of the
stator, hence the generators are provided with back up over current
protection which is usually definite time lag over current relay.
b)Over load protection: Persistent over load in rotor and stator circuit
cause heating of winding and temperature rise of the machine.
Permissible duration of the stator and rotor over load depends upon the
class of insulation, thermal time constant, cooling of the machine and is
usually recommended by the manufacturer. Beyond these limits the
running of the machine is not recommended and over load protection
thermal relays fed by current transformer or thermal sensors are
provided.

c)Over voltage protection: The over voltage at the generator


terminals may be caused by sudden drop of load and AVR
malfunctioning. High voltage surges in the system (switching surges or
lightning) may also cause over voltage at the generator terminals.
Modern high speed voltage regulators adjust the excitation current to
take care against the high voltage due to load rejection. Lightning
arresters connected across the generator transformers terminals take
care of the sudden high voltages due to external surges. As such no
special protection against generator high voltage may be needed.
Further protection provided against high magnetic flux takes care of
dangerous increase of voltage.
d)High flux density: High flux density in the machine causes
saturation core leading to over heating in the iron core of both the
generator and the transformer due to increased iron losses and
additional losses from the eddy currents. High magnetic flux density
may occur because of over excitation at no load or due to low frequency
running. A relay which operates on V/f (volts per Hz) basis is
recommended as a preventive measure for protection against high flux
densities.
e)Unbalance loading protection: Unbalance loading is caused by
single phase short circuit out side the generator, opening of the one of
the contacts of the generator circuit breaker snapping of conductors in
the switchyard or excessive single phase load. Unbalance load produces
ve phase sequence current which cause over heating of the rotor
surface and mechanical vibration. Normally 10% of unbalance is
permitted provided phase current do not exceed the rated values. For
ve phase sequence currents above 5-10% of rated value dangerous
over heating of rotor is caused and protection against this is an
essential requirement. The relay provided for this is an inverse
characteristic with definite minimum time delay relay connected to a
network which segregates the
ve sequence current from the
positive and zero sequence currents. The I2t characteristics of the relay
is matched to the rotor heating characteristic.
f)Loss of excitation protection: The loss of excitation in a
synchronous machine may be caused by tripping of field circuit breaker
or trouble in AVR. On loss of excitation the generator starts drawing

reactive power from the grid instead of supplying it. The power factor of
the generator becomes capacitive and as a result of this asynchronous
running ( higher slip frequency) over heating of the rotor surface takes
place. In case the generators connected to the system can not supply
this reactive power there will be large voltage drop in the system
leading to instability. The protection provided against loss of excitation
is by an off-set Mho relay. Its operating characteristics is so chosen that
during extremely low excitation faults within the tripping zone.
g) Loss of prime mover protection: In the event of loss of prime
mover the generator operates as a motor and drives the prime mover
itself. In some cases this condition could be very harmful as in the case
of steam turbine sets where steam acts as coolant, maintaining the
turbine blades at a constant temperature and the failure of steam
results in over heating due to friction and windage loss with subsequent
distortion of the turbine blade. This can be sensed by a power relay with
directional characteristics and the machine can be taken out of bar
under the condition. Because of the same reason a continuous very low
level of output from the thermal sets are not permissible. The generator
breaker is tripped under this condition by the use of a relay measuring
the electrical power output of the generator designed to operate when
the power output faults below selected pre-set value.
h)Pole slip protection: A generator may loss synchronism with
system without losing the excitation. In this condition the machine may
be subjected to severe mechanical torque and oscillation with
consequent variation of current, voltage and power factor. If the angular
displacement of the rotor exceeds the stable limit, the rotor will slip a
pole pitch. If the disturbance persist the machine must be isolated from
the system to prevent damage to the generator and to minimize power
system disturbance. The pole slipping protection relay operates on the
criteria that the angle of the generator EMF exceeds a certain fixed
value with the operation of the reverse power relay. The occurrence of
these criteria are counted and the machine is tripped out after a certain
number of oscillations. These relays are capable of detecting the first
pole slip condition when a slip, corresponding to the speed of pole
slipping is in the range of +0.1% to +10% on a 50Hz basis. The
protection must remain inoperative for steady state lading, power
switching and correctly cleared system fault condition.

PROTECTION UNDER FAULT CONDITION:a)Stator short circuit: Short circuits are among the faults which
cause the heaviest damage to the generator. Not only do they result in
thermal damages such as the welding of the core laminations and
burning of the winding but also result in possible mechanical damage
like deformation of the ends of the coil. Very fast operating protection is
required , otherwise the damage may be beyond repair. Differential
protections, inter turn short circuit protections are the main protection
against short circuits in stator winding. As back up protection for the
same faults, minimum impedance and over current protections are
used.
b)Differential protection: The protection is used for detection of
internal faults in a specified zone defined by the CTs supplying the
differential relay. For an unit connected system separate differential
relays are provided for generator, generator transformer and unit
transformer in addition to the overall differential protection. In order to
restrict damage very high differential relay sensitivity is demanded but
sensitivity is limited by CT errors, high inrush current during external
fault and transformer tap changer variations.
c) Inter turn fault protection: Inter turn faults comprise of insulation
failure between turns of the same winding or between the parallel
winding of the same phase which can not be detected by longitudinal
differential protection. Inter turn faults have commonly been
disregarded on the basis that if the occur the will quickly develop into
earth faults or phase to phase faults which will be detected by the
sensitive protections provided for these faults. With this idea sometimes
no specific protection for inter inter-turn fault is provided. However
considering the risk of severe damage to the machine before the faults
convert into above types of faults inter turn fault protection is
recommended, In large machine as all the three windings are brought
out separately it is possible to employ a system to transverse
differential protection consisting of balanced current arrangement
between current transformers connected in the line ends of the
windings in which current in the parallel paths of the windings are
compared. A bias system is always used as it is not possible to

