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UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

TRAINING REPORT ON

UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY TRAINING REPORT ON DAMODAR VALLEY ORPORATION SUBMITTED BY: • HABIB MOLLAH (2011-6029)

DAMODAR VALLEY ORPORATION

SUBMITTED BY: • HABIB MOLLAH
SUBMITTED
BY:
HABIB MOLLAH

(2011-6029)

SANCHAYITA DAS

(2011-6010)

UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY TRAINING REPORT ON DAMODAR VALLEY ORPORATION SUBMITTED BY: • HABIB MOLLAH (2011-6029)
SUBMITTED TO:
SUBMITTED
TO:

Mr. KALLOL ROY

(H.O.D OF ELECTRICAL ENGG)

WHAT IS DVC ? DVC (Damodar Valley Corporation)a legacy to the people of India, emerged as

WHAT IS DVC ?

DVC (Damodar Valley Corporation)a legacy to the people of India, emerged as a culmination of attempts made over a whole century to control the wild and erratic Damodar river. The river spans over an area of 24,235 km 2 covering the states of Jharkhand (Dhanbad, Bokaro, Hazaribagh, Koderma, Giridih, Chhatra, Palamau, Rachi, Lohardaga and Doomka) & West Bengal (Burdwan , Hooghly, Howrah, Bankura and Purulia).

WHAT IS DVC ? DVC (Damodar Valley Corporation)a legacy to the people of India, emerged as

OBJECTIVES/PURPOSE :

OBJECTIVES/PURPOSE :  FLOOD CONTROL.  IRRIGATION.  WATER SUPPLY- INDUSTRIAL AND DOMESTIC.  NAVIGATION &

FLOOD CONTROL.

IRRIGATION. WATER SUPPLY- INDUSTRIAL AND DOMESTIC. NAVIGATION & DRAINAGE.

GENERATION,

TRANSMISSION

ELECTRICAL ENERGY.

AND

DISTRIBUTION OF

AFFORESTATION AND CONTROL OF SOIL EROSION.

PROMOTION

OF

PUBLIC

HEALTH, AGRICULTURE,

INDUSTRIAL, ECONOMIC AND GENERAL WELL BEING IN

THE VALLEY.

LANDMARKS ACHIEVED :

LANDMARKS ACHIEVED :  DVC- FIRST MULTIPURPOSE RIVER VALLEY PROJECT BY THE GOVT. OF INDIA. 

DVC- FIRST MULTIPURPOSE RIVER VALLEY PROJECT BY THE GOVT. OF INDIA.

DVC- ORGANIZATION GENERATING POWER THROUGH THREE SOURCES- COAL, WATER AND

LIQUID FUEL. FIRST UNDERGROUND HYDEL STATION- MAITHON.

BTPS- NATION’S BIGGEST THERMAL POWER PLANT IN THE 50’S OF THE LAST CENTURY

BTPS

BOILERS-

FIRST TO

BURN

UNTAPPED

LOW-GRADE

COAL IN

PULVERIZED

FUEL

FURNACES. CTPS- THE FIRST RE-HEAT UNITS IN INDIA, UTILIZING HIGH STEAM PARAMETER.

MTPS- FIRST OF ITS KIND IN EASTERN INDIA WITH TUBE MILLS IN SERVICE FOR ZERO REJECT. DIRECT IGNITION OF PULVERIZED COAL (DIPC) SYSTEM FOR REDUCING OIL CONSUMPTION IN THE BOILER.

-: DVC Infrastructure At A Glance :-

DVC COMMAND AREA

24,235 SQ. KMS

POWER MANAGEMENT

TOTAL INSTALLED CAPACITY

2796.5 MW

THERMAL POWER STATIONS

FIVE CAPACITY 2570 MW

HYDEL POWER STATIONS

THREE CAPACITY 144 MW

GAS TURBINE STATION

ONE CAPACITY 82.5 MW

SUB-STATIONS AND RECEIVING STATIONS

 

AT 220 KV– 11 NOS. AT 132 KV– 33 NOS. AT 33 KV– 16 NOS.

