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# 4

The graph of Fig. 1 shows the variation with time t of velocity v of a ball that is released
from rest a distance h above a rigid horizontal surface, and the ball is allowed to bounce.

Fig. 1

## (a) Using Fig. 1, determine the distance h.

h = ....................................... m [2]
(b) Explain whether the collision with the surface is elastic.

..
.....[1]

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(c) Explain the difference between the time the ball takes to reach the maximum height

after the first bounce and the time the ball falls back to the ground.
...
...
...
..[1]

(d) Determine the average force exerted by the horizontal surface on the ball during the

## force = ....................................... N [2]

(e) Use energy considerations to suggest how the energy of the ball changes between

the time that it is released and the time that the ball reaches the maximum height
after the first bounce.
...
...
...
...
...
...
....[3]

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2

(a) Explain why gravitational potential has a negative value whereas electric potential can be
positive or negative.
....
....
....
....
.[2]
(b) Fig. 2.1 shows equipotential surfaces surrounding the Merlion at the time of a gathering
storm. The equipotential surfaces are represented by the dashed lines. The electric potential
of the Earth surface is taken to be zero.
5.0 cm
P

40 kV
30 kV
20 kV
10 kV
0 kV
Fig 2.1 (not drawn to scale)
Lightning discharge occurs when the electric field strength at a point exceeds 3.0 x 106 V m1.

(i)

Explain why lightning is more likely to strike the tip of the Merlion than any other places
close to it.
..
..
..
.[1]

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(ii)

Determine the average electric field strength across P and Q whose separation is
5.0 cm.

## electric field strength = .......................................V m1 [1]

(iii)

Using your answer in (ii), explain if lightning is likely to strike the merlion.
..
. [1]

(c)

The variation of the gravitational potential with the distance from the centre of a planet is
shown by the graph in Fig 2.2 below. The planet has a radius 10 000 km.
Distance from the centre of the planet/ 103 km

00

10

15

20

25

30

35

-5
-10
-15
-20
M

-25
Potential/
MJ kg-1 -30

-35
-40
-45
-50
Fig. 2.2
A meteorite of mass 2.0 kg is at rest at infinity. The meteorite then travels from infinity
towards the planet.
(i)

## Use Fig. 2.2 to determine

the gravitational potential energy of the meteorite of mass 2.0 kg at M,

## gravitational potential energy = ....................................... MJ [1]

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(ii)

## speed = ....................................... m s1 [2]

3

(a) A graph of the variation with displacement x of the acceleration a of the center of the
diaphragm of the microphone is shown in Fig. 3.1.
a/ m s-2
500

250

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3
x/ mm

-250

-500

Fig. 3.1
(i)

Explain how it may be deduced that the oscillation of the diaphragm is simple harmonic.
..
..
..
..[3]

(ii)

Use the data from Fig. 3.1 to determine the frequency of the vibration of diaphragm.

## frequency = .......................................Hz [2]

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(b) Fig 3.2 shows a singer holding a dynamic microphone. This device comprises a stationary
bar magnet and circular coil attached to a diaphragm. When the singer sings through the
microphone, an electrical sinusoidal voltage signal is induced in the coil which is then
amplified.

Sound

Diaphragm

Stationary Bar
Magnet

Output Signal to
Amplifier
Fig. 3.2

(i)

## State the Faradays law of magnetic induction.

..
..[1]

(ii)

Use Faradays Law to explain why an electric signal is generated in the coil.
..
......
..[3]

(iii)

## 1. Sketch a graph to show the variation of maximum displacement of the diaphragm of

the microphone with frequency of sound waves, f over a range of frequencies which
includes the natural frequency, fo of the diaphragm.

[2]
2. Explain the meaning of natural frequency.
..
..[1]
3. In normal use, natural frequency of vibration of diaphragm is not within the range of
frequencies of sound produced by human voice.
Suggest why this is so?
..
..[1]

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4

## (a) Define specific latent heat of fusion.

........................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................[1]
(b) A mass of 24 g of ice at 15 C is taken from a freezer and placed in a beaker

containing 200 g of water at 28 C. Data for ice and for water are given in Fig. 4.1.

/ J kg1 K1

## specific latent heat of fusion

/ J kg1

ice

2.1 x 103

3.3 x 105

water

4.2 x 103

Fig. 4.1

Assuming that the beaker has negligible mass, calculate the final temperature of
the water in the beaker.

