Guidelines and Decision Tables for Selecting
the Appropriate Statistical Procedure
Tables 1.151.18 are designed to facilitate the selection of the appropriate statistical test.
These tables list the major inferential statistical procedures described in the book, based on the
level ofmeasurement the data being evaluated represent. Specifically, Table 1.15 lists inferential
statistical tests employed with intervallratiodata, Table 1.16 lists inferential statistical tests employed with ordinallrankorder data,* and Table 1.17 lists inferential statistical tests employed
with categorical/nominal data. Table 1.18 lists the measures of correlation/associationthat are
described in the book. Using the aforementionedtables, the following guidelines should be employed in selecting the appropriate statistical test.
1. Determineifthe analysis involves computing a correlation coefficientJmeasureofassociation
and, if it does, go to Table 1.18. The selection of the appropriate measure in Table 1.18 is
based on the level of measurement represented by each of the variables for which the
measure of correlation/association is computed.
2. If the analysis does not involve computing a measure of correlation/association, it will be
assumed that the data will be evaluated through use of an inferential statistical test. To
select the appropriate inferential statistical test, the following protocol should be employed.
a) State the general hypothesis that is being evaluated.
b) Determine if the study involves a single sample or more than one sample.
c) If the study involves a single sample, the appropriate test will be one of the tests for a
single sample in Tables 1.15,I. 16, or 1.17. In order to determine which table to employ,
determine the level of measurement represented by the data that are being evaluated. If
the level of measurement is intervallratio, Table 1.15 is employed. If the level of
measurement is ordinallrankorder, Table 1.16 is appropriate. If the level of
measurement is categoricallnominal, Table 1.17 is utilized.
d) If there is more than one sample, determine how many samples/treatmentsthere are and
whether they are independent or dependent. Determine the level of measurement represented by the data that are being evaluated (which represents the dependent variable in
the study).
1) Ifthe level ofmeasurement is intervallratio, go to Table 1.15. Identifythe test or tests
that are appropriate for that level of measurement with respect to the number and
types of samples employed in the study.
2) If the level of measurement is ordinallrankorder, go to Table 1.16. Identify the test
or tests that are appropriate for that level ofmeasurementwith respect to the number
and types of samples employed in the study.
3) Ifthe level ofmeasurement is categoricallnominal, go to Table 1.17. Identify the test
or tests that are appropriate for that level ofmeasurement with respect to the number
and types of samples employed in the study.
* In the case of the following three tests listed in Table 1.16, the dependent variable will be intervallratio
data which are converted into a format in which the resulting scores are rankordered: The Wilcoxon
signedranks test (Test 6), the Moses test for equal variability (Test IS), and the Wilcoxon matchedpairs signedranks test (Test 18).
Copyright 2004 by Chapman & Hal/CRC
Handbook of Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Procedures
114
Table 1.15 Decision Table for Inferential Statistical Tests Employed with IntewalIRatio Data
Number of samples
Hypothesis evaluated
One independent
variable
Hypothesis about a population
mean
Single sample
Test
The singlesamplez test (Test 1) (o known)
The singlesample t test (Test 2) (o unknown)
The singlesample chisquare test for a population
variance (Test 3)
The singlesample test for evaluating population
skewness (Test 4)
Hypothesisabout a
The singlesample test for evaluating population
parameterlcharacteristic other than
kurtosis (Test 5 )
the mean
The mean sauare successive difference test (for serial
randomness) (Test log)
The D'AgostinoPearson test of normality (Test 5a)
Procedures for identifyingoutliers (Test 1If)
1
about difference
between two independent
Two
independent population means
samples
The t test for two independent samples (Test 11)
The z test for two independent samples ( ~ e s 1t ie)