TRANSMISSION LINES

  • 220 KV– 1500 CKT KMS

  • 132 KV– 3415 CKT KMS

-: DVC Infrastructure At A Glance :- DVC COMMAND AREA 24,235 SQ. KMS POWER MANAGEMENT TOTAL
DVC POWER PLANTS AT A GLANCE NAME LOCATION CAPACITY THERMAL BOKARO 'B' DIST .- BOKARO STATE
DVC POWER PLANTS AT A GLANCE
NAME
LOCATION
CAPACITY
THERMAL
BOKARO 'B'
DIST .- BOKARO
STATE – JHARKHAND
DIST .- BOKARO
STATE – JHARKHAND
630
MW
(3 X 210 MW)
CHANDRAPURA
890
MW
(3 X 130 MW)
+
(2 X 250 MW)
DURGAPUR
DIST .- BARDDHAMAN
STATE - WEST BENGAL
350
MW
(1X140 MW)
+
(1X210 MW)
MEJIA
DIST .- BANKURA
STATE - WEST BENGAL
2340
MW
(4 X 210 MW)
+
(2 X 250 MW)
+
(2 X 500 MW)
DSTPS
DIST .- BARDHAMAN
STATE - WEST BENGAL
DIST .- KODERMA
STATE – JHARKHAND
1000
MW
(2 X 500 MW)
KTPS
500
MW
(1 X 500 MW)
TOTAL THERMAL
5710 MW

NAME

LOCATION

EXISTING CAPACITY

 

HYDEL

RIVER - BARAKAR DIST .- HAZARIBAGH

4 MW (2 X 2 MW)

STATE – JHARKHAND

RIVER - BARAKAR DIST .- BURDHAMAN STATE - WEST BENGAL

63.2 MW (2 X 20 MW) + (1 X 23.2 MW)

RIVER - DAMODAR DIST .- DHANBAD

80 MW (2 X 40 MW)

STATE – JHANKHAND

TOTAL HYDEL

147.2 MW

NAME LOCATION EXISTING CAPACITY HYDEL <a href=TILAIYA RIVER - BARAKAR DIST .- HAZARIBAGH 4 MW (2 X 2 MW) STATE – JHARKHAND MAITHON RIVER - BARAKAR DIST .- BURDHAMAN STATE - WEST BENGAL 63.2 MW (2 X 20 MW) + (1 X 23.2 MW) PANCHET RIVER - DAMODAR DIST .- DHANBAD 80 MW (2 X 40 MW) STATE – JHANKHAND TOTAL HYDEL 147.2 MW GRAND TOTAL (THERMAL + HYDEL) 5857.2 MW " id="pdf-obj-6-54" src="pdf-obj-6-54.jpg">
GRAND TOTAL (THERMAL + HYDEL) 5857.2 MW
GRAND TOTAL (THERMAL + HYDEL)
5857.2 MW

DAMS

DAMS
DAMS
MAITHON DAM KEY OBJECTIVES FLOOD CONTOL GENERATION OF ELECTRIC POWER IRRIGATIO NAVIGATIO N & N WATER

MAITHON DAM

KEY OBJECTIVES FLOOD CONTOL GENERATION OF ELECTRIC POWER IRRIGATIO NAVIGATIO N & N WATER SUPPLY TO
KEY OBJECTIVES
FLOOD
CONTOL
GENERATION OF
ELECTRIC POWER
IRRIGATIO
NAVIGATIO
N &
N
WATER
SUPPLY TO
INDUSTRIE
S AND
DRAINAGE

DOMESTIC S

Maithon Hydel

MAITHON HYDEL POWER STATION (MHPS) IS LOCATED ON THE RIVER

BARAKAR. FIRST UNDERGROUND POWER STATION.

GENERATING CAPACITY OF 60 MW.

MHPS -1000 FEET BELOW THE WATER LEVEL.

MAITHON HYDEL POWER 220 KV STATION KALYANESHWARI TRAINING AT SUBSTATION
MAITHON HYDEL POWER
220 KV STATION KALYANESHWARI
TRAINING AT
SUBSTATION

CENTRAL LOAD DISPATCH

ON

ON OVERVIEW

OVERVIEW

ON OVERVIEW

Power Generation

Entrusted

with

the

responsibilities of

providing the vital input power for industrial growth in the resource rich Damodar Valley region, DVC has been practically operating as a pioneer, using latest available technologies to supply bulk power at reasonable rates to the major industries.

