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Approximation of Heat Loss

Term

Symbol

Thermal conductivity of pipe material


Outside pipe diameter
Pipe wall thickness
Inside pipe diameter
Cross section inside

do

di
A

Temperature medium (water)

20

Ambient temperature (air)

Ta

30

Approximation of heat transfer coefficient theoretical

9.681727

Approximation of heat transfer coefficient effective

10

Coefficient of thermal transmission per pipe length

Heat loss per pipe length


Loop length
Total heat loss
Density of media
Flow velocity
Flow rate

q
L
Q

v
G

Temperature change in loop

Value
0.22
0.110
0.0183
0.0734
0.004231

3.378116

Unit

Formula

[W/(m K)]
[m]
[m]
[m]
[m2]
o

[oC]
[oC]
[W/(m2.oC)]

2.514027

[W/(m C)]
2.o

[W/(m.oC)]
[m2]
[W/m]
[m]
[W]
[kg/m3]
[m/s]
[kg/h]
[oC]

1
#VALUE!

LOAD CHECK FIGURES


No.

Building
Classification & Occupancy

Heating
Btu/h/ft2
W/m2

1 Assembly (A)
2 Auditoriums
32
3 Bars/Taverns
25
4 Bowling Alleys
32
5 Churches
29
6 Conference Centers
32
7 Funeral Homes
25
8 Gambling Casinos
35
9 Libraries
29
10 Municipal Buildings
11
Court Houses
29
12
Town Halls
29
13 Museums
32
14 Restaurants
15
Fast Food Service
25
16
Formal Dining
28
17
Kitchen
20
18 Business (B)
19 Banks
21
20 Barber shops
25
21 Beauty shops
24
22 Colleges
23
Admin/Classroom
34
24
Science Buildings
44
25 Dental Offices
25
26 Doctor's Offices
25
27 Laboratories
40
28 Medical Centers
28
29 Offices
30
High Rise
30
31
Low Rise
25
32
Small Suite
28
33
Conference rooms
30
34 Police Stations
28
35 Post offices
28
36 Educational (E)
37 Elementary/Jr.High
21
38 High Schools
32
39 Vocational Schools
32
40 Factory/Industrials (F)
41
Light manufacturing
30
42
Medium manufacturing
32
43
Heavy manufacturing
36
44 Institutional (I)
45 Hospitals/Nursing Homes/Assisted Living
46
Patient rooms
25
47
Hallways
10
48
Exam/Procedure rooms
27
49
Waiting rooms
30
50 Jails
24
51 Mercantile (M)
52 Bakeries
30
53 Clothing shops
24
54 Department Stores
55
Basement
20
56
Main Floors
24
57
Upper Floors
26
58 Drug Stores
25
59 Florists
21
60 Gift shops
24
61 Grocery Stores
25
62 Jewelry Stores
21
63 Shoe Stores
24
64 Shopping Malls
24
65 Residential (R)
66 Residences (5)
67
15% Glass
30
68
25% Glass
35
69 Hotels/Motels
70
Guest rooms
22
71
Hallways
19
72
Lobby/Public
25
73 Apartments
74
Rentals Suites
21
75
Hallways
16
76 Dormitories
20
77 Storage (S)
78 Warehouses
16

Cooling
ft2/ton
W/m2

Lights/Equip.
Watts/ft2 (1)

People
ft2/person

Air changes or
Ventilation (2)

Zone Primary Air cfm/ft2


E/S/W
N
Core

100.9469
78.864769
100.9469
91.483132
100.9469
78.864769
110.41068
91.483132

360
110
375
415
340
500
200
325

105.15302
344.13717
100.9469
91.217082
111.3385
75.710178
189.27544
116.4772

2
1
2.5
0.75
2.5
3
15 (1)
3 (1)

7
10
25
8
8
20
8
100

5
9
13
6
6
9
9
17

91.483132
91.483132
100.9469

300
330
440

126.18363
114.71239
86.034293

4
3.2
2.5

14
12
25

6
5
9

1.4
1.2

78.864769
88.328541
63.091815

200
250
180

189.27544
151.42036
210.30605

3.25 (1)
3.25 (1)
12.0 (1)