## temperature = ....................................... C [3]

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(c) In practice, the mass of the beaker is not negligible. This means that your answer to (b) is not
the correct value for the final temperature of the water. State and explain whether your value
in (b) is greater or smaller than the correct value.
....
....
...
...
...[2]
(d) The first law of thermodynamics may be expressed in the form
U = q + w,
where U is the internal energy of the system,
U is the increase in internal energy,
q is the thermal energy supplied to the system,
w is the work done on the system.
Complete Fig. 4.2 for each of the processes shown. Write down the symbol + for an
increase, the symbol to indicate a decrease and the symbol 0 for no change, as
appropriate.
U

## The compression of an ideal gas in an

insulated container

volume

## The boiling of water at 100C

Fig. 4.2

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5

## When a p-type semiconductor is joined with an n-type semiconductor, a depletion region is

formed at the junction,
(a) Distinguish between a p-type and n-type semiconductor.
...
...[1]
(b) State what are depleted in the depletion region?
...
...[1]
(c) Discuss how the depletion region is formed.
...
...
...
...
...
...
...[3]

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6

(a) A photoresistor or light dependent resistor (LDR) is a resistor whose resistance decreases
with increasing incident light intensity; in other words, it exhibits photoconductivity.
An LDR is made of a high resistance semiconductor. If light falling on the device is of high
enough frequency, photons absorbed by the semiconductor give bound electrons enough
energy to jump into the conduction band. The resulting free electron (and its hole partner)
conduct electricity, thereby lowering resistance. The electrons released from bonds in the
material of the LDR by absorbing incident photons remain free to conduct for about 50 ms
before returning to be localised in bonds again.
Fig. 6.1 shows a plot of the resistance R of the LDR against the intensity I of incident light on
a logarithmic scale.

Fig. 6.1

(i)

Use Fig. 6.1 to find the resistance of the LDR at a light intensity of 50.0 W m2.

## resistance of LDR = ... [1]

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(ii)

Together with the point in (a)(i), transfer the points A, B, C in Fig. 6.1 to the grids in
Fig. 6.2 to plot the graph of R vs I on a normal scale.
[2]

R / k
10

20

40

60
Fig. 6.2

80

100
0

I / W m2

(b) It is thought that the resistance R of the LDR is related to the intensity I of incident light by a
relation of the form

R 10000I 1
Explain how the relation may be verified by plotting a graph of lg R on the y-axis against lg I
on the x-axis.
...
...
...
...
...[2]
(c) Explain the advantage of plotting the resistance-intensity graph on the logarithmic scale.
....
...[1]
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(d) The LDR is connected in series with a variable resistor R and a 12.0 V d.c. supply. The
buzzer is connected across the variable resistor R as shown in Fig. 6.3. The buzzer is set to
buzz if the potential difference across it is 9 V and above.

Buzzer
R
LDR

12.0 V
Fig. 6.3

(i)

Calculate the value of R if we want the buzzer to buzz when the light intensity exceeds
50.0 W m2.

R = [2]
(ii)

Suggest an application for the circuit in Fig. 6.3 and explain how it works.
..
..
..
..[2]

(iii)

Explain how the operation of the buzzer will be different if the buzzer is connected
across the LDR instead of the variable resistance in the circuit of Fig. 6.3.
......
..
..
..[2]

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(e) A second LDR has a characteristic curve given by Fig. 6.4.
lg (R / k)
1.0

0.5

lg (I / W m-2)
-1.0

-0.5

0.5

1.0

-0.5

-1.0
Fig. 6.4
(i)

Draw a line on Fig. 6.1 representing the resistance-intensity characteristic curve of this
LDR.
[2]

(ii)

Explain why it is impractical to use this LDR as a trigger for light intensity below
1.0 W m2.
......
..
..
.....[1]

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7

When light is incident on the front of a photocell, an e.m.f. is generated in the photocell.
A student wishes to investigate the effect of adding various thicknesses of glass in front
of a photocell. This may be carried out in the laboratory by varying the number of
identical thin glass sheets between a light source and the front of the photocell.
It is suggested that the e.m.f. V is related to the number n of glass sheets by the equation
V = Vo e

nt

where t is the thickness of one sheet, is the absorption coefficient of glass and Vo is the
e.m.f. for n = 0.
Design a laboratory experiment to determine the absorption coefficient of glass. You
should draw a diagram showing the arrangement of your equipment. In your account you
should pay particular attention to
(a) the procedure to be followed,
(b) the measurements to be taken,
(c) the control of variables,
(d) the analysis of the data,
(e) the precautions to be taken to improve the safety and accuracy of the experiment. [12]

Diagram

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Section A
Answer all the questions in this section.
1

Two blocks, P and Q, of masses 0.30 kg and 1.50 kg respectively, are connected by a
string that passes over a pulley as shown in Fig. 1.1. The pulley is frictionless and the string
is inelastic. The system is released from rest. Block Q falls vertically before it strikes a
spring that is firmly attached to the floor. The spring constant is 500 N m-1.
pulley

Q
P
spring
Fig. 1.1
(a) (i)

Draw the free-body diagram of Blocks P and Q at the instant when the system is
released from rest.

