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Early Christian and Byzantine Rings in the Zucker Family Collection

Author(s): Gary Vikan
Source: The Journal of the Walters Art Gallery, Vol. 45 (1987), pp. 32-43
Published by: The Walters Art Museum
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18-19): .7 Like all but one ring in the Zucker series. and the hope of the faithful (Heb.. peace. nor drink ing cups. No article of personal adornment was more prev alent in Byzantine society nor more important to the conduct of an individual's private and public business than was a signet ring.2 Beyond this. and if there be one fishing. For we third to the fifteenth century. these objects range in date from dynastic Egypt to the probably writing at Caesarea in Cappadocia. this need not signify that they were worn by women or children. Seleucus got engraved as a device.. Neutral Bezel Devices From the early years of the third century. New before. or a musical lyre. for the first are prohibited to cleave to them. mind the cross. they consti are not to delineate the faces of idols. and the anchor on the other (fig. and the same was true for a wide range of civil and ecclesiastical officials. or a ship Christian and Byzantine rings which are distinguished at once by their fine quality and by the fact that they which Polycrates used. Of unusually high aesthetic and historic interest. in that both continue traditional Roman hoop and bezel designs. nor a bow.jstor. and for that reason are here published together.180 on Mon. 1) evokes the ICHTHYS acrostic authentication of certain communications and docu for Christ. 32 The Journal of The Walters Art Gallery 45(1987) This content downloaded from 193.. 1.Early Christian and Byzantine Rings in the Zucker Family Collection GARY VIKAN The Walters Art Gallery In June 1985 The Walters Art Gallery was fortunate to receive on extended loan 143 rings and pen dants from the Zucker Family Collection. since in Roman times it was common for men and women alike to wear rings on all joints of the hand. pagan signet motifs for their own symbolic purposes. As for the average citizen. or a fish. 2) calls to ments.170. Both motifs commonly appear on ring bezels of the Early Christian period.1 The emperor wore an official The two earliest rings in the Zucker series (figs. Christians of the eastern Mediterranean had begun to adopt neutral. whereas signets in their authenticating capacity were required by law for the validation of wills and testaments.4 time. being temperate. these two are gold. nor a sword. we who tute a significant collection in their own right. he will remember the apostle. following as we do..112.. which provide a substantially complete overview of major ring types in use in Eastern Christianity from the advice for pious Christians: scudding before the wind. 2)5 probably date from the era of Clement. or a ship's anchor. rings functioned in a purely social context as jewelry?as a natural and traditional mode of self adornment. 06 Jun 2016 15:57:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. who have fled for refuge to hold fast the hope set before us: Which we have as an anchor of the soul. York. signets in their locking capacity were essential for the maintenance of personal security. we may have the strongest comfort. sure and firm.3 Clement of Alexandria. In theory.6 and both show appropriate neutral subjects. and they are distinguished from most of the others by their small hoop size.. has this twentieth century. Among them are fifteen Early Let our seals be either a dove. In a sense. if not 6. and the children drawn out of the . ring as a symbol of power and as an implement for the The fish on one (fig.

the sense of which may be "(May I pledge my) faith to (Emperor) Constantine. 3)9 bears on its bezel the word FIDEM and on its hoop the name with these. and inscriptions vived from the Early Christian period.10-11). which is firmly dateable from the later fourth to early fifth century. most of these ring devices relate Old or New Testament stories symbolic of Christian deliverance. 8. and it ranks today as one of the finest specimens of its type to have sur religious repertoire of scenes. The former was said to have been acquired in Smyrna. As though created specific iconography. for this is feminine.18 As a group. suggest that rings this small would the olive branch confirming that Noah and his family have been inappropriate for a Christian male of his era. 6. however." which suggests that it may have been a government official's ring. and by the skill with which they were executed. Like many in the early church. Here the famous Christian standard supposedly first adopted by Con stantine at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge takes on a design remarkably close to the Golgotha Cross.. and [thus] the signet will not very easily fall off.Two admonitions in the same Clement of Alexandria former recalls the bird that returned to the Ark with passage. Certainly this was During the fourth century?and principally in the Latin West?Christians developed a more overtly a ring of distinction in its own time. it and its simple bezel thus stand in marked contrast to the relatively complex hoop with its rows of soldered pel lets. The latter. belongs to a well-known category of Early Christian marriage ring.. for sealing [i.13 which combines on its thick bezel superb intaglio quotations from two popu lar salvation compositions of the period: above is a bird with an olive branch in its beak. and the other ( .12 Indeed. Explicitly Christian themes of salvation gradually replaced Clement's neutral subjects on rings with fig ures or scenes on their bezels." Yet at the same time he implicitly denied very small rings in any metal to men: But men are not to wear the ring on the joint.52 gr).10 Similarly responsive to Constantine and the recent triumph of the new religion are the many sur viving rings like that in Figure 411 which bear one or another variant of the Chrismon. motifs.8 Salvation Bezel Devices lent bird into an explicitly biblical. the designed man's ring in the Zucker series (fig. being guarded by the large knot of the joint.112. but he acknowledged the practical would be delivered from the flood (Gen. that shows portraits virtually identical to those of the British Museum ring accompanied by a retrograde Greek inscription. 