guarantee in advance that exact current sharing between windings take


place.
d) Back-up impedance protection: This protection is basically
designed as back up protection for the part of the installation situated
between the generator and the generator and unit transformers. A back
up protection in the form of minimum impedance measurement is used,
in which the current windings are connected to the CTs in the neutral
connection of the generator and its voltage windings through a PT to
the phase to phase terminal voltage. The pick up impedance is set to
such a value that it is only energised by short circuits in the zone
specified above does not respond to faults beyond the transformers.
e) Stator earth fault protection: The earth fault protection is the
protection of the generator against damages caused by the failure of
insulation to earth. Present practice of grounding the generator neutral
is so designed that the earth fault current is limited within 5 and 10
AMPs. Fault current beyond this limit may caused serious damage to the
core laminations. This leads to very high eddy current loss with
resultant heating and melting of the core.
f) 95% stator earth fault protection: Inverse time voltage relay
connected across the secondary of the high impedance neutral
grounding transformer relay is used for protection of around 95% of the
stator winding against earth fault.
g)100% stator earth fault protection: earth fault in the entire stator
circuits are detected by a selective earth fault protection covering 100%
of the stator windings. This 100% E/f relay monitors the whole stator
winding by means of a coded signal current continuously injected in the
generator winding through a coupling. Under normal running condition
the signal current flows only in the stray capacitances of the directly
connected system circuit. In case of an earth fault , this capacitance is
bypassed and the monitoring current which is determined mainly by the
resistance to earth increases. This increased current value and
reproduction of the signal code are used for the operation of the relay.
h)Rotor earth fault protection: Normally a single rotor earth fault is
not so dangerous as the rotor circuit is unearthed and current at fault
point is zero. So only alarm is provided on occurrence of first rotor earth

fault. On occurrence of the second rotor earth fault between the points
of fault the field winding gets short circuited. The current in field circuit
increases, resulting in heating of the field circuit and the exciter. But the
more dangerous is disturbed symmetry of magnetic circuit due to
partial short circuited coils leading to mechanical unbalance. Severe
vibration may seriously damage the machine. Thus the protection
circuit should be so designed as to give an alarm in case of
development of 1st rotor earth fault and it should trip the machine on
the occurrence of 2nd earth fault.
GENERATOR OPERATION:The operation of the generator is concerned with the basic processes of
synchronization, loading , voltage maintenance, stability and safe
tripping/shutting down of the machine. In the power system the
generator is required to operate in parallel with other running machines
and to share both active and reactive power demand of the system.
Synchronization of generator: The process of interconnection of
the generator with the grid to which a number of generators are already
connected is known as synchronization. For successful synchronization
and parallel operation of the generator the voltage, frequency and
phase sequence of the incoming generator must be same as that of the
grid(running system ). To determine the exact instant of synchronism
synchroscope with three lamps is provided at the generator control
desk. In some machine auto synchronization facility is also provided.
Before rolling of the TG to match the speed of the machine
corresponding to the grid frequency and increasing generator terminal
voltage readiness of the machine itself and it is various auxiliaries are
to be ensure. The synchronization process is to be in close co-ordination
with the mechanical system of the power house. In general following
operation and checking are to be carried out in steps before
synchronization of the generator.
Before machine starts rolling check and ensureGenerator auxiliary system:a)The lube oil flow to generator bearings is adequate with correct
pressure and temperature and there is no oil leakage.

b)Casing H pressure is adequate and with required purity. There is no


sign of drop in gas pressure. The machine may be synchronized at a
lower H pressure within allowable limit but in that case load is to be
restricted as per the manufacturers recommendation. Hydrogen
extractor fan is in service.
c)Stator cooling water flow is established and distillate conductivity is
below 5 micro mho-cm.
d)Generator exciter end bearing pedestal insulation is clean and free
from dust , dirt or oil.
Generator bus duct:
All the inspection windows are properly closed and there is no oil or
water dropping over the duct. The dehumidifier blower is off.
Neutral grounding transformer(NGT):
a)All the doors are properly closed and locked.
b)There is no drop of oil or water on the cubicle.
Generator P.T and surge protection cubicles:
a)All PT drums are completely rotated towards/inserted in service
position and locked in that position and doors are properly closed.
b)PT fuses are o.k. and tightly inserted within the grips. Door for the box
containing fuses and terminal strip is closed.

ELECTRICAL PROTECTION AND SAFETY INTERLOCKS:


Various failsafe protection and safety interlocks are provided in the
power plant for safe starting, running and shutting down of electrical
equipments. These interlocks play vital role to prevent or reduce
damage of costly equipments during internal fault or fault in connected
system/ equipments operational error as well as for safety of personnel
and the system as a whole.

GENERATOR
In general, it is based if generator protection relays
initiate non-sequential trip mode(Class A) for unit isolation. However,

sequential tripping (Class B) provides a better means of tripping a


steam turbine generator on some abnormal operating condition where
delayed tripping of the generator will not result in increased damage to
the turbine, generator or other electrical equipment. The reason for
sequentially tripping a steam turbine generator is to avoid the overspeed condition that results when the generator main breaker is tripped
while steam is supplied to the turbine.
Proper control logic is critical to the design of a sequential
tripping scheme switches, trip oil system pressure switches etc) which is
supervised by an electrical Low Forward Power relay/ Reserve Power
relay. This relay is normally set to detect very low power levels and
incorporates a brief time delay of the order of few seconds for added
security.
It has been recommended that generator protective relays,
initiates non-sequential trip mode for isolation of the unit due to
electrical faults. Only devices protecting unit from an abnormal
mechanical operating condition or an abnormal (not faulted) electrical
condition or normal shut down should initiate a sequential trip.
Class A Lockout Relay will operate for the following conditions
indicating major electrical faults in the Generator stator, Generator
rotor, Generator Transformer and Unit Auxiliary Transformers and
excitation transformer and associated field Breaker Cubicle and similar
other faults as detailed below:
a) Generator stator differential relay operated.
b) Generator stator inter-turn differential relay operated.
c) Generator Transformer differential operated
d) Generator Transformer overall differential relay operated
e) Unit auxiliary transformer differential relay operated
f) Generator stator E/F relay(0-95%)operated
g) Generator stator E/F relay (95-100%) operated
h) Generator rotor earth fault relay operated
i) Loss of excitation relay operated
j) Generator transformer restricted E/F relay operated
k) Generator over voltage relay operated
l) Generator reverse power relay operated
m)
Generator transformer over-fluxing relay operated
n) Generator transformer back-up E/F relay operated

o) UAT back-up E/F relay operated


p) Back-up distance relay operated
q) Generator negative sequence relay operated
r) Bus differential protection relay operated
s) GT buchholz relay operated
t) UAT buchholz relay operated
u) Thyristor bank failure
v) Generator Neutral isolator open
w)EBP pressed
x) GT SPR(Sudden pressure relay)

