IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

3, Issue 12, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Foot Step Power Generation using Piezoelectric Material
Miss. Mathane Nitashree Vinayak1 Miss. Salaunkhe Arati Laxman2 Miss. Gaikwad Sayali
Shashikant3 Miss. Yadav Priyanka Dinkar4
1,2,3,4
Department of Electronics and Telecommunication
1,2,3,4
Dr. Daulatrao Aher College of Engg. Karad. Dist-Satara Maharashtra, India
Abstract— Power generation and its use is one of the issues.
Now-a-days numbers of power sources are present nonrenewable & renewable, but still we can’t overcome our
power needs. Among these human population is one of the
resources. In this project we are doing generation of power by
walking or running. Power can be generated by walking on
the stairs. The generated power will be stored and then we can
use it for domestic purpose. This system can be installed at
homes, schools, colleges, where the people move around the
clock. When people walk on the steps or that of platform,
power is generated by using weight of person. The control
mechanism carries piezoelectric sensor, this mechanical
energy applied on the crystal into electrical energy. When
there is some vibrations, stress or straining force exert by foot
on flat platform. It can be used for charging devices e.g.
laptop, mobile, etc. The generated power is first applied to
booster and output from piezoelectric is increased and given
to the battery through unidirectional current controller and ac
ripple neutralizer. Output from battery is used for various
applications using inverter to convert DC into AC. In this
paper we are discussing about applications and generations of
electricity in the area of power harvesting.
Key words: Piezoelectric, electrical energy

II. BLOCK DIAGRAM

I. INTRODUCTION
Energy is nothing but the ability to do the work. In day to day
life, Electricity is most commonly used energy resource.
Now-a-days energy demand is increasing and which is lifeline for people. Due to this number of energy resources are
generated and wasted. Electricity can be generated from
resources like water, wind etc. to generate the electricity from
these resources development of big plants are needed having
high maintenance cost. Some other energy resources are also
costly and cause pollution. They are not affordable to
common people. Electricity has become important resources
for human being hence, it is needed that wasted energy must
have to utilize, walking is the most common activity done by
human being while walking energy is wasted in the form of
vibration to the surface. And this wasted energy can be
converted into electricity. Using the principle called
piezoelectric effect. Piezoelectric effect is the effect in which
mechanical vibrations. Pressure or strain applied to
piezoelectric material is converted into electrical form. This
project gives idea about how energy is created by stepping on
stairs. The use of stairs in every building is increasing day by
day even small building has some floors when we are
stepping amount of this wasted energy is utilized and
converted to electricity by Piezoelectric effect. Piezoelectric
effect is the effect of specific materials to generate an electric
charge in response to applied mechanical stress.

Fig. 1: Block Diagram
III. WORKING PRINCIPLE
A. Working
The piezoelectric material converts the pressure, stress
applied to the material into electrical energy. The source of
stress is from the weight of the people stepping on the stairs.
The output of the piezoelectric material is not a regulated one,
so variable to linear voltage converter circuit rectifier is used.
Again AC ripples are filtered out using ripple filter and it is
used to filter out any further variations in the output and then
it can be pass through regulator in order to regulate. The
output voltage from this piezoelectric is then stored in a
battery. As the output voltage from a single piezo-film was
extremely low, thus combination of few piezoelectric is used.
Two types of possible connections can be done parallel
connections and series connections. An inverter is connected
to battery to drive AC load. LCD display is used for
displaying generated voltage. For this purpose
microcontroller AT89S52 is used. The microcontroller
consists of crystal oscillator and which is used for its
operation. The output of the microcontroller is then given to
the LCD which then displays the voltage levels. In order to
convert DC voltage stored in battery into AC inverter is used

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783

Foot Step Power Generation using Piezoelectric Material
(IJSRD/Vol. 3/Issue 12/2016/205)

IV. FLOW CHART

density, nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible
with the industry-standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out.
On-chip flash allows the program memory to be
reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile
memory programmer. This powerful microcontroller is
suitable for many embedded control applications.
D. AC Ripple Neutralizer
Capacitive filter is used to remove the ripples from rectifier
output. It can also convert the output from rectifier which is
pulsating DC voltage to ripple free DC and again in order to
regulate; it is given to regulator for pure DC voltage.
E. Rectifier
The output of the transformer is given to the rectifier. It may
be half wave or full wave it converts AC to DC .mostly bridge
rectifier is used, which has good stability and gives well
rectification. The rectifier consists of four diodes as D1, D2,
D3, and D4 as shown in figure. In positive half cycle D1 D3
conducts at same time and D2 D4 remains in the off condition
that’s why load current flows through load resister. In
negative half cycle D2 D4 conducts at same time and D1, D3
remains off hence current flows through RL.
F. Voltage Regulator
It is a device which maintains relatively constant output
voltage, even when output varies. There is variety of voltage
regulator used to control voltage in circuit. The basic function
of regulator is comparing its output voltage and fixed
reference voltage.

