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Solar Battery Charger Circuit

Specifications of the Charging Circuit

Solar panel rating 5W /17V

Output Voltage Variable (5V 14V).

Maximum output current 0.29 Amps.

Drop out voltage- 2- 2.75V.

Voltage regulation: +/- 100mV

Solar Battery Charger Circuit Principle:


Solar battery charger operated on the principle that the charge control circuit will produce the
constant voltage. The charging current passes to LM317 voltage regulator through the diode
D1. The output voltage and current are regulated by adjusting the adjust pin of LM317 voltage
regulator. Battery is charged using the same current.

Solar Battery Charger Circuit Diagram:

Solar Battery Charger Circuit Diagram

Circuit Components

Solar panel 17V

LM317 voltage regulator

DC battery

Diode 1n4007

Capacitor 0.1uF

Schottky diode 3A, 50V

Resistors 220, 680 ohms

Pot 2K

Connecting wires

Solar Battery Charger Circuit Design


Circuit must have adjustable voltage regulator , so Variable voltage regulator LM317 is
selected. Here LM317 can produce a voltage from 1.25 to 37 volts maximum and maximum
current of 1.5 Amps.
Adjustable Voltage regulator has typical voltage drop of 2 V-2.5V .So Solar panel is selected
such that it has more voltage than the load. Here I am selecting 17v/5w solar panel.
Lead acid battery which is used here has specification of 12v/1.3Ah. In order to charge this
battery following are required.
Schottky diode is used to protect the LM317 and panel from reverse voltage generated by the
battery when it is not charging. Any 3 A diode can be used here.

For Charging 12V Battery


Output voltage

Set the output voltage to 14.5 volts(This voltage is specified on the battery as cycle use.)

Charging current

Charging current = Solar panel wattage/Solar Panel Voltage = 5 / 17 = 0.29A.

Here LM317 can provide current upto 1.5A .So it is recommended to use high wattage panels if
more current is required for your application.(But here my battery requires initial current less than
0.39Amps. This initial current is also mentioned on the battery).

If the battery requires initial current more than 1.5A,it is not recommended to use LM317.

Variable Power Supply Circuits


Variable supply that can be varied from 1.2V to 30V at a
current of 1 Amphere
Circuit Diagram

A Variable DC Power Supply is very important for electronics projects, prototyping and
hobbyists. For smaller voltages, we normally use batteries as a reliable source.
Instead of using batteries, which have a limited lifetime, a variable DC power supply can be
used which is implemented in this project.
It is a robust, reliable and easy to use variable DC power supply. The working of the circuit is
as follows.

A transformer is used to step down the AC supply to 24V at 2A. A bridge rectifier is used to
convert this voltage to DC.
This pulsating DC is filtered using the capacitor to get a clean DC and is given to LM317 which
is a variable voltage regulator IC.
In order to vary the output voltage, two variable resistors of values 1K and 10K are used.
10K POT is used for large change in voltage while 1K POT is used for fine adjustments.
Depending on the settings of the POT, the ADJ pin of LM317 receives a small portion of the
output voltage as feedback and the output voltage is varied.
A capacitor is used at the output of the voltage regulator so that the output voltage doesnt
have any spikes.
With the help of this variable DC power supply, the output voltage can be varied from 1.2V to
30V at a current of 1A. This circuit can be used as reliable DC source and acts as a
replacement to batteries.
It is important to attach the voltage regulator IC LM317 to a heat sink as it tends to get hotter
during operation.
Note
The above circuit uses only 15 v transformer at the input,so it can be varied maximum upto
15V. In order to increase the upto 30v input of 30v should be applied.

0-28V, 6-8A Power Supply Circuit Diagram using LM317 and


2N3055
This design can produce a current of 20 amps with little modification (use proper rating
transformer and a huge heat sink with fan). Huge heat sink is required in this circuit, as
2N3055 transistors produce large amount of heat at full load.