7) bears juxtaposed profile portraits on its bezel and frontal portraits on its hoop. and since it shows Christ raising his left hand in blessing. for their rings in response to the legitimation and Closely related in design and quality. Like the images custom arily found in Christian catacombs. Marriage Rings To judge from the scores of surviving examples. and Daniel in the lion's den. 5).e..jstor. a function usually betrayed by retrograde inscriptions and/or deeply carved devices. must have been made specifically for sealing. simply Museum (figs. That it and the two other rings should be assigned to the Eastern Empire is all but confirmed by a closely related marriage ring in the Dumbarton Oaks collec tion (fig. one large. these four rings bear witness to the highest levels of craftsman ship and luxury then available among Christian signet rings. hoop of each is formed of discs set off by pellets.14 The addition of this otherwise inconspicuous piece of vegetation has thus transformed Clement's multiva necessity that women wear gold rings in their capacity as housekeepers ". are two gold rings in the British to document this phenomenon. the discs number seven and they bear their CONSTANTINO.. Clement was opposed in principle to Christians wearing precious metal jewelry. this ring. Their high technical quality is paral leled by the sophisticated design of the hoop?with its nine discs and twenty soldered pellets?and by the ring's very weight (16. and below is a lamb. 7). which is roughly equal to that of three and one-half gold solidi. with facing portraits of husband and wife. Most Early Christian and Byzantine rings were seal rings. 8). on the other hand..15 The two animals on this bezel are distinguished at once by the depth of the intaglio.170. because the wife is mis placed in the position of honor at the left. it was clearly designed to function in reverse as a signet. such as Jonah and the whale.17 Again. 6) shows Christ enthroned on its bezel and standing Apostles on its hoop. protection and deliverance are the themes of the finest of the Zucker Early Christian rings (fig. if not in growing dominance of their faith.180 on Mon. The latter evokes the Agnus Dei and the Good Shepherd?the Lord and his protection?and the too. but own intaglio compositions. One ring (fig.16 As with the Zucker ring. 33 This content downloaded from 193. 06 Jun 2016 15:57:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. locking] things which are worth keeping safe in the house. but to place it on the little finger at its root. ultimately narra tive iconographie element with very specific religious meaning for the ring's wearer.

from the sixth to seventh century. Wedding Couple. help .marriage rings were both popular and lavish in early Byzantium. though in a Christianized and symbolic fashion. and around the octagonal hoop is an invocation on behalf of the couple: "Theotoke...jstor. the couple is brought together for the dextrarum iunctio. help . (On some examples. help George and Plakela. though apparently contemporary with the later type. are two iconographie schemes that show actual events from the marriage .) Later." or "Lord. 06 Jun 2016 15:57:11 UTC All use subject to http://about.37. husband and wife facing one another.112..* ' 'ti %*/ "^r fourth.. and on marriage rings 34 This content downloaded from 193. no. Christ and the Apostles.25 On the other hand. en buste. British seventh-century date are preserved in such major collections as Dumbarton Oaks and the British Museum." "Grace of God. fol Figure 6. gold. and for the most part evoke only a fairly banal level of everyday piety. The earliest and simplest Christian marriage rings. D. many fine gold specimens of 7 . gold. the latter.23 The former iconography is represented by the Zucker ring illustrated in Figure 10. in vertical columns. Ring. 58. as Figures 7 and 8. Wedding Couple. Flanking Christ." are common on objects of the minor arts (and lead sealings) throughout the Byzantine Figure 8. 8).180 on Mon. no. period. a small cross appears above and between the portraits. but instead of drawing the couple forward to join right hands." and "Health.24 whose bezel shows Christ standing at the center with the groom approaching from the left and the bride from the right. is the word OMONVA (Harmony)." Quite distinct from the first two compositional formulae.26 Here again Christ stands frontally at the center flanked by bride and groom. Yet here. Ring.19 Iconographically. and the fourth is attested by the related British Museum and Dumbarton Oaks rings just discussed (figs. Christ (or Christ with the Virgin) takes the role of the priest and places wedding crowns on their heads. acting as symbolic pronumba..C. Dumbarton Oaks Collection.21 Oth ers typically bear good wishes for the bride and groom such as "Harmony. Ring. in the exer gue below is the word EVXI (vow). 7. dating from the fourth and fifth centuries. London. British Museum. his hands are raised over their heads as if to crown them. indeed. 9-11).-f."27 Invocations beginning "Theotoke.20 The Zucker ring illustrated in Figure 9 represents a simple version of this. with Christ Figure 7. low the religiously neutral Roman scheme by showing. London. In one case. no.170. gold.22 and in the other. AF 304. AF 288. three of which are represented by excellent examples in the Zucker Col lection (figs. Washington. crowning formula is represented by the highly schematic scene on the bezel of the Zucker ring illustrated in Figure ll. a Christianized variant of this type appears wherein the profiles are replaced by frontal bust portraits with a large cross prominently displayed between them. in that the rite is performed by Christ. their bezel devices gener ally take one of four basic forms. . TL 10. gold.180 on Mon. Ring. Baltimore.Figure 5. 35 This content downloaded from 193. The Walters Art Gallery. Zucker Family Collection.1985. 06 Jun 2016 15:57:11 UTC All use subject to http://about.112.051. no. Lamb and Dove.