10
14
100

9
10
6

1.5
1.2
2.2

66.246406
78.864769
75.710178

300
310
225

126.18363
122.11319
168.24484

4.0 (1)
3.5 (1)
5.0 (1)

33
40
40

17
10
25

1.4
1.2
2

107.25609
138.80199
78.864769
78.864769
126.18363
88.328541

340
275
290
330
250
425

111.3385
137.65487
130.53479
114.71239
151.42036
89.070798

3.5
4
2.5
2
20
2.5

15
40
100
200
40
100

8
17
17
17
17
17

1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
2
1.3

94.637722
78.864769
88.328541
94.637722
88.328541
88.328541

450
350
350
300
355
355

84.12242
108.1574
108.1574
126.18363
106.63405
106.63405

3.0 (1)
3.0 (1)
3
4
3
2.5

200
200
200
2
20
14

17
17
17
6
6
6

66.246406
100.9469
100.9469

415
450
750

91.217082
84.12242
50.473452

2
2.5
3

40
28
50

15
13
19

1
1.2
1.4

94.637722
100.9469
113.56527

240
440
375

157.72954
86.034293
100.9469

3.0 (1)
10.0 (1)
45.0 (1)

100
200
333

15
15
15

1.7
2.7
5

78.864769
31.545907
85.17395
94.637722
75.710178

300
400
300
330
600

126.18363
94.637722
126.18363
114.71239
63.091815

1.5
2
3.0 (1)
2.0 (1)
1

100
50
30
20

2 ach
2 ach
2 ach
11
10

94.637722
75.710178

225
280

168.24484
135.19675

6
2

77
50

19
11

63.091815
75.710178
82.019359
78.864769
66.246406
75.710178
78.864769
66.246406
75.710178
75.710178

440
275
500
250
250
300
500
250
300
500

86.034293
137.65487
75.710178
151.42036
151.42036
126.18363
75.710178
151.42036
126.18363
75.710178

2
2
2
3.0 (1)
3.0 (1)
2
2
4
2
1.5

30
35
50
50
125
50
125
100
50
25

16
16
16
23
11
15
15
11
15
9

94.637722
110.41068

700 (6)
550 (6)

54.079
68.827

1.5
1.5 (1)

100
100

11
11

69.400996
59.937224
78.864769

345
500
275

109.7249
75.710178
137.65487

1
2
2

100
33

11

0.7

10

1.8

66.246406
50.473452
63.091815

560
685
375

67.598373
55.262904
100.9469

1
2

600
50

11

0.7

0.6

50.473452

NS

0.06/ft2

1.7

1.2
1.3
1.2

1.4

1.5

1.1
3
1.1
1.1
1
0.8
3
1.5

1
1
1
1.4
1.4
1.4

1.2
0.5
1.3
1.3
1.2

1.2

0.8
0.8
0.8

1.8
1.1

1.6
1.3

1.3
1.3

1
1.45
1.1
1.6
1.2
1.1
1.1
1.6
1.3
1

1.2
0.9

1.1
1.1

0.6
0.75

0.5
1.7

0.5
8
0.5

There is no substitute for an accurate load analysis of a building, but these figures will help you to get a ballpark idea of the occupancy, lighting, ventilation,
heating, cooling, and zone primary airflow requirementsof a building in a timely manner. All figures assume the outdoor air ventilation rates shown.
1. Where indicated, the lighting load includes other equipment such as dries, stoves, computers, etc.
2. Ventilation rates are cfm/person default values based on ASHRAE Std. 62.1-2004.
3. Bakery figures assume that half of the floor space is dedicated to the kitchen and half to the seating/serving/display area.
4. The figures for casino include some area allocated for a modest restaurant & for public bathrooms.
5. in residences, the percent shown is the ratio of glass square footage to total outside wall square footage, ex pressed as a percent. A typical standard is 15%. A
custom-built standard is 25%.
6. Do not count unexposed, below-grade areas. They have no cooling load.