Class-B lockout relay will operate for the following conditions:


a)Boiler trip
b) Turbine trip
c)UAT backup O/C relay operated
d)AVR protection
Class-C lockout relay will operate for the following conditions:
a)Back-up distance relay operated stage I
b)Generator negative sequence stage I
c)GT breaker protection
d)GT winding temperature/ oil temperature operated
e) Under frequency relay operated
Unit trip sequence:
The difference sequence of tripping shall be as
mention below:
a)Boiler to Turbine to Generator
b)Turbine to Generator
c)Generator to Turbine
Generator field breaker interlocks:
Generator field breaker can
only be closed if the following per missives are available
a)Turbine is running at its rated speed(3000 rpm for thermal machine
with
+/- tolerance).
b)To be detected by speed switch contact at ATRS cubicle
c)All generator class-A lockout relay are in reset condition

d)Field flushing system is healthy


Generator field breaker trip interlocks:
Generator field breaker can
trip through the following initiating contacts:
a)Class-A relays operated
Generator field breaker manual trip block interlocks:
When
generator is in service manual tripping of field breaker is not permitted
owing to loss of excitation and subsequent harmful effects on the
machine. Operation of F8S relay indicate that generator is in
service(connected in the grid) with its own breaker of bus coupler
breaker. One NC contact of F8S relay is used in series with the manual
tripping circuit of the field breaker.
Generator field breaker auto-trip block interlocks:
When
generator is in service, auto tripping (through Class-A lockout
contacts) of field breaker is permitted only after opening of generator
breaker or transfer B/C breaker as case may be and there by drop out
of F8S relay to avoid momentary loss of excitation and subsequent
harmful effect on the machine.

Single Line Diagram Of Generating


Station(unit#5 and 6)

SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF GENERATING


STATION(UNIT-7)

GENERATOR TRANSFORMER
Transmission of power at generated voltage is not economical. The need
for transformers is paramount for a power system considering the fact
that transmission losses are minimum for high voltages where as a
distribution has to be done at the relatively safe voltage. In essence the
transformer transforms a voltage and current one level to a voltage
and current at another level while keeping the frequency and power
level unaltered. So generator output voltage is step up to the
transmission voltage system voltage by a transformer known as
Generator transformer(GT). Capacity of generator transformer is
determined based on the MVA capacity of generator. The open type
terminals of the HV bushing of the generator transformer are connected
to switchyard conductor through GCB. The LV terminals are kept
suitably enclosed to facilitated connection to generator bus duct.
Cooling method adopted is OFAF.
In MTPS Unit#1 to 6, GTs are single 3 phase transformer and in phase
II, GTs are a bank of three single phase transformers . The only step up
transformer is GT in this station.

GENERATOR TRANSFORMER
Specification of GT:Unit# 1 to 4
Make:
Type of cooling:
Rating of HV(MVA):
Rating of LV(MVA):
Frequency(Hz):
Phase:
Connection symbol:
No Load Voltage of HV(KV):
No Load Voltage of LV(KV):
Line Current of HV(Amp):
Line Current of LV(Amp):
Temperature rise of oil(C):

BHEL
ONAN/ONAF/OFAF
150/200/250
150/200/250
50
3
YNd1
240
15.75
301/482/602
3505/7340/9175
40 over ambient of 50C

Temperature rise of winding(C):


Weight:
Core and windings(kg):
Complete Transformer including oil(kg):
Transport(kg):
Insulation level:

45 over ambient of 50C


139000
38070
237100
HV SI 750 LI 1050
LV LI 95 AC 50
H.V.N LI 170 AC 70

Unit# 5 and 6
Make:
Type of cooling:
Rating of HV(MVA):
Rating of LV(MVA):
Frequency(Hz):
Phase:
Connection symbol:
No Load Voltage of HV(KV):
No Load Voltage of LV(KV):
Line Current of HV(Amp):
Line Current of LV(Amp):
Temperature rise of oil(C):
Temperature rise of winding(C):
Weight:
Core and windings(kg):
Complete Transformer including oil(kg):
Transport(kg):
Oil quantity(lit):
Insulation level:

BHEL
ONAN/ONAF/OFAF
109/252/315
109/252/315
50
3
YNd1
220
16.5
757.77
11022.14
40 over ambient of 50C
45 over ambient of 50C
165000
253250
180000
57000
HV SI 750 LI 1050
LV LI 95 AC 50
H.V.N LI 170 AC 70

Unit#7 and 8
Make:
Type of cooling:
Rating of HV(MVA):
Rating of LV(MVA):
Frequency(Hz):

BHEL
ONAN/ONAF/OFAF
120/160/200
120/160/200
50

Phase:
Connection symbol:
No Load Voltage of HV(KV):
No Load Voltage of LV(KV):
Line Current of HV(Amp):
Line Current of LV(Amp):
Temperature rise of oil(C):
Temperature rise of winding(C):
Weight:
Core and windings(kg):
Complete Transformer including oil(kg):
Transport(kg):
Oil quantity(lit):
Insulation level:

1
YNd11
420/3
21
824.79
9523.8
40 over ambient of 50C
45 over ambient of 50C
153520
257500
174900
56220
HV SI 1180 LI 1425-AC 38
CHOPPED LI 1570
LV 125-AC 50

UNIT TRANSFORMER:
There is one unit transformer for each unit in phase ii. There are some
machines whose operating voltage is 11kv.To supply these machines we
have to step down the generating voltage. These can be done by unit
transformer by tapping from generating terminal.
Unit transformer step down the voltage 21kv to 11 kv. This is a three
phase transformer.
But, in case of unit#1to 6 there is no need of UT, because
there is only two voltage level-6.6kv and 415v.