Baltimore. Zucker Family Collection.06.050. Baltimore. Baltimore.170. Gallery. no.062. Zucker Family Collection. gold. TL 10. TL 10. Zucker Family Collection. Ring. Gallery.Figure 1. Wedding Couple. The Walters Art Gallery. The Walters Art Gallery. Baltimore.052. Baltimore. Anchor. Chrismon. TL 10. gold.112. Figure 3. 36 This content downloaded from 193. TL 1985.1985. TL 10.jstor. The Walters Art lery. gold. no.1985. O Figure 2. gold. .049. no.048. Acclamation.1985. gold. Baltimore. Fish.1985. Ring. The Walters Art Gallery.180 on Mon. Ring. Ring. Zucker Family Collection. 06 Jun 2016 15:57:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. no. Figure 9. Ring. Figure 4. The Walters Art Zucker Family Collection. no. The Walters Art Gal Figure 10. TL 10. gold. Ring. Wedding Couple. Zucker Family Collection.1985.

Monogram. TL 10. no. gold. Figure 15. 37 This content downloaded from 193. TL 10.jstor.o Figure 11.060. Baltimore. Ring. Figure 13. Baltimore. Zucker Family Collection. Baltimore. no. Baltimore.170. Zucker Family Collection. gold. Baltimore.053. TL 10. gold.1985.1985.059. Zucker Family Collection. TL 10. gold. Baltimore. no. The Walters Art . Wedding Couple. The Walters Art Gallery. Figure 19.180 on Mon.054. no. Ring. Zucker Gallery. bronze. gold. gold.1985. Monogram. Ring.1985. The Walters Art Figure 16. TL 10.112.057. Ring. The Walters Art Gal lery. The Walters Art Gal lery. Ring. Baltimore. The Walters Art Gallery. Virgin Hodegetria. Figure 12.1985. no. no. Zucker Family Collection. TL 10.058. The Walters Art Gal lery. no. Invocation.056. Zucker Family Collection. 06 Jun 2016 15:57:11 UTC All use subject to http://about.1985. Ring. TL 10.1985. Zucker Family Collection. Figure 17. Family Collection. Ring.

TL 10.112. Ring. Demetrios. 38 This content downloaded from 193. no.jstor. St. >*\ Figure 21.055. 06 Jun 2016 15:57:11 UTC All use subject to http://about.I.170.1985. Zucker Family Collection. gold.180 on Mon. Baltimore. The Walters Art .

the shift in mere banal piety or simple ceremony. O bile.1. which are shared by so many Early Byzantine marriage rings: "Harmony. "Har (cross monograms). are incised into a simple disc soldered to a wire hoop. the incised help of the Theotohos for themselves (and their mar metal signet ring had become as common among and riage). this seems childbearing. . metal intaglios. where a metal bezel has been set as if it were a stone.253. PETROU ("of Peter") would be a probable choice. its ancestry is unmis takable. and Monogram. most distinctive to the Byzantines as had gem signets for likely that of successful childbirth. the Zucker Collection includes important new evidence to corroborate this assumption. 55. both the neutral and the salvation repertoires of signet themes gradually began to disappear.37 This adds spe wife specifically as a couple."30 And third.31 But so also might be cial significance to the fact that the majority of block "Health. . The inscriptional sense of each was the same: "[Seal] of Theodore. in addition to many earlier.180 on Mon. especially in rings like that in our Figure 10. and write thus on the octagon: "Flee. and are either arranged around a large central letter. eight-sided hoops are consis tently associated with apotropaic bezel devices. the genitive case ending is usually employed.35 Many." In Byzantium. but the absence of any trace of the last four letters suggests 39 This content downloaded from 193."33 . Dumbarton Oaks Collection. these constitute the "shield of favor" invoked from Figure 14. flee.170. sealing devices. would be essential to the ulti the majority of cross-monogram ring seals are. clearly apotropaic excerpt from Psalm 5. in a sense both monogram ring seals are gemstone intaglios. the lark is pursuing you. bear a thematically related. the back of the bezel of the ring illustrated in our Figure 13 shows two expertly incised Greek letters." "Health.34 Often the letters of the owner's name are incised backwards.32 Indeed.12 on their hoops: "Thou hast crowned us with a shield of favor. there is good reason to believe the formula was intended to be more specific. such as a mu. 12: "Theodore". And this in turn medium seems to have been all but fully accomplished suggests that when George and Plakela invoked the by the end of the sixth century. it might be supposed that they were more or less mass produced." "Grace of God. D. the very shape of the hoop: an octagon. Washington. Consider. there are the words. already noted. they were specifically prescribed by Alexander of Tralles for the treatment of colic: Take an iron ring and make its hoop eight-sided."29 Second.40 By then. in the text of the Byzantine to mark the culmination of a trend begun centuries marriage ceremony there are. like the mate goal of Christian marriage?namely.C. with crowning iconogra phy on the bezel. Virgin Hodegetria. for the most part replaced by a new.28 and indeed. Seal. lead. like the two Zucker examples." In a sense. 