The singlefactor betweensubjects analysis of
variance (Test 2 1)
The singlefactor betweensubjects analysis of
covariance (Test 2 lj)
Hypothesis about two independent Hartley's F, test for homogeneity of variance1
population variances
F test for two population variances (Test 1la)
samples
dependent
samples
The t test for two dependent samples (Test 17)
Sandier's A test (Test 17d)
Hypothesis about difference
between two dependent population The z test for two dependent samples (Test 17e)
means
The singlefactor withinsubjectsanalysis of variance
(Test 24)
Hypothesis about two dependent
population variances
Hypothesis about difference
between
two or more independent
Two or more
independent 1Ipopulation means
Two
or more
samples
     
Hypothesis about two or more
independentpopulation variances
Hypothesis about difference
between two or more dependent
Two or more Domiation means
dependent
samples '
H
or more ~
I dependent population variances
1
Two independent
variables
Copyright 2004 by Chapman & Hal/CRC
Hypothesis about difference
between two or more population
means
The t test for homogeneity of variance for two
dependent samples (Test 17a)
The singlefactor betweensubjects analysis of
variance (Test 2 1)
The singlefector betweensubjects analysis of
covariance (Test 2 1j)
Hartley's Fm test for homogeneity of variance1
Ftest for two population variances (Test 1la)
The singlefactor withinsubjects analysis of variance
(Test 24)
See discussion of sphericity assumption under the
singlefactor withinsubjects
~
analysis
~
of variance ~
,(Test 24)
l ~ h betweensubjects
e
factorial analysis of variance
(Test 27)
The factorial analysis of variance for a mixed design
(Test 27i)
The withinsubjects factorial analysis of variance
(Test 27j)
Guidelines and Decision Tables
Table 1.16 Decision Table for Inferential Statistical Tests Employed
with OrdinallRankOrder Data
Hypothesis evaluated
Number of simples
Test
The Wilcoxon signedranks test (Test 6)
Hypothesis about a population
The KolmogorovSmimov goodnessoffit test for a
median or the distribution of data in single sample (Test 7)
The Lilliefors test for normality (Test 7a)
a single population
The singlesample test for the median (Test 9b)
Single sample
Hypothesis about two independent
w~ulationmedians. or some other
characteristic
(other than
Two
independent variability) of two independent
populations
samples
Two
samples
The MannWhitney U test (Test 12)
The randomization test for two independent samples
(Test l2a)
The bootstrap (Test 12b) (The bootstrap can also be
employed for evaluating hypotheses concerning
variability, as well as for evaluating various
hypotheses for single sample designs and designs
involving two or more independent or dependent
samples.)*
The iackknife (Test 12b) (The iackknife can also be
employed for evaluating' hypotheses concerning
variability, as well as for evaluating various
hypotheses for single sample designs and designs
involving two or more independent or dependent
samples.)*
The KolmogorovSmimov test for two independent
samples (Test 13)
The median test for independent samples
(Test 16e)
The van der Waerden normalscores test for k
independent samples (Test 23)
Hypothesis about variability in two The SiegeITukey test for equal variability (Test 14)
independent populations
The Moses test for equal variability (Test 15)
Hypothesis about the ordering of
data in two dependent populations
samples
he
Two
or more
samples
The Wilcoxon matchedpairs signedranks test (Test
18)
The binomial sign test for two dependent samples
(Test 19)
KruskalWallis oneway analysis
. of variance by
ranks (Test 22)
Hypothesis about two or more
The JonckheereTerpstra test for ordered alternatives
Two or more
independent population medians, or
independent some 0 t h characteristicof two or (Test 22a)
samples
The van der Waerden normalscores test fork
more independent populations
independent samples (Test 23)
test for independent samples (Test 16e)
he median
IWo
Or
samples
~ypothesisabout two or molt
dependent populatiOn
The Friedman twoway analysis of variance by ranks
nest 25)
The Page test for ordered alte~natives(Test 25.1
*Although discussed under procedures for evaluating ordinal/rankorder data, the bootstrap and jackknife can be employed
to evaluate data representing any level of measurement.