DVC

has maintained its

lead

role

in the

eastern

region

by

adopting

itself

to

the

challenges of time and technology during the course of last 59 years. DVC has been generating

and

transmitting

power

since

1953

and

has

succeeded

not

only

in

meeting the

needs of

consumers but has also helped to increase the

demand of development.

power which

itself is

an index

of

MAITHON HYDEL POWER STATION

MAITHON HYDEL POWER STATION Maithon Hydal Power Station is located on the river Barakar 12.9 km

Maithon Hydal Power Station is located on the river Barakar 12.9 km above its confluence with the Damodar near the border of Dhanbad and Burdwan districts of the state of Jharkhand and West Bengal respectively. The unique feature of this hydal power station is that it is located underground in the left bank of the river and is the first of its kind in India. The Power station has a total generating capacity of 60 MW with 3 units of 20 MW each.

How Hydropower Works
How Hydropower Works

WATER TURBINE:

water turbines are used to convert

the energy of falling water into mechanical

energy.

PENSTOCK:

It is a closed conduit which connects the fore bay or surge tank to the scroll

case of the turbine.

Maithon Hydel Station At A Glance

1. Drainage area 2430 sq . mile

  • 2. Inflow(maximum) 2500 cusec

  • 3. Annual rainfall(max) 70 inch

  • 4. Annual rainfall(avg.) 30.5 inch

  • 5. Area design 28400 al

  • 6. Length of back water 15 miles

  • 7. Major reservoir level 86-500h

  • 8. Gross strong capacity 104,0000 Al H

  • 9. Flood control reservoir 440000 Al H

    • 10. Monsoon storage capacity 496000 Al H

    • 11. Estimated cost of station 4.71 crores

20 Mw Generator Specification

1. Simmens Sehuckert,Germany

  • 2. 3PH,generator no.D73445

  • 3. Type-PFL 670/47-34

  • 4. Y11,000 volt,1310/1525amp

  • 5. RPM-176.6

  • 6. KVA-25000/29000

  • 7. P.F-0.8 const.

Excitor Specification

1. V: 295/330/445

  • 2. A: 465/505/700

Main Excitor

1. DC GEN. NO-D39408

  • 2. TYPE-GV 441/36

  • 3. V-310,333,500

SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF HYDEL POWER STATION

MEASURING INSTRUMENT USED –

ENERGY METER - To measure the energy transmitted energy meters are fitted to the panel to different feeders the energy transmitted is recorded after one hour regularly for it MWHr, meter is provided

WATTMETERS - It is attached to each feeder to record the power exported from DVC.

FREQUENCY METER - To measure the frequency at each feeder there is the provision of analog or digital frequency meter.

FREQUENCY METER - To measure the frequency at each feeder there is the provision of analog or digital frequency meter.

VOLTMETER - It is provided to measure the phase to phase voltage .It is also available in both the analog and digital frequency meter.

AMMETER - It is provided to measure the line current. It is also available in both the forms analog as well as digital.

MAXIMUM DEMAND INDICATOR - There are also mounted the control panel to record the average power over successive predetermined period

MVAR METER - It is to measure the reactive power of the circuit

GENERATED POWER

ELECTRIC POWER TRANSMISSION

ELECTRIC-POWER TRANSMISSION IS THE BULK TRANSFER OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY, FROM GENERATING POWER PLANTS TO ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION LOCATED NEAR DEMAND CENTERS.

ELECTRIC POWER TRANSMISSION ELECTRIC-POWER TRANSMISSION IS THE BULK TRANSFER OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY , FROM GENERATING POWER

AT IS AN ELECTRIC SUBSTATION?

A SUBSTATION IS A PART OF AN ELECTRICAL GENERATION, TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. SUBSTATIONS TRANSFORM VOLTAGE FROM HIGH TO LOW, OR THE REVERSE, USING STEP-UP OR STEP-DOWN TRANSFORMERS.