Circuit Components

30V, 6A Step down Transformer

Fuse F1 1 Amp

Fuse F2 10 Amp

Resistor R1 (2.5 watt) 2.2k ohm

Resistor R2 240 ohm

Resistor R3, R4 (10 watt) 0.1 ohm

Resistor R7

6.8k ohm

Resistor R8 10k ohm

Resistor R9 (0.5 watt) 47 ohm

Resistor R10 8.2K

Capacitors C1, C7, C9 47nF

Electrolytic capacitor C2 4700uF/50v

C3, C5 10uF/50v

C4, C6 100nF

C8 330uF/50v

C10 1uF/16v

Diode D5 1n4148 or 1n4448 or 1n4151

D6 1N4001

D10 1N5401

D11 LED red

D7, D8, D9 1N4001

LM317 adjustable voltage regulator

Pot RV1 5k

Pot RV2 47 ohm or 220 ohm, 1 watt

Pot RV3 10k trimmer

Circuit Design
Although the voltage regulator LM317 protects the circuit from overheating and overload the
Fuses F1 and F2 are used to protect the power supply circuit. The rectified voltage at capacitor
C1 is around 42.30V (30 volt *SQR2 = 30v *1.41 =42.30).
So we need to use all the capacitors which are rated at 50v in the circuit. Pot RV1 allows us to
vary the output voltage in between 0 to 28V. The minimum output voltage of LM317 voltage
regulator 1.2V.
In order to get 0V at the output we are using 3 diodes D7, D8 and D9. Here 2N3055 transistors
are used to get more current.

Pot RV2 is used to set the maximum current available at the output. If you use a 100 ohm/1
watt potentiometer then the output current is limited 3 Amps at 47 ohms and 1 Amp at 100
ohm.

LM317 Voltage Regulator


LM317 is the 3 pin series adjustable voltage regulator. This regulator provides output voltage
ranging from 1.2V to 37V at 1.5 amps. This IC is easy to use and requires only two resistors to
provide the variable supply.
It provides internal current limiting, thermal shut down and it provides more line and load
regulation as compared to fixed voltage regulators. Because of all these features these IC is
mostly used in variety of applications.

0-28V, 6-8A Power Supply Circuit Applications

Used in various power amplifiers and oscillators to provide DC supply.

This circuit is used in appliances

Used as RPS (Regulated power supply) to provide the DC supply to the various electronic
circuits.

Note
This circuit is studied theoretically and may require some changes to implement it in practical.

Variable Power Supply Circuit from Fixed Voltage Regulator


The fixed voltage regulator is used to offer fixed voltage at the output terminal and does not
depend upon the input voltage supplied. Here is the circuit producing variable voltage Power
supply designed using fixed voltage regulators.

Circuit Diagram

Working

Bridge rectifier is used fr converting AC to DC.

Then the voltage is applied to the 7805 voltage regulator.

Output of the regulator can be varied by varying the resistance connected to the common pin of
the 7805.

In spite of the different values of resistors variable resistor can be used in the circuit to get
different value of voltage.

RF Remote Control Circuit for Home


Appliances
RF Remote Control Circuit Principle:
When we press any key in the remote, the transmitter section generates the corresponding RF
signal and this signal is received by the receiver section, hence it switches the corresponding
appliance.
A four channel encoder/decoder pair is used in this system. The input signals at the transmitter
section are taken from the four switches and the output signals at the receiver are indicated by
the four LEDs corresponding to each switch.

RF Communication

Here, the encoder HT12E is used to convert parallel data to serial. This data is transmitted
serially to receiver point through RF.
RF receiver receives the data serially and then gives to the HT12D decoder to convert it to the
parallel. Four LEDs indicate the received data.

Circuit Diagram of RF Remote Control for Home


Appliances without using Microcontroller:

Circuit Diagram of Remote Control Circuit Through RF Without Microcontroller

Circuit Components:

HT12E encoder IC

HT12D decoder IC

RF 434 MHz transmitter and receiver

Resistors 33k,750k

220 ohm Resistors 4

Push buttons 4

SPST switch 1

LEDs 5

Also get an idea about How FM Remote Encoder/Decoder Circuit Works for Home Appliances.