Fig. 2: Flow Chart
V. COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
A. Piezoelectric Sensor
A piezoelectric transducer is a device that performs the
mechanism that it converts a physical signal and converts
electrical signal or into any other form. Piezoelectricity is the
electric signal or charges that acquire more and more in
certain solid materials in response to an applied mechanical
stress for the measurement of the quantities like pressure,
acceleration, strain or force by converting them to an
equivalent electrical signal. The word piezoelectricity means
electricity obtained from pressure. A piezoelectric sensor is a
boon that uses the piezoelectric effect so called as linear
electromechanical interaction between electrical and
mechanical state in crystalline material. For example, lead
zirconate titanate crystals will generate measurable
piezoelectricity about 0.1% of applied stress to the material.
The inverse piezoelectric effect is used for producing
ultrasonic waves.
Piezoelectricity is found in useful applications such
as generation of high voltage, electronic frequency generation
and ultrafine focusing of optical assembly.
B. Booster
Booster is the circuit which boost the strength of input signal.
Booster used in this project is DC-DC having input about
3volt which boost the signal and gives output upto 4.3volt.
C. Microcontroller AT89S52
Low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller
with 8KB of ISP flash memory. The device uses Atmel high-

G. Unidirectional Current Controller
Unidirectional current controller means it allows flow of
current in only one direction. Mostly used unidirectional
current controller devices are as follows:
1) Diode: we already know that it allows an electrical
current in one direction. It acts like a switch. A specific
diode converts AC into pulsating DC hence sometimes it
also called as rectifier.
2) Thyristor: A thyristor is four layer semiconductors that is
often used for handling large amount of power. While a
Thyristor can be turned on or off, it can also regulate
power using something called phase angle control
H. Battery
A rechargeable battery, storage battery, secondary cell, is a
type of electrical battery which can be charged, discharged
into a load, and again recharged many times, while a nonrechargeable or primary battery is supplied fully charged and
discarded once discharged. It is composed of one or more
electrochemical cells. The term storage battery is used as it
accumulates and stores energy through a reversible
electrochemical reaction. Rechargeable batteries are
produced in many different shapes and sizes, ranging from
button cells to megawatt systems connected to stabilize an
electrical
distribution
network.
Several
different
combinations of electrode materials and electrolytes are used,
including lead–acid, nickel cadmium (NiCd), nickel metal
hydride (NiMH), lithium ion (Li-ion), and lithium ion
polymer (Li-ion polymer).
Rechargeable batteries initially cost more than
disposable batteries, but have a much lower total cost of
ownership and environmental impact, as they can be

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784

Foot Step Power Generation using Piezoelectric Material
(IJSRD/Vol. 3/Issue 12/2016/205)

recharged inexpensively many times before they need
replacing. Some rechargeable battery types are available in
the same sizes and voltages as disposable types, and can be
used interchangeably with them

lighting without use of long power lines. It can also be used
as charging ports, lighting in buildings

I. Inverter
Inverter is an electronic device which does exactly opposite
job of the rectifier and filter which converts the stored direct
current (DC) energy in batteries back into alternating current
(AC). The arrangement of the working of an inverter is called
its topology. The converted AC can be at any required voltage
and frequency with the use of appropriate transformers,
switching, and control circuits.
Solid-state inverters have no moving parts and are
used in a wide range of applications, from small switching
power supplies in computers, to large electric utility highvoltage direct current. The electrical inverter is a high-power
electronic oscillator. It is so named because early mechanical
AC to DC converters was made to work in reverse, and thus
were “inverted", to convert DC to AC. The inverter performs
the opposite function of a rectifier.