Specification of UT:Make:
Type of cooling:
Rating of HV(MVA):
Rating of LV(MVA):
Frequency(Hz):
Phase:

BHEL
ONAF/ONAN
45/36
45/36
50
3

Connection symbol:
No Load Voltage of HV(KV):
No Load Voltage of LV(KV):
Line Current of HV(Amp):
Line Current of LV(Amp):
Temperature rise of oil(C):
Temperature rise of winding(C):
Weight:
Core and windings(kg):
Complete Transformer including oil(kg):
Transport(kg):
Oil quantity(lit):
Insulation level:

Dyn1
21
11.5
1238.64
2261.87
40 over ambient of 50C
45 over ambient of 50C
40065
86205
50000
25580
HV LI 125-AC 50
LV LI 75-AC 28

Unit Auxiliary Transformer:


The normal source of HV power to unit auxiliaries is unit auxiliary
transformer. The sizing of the UAT is usually based on the total
connected capacity of running unit auxiliaries i.e excluding the stand by
drives. It is safe and desirable to provide about 20% excess capacity
than calculated. With the help of UAT we stepped down the generated
15.75kv (in case of unit#1to4) and 16.6 kv(in case of unit#5,6) into
6.6kv to supply the 6.6kv auxiliary drives. But, in case of phase II UAT is
used to stepped down the 11kv voltage into 3.3kv to supply the 3.3 kv
machines and its high voltage terminal is connected to a UT and there
is two UAT for each UT.

Specification of UAT:For Unit# 1to 4


Make:
Type of cooling:
Rating of HV(MVA):
Rating of LV(MVA):
Frequency(Hz):
Phase:
Connection symbol:
No Load Voltage of HV(KV):

Atlanta Electrical Pvt.Ltd.


ONAF/ONAN
16/12.50
16/12.50
50
3
Dyn11
15.7

No Load Voltage of LV(KV):


Line Current of HV(Amp):
Line Current of LV(Amp):
Temperature rise of oil(C):
Temperature rise of winding(C):
Weight:
Core and windings(kg):
Weight of oil(kg):
Total weight(kg):
Oil quantity(litre):
Insulation Level:
HV
:
LV
:

6.9
586.5 /458.2
1338.8/1045.9
40C
45C
14300
8600
30500
7650
95 KVP 38 KV rms
30 KVP 20 KV rms

For Unit#5 and 6


Make:
Type of cooling:
Rating of HV(MVA):
Rating of LV(MVA):
Frequency(Hz):
Phase:
Connection symbol:
No Load Voltage of HV(KV):
No Load Voltage of LV(KV):
Line Current of HV(Amp):
Line Current of LV(Amp):
Temperature rise of oil(C):
Temperature rise of winding(C):
Weight:
Core and windings(kg):
Weight of oil(kg):
Total weight(kg):
Oil quantity(litre):
Insulation Level:
HV
:
LV
:

BHEL
ONAF/ONAN
20/16
20/16
50
3
Dyn11
16.5
6.9
699.81/559.85
1673.479/1338.783
50C
55C
20600
15050
46300
16900
95 KVP 38 KV rms
30 KVP 20 KV rms

For Unit#7 and 8


Make:
Type of cooling:
Rating of HV(MVA):
Rating of LV(MVA):
Frequency(Hz):
Phase:
Connection symbol:
No Load Voltage of HV(KV):
No Load Voltage of LV(KV):
Line Current of HV(Amp):
Line Current of LV(Amp):
Temperature rise of oil(C):
Temperature rise of winding(C):
Weight:
Core and windings(kg):
Weight of oil(kg):
Total weight(kg):
Oil quantity(litre):
Insulation Level:
HV
:
LV
:

BHEL
ONAF/ONAN
16/12.50
16/12.50
50
3
Dyn1
11
3.45
839.78/656.08
2677.57/2091.85
40C
45C
16700
9800
40000
11000
LI 75 KVP AC 28 KV rms
LI 40 KVP AC 10 KV rms

DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER
To supply the 415v rated motors we use this distribution transformer
which actually steps down the 6.6kv supply into 415v.Some of the
distribution transformer are dry type i.e natural cooling system is used
here.For each unit(1 to 6) there are 8 distribution transformer inside
plant.

:RATING:
Make:
Type of Cooling:
Rating(KVA):
Rated Current H.V(Amps):
Rated Current L.V(Amps):
Vector Group:

BHEL
AN
1250
109.4
1666.7
DyN11

Model:
CAST RESIN DRY TYPE
Freequency:
50Hz
0
Temperature Rise Over 50 c Ambient
at 85.5% rated voltage:
80 0c
Insulation level H.V:
75KVp/28KV rms
Insulation Class:
F
Weight(Kg):
5500

STATON SERVICE TRANSFORMER(SST):


Normal source to the station auxiliaries and stand by source to the unit
auxiliaries during start up and after tripping of the unit is Station
Service transformer. Quantity of station Service transformers and there
capacity depends upon the unit sizes and numbers. Each station service
transformer shall be one hundred percent stand by of the other. Station
service transformers shall cater to the simultaneous load demand due
to start up power requirements for the largest unit, power requirement
for the station auxiliaries required for running the station and power
requirement for the unit auxiliaries of a running unit in the event of
outage of the unit source of supply. There is three SST for unit#1 to 4
and two SST for unit#5 and 6.Its steps down 220 kv grid voltage to 6.6
kv voltage and supply two board-CAB(Common Auxialiary Board) and
SEB(Start-up Emergency Board).
For unit#1 to 4
Make:
Type of cooling:
Rating of HV(MVA):
Rating of LV(MVA):
Frequency(Hz):
Phase:
Connection symbol:
No Load Voltage of HV(KV):
No Load Voltage of TV(KV):
No Load Voltage of LV(KV):
Line Current of HV(Amp):
Line Current of TV(Amp):

BHEL
ONAF/ONAN
31.5/25.2
31.5/25.2
50
3
YNyn0d1
230
11
6.6
79.1
2635.8

Temperature rise of oil(C):