RF Remote Control for Home Appliances without


Microcontroller Circuit Design:
HT12E Encoder: This encoder IC is integrated 2^12 series of encoders. This IC is mainly used
to interface RF and IR circuits. This IC converts 12 bit parallel to serial. These 12 bits are
divided into 4 data bits and 8 address bits.
This IC has transmitter enable pin. When trigger signal is received on this pin, the address and
data bits are transmitted together. HT12E starts a 4 word transmission cycle upon receipt of
enable. The transmission cycle is repeated till transmitter enable is kept low.
HT12D Decoder: Thisdecoder IC converts serial input data to parallel. This IC indicates valid
transmission by a high at VT (Valid Transmission) pin.
HT12D is capable to decode 12bit data (8 address bits and 4 data bits). The output data
remains unchanged till the new data is received.
It is mainly used in RF and IR circuits. These decoders are mainly used for remote control
applications like burglar alarm, car door alarm, security system etc.
The chosen pair of encoder and decoder for communication should have same number of
address and data bits.

RF Modules (434MHz):
This module operates at radio frequency. The Radio frequency range is 30 KHz to 300 GHz. In
this system, RF modules use ASK (Amplitude Shift Keying) modulation.
Transmission through RF is better than IR because, the RF signal can travel for longer
distances as compare to infrared. And IR mostly supports line-of-sight mode, RF signals can
travel even there is an obstruction. RF transmission is more reliable and stronger as compare
to IR.
The chosen pair of RF Transmitter and receiver should have same frequency. The
transmission speed of these modules is 1Kbps to 10Kbps.

RF Modules Pin Diagram

How to Operate this RF Remote Control Circuit?


1.

Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram.

2.

Apply 5V supply to the transmitter and receiver sections. Now you can observe that all the LEDs
at receiver will glow.

3.

Press the first button at transmitter section; you can observe that first LED will off at receiver
section. In the same way when you press any button at transmitter section the corresponding
LED at receiver will OFF.

4.

Now disconnect the power supply from transmitter and receiver sections.

Simple FM Radio Jammer Circuit


FM Radio Jammer Circuit Diagram:

Circuit Diagram of Simple FM Radio Jammer

Note: This circuit diagram has been taken from circuitstoday.com website.

FM Jammer Circuit Explanation:

The variable capacitor C1 and L1 will constitute the tank circuit which will produce the high
frequency signal, the capacitor C1 is variable so that we can produce different frequency signal
by adjusting the variable capacitor. When the Q1 is turned ON, the tank circuit will start its
operation and produce the VHF signal (very high frequency signal) which will jam or create the
noise in the original signal so that receiver cannot receive the signal. Even if it is received also,
the signal cannot be used by the receiver circuit.

The resistors R1 and R2 will act as the biasing circuit and R3 is used for limiting the emitter
current in the circuit.

Thermistor Temperature Sensing Alarm

Circuit Diagram
Alarm:

of Thermistor

Temperature

Sensing

The element in the circuit that senses the temperature of the environment is a thermistor. The
name itself has its meaning. Thermistor means thermal+resistor. It means that the resistance
of the thermistor varies with change in temperature. The relationship between the resistance of
the thermistor and temperature is inversely related. This means that if the temperature in the
atmosphere increases, the resistance offered by the thermistor decreases and if the
temperature outside decreases, the resistance of the thermistor increases. This property of the
thermistor helps us to make use of it to sense the temperature of the surroundings.

The circuit makes use of two BC547 NPN transistors to switch the alarm when the temperature
above desired value is detected. The IC 4011 which is used in the circuit is a quad NAND gate
integrated circuit. It has four NAND gates assembled in the single IC itself. This reduces the
space and complexity of the circuit.
The combinational circuit which is built using the NAND gates is an oscillator circuit. As we
know, any combinational circuit has an inherent time delay between the input and the output.
This time delay is usually considered as undesirable but in this case we are making use of it to
make it work like an oscillator. The circuit turns on and off repeatedly with a time delay
operating as a square wave oscillator. The output of the oscillator is given to a buzzer which
thereby operates at the audio frequency. The capacitors used in the circuit acts as filters to
remove unwanted components of the signals and hence ensuring stability and proper
operation.