[1] Prabaharan R, Jayramaprakash A, Vijay Anand.”Power
Harvesting by Using Human Foot Step”- International
Journal of Innovative Research in Science Engineering
and Technology, vol.2, issue 7, July2013
[2] Ramesh Raja R, Sherin Mathew. ”Power Generation
from Staircase (steps)”- International Journal of
Innovative Research in Science Engineering and
Technology, vol.3, Issue 1, February 2014
[3] Power Generation Using Foot Step Method Itika Tandon,
Alok Kumar.”A Unique Step towards Generation of
Electricity Via New Methodology”- International
Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and
Communication Engineering, vol.3, Issue 10, October
2014
[4] Kiran Boby, Aleena Paul K, Anumol. C.V, Josnie Ann
Thomas, Nimisha K.K.”Footstep Power Generation
Using Piezoelectric Transducer”- International Journal
of Engineering and Innovative Technology, vol.3, Issue
10, April 2014
[5] Jose Ananth Vino, AP.”Power Generation Using
Footstep”- International Journal of Engineering Trends
and Technology, vol.1, Issue 2, May 2011
[6] Alla Chandra Sekhar, B Maruti Kishore, T Jogi
Raju.”Electromagnetic Foot Step Power Generation”International Journal of Scientific and Research
Publication, vol.4, Issue 6, June 2014
[7] Shiraj Afzal, Farrukh Hafeez.”Power Generation
Footstep”- International Journal of Advancement in
Research and Technology, vol.3, Issue 4, April 2014
[8] K. Ramakrishna, Guruswamy Ravana, Venu Madhav
Gopaka.”Generation of electrical Power through
Footsteps”- International Journal of Multidisciplinary
and Current Research
[9] Umeda, M., Nakamura, K., and Ueha, S. Energy Storage
Characteristics of a Piezogenerator Using Impact
Vibration. Japan Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 36,
Part 1, No. 5b, May 1997, pp.3146-3151.
[10] Hausler, E. and Stein, L. Implantable Physiological
Power Supply with PVDF Film. Ferroelectronics, Vol.
60, 1984, pp. 277-282.
[11] Lakic. Inflatable Boot Liner with Electrical Generator
and Heater. Patent No. 4845338, 1989.
[12] Crawley, E. F., de Luis, J. Use of Piezoelectric Actuators
as Elements of Intelligent Structures. Present as Paper
86-0878 at the AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS Active
Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials
Conference, San Antonio, TX, May 19-21, 1986.
[13] Anil Kumar (2011) „Electrical Power Generation Using
Piezoelectric Crystal‟- International Journal of Scientific
& Engineering Research-Volume 2, Issue 5, May-2011
1. ISSN 2229-5518
[14] Electricity from Footsteps, S.S.Taliyan, B.B. Biswas,
R.K. Patil and G. P. Srivastava, Reactor Control
Division, Electronics & Instrumentation Group And T.K.
Basu IPR, Gandhinagar.
[15] Estimation of Electric Charge Output for Piezoelectric
Energy Harvesting, LA-UR-04-2449, Strain Journal,

J. ADC
An analog to digital converter is a device that converts a
continuous physical quantity to a digital number that
represents the quantities amplitude. An exact reverse
operation can be done by using digital to analog converter.
The conversion involves quantization of the input so it
necessarily introduces a small amount of error. Instead of
doing single conversion, an ADC often performs the
conversions periodically.
K.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Features
Easy interface to all microprocessors
Operates ratio metrically or with 5 VDC or analog span
Adjusted voltage reference
No zero or full-scale adjust required
8-channel multiplexer with address logic
0V to VCC input range
Outputs meet TTL voltage level specifications
VI. RESULT ANALYSIS
Weight

Power

45 Kg

0.6 w

60 Kg

0.9 w

75 Kg

1.12 w

80 Kg

1.2 w

90 Kg

1.4 w

Table 1. Result Analysis
VII. CONCLUSION
A piezo tile capable of generating 40V has been devised.
Comparison between various piezo electric material shows
that PZT is superior in characteristics. Also, by comparison it
was found that series- parallel combination connection is
more suitable. The weight applied on the tile and
corresponding voltage generated is studied and they are found
to have linear relation. It is especially suited for
implementation in crowded areas. This can be used in street

REFERENCES

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785

Foot Step Power Generation using Piezoelectric Material
(IJSRD/Vol. 3/Issue 12/2016/205)

40(2), 49-58, 2004; Henry A. Sodano, Daniel J. Inman,
Gyuhae Park.
[16] Center for Intelligent Material Systems and Structures
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Devices for Generation of Higher Electrical Power Using
a Coupled Piezoelectric-Circuit Finite Element Method
IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonic’s, Ferroelectrics, and
Frequency Control, vol. 57, no. 2, February 2010.
[18] Meiling Zhu, Member, IEEE, Emma Worthington, and
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[19] Vibration Based Energy Harvesting Using Piezoelectric
Material, M.N. Fakhzan, Asan G.A.Muthalif,
Department of Mechatronics Engineering, International
Islamic University Malaysia, IIUM, Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia.

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