ELECTRIC POWER TRANSMISSION ELECTRIC-POWER TRANSMISSION IS THE BULK TRANSFER OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY , FROM GENERATING POWER

ELEMENTS OF A SUBSTATION A:PRIMARY POWER LINES' SIDE B:SECONDARY POWER LINES' SIDE 1.PRIMARY POWER LINES 2.GROUND WIRE 3.OVERHEAD LINES 4.TRANSFORMER FOR MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRIC VOLTAGE 5.DISCONNECT SWITCH 6.CIRCUIT BREAKER 7.CURRENT TRANSFORMER 8.LIGHTNING ARRESTER 9.MAIN TRANSFORMER 10.CONTROL BUILDING 11.SECURITY FENCE 12.SECONDARY

220KV KALYANESWARI SUB-STATION

220KV KALYANESWARI SUB-STATION

220KV SYSTEM (12 BAYS)

220KV LINES: -

1)

L#228(KALYANESWARI-MTPS)

2)

L#229(KALYANESWARI-MTPS)

3)

L#203(KALYANESWARI-CTPS)

4)

L#204(KALYANESWARI-CTPS)

5)

L#217(KALYANESWARI-PGCIL, PITHAKARI)

6)

L#218(KALYANESWARI-PGCIL, PITHAKARI)

BUS COUPLER: - 02 NOS.

AUTOTRANSFORMERS: -

220KV SYSTEM (12 BAYS) 220KV LINES: - 1) L#228(KALYANESWARI-MTPS) 2) L#229(KALYANESWARI-MTPS) 3) L#203(KALYANESWARI-CTPS) 4) L#204(KALYANESWARI-CTPS) 5)

BUS TIE BAY:-01NO.

ATR#1CGL MAKE 150MVA, 220KV/132KV

ATR#2 CGL MAKE 150MVA, 220KV/132KV

ATR#3 BHEL MAKE 150MVA, 220KV/132KV

132KV SYSTEM (11 BAYS)

132KV LINES: -

1) L# 18(KLN-KLP) 2) L# 19KLN-KLP) 3) L# 68(MHS-KLN) 4) L# 69(MHS-KLN) 5) MAL-IMPEX FDR (CD – 61MVA)

BUS COUPLER: - 01 NO.

AUTOTRANSFORMERS: -

1) ATR#1CGL MAKE 150MVA, 220KV/132KV 2) ATR#2 CGL MAKE 150MVA, 220KV/132KV 3) ATR#3 CGL MAKE 150MVA, 220KV/132KV

TWO WINDING TRANSFORMERS:-

1)

50 MVA, 132/33KV, APEX MAKE.

2)

31.5MVA, 132/33KV, TELK MAKE.

SUBSTATIO N CONTROL BUILDING
SUBSTATIO
N
CONTROL
BUILDING

33KV SYSTEM

NAME OF THE CONSUMERS:

1) IMPEX STEEL (PVT) LTD.(CD-7.0MVA) 2) HIRA CONCUST STEEL PVT LTD (CD-7.0MVA) 3) CITY ALLOYS PVT. LTD. (CD-3.0MVA) 4) BMA STAINLESS LIMITED (CD-12.0MVA) 5) JAGDAMBA ISPAT PVT LIMITED (CD-3.0MVA) 6) MAA LILORI ISPAT LTD. (CD- 3.0MVA) 7) CHHABRA ISPAT PVT. LTD.(CD – 8MVA)

SWITCHYA RD
SWITCHYA
RD
SUBSTATIO N CONTROL BUILDING 33KV SYSTEM NAME OF THE CONSUMERS: 1) IMPEX STEEL (PVT) LTD.(CD-7.0MVA) 2)

SUBSTATION PARTS AND EQUIPMENT

OUTDOOR

SWITCHYARD

INCOMING & OUTGOING LINES BUSBARS POWER TRANSFORMERS AND MEASUREMENT TRANSFORMERS INSULATORS

SUBSTATION PARTS AND EQUIPMENT OUTDOOR SWITCHYARD INCOMING & OUTGOING LINES  BUSBARS  POWER TRANSFORMERS AND

CIRCUIT-BEAKERS & ISOLATORS LIGHTNING ARRESTORS GALVANISED STEEL STRUCTURES FOR TOWERS & EQUIPMENT SUPPORTS. ROADS, RAILWAY TRACK, CABLE TRENCHES PLCC EQUIPMENT INCLUDING LINE TRAP, TUNING UNIT, COUPLING CAPACITOR, ETC.