Speed Control of DC Motor Using Pulse


Width Modulation

Circuit Diagram of PWM Based DC Fan Controller:

In this circuit, the DC motor is operated by a 555 integrated circuit. The IC 555 in this circuit is
being operated in astable mode. In this mode, the circuit can be used as a pulse width
modulator with a few small adjustments to the circuit. The frequency of operation of the circuit
is provided by the passive parameters of resistances and capacitances attached to it. The
resistance between pin-7 and pin-8, the resistance between pin-6 and pin-7 and the
capacitance between pin-2 and the ground govern the frequency of operation and duty cycle of
the ic 555 in astable mode. The duty cycle is governed by the resistor which is in between pin6 and pin-7 of the IC 555 timer. So, by taking advantage of the circuits working, we can change
the 555 astable multivibrator into a pulse width modulator by using a variable resistor instead
of a constant resistor in between pin-6 and pin-7.
One of the best things about this circuit is that we can make it work as an astable multivibrator
with little hardware and by little cost which can save both the cost involved in making it as well
as the space on the printed circuit board is saved. if we want a sophisticated pulse width
modulator which works more accurately and which can have more adjusting capabilities, then
it is better to use a microcontroller based pulse width modulator than the one which we are
using now. However, the circuit or the application for which we are using a pulse width
modulator is not so sensitive and hence does not demand so much of accuracy. In such a

case, the circuit which we are using with a bare IC 555 is better as it saves our monetary as
well as space resources in building the circuit.
The duty cycle of the circuit can be changed by changing the resistance between pin-7 and
pin-6. If we increase the duty cycle, the speed of the motor increases and if we decrease the
duty cycle, the speed of the motor decreases.

Automatic Changeover Switch


Automatic Changeover Switch Circuit Principle:
This circuit is based on the principle of bistable mode operation of 555 Timer. In this mode, the
Timer output is either high or low depending upon the status of trigger and reset pin. The Timer
output is connected to a transistor which acts as a switch, being on or off depending upon the

Timer output. Two LEDs in series are used as a load. In case of transistor being switched off,
LEDs are driven by the AC-DC power supply whereas in case of transistor being switched on,
LEDs are driven by the battery.

Automatic Changeover Switch Circuit Diagram:

Circuit Diagram of Automatic Changeover Switch

Automatic Changeover Switch Circuit Design:


Designing the circuit involves two basic parts
1. Design of AC DC Power Supply:
It is the design of a basic AC to DC power supply system using transformer and bridge
rectifier.
The first step involves selection of the voltage regulator. Since here, our requirement is to drive
two LEDs in series along with a Schottky diode, we settle down with LM7809 voltage regulator

producing a voltage of 9V. Since input voltage to the regulator must be at least 12V, we settle
down with an input voltage of about 20V.
The next step involves selecting the transformer. Since primary voltage is 230V and required
secondary voltage is about 20V, we can settle with a 230V/20V basic transformer.
The third step is the selection of diodes for bridge rectifier. Since peak voltage across the
transformer secondary is around 28V, the total PIV of the bridge would be around 112V. Hence
we need diodes having PIV rating more than 112V. Here we select 1n4007 having PIV of about
1000V.
The final step involves selection of filter capacitor. For a capacitor, peak voltage of 26V and
minimum regulator input voltage of 12V, the allowable ripple is about 14V. The capacitance
value is then calculated by the formula, C = I (t/V), where I is sum of quiescent current of
voltage regulator and required load current. Substituting the values, we get a value of about
17uF. Here we select a 20uF electrolyte capacitor.
2. Design of Bistable Multivibrator Circuit using 555 Timer:
When a 555 Timer is configured in bistable multivibrator; its output is either high or low logic
signal. Here we use the simple logic that when trigger pin is grounded, output is a high logic
signal and when reset pin is grounded, output is low logic signal. Here the output of 555 Timer
is connected to the base of transistor BC547.