Temperature rise of winding(C):
Weight:
Core and windings(kg):
Weight of oil(kg):
Total weight(kg):
For unit#5 and 6
Make:
Type of cooling:
Rating of HV(MVA):
Rating of LV(MVA):
Frequency(Hz):
Phase:
Connection symbol:
No Load Voltage of HV(KV):
No Load Voltage of LV1(KV):
LV2(KV):
Line Current of HV(Amp):
Line Current of LV1(Amp) and LV2:
Temperature rise of oil(C):
Temperature rise of winding(C):
Weight:
Core and windings(kg):
Weight of oil(kg):
Total weight(kg):

40
45
34400
29550
214000
BHEL
ONAF/ONAN
40/25
25/15.625
50
3
YNyn0yn0
230
6.9
6.9
100.408/62.755
2091.848/1307.405
40
45
48000
46000
132000

But in case of phase II this scheme is different and this is


elaborated belowSTATION TRANSFORMER (ST):
Normal source to the station auxiliaries and stand by source to the unit
auxiliaries during start up and after tripping of the unit is Station
transformer. Quantity of station transformers and there capacity
depends upon the unit sizes and numbers. Each station transformer
shall be one hundred percent stand by of the other. Station
transformers shall cater to the simultaneous load demand due to start
up power requirements for the largest unit, power requirement for the
station auxiliaries required for running the station and power

requirement for the unit auxiliaries of a running unit in the event of


outage of the unit source of supply. We have two station transformer in
400kv switchyard. It steps down the 400kv grid voltage to 11kv voltage.
STATION AUXILIARY TRANSFORMER(SAT):
Station auxiliary transformer is also a step down transformer. It steps
down 11kv voltage to 3.3kv voltage. It is mainly used to supply the 3.3
kv machines. Its high voltage is connected to the secondary of the ST.
Its use is similar to the UAT at starting condition and tripping condition.
There is two SAT for each ST.

Specification of ST:Make:
Type of cooling:
Rating of HV(MVA):
Rating of LV(MVA):
Frequency(Hz):
Phase:
Connection symbol:
No Load Voltage of HV(KV):
No Load Voltage of LV1(KV):
LV2(KV):
Line Current of HV(Amp):
Line Current of LV1(Amp):
LV2(Amp):
Temperature rise of oil(C):
Temperature rise of winding(C):
Weight:
Core and windings(kg):
Weight of oil(kg):
Total weight(kg):
Oil quantity(litre):
Insulation level:
HV :
LV 1:
LV2:

BHEL
ONAN/ONAF
72/90
72/90
50
3
Yn0 Yn0 Yn0
400
11.5
11.5
130
2261.9
2261.9
40
45
9769
58450
214000
67180
LI 1300-AC38
LI 75- AC28
LI 75-AC28

Specification of SAT:Make:
Type of cooling:
Rating of HV(MVA):
Rating of LV(MVA):
Frequency(Hz):
Phase:
Connection symbol:
No Load Voltage of HV(KV):
No Load Voltage of LV(KV):
Line Current of HV(Amp):
Line Current of LV(Amp):
Temperature rise of oil(C):
Temperature rise of winding(C):

BHEL
ONAN/ONAF
16/12.50
16/12.50
50
3
DyN1
11
3.45
839.78/656.08
2677.57/2091.85
40
45

UST & SST:- There are other two types of step-down 3 phase
transformer for internal operation, known as UST and SST. UST is fed
from UT switch board and SST is fed from ST switch board. These are
dry type cast resin transformer. The voltage ratio is 11KV/433V for both
the transformer. Air natural cooling and Dyn1 connection is used.

NGT (NEUTRAL GROUNDING TRANSFORMER):


The NGT is used to prevent the generator from earth faults. It comprises
of primary winding and secondary winding, the secondary winding is
connected with a low value resistance. When ever a earth fault arises
heavy current flows to the primary winding and as a result an emf is
induced in the secondary. The voltage drop across the resistance is
sensed by the NGT relay and it actuates to actuate the GCB(generator
circuit breaker) and thus the generator is tripped. Basically NGT is a
step-down(21KV/220V) transformer.

TRANSFORMER AUXILARIES:
For proper functioning of the transformer it is provided with several
auxiliaries sub systems. Basically they are:

COOLING SUB SYSTEM:

Considering the substantial amount of load delivered by a power


transformer a proper cooling system has to be in place in order to
prevent any hazards. Mostly, OFAF(Oil Forced Air Forced) or
ONAF(Oil Natural Air Forced) schemes are used. There are
radiators and fans as well. For OF type cooling butterfly valve is
kept to pump oil.
CONSERVETOR:
Since the oil plays a major role in the cooling of a transformer
hence it has to be maintained. The conservator preserves the oil of
the transformer while expansion of oil.
BUCHHOLZ RELAY:
It is a protective device used only in oil immersed transformer. It
provides protection against two types of fault, incipient fault and
severe fault. Under incipient fault it gives an alarm and under
severe fault it trips the transformer from the line by using two
floats which acts as a switch. It is universally use for transformer
having rating more than 750 KVA.
BREATHER:
The breather basically absorbed any moisture that may be caused
due to vaporization of the oil in transformer. It contains silica gel,
which changes colour from blue to off-white as it absorbs moisture.
Thus it provides an indicator mechanism for the quality of the oil.
PROTECTION MECHANISMS:
There are temperature sensors, which can alarm if the
temperature rises beyond a certain limit. Also the water supply
gets activated in case of hazards like fire.

There are also kept RTD(resistance temperature detector) and


PRV(pressure relief valve) for safety.

SWITCHYARD
It is a switching station ,which has the following credits:
Main link between generating plant and transmission system, which
has a
large influence on the security of the
supply.