14)36 whicn were then becoming extremely popular in Byzantium. to form a block.112. 13). 13: "John"). a pi and an epsilon. Monogram Rings With the growth of the Byzantine capital. first. First. whereas literal and metaphoric. And obviously. or else are arranged on the arms of a cross (as in figs. and seal with the gold itself. O Lord our God.39 marriage rings which was significantly above that of To judge from surviving monogram rings. 06 Jun 2016 15:57:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. there is the fact that octagonal marriage rings very much like this one. Among surviving Early Byzantine rings. Yet.. such as "Bless Romans of sealing not with incised gems but with the us. . the passage from Psalm 5. this was a fashion invented when Claudius Caesar was and words like "Harmony" and "Health" together reflect a level of intentionality for Early Byzantine Emperor. merly been to the Romans." insofar as marital health.generally. In Book 33 of his Natural History. Their seal impression would therefore be quite close in appearance to the monogram lead sealings (fig. as You blessed Zacharias and metal of the ring itself: Elisabeth. they did so with a specific marital goal. the sixth century marked a basic shift from monograms constructed around a block let ter (block monograms) to those formed around a cross God through the crowning. the latter are first dateable in Jus mony" would be a benefit applicable to husband and tinianic column capitals of the 530s. Pliny the invocations of "Harmony" and "Grace. many people do not allow any gems in a The eight-sided hoop. no." numerous Elder notes the growing but still novel practice among prayers directed toward childbearing. successful present examples. which together would likely have formed the horizontal arms of a cross monogram.jstor. distinctively post-classical sealing device: the personal monogram (figs. And indeed. As with the majority of other Byzantine Because Early Byzantine monogram signet rings were both popular and simple.38 Indeed. signet-ring.

For the Romans. they bear witness to the accelerating erosion of traditional Byz antine forms on the level of everyday material culture. help John. 17). Dum barton Oaks Collection.C. 57. as well as an entire category of Byzantine sealing implements for which there was no Roman antecedent.47 The Zucker invo cational ring. et cetera. either for their decoration or for their function: the iconic ring. ring signets functioned primarily as tools for making seals and as objects of aesthetic enjoyment. 40 This content downloaded from 193. men also are beginning to wear on their fingers Harpocrates and figures of Egyptian deities. however. Invocation. no. Second. D. and its heavily corrupted Greek. tie and yet perhaps more significant than the shift from stone to metal and from figures to words. and seemingly complete rings whose bezels bear no device. "Lord. like the Chnoubis. as a group. the sealing function of sig net rings necessarily continued. The Walters Art Gal lery. King Soloman. with its raised hexagonal sealing surface supported by tiny hands.52 In essence. of course. Baltimore. fundamentally different from those worn by the Romans. What developed in their place was an unprecedented concern for the spiritual (and/or magical) power of rings. . like that in Figure 11. Virgin Hodegetria. 58.51 and at the other are simple invocational rings like that in Figure 18. gold. Pliny the Elder anticipates the transformation when he observes that: "Now. belt fittings. or invocations (fig. Byzantine craftsmen simply trans ferred to ring bezels icon types that had been devel oped and popularized in other media. The Virgin and Child was an especially popular subject throughout the Byzantine period. there are two superb. as with the Zucker ring in Figure 17 ("Christ. and there was a fashion for gem collecting.45 a prayer is offered for a generic owner. gold. its incised trefoils. and was one of the first iconic images to commonly appear on ring bezels. Ring. An as yet unpublished pri vate silver hoard of sixth-century date includes among its two dozen or so rings. paid.44 A Byzantine invocational signet ring usually bears on its bezel a short prayer calling upon the help of the deity (or a saint) for a specific individual: for example. 