Automatic Changeover Circuit Operation:


The circuit operation commences once the switch S1 is at any of its position. When the switch
S1 is at position 1, reset pin of the 555 Timer is grounded. Internally this reset pin is the reset
pin of the SR Flip flop and hence the output of 555 Timer is a low logic signal. Now since base
emitter junction of Q1 is reverse biased, it is in cut off position. The load LEDs are connected
directly to the output of the voltage regulator through the Schottky diode. Here is where the
operation of AC to DC power supply circuit comes to play. AC power is first stepped down by
the transformer and then converted to unregulated and fluctuating DC voltage by the bridge

rectifier. The AC ripples from the fluctuating DC voltage is removed by the filter capacitor. This
unregulated DC voltage is then converted into a regulated DC voltage by the voltage regulator.
When switch S1 is at position 2, trigger pin of 555 Timer is grounded. This causes the output of
the 555 Timer to be a logic high signal. The base emitter junction of Q1 is thus forward biased
and the transistor is driven to saturation, thus being in on position. Here we should note two
things First, the Schottky diode now does not conducts as the voltage difference between
both cathode and anode of the diode is zero, i.e. there is no potential difference at the junction.
Secondly, the LEDs are now biased through the resistor and the transistor and driven by the
battery voltage.

High and Low Voltage Cutoff with Delay


and Alarm
High and Low Voltage Cutoff with Delay and Alarm Principle:
When supply voltage is high, the DC voltage at the cathode of zener diode D4 becomes
greater than 5.6V. As a result, transistor Q1 is in ON and transistor Q2 gets switched off.
Hence the relay RL1 de-energizes and load would be in OFF condition.
Under low supply voltage condition, transistor Q1 switches to ON condition and as a result
transistor Q2 switches off, making the load OFF.

When normal AC supply voltage is applied, the DC voltage at the cathode of zener diode D4 is
less than 5.6V, now transistor Q1 is off condition. As a result, transistor Q2 is in ON condition,
hence load switches to ON by indicating the green LED.
SUPPLY VOLTAGE

Q1 STATE

Q2 STATE

RELAY

LOAD

High

ON

OFF

De-energises

OFF

Low

ON

OFF

De-energises

OFF

Normal

OFF

ON

Energises

ON

Resume

ON

OFF

De-energises

OFF

When supply is resumed after a break, 555 timer IC goes low and this triggers the 555 timer
IC. The output of 555 timer IC makes sound IC to operate through the transistor Q3, at the
same time, transistor Q1 switches to ON condition as the output 555 timer is connected to the
base of Q1 and results transistor Q2 OFF. Thus the relay switches off the load.

High and Low Voltage Cutoff with Delay and Alarm Circuit
Diagram:

High and Low Voltage Cut-off with Delay Alarm Circuit Diagram

Circuit Components:

Center tapped Transformer (12-0-12V, 500mA)

NE 555 timer

UM66 IC

Speaker

12V Relay

4 Transistors SL100

2 Zener diodes 5.6V

Zener diode 5V

LEDs red, green

5 Diodes 1n4001

16V Electrolytic capacitors 100uF, 10uF, 1uF

Ceramic capacitor 0.01uF

Potentiometers 4.7k, 4.7k, 10k

7 Resistors 1k

Resistors 10k, 1M

High and Low Voltage Cutoff with Delay and Alarm Circuit Design:
In this circuit, 555 timer is configured to operate in monostable mode. In this circuit, pin4 and
pin8 are shorted to avoid sudden resets. The pulse width of the 555 timer output signal is
about 10 seconds. This output signal drives the speaker.
Speaker gives melodious sound when power is resumed because of UM66 IC. The volume of
the speaker can be controlled by using POT RV3.

