You are on page 1of 4

Preface

I am thankful to Almighty Allah who has blessed us with the courage, strength and
wisdom so that we have been able to complete this internship report, with the help HE has
bestowed upon us.
Internship is one of the requirements to obtained a degree in Department of Chemical
Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia. The internship in this report is
concentrated in Production Department practice area in Fermentation Unit of PT Indo
Acidatama.
During the preparation and implementation of internship, we have got a lot of help and
guidance from the various parties. Therefore, we do not forget to thank those who have assisted
in the preparation and implementation of internship.
Thus internship is structured, may be useful for various parties, especially for the
development of science in Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of
Indonesia. The author realizes that this report there are still many shortcomings. Therefore,
criticism and suggestions building remains authors expect to further enhance this report.

Chapter I
Preliminary
1.1

Background
Sugar is a broad term applied to a large number of carbohydrates present in many plants

and characterized by a more or less sweet taste. The primary sugar, glucose is a product of
photosynthesis and occurs in all green plants. In most plants, sugar occurs as a mixture that
cannot readily be separated into components. In the sap of some plants, the sugar mixtures are
condensed into syrup. Juices of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)and Sugar beet (Beta
Vulgaris) are rich in pure sucrose. These two sugar crops are the main sources of commercial
sucrose.
The Sugarcane is a thick, tall, perennial grass that flourishes in tropical and subtropical
regions. Sugar synthesized in the leaves is used as a source of energy for growth and is sent to
the stalks for storage. It is the sweet sap in the stalks that is the source of sugar as we know it.
The reed accumulates sugar to about 15 percent of its weight. Sugarcane yields about 2,600,000
tons of sugar per year.
The Sugar beet is a beet root variety with the highest sugar content, for which it is
specifically cultivated. About 3,700,000 tons of sugar is manufactured from sugar beet.
Sugar is not only used as a constituent in industrial and homemade food, but also as raw
material in fermentation to produce ethyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, glycerin and citric acid. Sugar is
also an ingredient in transparent soaps and can be converted to esters which yield tough,
insoluble and infusible resins.
Following are the Processing Steps while making Sugar
Cane is first washed to remove mud and debris.
After washing, Cane is chopped and shredded by crushers.
Juice is extracted from cane either by pressing the cane through series of mills or
by diffusion i.e. leaching.
Juice is then clarified to remove floating impurities.
Clarified juice is then heated in pan evaporator for concentration and it is
concentrated up to 65-68 BRIX.
A mixture of syrup and Crystals is obtained which is known as MASSECUITE.
This Mixture is then centrifuged and crystals are separated.

The thick liquid left behind is known as MOLASSES, which is the basic raw
material for the production of Alcohol. Molasses may be used for the production of
power alcohol and Molasses is also used for feed stock. Bagasse is also a by-product
of the industry. Bagasse is used as a source of energy fuel in sugar industry for sugar
processing and also used for making medium density fiber board (MDFB).
1.2

History Industry
NOON SUGAR MILLS LTD. is the Company was incorporated in 1964 as a public

company listed on all the Stock Exchanges of Pakistan for setting up of a plant for manufacture
of white sugar, in the province of Punjab. The plant went into production in 1966 with a daily
crushing capacity of 1,500 MT of sugar cane, which has since been raised to 4,000 MT per day
in 2002. Further extension to 9,000 TCD has become operative in 2006-2007 crushing season.
An Alcohol Distillery of French origin was added during 1986 with a production capacity
of 50,000 litres/day in 2002. Another facility with an option to provide either 30,000 LPD
Industrial of fuel Grade Ethanol was added in 2002. A new Fuel Ethanol plant of 100,000 LPD,
based on Molecular Sieve technology has been added in 2005.
The Distillery is ISO 9001 certified since 1998. which upgraded to ISO-9001-2000.
An Effluent Treatment Plant employing the Canadian technology of ABV BioGas reactors has been installed since 1997, to use its bio-degradable waste water as a
renewable source of energy to replace 70% of fuel oil / natural gas, for generation of
process steam. This has also enabled the Company to fulfill its obligation towards
reducing the environmental pollution. The Company has a gratifying record of average
payout in the last 10 years is 27.5%.

1.3

Objectives
1. To know the engineering aspects of ethanol process in Noon Sugar Mills industry.
2. To know the circumstances and operating conditions fermentation, distillation and
diluted in Noon Sugar Mills industry.

3. Obtain work experience in companies engaged in the technique of making ethanol.

1.4

Problems
1. How the operating conditions and process of making ethanol in Noon Sugar Mills
industry?
2. What is the process of fermentation, distillation and dilution?
3. How the overall of the processes and units in Noon Sugar Mills industry?