16)41 which by their design clearly belong with the monogram signet group exem plified by Figures 12 and 13. for their ability to invoke supernatural help or to ward off evil. un in scribed gold rings in the Zucker series (figs. or theJudeo-Christian master of magic and power. Another lies in the fact that Byzantine bezel devices are heavily weighted toward inscriptions. coins. gem carvers were highly esteemed and well Invocational Rings The final shift from incised stone to incised metal was but one of several areas wherein Byzantine rings were. is one of relatively few known specimens that attest to the last phases of Byz antine ring production."50 The desire to invoke supernatural power is evi dent in Byzantine rings of all periods and designs. Somewhere in between fall octagonal marriage rings." Occasionally. But because their bezels make no sense without sealing devices.that this intaglio was abandoned and the bezel simply flipped over and "John" incised instead.170. At one extreme are examples that portray Greco Egyptian medico-magical creatures.46 Invocational rings for the most part date to the Middle and Late Byzantine periods?in contrast to monogram rings. which are usually Early Byzantine in date?and most show rela tively large bezel surfaces to accommodate the much greater number of letters (fig. no.180 on Mon. one must assume that these were prefabricated rings awaiting their final personalization. help the wearer"). which have already been discussed.112. indeed. Washington.48 As a group.. from as Iconic Rings Byzantium's third major contribution to the development of the finger ring was at once more sub Figure 20. which further corroborates the view that Byzantine rings were mass produced.jstor. both unattached blank ring bezels. 18). 15. in contrast to Rome's marked preference for figurative devices. 06 Jun 2016 15:57:11 UTC All use subject to http://about.42 Figure 18. but the aesthetic and antiquarian interests of the implement seem to have receded markedly. Again.43 These usually take either one of two forms: monograms. indeed.49 For the Byzantines. when traditional designs and formulae were being thoroughly transformed under the impact of Western practice.37.1053.

59 Thus by this definition.1985. O. For the half dozen Early Christian and Byzantine rings in The Walters' perma nent collection. are different with respect to each other.6 cm diameter. are closely paralleled among lead sealings of the period (fig. pi. partook in a shared sacred power for which the Romans had no antecedent. 3. 19)53 shows the familiar Hodegetria type.8 cm diameter. D. 06 Jun 2016 15:57:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. or even iconic verisimilitude carried lit 1907)..1985. panels is fully consistent with what the Byzantine mind conceived the icon to be. I. or words (or even the ring's octagonal shape) that more than anything else gave Byzantine rings their distinctive character. no. 41 This content downloaded from 193. In its authenticating capac ity. Nesbitt.55 which are also their closest functional relatives. 1971). Security). the attached bezel measures .5-1.jstor. Mich. yet it would not have remained identical unless it were entirely unconnected with the materials_The same applies to the likeness of Christ. .6 cm.5 x . 169-71 (here after. Demetrios pendant reliquary at Dum barton Oaks (fig. see Jewelry. seal ring. 21-23.. "Studien zur Entstehungsgeschichte der chris tliche Kunst. 3. See T. fully documented survey of Byzantine finger rings will appear as chapter two of my forthcoming catalogue of early as the sixth to seventh century. gold and enamel. Both certainly derive from an iconic type developed and popularized in more formidable media.56 Although the shallow inscription is substantially worn away. the figure corresponds so closely to that on the famous St. 15 by Susan Tobin. and among the finest specimens to survive is one in the Zucker series with a frontal bust portrait of a beardless military saint with lance and sword (fig.170. Greek.58 Indeed. Also very popular throughout the history of the Empire were rings with incised icons of famous mili tary saints.180 on Mon. It is remarkably similar to a contemporary gold ring in the Dumbarton Oaks collection (fig. Wash ington. xliii. A bronze ring of approximately that date in the Zucker Family Collec tion (fig. The circular hoop is round in section with a 1. 2 (Washington. a wax sealing made with the Zucker ring in Figure 19 was no less a Hodegetria icon than was the original.. 1980). 9. a signet functioned as a complement to a key. 14). 477 (hereafter. R. 22)57 as to leave no doubt to his identity.112. something and Roman in the Departments of Antiquities. That Byzantine icons should be as popular in the more than seven hundred Byzantine objects of the minor arts in the Menil Collection. "Rings"). Figures 4. pi.11). 1954). Weighing. 