Green LED indicates normal AC supply voltage. Red LED is used for power indication.
Here zener diode D4 along with transistor Q1 is used for comparing the input voltage.
Transistor Q2 switches the load based on the output of transistor Q1. Diodes D1 and D2 are
used for rectification purpose. Capacitor C1 filters the input AC ripples.

How to Operate this Circuit?


1.

Give the connections according to the circuit Diagram

2.

While giving the supply, make sure that there is no common connection between AC and DC
supplies.

3.

Switch ON the input AC supply.

4.

Make the input supply voltage low or high. Now, you can observe that load is automatically
switches off.

5.

Apply normal supply voltage. Now, you can observe that load will run by indicating the green
LED.

6.

Now resume the power. You can listen melodious sound.

7.

Switch off the supply.

Sequential Timer for DC Motor


Control
Most industrial processes require rotation of the motors in forward and reverse
directions for desired periods. One good example is the automated bottle filling plant.
Here the bottles move on a conveyor belt. When the bottles come under the filler, the

filler comes down (the motor attached with the mechanism rotates forward) and fills the
bottle (the motor stops), then it goes up (the motor rotates in reverse direction) and
stops until the next bottle arrives. For moving the filler up and down, the time of rotating
the motor forward and reverse is calibrated and fixed. Also, the stop time of the motor is
calibrated based on the time required to fill the bottle and the time before arrival of the
next bottle.
A good domestic application is in washing machines. Once the timer is set to wash
clothes, the motor automatically rotates forward and then backward for fixed periods
(10 to 15 seconds) with small pauses in between.

Fig. 1: Block diagram of the sequential timer for DC motor control

As this is a sequential process, a sequential timer can be used to implement it.


Sequential timer is a widely used circuit in industrial plants because most industrial
processes are chain reaction type. That means as one process ends, it triggers the
next. The ending of the last process triggers the first process. Thus the cycle continues.

Generally, such sequence timers are microcontroller-based, multifunctional and


programmable. But a very simple sequential timer can be developed using NE555 ICs
wired in monostable mode. Cascading a number of these monostable stages forms a
sequential timer. The output of one stage is applied as the trigger to the next stage. So
when the output of a stage drops, it triggers the next stage and the output of the next
stage goes high, and likewise the chain reaction starts. Because here the process
involves four steps (forwardstopreversestop), four stages of NE555 ICs
connected in monostable multivibrator mode are used to form a four-stage sequential
timer. The first stage rotates the motor forward. The second stage stops the motor. The
third stage rotates the motor in reverse. The fourth stage stops the motor.
These stages actually energise or de-energise the relays that connect the motor to the
supply.

Fig. 2: Circuit of sequential timer for DC motor control

Block diagram

Fig. 1 shows the block

diagram of the sequential timer for DC motor control. The system consists of four
blocks of NE555 timer ICs connected in monostable mode. The output of each stage is
connected to the trigger input of the next stage. The output of the first stage drives
single-changeover relay RL1 and the output of the third stage drives relays RL2 (singlechangeover) and RL3 (double-changeover) simultaneously. The second and fourth
stages provide delay in between the first stage and third stage outputs.
The LEDs connected at the four stages indicate the status of the motor:
1. In the first stage, the green LED indicates that the motor is running forward.
2. In the second stage, the red LED indicates that the motor has stopped.
3. In the third stage, the blue LED indicates that the motor is running in reverse
direction.
4. In the fourth stage, the red LED indicates that the motor has stopped.
The trigger input to the first stage is actually given through process start switch. The
output of the fourth stage is fed back to the trigger input of the first stage through the
SPDT switch. It decides whether the process continues in loop or one-time only.
Relay connections to the motor are made such that these provide reversible supply to
the motor to rotate it forward and backward. As mentioned before, there are two singlechangeover relays (RL1 and RL2) and one double-changeover relay (RL3).
Connections of relays to the motor are shown in Fig. 1.
Circuit