Step-up and/or step-down the voltage levels depending upon the


Network node.
Switching ON/OFF reactive power control devices, which have effect
on quality of power.
In MTPS has mainly two switchyards. one is 220KV and another one is
400KV.
These two switchyards are of three bus system(also called, one and half
bus system).
1. Main bus I
2. Main bus II
3. Transfer bus

Single Line Diagram of 220kv switchyard

Single Line Diagram Of 400kv


Switchyard
EQUIPMENTS COMMONLY FOUND IN SWITCHYARD:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Circuit Breakers
Current Transformer
Potential Transformer
Capacitor Voltage Transformer
Isolator
Earth Switch
Lightning Arrester
Wave traps
Bus bar & Clamp fittings

1. CIRCUIT BREAKERS:It is an on-load switch which can break the


circuit under any fault condition which can damage other instrument in
the station. It works automatically and also manually.
There are mainly two types CB are used. These are a). SF gas CB, b).
Vacuum Circuit Breaker.
In the 220KV switchyard we have SF CBs (single break) and in the 33kv
switchyard we have VCB.
In the 400kv switchyard we have double break SF CB. This type of CB
arrangement consist of i) gradient capacitor, ii) break, iii) pre-insert
resistor. The gas is put inside the circuit breaker by force under high
pressure. When if the gas gets decreases there is a motor connected to
the circuit breaker. The motor starts operating if the gas went lower
than 20.8 bar. There is a meter connected to the breaker so that it can
be manually seen if the gas goes low. The circuit breakers use the SF
gas to reduce the torque produce in it due to any fault in the line. The
circuit breaker has a direct link with the instruments in the station,
when any fault occur alarm bell rings.
In a single break type only the bus bar end is isolated but in a double
break type, both bus bar(source) and cable (load) ends are broken.
CIRCUIT BREAKER

(Double Break)

(Single Break)

2. CURRENT TRANSFORMER:Current transformers are basically used to take the reading of the
currents entering the station. This transformer steps down the current
from 1600amps to 1 amp. This is done because we have no instruments
to measure such type of huge amount current. This type of transformer
are used to i) protection & ii) measurement purpose.
There are 5 cores used in this type of CT.

CURRENT TRANSFORMER
3.POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER:Potential transformers serve a number of functions in a
power system. They are required for the operation of many types of
instrumentations and relay protective systems. They are mainly used to
step down the high magnitude of voltage to a save value to incorporate
measuring and protection logics. They measures voltage and in
conjunction with CT, they measure power. They feed synchronizing
equipments. They can be used as coupling capacitor in power line

carrier network.This is used in 220KV Switchyard.

(POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER)
4. CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER(CVT):A capacitor
voltage transformer (CVT) is a transformer used in power system to
step down extra high voltage signals and provide low voltage signal
either for measurement or to operate protective relay. In

its most basic form it consist of three parts:


two capacitor across which the voltage
signal is split, an inductive element used to
tune device to the supply frequency and a
transformer to isolate and further step down
voltage for instrumentation and protective
relay. The device has at least four terminals,
a high voltage terminal for connection of high
voltage signal, a ground terminal and at least
one set of secondary terminals for connecting
to the instrumentation and protective relay. CVTs are typically single
phase device used for measuring voltage in excess of one hundred
kilovolts where the use of voltage transformer would be uneconomical.
In practice the first capacitor, C1 is often replaced by a stack capacitor
connected in series. This result in large voltage drop across the stack of
capacitor that replaced the first capacitor and a comparatively small
voltage drop across the second capacitor, C2 and here the secondary
terminals.
5.ISOLATOR:Basically an isolator is off-load switch. The use of this
isolator is to protect the transformer from the other instrument in the
line. The isolator isolates the extra voltage to the ground and thus any
extra voltage cannot enter the line. Thus an isolator is used after the
bus for protection also. Two isolator must be kept in both side of a
breaker.
Type of isolator used in 220KV:
i)Central Rotate Double
Break

(CRDB)
Types of isolator used for 400KV:
i) HCB(horizontal central
break)
ii) pantograph

HCB

Pantograph isolator

6. EARTH SWITCH:Earth switch discharges the capacitive voltage


stored in line on generator side in isolated system just after opening of
CB and isolator. When earth switch is connected to the isolated but undischarged system it discharges the stored energy to the earth, so that
maintenance work can be carried out either in line or in generator side.
Earth switch should be operated only when the isolators are open. In
MTPS all earth switches can be operated manually.

EARTH SWITCH

7. LIGHTENING ARRESTOR:Lightening arrestors are the instruments that


are used in the incoming feeders so that to prevent the high
voltage entering the main station. This high voltage is very
dangerous to the instruments used in the substation. Even the
instruments are very costly, so to prevent any damage lightening
arrestors are used. The lightening arrestors do not let the lighting
to fall on the station. If some lightening occurs the arrestors pull
the lightening and ground it to the earth. In any sub-station the
main important is of protection which is firstly done by these
lightening arrestors. The lightening arrestors are grounded to the
earth so that it can pull the lightening to the ground. The
lightening arrestors work with an angle of 30 to 45 making a
cone. In 400kv switchyard gap-less arrestor are used & gap less
material is ZnO.

LIGHTENING ARRESTOR

WAVE TRAP

8. Wave Traps:Wave trap is nothing but a L-R circuit which can trap the high
frequency communication signals sent on the line from the remote
substation and diverting them to the telecom/tele protection panel
in the substation control room (through coupling capacitor and
LMU).This is relevant in Power Line carrier Communication(PLCC)
systems for communication among various substation without
dependence on the telecom company network. The signals are
primarily tele protection signals and in addition , voice and data
communication signals through same power line.
The wave trap offers high impedance to the high frequency
communication signals thus obstructs the flow of these signals in to
the substation busbars. If there were not to be there, then signal
loss is more and communication will be ineffective/probably
impossible. The total systems occurs by using
modulation/demodulation factors through transmitter and receiver.
9.Bus bar & Clamp fittings:The bus is a line in which the incoming feeders come into and get
into the instruments for further step up or step down. There may be
double line in the bus so that if any fault occurs, other can works.
Thus the supply will not stop.
In MTPS there have two switchyards with three bus.
i)Main bus-1 & ii)Main bus 2 Buses are main source of power in power
system grid the generators or the alternator are connected in parallel to
the main bus 1 or 2 to supply the power in the grid.
iii)Transfer busUsually there is no power at the time of normal
operation in a transfer bus of a generating station. When there is a fault
in certain line so power cannot be transferred to a main bus. So
transfer bus is used to transfer the power from one main bus to other
main bus.
In MTPS 220KV switchyard has 31no.of Bay.Among them six for
GT,twelve for Line,five for SST,two for 80MVA Transformer,four for Bus
coupler,two for Bus tie and 400KV switchyard has 10 no. of bay. Among
them four line bay, two for GT, two for ST, one for bus-tie and another