1979).0 x . The impression is one and the same in the several materials which. Marshall. 1880).6-1. M. as one might place a wax or clay sealing on the hasp of a jewelry box. Color photography of Figures 1-3. nos. Demetrios. 21 by Peter Schaaf.." Studies in Art and Literature for Belle da Costa Greene (Princeton. 10-11 (hereafter. for example. 5. preserved in the Hodegon Mon astery. without substance for which such criteria as size. Security in Byzan tium: Locking. Houston (hereafter. 425-430. a signet functioned as a complement to a signature. and let it be impressed upon wax. II (hereafter.20. whether conveyed through images Figure 22. 4. irrespective of the material upon which it is represented. St. 2. xlv (hereafter. In its locking capacity. however. The Ante-Nicene Fathers. II (reprint: Grand Rapids. 11-13. See. Ross. painted panel.essential insubstantiality of icons: Or take the example of a signet ring engraved with the imperial image. Dumbarton Oaks Byzantine Collec tion Publications. 1 (1958). On the distinction. NOTES 1. Storia delta arte cristiana (Prato.C. where the Christ Child is presented on the Virgin's left arm. 19. VI. the bezel measures 1. 21). Sealing. 5. especially panel painting. form of incised ring bezels as in the form of painted 6. A comprehensive. Dalton. Dalton. Theodore the Studite Department of British and Medieval Antiquities and Ethnography of the used the metaphor of a signet ring to help explain the British Museum (London. Vikan.6 cm. Garrucci. and all three. Catalogue of the Finger Rings. Vikan and Nesbitt. excellent condition). "Two Byzantine Nielloed Rings.. Marshall. Ross. Klauser. Catalogue). excellent condition). The polygonal hoop is flat in section with a 1. 1. 1901). Figure 1 (3rd c): TL 10. H. Menil). Storia). Ancient to Modern (New York. Pendant Reliquary. Vikan and J. Catalogue of Early Christian Antiquities and Objects from the Christian East in the tle or no meaning. and seal impression. 285 (Paed. see G.54 and both. tech nical quality." Jahrbuch fur Antike und Christentum. See F. Dumbarton Oaks Collection. Etruscan. . in turn. Figure 2 (3rd c): TL 10. DC. Catalogue). Garrucci. 53. and M. pitch and clay. 20). 16. namely. 10.60 And it was this sacred power. British Museum (London.052 (gold.062 (gold.

talonlike wires with terminating pellets which enclose and support the oval bezel. figs." 83.. The octagonal hoop is rectangular in section with a 1. no. The circular hoop. 237. with a 2.1985.0 x . 21 (N. Rackham. 19. no. 36. which is set a small disc. see. hoop broken at back [one of 18 pellets lost]). USSR.3 cm in diameter.and F.24A. Catalogue. in the head of Christ.0 cm diameter. 142.2 cm. For other parallels. is composed of nine discs set off by pairs of pellets. philosophisch 42 This content downloaded from 193. 17. 64-66.061 (gold. 4.049 (gold. For a pair of cross-monogram gold signet rings dateable on Spieser. 50 (here after. 35.C. Catalogue.1985. H. see Dalton. The hoop is 1. (Vienna.7-1. D?lger. this word appears almost exclusively on objects related to marriage." Byzantion. Klauser.H. Although appropriate to a wedding ring. Banck. 10. "A Pair of Byzantine Crowns. no. "Akolouthia. The broken and compressed hoop is 1. W. 38 (1984). DC. trans. Menil. "He akolouthia ton mnestron kai tou gamou. Figure 11 (6th-7th c): TL 10. the attached round bezel (with raised device) is . Puschmann. See Ross. "Studien zur Entstehungsgeschichte der chris 13. 28. "Studien.8-2. H. otherwise unattested on contemporary rings. Akten II/3. See Vikan.0 cm in diameter. IV. From this disc rise six curving. the bride received a silver ring and the groom a gold ring. the bezel measures 1. See also Sp?tantike und fr?hes Christentum. 18 (1940) (hereafter. ed. Natural History.1985. no. For an elaboration of this thesis. Veglery." XVI. is composed of eight rectangular sections set off by pairs of pellets. 750 (hereafter. 532. See note 4. 55. and Dalton Catalogue. ace. "Magic"). for example. 477. Werner. 1983).9 cm diameter. 1985). at . Vikan and Nesbitt. 16. "Canellopoulos"). 14. Like cm diameter. 4 (1961). V: Die Fisch-Denkm?ler in der fr?hchristlichen Plastik. [1966]). 1983-84 (Frankfurt am Main. Drossoy the rings in Figures 1 and 2.jstor. for example. no. "sketchy" technique of this intaglio is most clearly revealed 12. 9. and P. in combina tion with another motif or symbol (e. USSR).4 cm thick). tlichen Kunst. logue. G. See G. 27. Banck.1985.1. 37. see his pis. 2 vols. For merly in the Guilhou Collection. excellent condi tion). no. Oikonomid?s. The circular hoop is round in section. Byzantine Art in Collections of the USSR 39. 33. Ross.0 x 1. Catalogue). which takes the form of a truncated cone (.4 cm. "Akolouthia"). Washington. 