description

Fig. 2 shows the circuit of the sequential timer. The first stage of the sequential timer is
built around NE555 IC (IC1). IC1 is wired in monostable mode and its time period is
determined by resistor R1, preset VR1 and capacitor C1. Preset VR1 is used to set the
time from 4 to 45 minutes. This means you can rotate the motor from a minimum of 4

minutes to the maximum of 45 minutes. Maximum and minimum time limits can be
changed by changing the values of the timing components as per the requirement.
Trigger pin (pin 2) of IC1 is pulled high with resistor R2. When switch S1 is pressed, it
goes low and output pin 3 becomes high. The output of IC1 drives transistor T1 into
saturation and relay RL1 energises. Also, LED1 (green LED) connected with output pin
3 glows to indicate that the motor is running, say, in forward direction.
The output of IC1 is fed to the second stage through coupling capacitor C2. IC2
(NE555) triggers when the output of IC1 goes low. Diode D1 acts as a free-wheeling
diode. The second stage of the sequential timer is made around IC2. This stage
provides delay between the first stage and third stage. The red LED connected at the
output of IC2 indicates that the motor is in stopped condition.
IC2 too is configured in monostable mode. Its time period is determined by resistor R6,
preset VR2 and capacitor C3. Preset VR2 is used to set the time from 1.75 to 10
minutes. If the process requires different timing, the values of timing components can
be changed accordingly. The output of IC2 is coupled to the third stage through
coupling capacitor C4. IC3 triggers when the output of IC2 goes low.

Device for Maintaining Car Batteries


When we do not drive our cars for extended periods of time, the abandoned
rechargeable batteries become fully discharged. Sometimes, these get damaged,
too.
Batteries have self-discharging rates that depend on their type and capacity, and
may vary from a few milliamperes to tens of milliamperes. Also, the electrical
installations in a car have leakage currents that may discharge the battery. If we
compensate the discharging current, the battery will remain always charged. This
can reduce the probability of the battery getting discharged or damaged. In any
case, it is good to read the datasheet of the manufacturer in order to know how to
maintain the battery.

Fig.
1: Circuit of the simple device maintaining two 12V rechargeable batteries

Circuit

and

working

Fig. 1 shows the simple device that can maintain two 12V rechargeable batteries.
The mains power supply is applied to connector CON1 and is reduced by
transformer X1 to 21V AC, 200mA. The bridge rectifier comprising diodes D1
through D4 rectifies the AC voltage.
The device has two identical channels. Each channel has an individual low-cost
linear regulator 7805 (IC1 and IC2). Minimum output current for the battery is set
by resistors R2 and R5 at around 10mA. Maximum output current can have two
values (around 50mA and 100mA).

Fig. 2: Actual-size PCB of the power supply

When switches S2 and S3 are at position 1, the output current is around 50mA.
When switches S2 and S3 are at position 2, the output current is around 100mA.
Maximum output voltage is limited to around 15.5V with LED1, ZD1 and ZD2 for
the first channel and LED2, ZD3 and ZD4 for the second channel.
Fig. 3: Component layout of the PCB

Raising the current to around 100mA should not damage LED1 and LED2. Diodes
D5 and D6 prevent the discharge of batteries BATT.1 and BATT.2 when the mains
power supply is not present. Nevertheless, if the mains power supply is not present
for a long time, disconnect the batteries from the device.

Mount regulators IC1 and IC2 on small individual heat-sinks with thermal
resistance below 30C/W. The device will start working immediately if the circuit is
wired properly. Verify the maximum output voltage and maximum output current
with a multimeter.

Construction

and

testing

An actual-size, single-side PCB for the power supply is shown in Fig. 2 and its
component layout in Fig. 3. Enclose the PCB in a suitable small box in such a way
that outputs can be easily taken from the front panel.
The ground pin of each 7805 IC is connected to metallic part of the package and,
consequently, the metallic part of at least one of the ICs should be isolated from
the common heat-sink. Panel-mount AC input, switches, fuse, output connector
and battery, as per requirement.