one is bus coupler. Mainly bus coupler is used to maintain the supply
under fault conditions of a breaker.
10.INSULATORS:The overhead line conductors are bare and not
covered with any insulating materials. The line conductors are
therefore, secured to the supporting structures by means of insulating
fixtures, called insulators, in order that there is no current leakage to
the earth through the supports. Insulators are mounted on the crossarms and the line conductors are attached to the insulator so as to
provide the conductors proper insulation and also provide necessary
clearance between conductors and metal works. The insulators must
provide proper insulation and necessary clearance against the highest
voltage in worst atmospheric conditions to which the line is likely to be
subjected. The insulator also prevent short circuiting between the
different phase conductors and provide necessary mechanical support
for the line conductors. Thus the insulators undoubtly one of the most
important and vulnerable links in transmission and distribution of
overhead transmission and distribution.
In MTPS switchyards mainly disc type, string type, pin type insulators
are used.

RATINGS
SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKER(Single
Break)
Rated voltage
245KV
Rated Impulse withstand voltage
KV
Rated power frequency voltage
KVp
Rated frequency
Hz
Rated normal current
A
Rated short time current
Rated short-circuit duration
First pole to clear factor
Symmetrical
KA
Breaking capacity equivalent
MVA
Asymmetrical
46.4KA
Rated making current
KAp
Rated pressure of hydraulic operated mechanism gauge
bar
Rated pressure of SF at 20C(gauge)
Weight of complete breaker
Weight of SF gas
Rated trip coil voltage
220V(DC)
Rated closing coil voltage
220V(DC)

:
:1050
:460
:50
:2000
:40 KA
:1 s
:1.3
:40
:19000
:
:100
:250-350
:6.5 bar
:4051kg
:25 kg
:
:

SF CIRCUIT BREAKER(Double
Break)
Rated voltage
KV
Rated Impulse withstand voltage
1050/1425 KVp
Rated power frequency voltage
520/610 KV
Rated frequency
Hz
Rated normal current
A
Rated short time current
Rated short-circuit duration
First pole to clear factor
Symmetrical
KA
Breaking capacity equivalent
MVA
Asymmetrical
KA
Rated making current
KAp
Rated pressure of hydraulic operated mechanism gauge
bar
Rated pressure of SF at 20C(gauge)
Weight of complete breaker
Weight of SF gas
kg
Rated trip coil voltage
20
-10 Volt DC
Rated closing coil voltage
20
-10 Volt DC

:420
:
:
:50
:3150
:40 KA
:1 s
:1.3
:40
:29000
:52.5
:100
:313 3
:7.5 bar
:9181 kg
:57.5
:220+

: 220+

CENTRAL ROTATE DOUBLE BREAK


ISOLATOR
Make
Type
Volt(kv)
BIL(kv)
STC(kA/sec)
Curent(Amp)
Type of Drive
Motor Voltage(AC)(V)
Control Ckt. Voltage(D.C)(V)

:H.L.M.Industries
:CRDB
:245
:1250
:40
:1250
:Motor
:415
:230
HORIZONTAL CENTRAL BREAK

ISOLATOR
Type
Volt( KV)
BIL (KV)
Switching Impulse(KV)
P (KV)
STC(KA/sec)
Weight of isolator(kg)
Frequency(Hz)
Current(A)
Type of drive
Motor voltage(AC)(V)
Control voltage(DC)(V)
Weight of drive(kg)

:HCB
:420
:1425
:1050/1245
:610
:40
:1950 approx
:50
:2000
:Motor
:415
:220
:100

PANTOGRAPH TYPE ISOLATOR


Type
Volt( KV)
BIL (KV)
Switching Impulse(KV)
P (KV)
STC(KA/sec)
Weight of isolator(kg)
Frequency(Hz)
Current(A)
Type of drive
Motor voltage(AC)(V)
Control voltage(DC)(V)
Weight of drive(kg)

:Pantograph
:420
:1425
:1050/1245
:610
:40
:1950 approx
:50
:2000
:Motor
:415
:220
:100

EARTHING SWITCH
Type
Volt( KV)
BIL (KV)
STC(KA/sec)
Weight of isolator(kg)
Frequency(Hz)
Current(A)
Type of drive
Motor voltage(AC)(V)
Control voltage(DC)(V)
Weight of drive(kg)

:Telescopic
:420
:1425
:40
:78/pole
:50
:2000
:Motor
:415
:220
:100

PROTECTION OF SWITHYARD:The main protections are given to line & bus-bars under different faults
are
1.Distance protection:- In this type, the relay operates when the
ratio of the voltage & current changes beyond a specified limit.
2.Over current protection:- All buses have a specific limit to flow the
current, if current is more beyond this limit, then the o/c relay will
operate.
3.Over voltage protection:- Same as o/c protection ,all buses have a
specific limit to withstand a maximum voltage, if this voltage is over,
then the over voltage relay will operate.
4.Earthfault protection:- Earth fault protection is one of the main
protection of the lines. If there occur any earth fault, the earth fault
relay will operate.
5.Directional protection :- Sometimes after occurring the earth fault
in line in radial system, then the direction of the current may change.
Then the directional relay will operate.
STATION GROUNDING SYSTEM:
Power station grounding system
shall be designed a) to obtain effectively low neutral to ground

resistance for limiting the system over voltage and aid the operation of
the protective relays in the event of ground faults and b) to limit
dangerous potential gradients along the surface during short circuit
currents for ensuring safety of operating personnel.
Normally separate ground grids buried below the earth at a depth of 0.5
mts are constructed for the power house and the switchyard. These two
grids are interconnected at several points, The grid consists of 20 mm
dia. MS rod arranged in mesh form and welded at the inter section
points. To improve the conductivity between the earth and the grid
vertical spikes are inserted deep into the earth and welded to these
horizontal rods. Earth pits are also constructed when required. Vertical
risers are taken from the ground grid for connection to the ground bus
above the surface.
In a grounded system the neutral point of a transformer or that
of a generator is connected to this bus through resistance or grounding
transformer or directly as the case may be. All, the non current carrying
metallic portions of electrical equipments (such as the enclosure, cable
box etc) , steel structures , towers, pole etc are to be connected to this
ground bus.