31. Kan torowicz. Figure 5 (4th-5th c): TL 10. Spieser.2 cm in diameter. 478. Klauser. 17.051 (gold. Ross.1985. and common on inscribed Byzantine metalwork of the period. Frankfurt am . 7 (Washington.170. "Magic. excellent condition). I owe this reading to John Nesbitt and John Callahan. the bezel measures 1. 18. Catalogue. 20007. E. "Zur Monogramschrift der Theotokos (Koimesis) Trempelas.6-1. (c) 1967 Dumbarton Oaks. Figure 3 (4th c): TL 10. The hoop is 1. 246.4 x 1. 96 (1972). The circular hoop. 67..23) (here ter. excellent condi 11. Alexander von Tralles. excellent condition [one of 20 pellets lost]). pt. excellent condi tion). Vikan. Thus. Catalogue. 2.1985. Dumbarton Oaks Byzantine Collection Publications. Medicine. Figure 13 (6th-7th c): TL 10.180 on Mon. J. a fish). Figures 6 and 7 are reproduced by courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum. above.050 (gold. to my knowl edge. ICHTHYS. Figure 14 is reproduced courtesy of the Byzantine Collection. 50. tenhongress. 293-298. Enamels and Art of the Migration Period (Washington. Dalton. Ross. Trustees of Harvard University. See also Vikan. 6 (1931). 06 Jun 2016 15:57:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. 207.9-2. ber of such rings survive. N. 190. which is flat in section. H. 1952). excellent condi tion). 69. R1-R8. no. no. For some examples. The circular hoop is flat in section with a 2. 377 (VIII. The circular hoop.g.048 (gold. no. 33. nos. "vow" is. Jahrbuch der ?sterreichischen byzantinischen Gesell ianni.053 (gold. Cata 38. Pliny. nos. The polygonal hoop is semicircular in section with a 1.3 cm). T. no. xlvii." Bulletin de correspondance hell?nique. tion [hoop slightly deformed]). Volume II: Jewelry. 1952). which is semicir section. 257 (exhibition catalogue). For Chrismon rings (some com bined with anchors and/or fish) see.2 cm in diameter." 141.2 cm diameter. "Studien. Catalogue. Byzantine Lead Seals (Basel. 3-42. 1965).253. (II). 716. 20. A num schaft.0 cm diameter. which is formed of a large halo with a super imposed cross flanked by eye dots. 15. Leclercq. Leclercq. Ross. and Klauser. See. 24. Catalogue. with a 1. The two motifs (fish and anchor) are often combined.1985. Theotoke Boethe Georgi(ou) (kai) Plakelas. Mass. passim. Weigand. 76-86 (hereafter. 687-689. and trans. Byzantine Lead Seals.241. Ross. C. Ross. 695-699.1 cm in diameter. Liebieghaus Museum alter Plastik. neg. 22. 1907). 20. 1878-79). Figure 8 is reproduced courtesy of the Byzantine Collection. Storia. 68. is 1. 106c.5-1.9 cm in diameter. seej.8 archaeological grounds to the first half of the seventh century. IV"). 712. 531. Figure 9 (6th-7th c): TL 10. 2 (Paris. I. the bezel measures 1. Dalton Catalogue.59 (gold. 1972). See. The 145 (hereafter.0-2. 1228 (7th c). the bezel is 1. 250 252. 23. "On the Golden Marriage Belt and the Marriage Rings of the Dumbarton Oaks Collection. Internationaler Byzantinis 10." 149. Catalogue. For example. unusual. Vikan. "Magic. 128 26. Trempelas. excellent condition).-M. passim. Trustees of Harvard University. Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften. 11 (hereafter. Catalogue of the Byzantine and Early Mediaeval Antiquities in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection. 34.7 cm. Kirche von Nicaea. Figure 10 (6th-7th c): TL 10. nos.0 cm in diameter (and unusually thick. no. According to the text of the Byzantine marriage ceremony (as attested in manuscripts from the mid. 133.' Jahrbuch fur Antike und Christentum. "Anneaux"). See N. (c) 1967 Dumbarton Oaks. the attached round bezel is 1. On Colic). see Vikan. 1932-39). "Art. the bezel is 1." Theologia. this one perpetuates a Roman design./London. Pliny. 32/3 (1982). II. A. 40. the post-Byzantine period). Figure 4 (4th-5th c): TL 10. 29. IX. 478. Marshall. 47. Most often the bird appears without the Ark. 25. and Magic in Early Byzantium." Dumbarton Oaks Papers. "Anneaux." Dictionnaire d'arch?ologie chr?tienne et de liturgie.112. and J. The Loeb Classical (Leningrad/Moscow. The circular hoop is round in section. and E. See Marshall.." 83. the bezel. II. 21. See T. RS1-RS9.060 (gold. for example.7 cm in diame ter. DC. 102 (as links in a necklace) (hereaf Library (Cambridge. und Kleinkunst (M?nster. 412 f. Washington DC 20007. pi. which is flat in cular in section. terminates in a pair of fishlike heads between 649. See P. See Garrucci. nos. Kagan der Bulgaria." Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Banck. I. for example. 727. no. See M. Security. Zacos and A. A. "Collection Paul Canellopoulos after. Catalogue. Figure 12 (6th-7th c): TL 10. Malerei. pis. 14 (1960). Der Grabfund von Malaja Perescepina und Kuvrat.9 2. D. 8.1985. 30. See Trempelas.