STATION EARTHING SYSTEM COMPRISING GROUND MAT, RISERS, AUXILIARY MAT, EARTHING STRIPS, EARTHING SPIKES & EARTH ELECTRODES. CONTROL CABLES FOR PROTECTION AND CONTROL

CONTROL BUILDING

IN EVERY SUB-STATION CERTAIN SUPERVISION, CONTROL AND PROTECTION FUNCTIONS ARE NECESSARY. SO A CONTROL BUILDING/CONTROL ROOM IS REQUIRED. THE RELAY AND PROTECTION PANELS AND CONTROL PANELS ARE INSTALLED IN THE CONTROL ROOM.

CONTROL IN SUB-STATION ARE OF TWO CATEGORIES.

  • 1. NORMAL ROUTINE OPERATION BY OPERATORS COMMAND.

FUNCTIONS OF CONTROL ROOM

  • 1. ALARM FUNCTIONS

  • 2. CONTROL AND INDICATION

  • 3. DATA COLLECTION, RECORDING,

TRANSFORMERS PRESENT IN KALYANESHWARI SUBSTATION

DISPLAY

150 MVA 220/132KV AUTO-TRANSFORMER

FUNCTIONS OF CONTROL ROOM 1. ALARM FUNCTIONS 2. CONTROL AND INDICATION 3. DATA COLLECTION, RECORDING, TRANSFORMERS

Make –BHEL Year of manufacture: 2003 Type of cooling: ONAN/ONAF/OFAF Rating HV & LV (VA)- 75/ 105/ 50 ( 50%/75%/100%) Rating LV - 10/ 14/20

(50%/70%/100%)

Temp rise oil- 40C (Over Ambient of 50) Temp rise winding- 45(Over Ambient of 50) Purchase order Ref- PE-SPEC-719(R)/581257 Dated 03.12.02 Maker Sl No- 6006080 Elect Spec No- 601098 Phase 3Ǿ Frequency 50 Hz Connection Symbol- YNa0d1 Impedance Volt at 150MVA Base HV Position (1/IV)12.6% to 16.24%

HV Position (9b/IV) HV Position (17/IV)

14.1% to 15.5% 13% to 16.77%

No Load Voltage HV (Kv)-230 No Load Voltage IV (Kv)- 138 No Load Voltage LV (Kv)-6.9 Line Current HV (Amps)-188.5/263.9/377.0 Line Current LV (Amps)- 314.2/439.8/628.3 Line Current LV (Amps)- 837.8/1172.9/1675.5

Insulation Level:

HV- L1 950AC 395-L1 170 AC 70 IV- L1550AC 275 LV-L1 75AC 2×6.9 Diagram DRG No- 34631900019 OGA DRG No- 3463000066 Core and winding (Kg)- 59700 Weight of oil (Kg)- 38280 Total weight (Kg)-140365 Oil quantity (L)- 44000 Transport Weight (Kg)-79000 Undertaking weight (Kg) – 59700

Instrume nt transfor mer Current Potential transfor transfor mer mer
Instrume
nt
transfor
mer
Current
Potential
transfor
transfor
mer
mer

CURRENT TRANSFORMER (CT):

MAKE – ELECTRIC POWER EQUIPMENT CO. MSR INDUSTRIES ESTATE, BANGALORE – 560054

TYPE – OHCDB-R HSV – 36KV SERIAL NO. – 33193 FREQ – 50 HZ. RATED VOLTAGE – 33KV SHORT TIME THERMAL CURRENT – 15.15KA FOR 3 SECS

25.24KA FOR 1 SECS

INSULATION – 70/170KV QTY OF OIL/WT. – 20 LTR./ 24 KG APRX. DYNAMIC CURRENT – 65.6 KAP YEAR – 1999 TOTAL WT. – 150 KGS (APRX)

MAX. TEMP. RISE

- WINDING - 45C

INSULATION – ‘A’ OVER AMBIENT (45C) OIL - 40C CONTINUOUS THERMAL CURRENT – 780 A

Instrume nt transfor mer Current Potential transfor transfor mer mer CURRENT TRANSFORMER (CT): MAKE – ELECTRIC

POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER (PT):

MAKE – MODERN ELECTRONIC TYPE – OPT RATIO – 33KV3 / 1103V /1103V. HSV – 36KV, PHASE – 1, FREQ- 50 HZ INSULATION CLASS – A