[2]
(ii)

## acceleration of Block Q = .. m s-2 [3]

(iii)

Hence, determine the tension in the string before Block Q strikes the spring.

## tension in the string = .... N [1]

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(b) The acceleration of Block Q decreases after it touches the spring. Block Q comes to a
stop after some time and the spring is observed to be compressed.
Calculate the compression of the spring.

## compression of spring = ... m [2]

(c) The spring in Fig. 1.1 is replaced by a volume of fluid with density as shown in
Fig. 1.2. When Block Q is in the fluid, it floats horizontally in the liquid. Block Q floats
when its lower face is at a depth d in the fluid. Block Q has a volume of V, and a cross
sectional area of A.
pulley

P
Q

fluid
Fig. 1.2

(i)

## Find the expression for the depth d.

d = ........................................... [2]
(ii)

## Explain how the forces acting on Block Q cause Block Q to be in translational

equilibrium.
.........
..
..
.[2]

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Fig. 2.1 shows a wire carrying a current I of 2.0 A flowing out of paper inside a uniform
magnetic field B.
B

I
20
P

Fig. 2.1
The magnitude of the magnetic field B is 0.040 T at 20 from the vertical. The wire carrying
the current I is 30.0 cm long.
(a) On Fig. 2.1, draw an arrow to represent the magnetic force acting on the wire and label
it F.
[1]
(b) On Fig. 2.1, draw an arrow to represent the magnetic field at P due to the current and
label it B1.
[1]
(c) The resultant magnetic field at P points vertically upwards. Determine the ratio B / B1.

## ratio B / B1 = ... [2]

(d) A second wire of the same length carrying a current of 4.0 A flowing into the paper is
now placed at P. Determine the direction and the magnitude of the magnetic force
acting on the second wire.

directon = ....
magnitude of magnetic force = N [2]
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(a) Explain what is meant by the diffraction of a wave.
...
..[1]
(b) Light of wavelength 590 nm is incident normally on a diffraction grating having 750 lines
per millimetre. Determine the maximum number of bright lines that could be observed
on the screen.

## number of lines = .[2]

(c) Light of wavelengths 590 nm and 595 nm is now incident normally on the grating.
Two lines are observed in the first order spectrum and two lines are observed in the
second order spectrum, corresponding to the two wavelengths.
State two differences between the first order spectrum and the second order spectrum.
1. .
......
2. .
..[2]
4

The variation with temperature of the resistance RT of a thermistor is shown in Fig. 4.1.

Fig. 4.1
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The thermistor is connected in series with a resistor R as shown in the circuit in Fig. 4.2.
R

9.00 V
Fig. 4.2
The battery has e.m.f. 9.00 V and negligible internal resistance. The voltmeter has infinite
resistance.
(a) For the thermistor at 22.5 C, the voltmeter reading is 2.70 V. Determine the resistance
of resistor R.

## resistance of R = .... [3]

(b) The voltmeter is now removed from the original circuit and the rest of the circuit is
connected to a potentiometer as shown in Fig. 4.3.

12.0 V

6.20

1.50

R
9.00 V
Fig. 4.3

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The potentiometer has a driver cell of e.m.f. 12.0 V with internal resistance of 1.50 . It
is connected in series with a resistor of resistance 6.20 and a uniform resistance wire
XY, of length 120 cm and radius 0.250 mm. The resistivity of the wire is 1.10 x 10-6 m.
(i)

## resistance of wire XY = ... [2]

(ii)

For the thermistor at 22.5 C, determine the balance length XJ where there is no
deflection in the galvanometer.

## balance length XJ = ... m [2]

(iii)

Explain what will happen to the position of the balance point J if the thermistor is at
a temperature of 0 C.
..
.[1]

Fig. 5.1 illustrates the variation with nucleon (mass) number, A, of the binding energy per
nucleon, E.
E / MeV

A
Fig. 5.1
(a) (i)

On Fig. 5.1, mark out the values of the nucleon (mass) number and binding energy
per nucleon for the element with the maximum binding energy per nucleon.
[1]

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(ii)

10
With reference to Fig. 5.1, explain why energy can be released in both the fission
and the fusion processes.
..
..
..
..
.[3]

## (b) In a nuclear reaction, Uranium-235 undergoes nuclear fission when bombarded by a

neutron to produce Xenon-142 and Strontium-90 as shown below.