MOTORS:
Definition:
Electric motors are electromagnetic energy converters whose
function is based on the force exerted between electrical currents and
magnetic fieldswhich are usually electrically excited as well. It
basically converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.

Various types of motors:


DC motors: shunt series and compound
AC motors: single phase, three phase synchronous motors,
induction motors.
Voltage: HT motor, LT motor, Control(servo) motor.
According to the types of excitation motors are divided into two
types:
Singly excited:

AC induction motor: An induction motor is an alternating current


motor in which the primary winding of the stator is connected to
the power source and a secondary winding or a squirrel cage
secondary winding of the rotor carries the induced current. There
is no physical electrical connection to the secondary winding, in its
current is induced.
Doubly excited:
Synchronous motor: It has a conventional three phase stator. Its
rotor winding is DC excited and its speed is dependent on the
number of pairs of stator poles. True synchronous motor is not self
starting, squirrel cage motor or wound rotor motor are required to
accelerate to near synchronous speed. When operating at
synchronous speed the power factor of the motor can be changed
by varying the degree of excitation.

Types of AC motors:
Squirrel cage induction motor: 3 ph. Winding in stator, copper bars
in rotor.
Wound rotor:3 ph. Winding in stator, 3 ph. Winding in rotor(shorted
internally).
Wound rotor with slip ring: 3 ph. Winding in stator, 3 ph. Winding in
rotor(terminated to slip rings).
Synchronous motor: 3 ph. Winding in stator, DC winding in
rotor(terminated to slip rings)
According to voltage level:There are also two types of AC motors,
called HT motors and LT motors.
HT MOTORS: In the unit U#5 and U#6 ,the motor whose operating
voltage is 6.6KV is under below.
HT motor(W/V/Amps)
BFP:
4.6MW/6.6KV/469A
ID Fan:
1825KW/6.6KV/202A
FD Fan:
825KW/6.6KV/91A
PA Fan:
1275KW/6.6KV/133.5A
Coal Mill:
2400KW/6.6KV/264A
BCW(Boiler circulating Pump):
55KW/6.6KV/98.5A
CEP(Condense Extraction Pump):
325KW/6.6KV/36A
Compressor Motor:
250KW/6.6KV/28A

Circulation Water Pump:

1920KW/6.6KV/215A

In this power plant ,the motor whose operating voltage is 11kv and
3.3kv , known as HT motors.
HT motors(W/KV/Amps):
MD BFP
:10 MW/11KV/605A
ID Fan
:3400KW/11 KV/2*522A
(Synchronous Motor)
FD Fan
:1037KW/11 KV/70.4A
PA Fan
:2925KW/11KV/176A
Coal Mill
:525KW/3.3KV/126.5A
BCW(Boiler circulating water pump) :350KW/3.3 KV/89.1A
CEP(Condensate extraction p/p)
:900 KW/3.3 KV/191A
Compressor Motor
:315 KW/3.3 KV
LT MOTORS: In this power plant there are so many motors which
operates at 415 V for different purpose, these motors are called LT
motors.

Classification of induction motors:


Squirrel cage induction motors: This entire winding is made up of
heavy copper bars connected together at each end by a metal ring
made of copper and brass. No insulation is required between the
core and the bars. This is because of very low voltage generated in
the rotor bars.
Slip ring or wound motors: There rotor resistance can be increased
by inserting an external resistance through the slip rings.

Performance terms:
Efficiency: =P t / P in.= 1 (P loss/P in)
Motor loading: Actual operating load to the motor/ Rated capacity
of the motor
Power factor: Cos = (KW/KVA)
Motor losses:
Core loss
Stator and rotor resistance losses
Friction and windage losses

Stray load losses

Various insulation:
Class of insulation:
Max allowable temp(C):

Y
90

A
105

E
120

B
130

F
H
155 180

Reasons for the failure of motors:

Bad manufacturing quality


Continuous over loading
Frequent starts in short duration
Incorrect setting / calibration of protection
Improper maintenance
Failure of interlocks

DC SYSTEM:

There are always kept a DC system to operate the auxiliary system


under emergency condition such as start up , tripping of the TG ,
failure of AC.
In MTPS phase-II two battery banks are present, one for Internal
power house, another for switchyard control. In switchyard control
room there is a battery room and an AC DB room. 220 volt DC for
controlling the protection system and 48 volt DC for PLCC system.
There also a back up battery bank is kept.
Batteries are connected in series. For checking the healthiness of the
battery specific gravity measurement is done periodically by
hydrometer. In AC DB room Float and Float cum Boost charger are
kept.
Capacity of a battery : 645 Ah(220V DC)
250Ah(48V DC)
Total battery : 110(220V DC)
24(48V DC)
YHP-13 for 220v DC.
No. of negative plate(7)= No. of positive plate(6)+1.
YKP-21 for 48v DC.

DIESEL GENERATOR:
In the Black Out Condition when there is no power in Generating
Station from Turbo Generator and also not from grid,in this condition
to supply the emergency equipment,like scanner fan,BFP,ID Fan,Seal
Oil Pump,Elevation System through emergency board, we need this
Diesel Generator.In every unit there is one DG set and in case of unit
U#7 and U#8 there is Two DG set to supply the emergency
equipment of that corresponding unit.The capacity of DG Set at unit
U#5 and U#6 is 750KVA.

CONCLUSION
Generation of quality power at a low cost being the
prerogative of a thermal power plant, DVC MTPS aims
at using best technologies through experienced hands
to generate profitable outcomes while scoring points
on environmental safety.
Also, transmission of power while keeping safety of
grid as well as power plant at sight is a massive duty
that comes at hand in the whole process of
distribution of power. These are done with utmost
care in DVC, MTPS using various components as
described in the previous write-ups.