Copyright 2004 by Chapman & Hal/CRC
Handbook of Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Procedures
Table 1.17 Decision Table for Inferential Statistical Tests Employed
with CategoricaVNominal Data
Number of samples
Hypothesis evaluated
Test
The chisquare goodnessoffit test (Test 8)
The binomial sign test for a single sample (Test 9)
The z test for a population proportion (Test 9a)
The singlesample runs test (Test 10)
Hypothesis about distribution of The runs test for serial randomness ( ~ e s tlOa)
The frequency test (for randomness) (Test lob)
data in a single population
The gap test (for randomness) (Test lOc)
The poker test (for randomness)(Test lOd)
The maximum test (for randomness) ( ~ e slOe)
t
The coupon collector's test (for randomness) (Test lOf
The chisquare test of independence (Test 16b)
Hypothesis about distribution of The chisquare test for homogeneity (Test 16a)
Two
independent data in two independent
The Fisher exact test (Test 16c)
samples populations
The z test for two independent proportions (Test 16d)
1 wo
'"mples
Two
l ~ h McNanar
e
test (Test 20)
Hvoothesis about distribution of The Cart test for order eSects (Test 20at
The Bowker test of internal symmetry (Test 20b)
The StuartMaxwell test of marginal homogeneity
(Test 20c)
The chisquare test for homogeneity (Test 16a)
Two
or more
samples
The Cochran Q test (Test 26)
Copyright 2004 by Chapman & Hal/CRC
Guidelines and Decision Tables
117
Table 1.18 Decision Table for Measures of Correlation/Association
Level of measurement
Bivariate
Interval/ratio
data
OrdinaVrank
order data
Categorical/
nominal data
More than two
sets of scores
Test
I he Pearson productmoment correlation coefficient (Test 28)
The intraclass correlation coefficient (Test 24i)


multiple correlation coefficient (Test 28k)
partial correlation coefficient 281)
The semipartial correlation coefficient (Test 28m)
Spearman's rankorder correlation coefficient (Test 29)
Kendall's tau (Test 30)
Goodman and Kruskal's gamma (for ordered contingency tables) (Test 32)
More than two
sarnpledsets of
ranks
Kendall's coefficient of concordance(Test 3 1)
The contingency coefficient (Test 160
The phi coefficient (Test 16g)
Fwo dichotomous Yule's Q (Test 16i)
variables*
The odds ratio (Test 16j)
Cohen's kappa (Test 16k)
Binomial effect size display (Test 28r)
nOndichOtOmOus
The contingency coefficient (Test 16f)
Cramer's phi coefficient (Test 16h)
The odds ratio (Test 16j)
Cohen's kappa (Test 16k)
Omega squared (One variable, interval/ratio data; second variable, two or more
nominal levels) (Tests 11d17d2 1g/24g/27g)
Eta squared (One variable, interval/ratio data; second variable, two or more
nominal levels) (Test 1Id (two nominal levels); Test 2 1h)
Cohen's d index (and g index sample analogue) (Test 1l bIl7b) (One variable,
interval/ratio data; second variable, two nominal levels). (with
Test 2a for one
.
variable)
kher bivariate correlational
ieasures for which interval/ratio Cohen'sfindex (One variable, interval/ratio data, second variable, two or more
ata are employed or implied for at nominal levels) (Test2 1i724hi27h)
a s t one of the variables
The pointbiserial correlation coefficient (One variable, interval/ratio data;
second variable represented by dichotomous categories) (Test 28h)
The biserial correlation coefficient(One variable, intervallratio data; second
variable, an interval/ratio variable expressed in form of dichotomous categories)
(Test 28i)
The tetrachoric correlation coefficient (Two interval/ratio variables, both of
which are expressed in the form of dichotomouscategories) (Test 28j)
*A dichotomous variable is comprised of two mutually exclusive categories.
Copyright 2004 by Chapman & Hal/CRC