(i)

[1]

## (ii) Strontium-90 produced in the nuclear reaction is a radioactive isotope.

A sample of Strontium-90 has a mass of 1.45 x 10-7 g. The activity of the sample
appears to be constant over a period of time and the average activity was found to
be 7.61 x 105 Bq. Determine the decay constant of Strontium-90.

(iii)

## Xenon-142 produced in the nuclear reaction is also a radioactive isotope with a

decay constant of 0.555 s-1. Discuss whether it is suitable to determine the decay
constant of Xenon-142 by measuring the mass and activity of a sample of Xenon142 over a period of time.
..
..
..
.[2]

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Section B
Answer two questions from this section.
6

Fig. 6.1 shows a mass spectrometer for measuring the masses of isotopes. It consists of an
ion generator and accelerator (Stage 1), a velocity selector (Stage 2) and an ion separator
(Stage 3), all in a vacuum.

X
X
X
X
X
X

## Magnetic field into plane

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X

Stage 3
Ion Separator

Photographic Plate

+200
V

X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X

-200 V

Stage 2
Velocity Selector

Stage 1
Ion Accelerator

ions

Fig. 6.1
(a) Stage 1
(i)

Starting from rest, a proton and an particle are accelerated through the same
potential difference. Find the ratio of their speeds, vp / v, at the end of Stage 1.

vp / v = [3]
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(ii)

12
In an experiment, Uranium ions, each with a charge of 1.6 x 10-19 C, are produced
in the ion generator and then accelerated by a potential difference of 20 kV.
Uranium has a number of isotopes, two of which are Uranium-235 (235U) and
Uranium-238 (238U).
1. State one similarity and one difference between the isotopes of Uranium.
..............................................................................................................................
...
...[2]
2. Assuming that an isotope of Uranium-238 is at rest before being accelerated,
determine its speed at the end of Stage 1.

## speed of 238U = ..... m s-1 [2]

(b) Stage 2
In practice, all ions produced by the ion generator in Stage 1 have a range of speeds. A
velocity selector in Stage 2 is then used to isolate ions with a single speed. In the
velocity selector, an electric field and a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to each
other.
(i)

The plates producing the electric field have a separation of 1.0 cm. The potentials
of the plates are marked on Fig. 6.1.
Calculate the magnitude of the force on an ion due to the electric field.

## force due to electric field = .. N [2]

(ii)

Determine the magnetic flux density required in order to select ions with speed
140 km s-1.

## magnetic flux density = T [2]

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(c) Stage 3
After selection, the Uranium ions, 235U and 238U emerging from Stage 2 at the same
speed of 140 km s-1 are separated using a magnetic field that is directed into the plane
of paper.
(i)

## Explain why the ions move in a circular path in this region.

..
..
.[2]

(ii)

Show that the radius of the path is directly proportional to the mass of the ion.

[3]
(iii)

The ions are detected using the photographic plate. Determine the distance
between the points of impact on the photographic plate of the two isotopes of
Uranium when magnetic flux density of 0.50 T is used in the ion separator.

distance = . cm [3]
(iv)

Explain quantitatively why the effects of gravitational field are ignored in (c)(iii).
.........
..
.[1]

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(a) Distinguish between longitudinal and transverse progressive waves.
...
...
...
..[2]
(b) A loudspeaker is assumed to radiate energy uniformly in all directions at a constant rate
and Joshua stands at a distance d from the loudspeaker to listen. After a while, the
intensity of the sound is tripled.
(i)

Determine, in terms of d, the distance from the loud speaker Joshua should be at if
he wishes the sound to seem as loud as before.

(ii)

## Joshua was initially standing 5.0 m away from the loudspeaker.

At this position, the amplitude of vibration of air molecules after the intensity has
tripled, is 1.0 107 m. Determine the amplitude of vibration of air molecules at the
new position which Joshua then stands in (b)(i).

## amplitude = ... m [2]

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(c) A second similar loudspeaker S2 is connected to the first loudspeaker S1, such that they
are driven in phase from a common audio-frequency source as shown in Fig. 7.1.
Joshua is now standing at X, a distance L measured from the centre position O of the
two loudspeakers.
S1
Joshua
O
S2

Fig. 7.1
(i)

State two conditions that must be satisfied in order that two waves from the
loudspeakers may interfere.
1.
.[2]

2.
(ii)

Fig. 7.2 shows the wavefronts emerging from the two loudspeakers.
Y

S1

Joshua
X
S2

Fig. 7.2
1. The wavefronts represent successive compressions of the wave.
On Fig. 7.2, draw a line to show a direction along which

## destructive interference may be observed. Label this line D.

[2]