CORE -

I

II

BURDEN -

100

100

CLASS -

0.2

3P

V.F -

1.2 CONT. & 1.9 FOR 30 S

CONN – PH – E BIL – 70/170KV TEMP. RISE OVER

WDG

OIL

 

45C

35C

OIL QTY. – 20 LTR. TOTAL WT. – 90KG ISS – 3156, SL. NO.- ME/PT/411/08 P.O NO. – CE(T)/P – 4/ST – BB/2087

Instrume nt transfor mer Current Potential transfor transfor mer mer CURRENT TRANSFORMER (CT): MAKE – ELECTRIC

Circuit Breakers:

MAIN FUNCTION OF CIRCUIT BREAKER IS TO SWITCH OFF AND SWITCH ON THE NORMAL CURRENT AND TOP TRIP THE CIRCUIT AT THE OCCURANCE OF ANY FAULT.

CIRCUIT BREAKERS USED IN THIS SUBSTATION:

MINIMUM OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER

SF 6 CIRCUIT BREAKER

Circuit Breakers : MAIN FUNCTION OF CIRCUIT BREAKER IS TO SWITCH OFF AND SWITCH ON THE

SFCIRCUIT BREAKER (220KV SYSTEM) DETAILS :

Type - 3AP1F1

Year of Manufacturing/No - 2006/IND/01/2276 Rated Voltage

  • 245 kV

Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage

1050 kVP

Rated Power Freq. withstand voltage

  • 460 kV

Rated Frequency 50 Hz Rated Normal Current 3150 A Rated S. Circuit breaking current

40kA

Rated S. Circuit Duration S Rated out of phase breaking current

3

Circuit Breakers : MAIN FUNCTION OF CIRCUIT BREAKER IS TO SWITCH OFF AND SWITCH ON THE

Isolators:

ISOLATORS GIVE PHYSICAL SEPARATION BETWEEN LIVE PART AND DEAD PART. PHYSICAL SEPARATION CAN BE SEEN BY NAKED EYE FROM A DISTANCE.

Surge/Ligthning Arrestors (LA):

SINGLE POLE UNITS CONNECTED BETWEEN BUSBAR AND GROUND. HIGH VOLTAGE SURGES CAUSED BY LIGHTNING OR SWITCHING ARE DISCHARGED EFFECTIVELY TO EARTH.

Isolators: ISOLATORS GIVE PHYSICAL SEPARATION BETWEEN LIVE PART AND DEAD PART. PHYSICAL SEPARATION CAN BE SEEN
Isolators: ISOLATORS GIVE PHYSICAL SEPARATION BETWEEN LIVE PART AND DEAD PART. PHYSICAL SEPARATION CAN BE SEEN
Isolators: ISOLATORS GIVE PHYSICAL SEPARATION BETWEEN LIVE PART AND DEAD PART. PHYSICAL SEPARATION CAN BE SEEN

Bus bars: BUSBARS ARE CONDUCTORS OF ADEQUATE CROSS-SECTION, SUPPORTED ON INSULATORS

Isolators: ISOLATORS GIVE PHYSICAL SEPARATION BETWEEN LIVE PART AND DEAD PART. PHYSICAL SEPARATION CAN BE SEEN

PROTECTION & CONTROL:

Objectives of Protection:

I) TO DISCONNECT THE FAULTY CIRCUIT WITH MINIMUM DAMAGE DUE TO FAULT. II) TO LEAVE THE REST OF THE POWER SYSTEM IN A HEALTHY STATE. III) COST OF REPAIR OF DAMAGE TO BE KEPT MINIMUM. IV) TO RESTRICT POSSIBILITY OF SPREADING AND INVOLVING OTHER EQUIPMENT. V) TO REDUCE TIME THE EQUIPMENT OUT OF SERVICE. VI) TO MINIMIZE COST OF REVENUE LOSS.

Characteristic of Protection:

I) VERY FAST II) SELECTIVE III) SENSITIVE III) STABLE UNDER EXTERNAL FAULT

PROTECTION & CONTROL: Objectives of Protection : I) TO DISCONNECT THE FAULTY CIRCUIT WITH MINIMUM DAMAGE

REFERENCES

article.wn.com (Generation) nirmancare.com (Hydro Power Plant) old.optcl.co.in (Power Grid) kalkitech.com (block of CLD) Company Manual (HR Department) Sub Station Manual