pl. 27. Greek. Ch(rist)e Boethe ton phobontritoQ). no. As is well documented by the Menil Collection. The distinction here is between images of deities who could convey magic (e. ace. cone-shaped bezel is 1. Richter. above. See C Mango. 59. which was recently acquired by the Royal Ontario Museum.35A. The circular hoop is round in section with a 1. nos.251).2 cm in diameter. 28. will be published by Paul Denis. Ibid. Figure 17 (13th-15th c): TL 10. Etruscan Oaks.112. Walters Art Gallery." See Ross. IV (esp. 57." Studies in the History of Art (forthcoming).1985. neg.. Trustees of Harvard University.6 x 1. hollow. 20007. 64.1985.4 cm in diameter. somewhat worn). pectoral crosses. 33 (N. no. excellent condition). 52.1985. very thin bezel is 1. the (no. neue Folge. 33. British Archaeological Reports 8(i) (Oxford. Sources and Documents in the History of Art Series (Englewood 48.0-2.5 cm. 41.1 cm diameter. Catalogue. "Rumi tins et post-byzantin (n. Catalogue of Engraved Gems.056 (bronze. Figure 20 is reproduced courtesy of the Byzantine Collection. Khanenko: antiquit?s de la r?gion du Dniepre et des c?tes de la Mer Noire (Kiev.l. 21-23. The deformed circular hoop is slightly oval in section. (c) 1967 Dumbarton Oaks. tium. Catalogue.jstor. 29. nations on Edible Icons: Originals and Copies in the Art of Byzan 49. and Collection H?l?ne Stathatos. Richter. excellent condi tion)." 170. 46. Traces of mous invocations appear frequently on rings.. A.J. and fibulae?especially those in bronze.8 cm in diameter. See Vikan. 31. is preserved in the University of Pennsylvania Art Museum 44. A closely related bronze ring inscribed "Holy Mary.1053 (9th-10th c). See M.7 cm diameter. the raised..historische Klasse.131. The bezel is an omicron (upper left) and tau (upper right) on the Zucker ring inscribed: "Lord. was likely made for a woman. 32. A Cor pus of Roman Engraved Gemstones from British Sites.6-1. 174 (Epist. 06 Jun 2016 15:57:11 UTC All use subject to http://about. Washington. Figure 22 is reproduced courtesy of the Byzantine Collection.3 x 1. "Rings. Figure 19 (6th-7th c): TL 10.8 cm diameter. 1956) (hereafter.H. the attached bezel is 1. belt fittings.20. Richter.1985. V. 54. 2: les objets byzan 60. slightly worn). Abhandlungen.C. 30). and those who were subject to iconic veneration (e. 58. 53. no. see G. (c) 1967 Dumbarton 43. "Canello Cliffs. D. 105. 45.058 (gold. Vikan. Washington. The circular hoop is round in section with a 1. 1984). hexagonal bezel measures 1. See note 36. 1974). Ross. 1972). n. Also included is an incised quatrefoil ring very much like the Zucker ring illustrated in Figure 16. the tion reads in a continuous loop.0. 55." nos. See. such anony 57. 149. "Magic. 179.g.d. 43 This content downloaded from 193. Catalogue.25.C 20007." excavated at and Roman (Rome. 171. Ross. 160. pl.50. Figure 16 (6th 7th c): TL 10.4 cm diameter. Trustees of Harvard University. 1952." 77-80. D. imperial mandator (mes bezel match corresponding letters on the pendant. See G.41). excellent condi tion).org/terms . 47. Toronto. for example. Ross.. Figure 21 (llth-12th c): TL 10.170. with a 1.0 cm diameter. The Art of the Byzantine Empire: 312-1453.57 (gold. N. help Thy servant Michael. no. and the hoard's silver ring bears a woman's name. poulos. Heft 91 (Munich. 23. 42. Catalogue.g. Harpocrates). by its small size. Dalton. the Virgin Hodegetria).180 on Mon. nos. pl. This hoard. 50. M. no. For a further discussion of this question. the attached bezel measures 1. xxix-xxxi. 53.055 (gold. 1907). Pliny.1985.9-2. Henig. Figure 15 (6th-7th c): TL 10. Beisan. Catalogue). no.054 (gold.8-2. Others include: Collection B. The circular hoop is flat in section with a 1.7 cm. The heavily corrupted inscrip The circular hoop is flat in section with a 2. Catalogue. Spieser. senger). Part i: Discussion.. ad Platonem). 51. The Zucker ring. 56.).