2. Describe what Joshua will hear as he walks from point X towards point Y.
.
.
.[2]
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(d) Loudspeaker S1 is now separated from loudspeaker S2 and is connected to a signal
generator.
S1 is positioned at one end of a long horizontal tube which is closed at the other end
and contains a fine powder. At a particular frequency, a stationary wave is set up inside
the tube and the powder forms heaps as seen in Fig. 7.3. The speed of sound is taken
to be 330 m s1.
P Q

Fig. 7.3
(i)

..
..
.[2]

(ii)

## frequency = ..... Hz [2]

(iii)

Two air molecules P and Q are at the respective positions along the pipe as seen
in Fig. 7.3.
For the molecules P and Q, state which molecule(s) is at a position of
1. displacement anti-node,
molecule(s) [1]
2. loud sound.
molecule(s) [1]

(iv)

In Fig. 7.4, sketch the variations of displacement s with time t for the two
molecules P and Q for one complete cycle of oscillation.
Label the sketches P and Q respectively.
s/m

T/2

Fig. 7.4
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t/s

[2]

17
(a) In a photoelectric experiment, a metal plate C in an evacuated photocell is illuminated
with a light source which generates a flow of current.
(i)

Initially plate C is neutral in charge. State and explain the effect on the charge of
plate C as it is exposed to the light source.
..
..
.[2]

(ii)

Plate C is coated with two different types of metal, namely Metal W and Metal X,
side by side. Both metals occupy the same surface area on plate C. Fig. 8.1
shows how the stopping potential, Vs , varies with frequency of light source, f, for
Metal X.
Vs / V
Metal X

f / 1013 Hz
Hz

2.60
Fig. 8.1

1. On Fig. 8.1, sketch how the stopping potential, Vs, varies with frequency of light
source, f, for Metal W with a threshold frequency of 3.00 1013 Hz.
[1]
2. Electrons emitted from the surface of plate C are collected at plate B as shown
in Fig. 8.2. The current detected in the ammeter is reduced to zero when the
potential at plate C is 8.00 V and the potential at plate B is 5.00 V.
Light source
Plate C

Plate B

Fig. 8.2
I. State and explain which type of metal on plate C (Metal W or Metal X)
emits electrons with a higher maximum kinetic energy.

...[2]

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II. Hence, determine the corresponding frequency of the light source when
the current detected in the ammeter is zero as stated in (a)(ii)(2).

frequency = .. Hz [3]
(b) Fig 8.3 shows part of the emission spectrum for the lowest energy levels of an isolated
atomic hydrogen with the corresponding emitted wavelengths, . It is known that 2 is
within the ultraviolet region of electromagnetic spectrum while 6 falls within the infrared region.

1 = 97.2 nm 3 = 121.5 nm

2 = 102.6 nm

5 = 657.7 nm

6 = 1855.4 nm

4 = 485.6 nm
Fig. 8.3

In this isolated hydrogen atom, any transition to ground state will produce ultraviolet
radiation. The lowest energy level of the atomic hydrogen is known to be -13.64 eV.
(i)

## State the region of the electromagnetic spectrum in which wavelength 5 lies.

.[1]

(ii)

Determine the energy, in eV, of the other energy level involved in the emission of
2.

energy = .. eV [2]
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(iii)

(c) (i)

19
Hence, draw the energy level diagram of atomic hydrogen that results in the
emission of all ultraviolet radiation according to the emission spectrum shown in
Fig. 8.3. Label clearly in your diagram all the ultraviolet wavelengths (eg. 2) that
corresponds to your transition lines.
[3]

In a beam of electrons, two electrons P and Q within the beam are found to be
moving at constant speeds of 500 m s-1 and 700 m s-1 respectively in the direction
as shown in Fig. 8.4.
700 m s-1
500 m s-1
Q
P
Fig. 8.4
They collide with each other elastically. It is known that the speed of electron Q
after collision is 650 m s-1, determine the speed of electron P after collision.

## speed of P = .. m s-1 [1]

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(ii)

20
The beam of the electrons is made to accelerate across a potential difference and
strike a metal target Y generating X-rays with a cutoff wavelength of 4.00 10-11 m.
In Fig. 8.5, the X-ray spectrum for metal Y shows how the intensity of the X-ray
produced varies with wavelength.
intensity

wavelength
Fig. 8.5
1. Calculate the potential difference generated to accelerate the electrons.

## potential difference = V [2]

2. Explain briefly how the spikes in Fig 8.5 are formed.

...[2]
3. Describe the change in the X-ray spectrum when a new metal target Z
replaces metal target Y while using the same electron beam.

...[1]

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