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Simulation and Analysis for Real and Reactive Power
Control-FACTS Controller

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Control with Series Type FACTS Controller

Vatsal J. Patel1, C.B.Bhatt2

1

PG Student, Electrical Engg. Department, Nirma University, SG Highway, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.

Asst. Prof. Electrical Engg. Department, Nirma University, SG Highway, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.

10meee12@nirmauni.ac.in

chanaykya.bhatt@nirmauni.ac.in

transmission line, which means that all the equipment has

to be installed on a fully insulated platform. Significant

device from the group FACTS is a TCSC, which finds

application in solving many

problems in the power

system. Its properties can increase the power lines

transmission capacity and power flow control. It also

provides a wide range of other uses to ensure effective,

trouble-free and economical operation of power systems.

Simulation behaviors of these devices are very important

before the real deployment of these devices to the power

system. Various computing and simulation programs,

which help in understanding the activities and setting

appropriate parameters of these devices, have found its

application to modeling and simulating these devices.

N. G. Hingorani and L. Gyugyi in [1] gives The

information about all series type facts controller design and

the basic definition, which define that how the series facts

controller are differ from the shunt controller for the

compensation of reactive power. Mathur R. Mohan and

Rajiv K. Varma in [2] described TCSC advantages, modes

of operation, controller, Analysis of TCSC, capability

characteristics, harmonic performance, losses and modeling

of TCSC. The operation, reactance characteristic and

resonance condition of TCSC from the paper [3] of

resonance behavior, For increasing power

transfer

capability the better degree of compensation in region

between 0.3 to 0.7. The reactive power at the receiving end

side is controlled using TCSC at different firing angle to

verify the TCSC characteristics curve[4]. The main aim of

this paper is to analyze the design of a TCSC controller for

stability enhancement, under normal operation and fault

conditions at different load power flows.

The power system stability enhance by decrease the

effective transfer reactance of transmission line at sending

end side and receiving end side for that the firing angles of

the thyristors are controlled to adjust the TCSC reactance in

accordance with a system control strategy, normally in

response to some system parameter variations.

belongs to the flexible alternating current transmission

systems (FACTS) family of devices. It is a variable capacitive

and inductive reactance device that can be used to provide

series compensation in power transmission lines. One of the

significant advantages that a TCSC has over other series

compensation devices is that the TCSC's reactance is

instantaneously and continuously variable. This means that

the TCSC can be used not only to provide series compensation

but can also be used to enhance the stability of the power

system. In this paper, performance of TCSC is analyzed.

Initially, Real and reactive power flow through the

transmission line have been analyzed for fixed and then after

the same parameters are evaluated by inserting controllable

capacitor in the same transmission network. The considered

topology of TCSC consists of back to back thyristors that

controls the reactance of the TCSC. By changing the firing

angle of these back to back thyristors it is possible to vary the

reactance of the TCSC. As per the TCSC characteristics, in

inductive region at the firing angle =900 to 1300 the power

flow decreasing and in capacitive region at the firing angle

=1400 to 1800 the power flow increasing. For the simulation

3-phase model degree of compensation is 0.55, to increase

power transfer capability. The simulation is carried out by

using software package MATLAB /simulink.

Keywords TCSC, FACTS, Power flow control, Power

system, Modelling of TCSC.

I.

INTRODUCTION

level, counted nowadays by the manufacturers as a

FACTS-device, went into operation in 1950. Series

Compensation is used in order to decrease the transfer

reactance of a power line at rated frequency. A series

capacitor installation generates reactive power that in a

self-regulating manner balances a fraction of the line's

transfer reactance. The result is that the line is electrically

shortened, which improves angular stability, voltage

stability and power sharing between parallel lines.

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2012)

In this paper the simulation on parallel line with

different load and different firing angle to evaluated

performance of TCSC characteristics in inductive region

and capacitive region for the control the reactive power at

the receiving end. The paper is structured as follows:

Section II gives the introduction about the basic TCSC

scheme and operation of TCSC controller. Section III

briefly describes the control scheme of a typical TCSC

controller. In Section IV the reactive power control at the

receiving end side by using TCSC. In Section V modeling

of the TCSC using two parallel line in MATLAB

simulation programmed. Simulation & results are showed

in Section VI. The conclusion is presented in section VII.

II.

inductive, depending on the trigger angle of the back to

back thyristors; The capacitive reactance characteristic of

the TCSC is a highly non-linear function of the trigger

angle of the back to back thyristors, The TCSC consists of

the series compensating capacitor shunted by a ThyristorControlled Reactor. In a practical TCSC implementation,

several such basic compensators may be connected in

series to obtain the desired voltage rating and operating

characteristics. The basic idea behind the TCSC scheme is

to provide a continuously variable capacitor by means of

partially canceling the effective compensating capacitance

by the TCR. The TCR at the fundamental system frequency

is continuously variable reactive impedance, controllable

by delay angle . The steady state impedance of the TCSC

is that of a parallel LC circuit, consisting of a fixed

capacitive impedance XC.

The variable inductive impedance XL():-

TCSC

belongs to the Flexible AC Transmission Systems

(FACTS) group of power systems devices. The concept of

the TCSC has been around since the mid 1980s, with the

first known commercial installation being in 1992 in the

United States of America. The TCSC controller was

developed for the Kanpur-Ballabhgarh 400kV single circuit

ac transmission line located in North India.

A TCSC is a series-controlled capacitive reactance that

can provide continuous control of power on the ac line over

a wide range. The principle of variable-series compensation

is simply to increase the fundamental-frequency voltage

across an fixed capacitor (FC) in a series compensated line

through appropriate variation of the firing angle . This

enhanced voltage changes the effective value of the seriescapacitive reactance. Essentially a TCSC is a variable

reactance device that can be used to provide an adjustable

series compensating reactance to a transmission line. Its

advantage over other series compensating devices is that its

reactance can be instantaneously and precisely controlled.

A TCSC consists of a fixed capacitor in parallel with a

variable inductive reactance as shown in Fig. 1. This

variable inductive reactance is obtained by connecting back

to back thyristors in series with a fixed-reactance inductor,

and is known as a Thyristor Controlled Reactor or TCR. By

controlling the trigger angle of the back to back thyristors,

it is possible to vary the effective inductive reactance of the

TCR, and hence control the reactance provided by the

TCSC.

XL() =XL

2 sin

, XL XL() .

X C . X L ( )

X L ( ) X C

The effective reactance of TCSC operates in three region:1. Inductive region:- 0 Llim.

2. Capacitive region:- Clim 90.

3. Resonance region:- Llim Clim.

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2012)

Fig. 2 Reactance Vs firing angle characteristic curve.

III.

on mode for prolonged durations, the conduction losses

are minimized by installing an ultrahigh-speed contact

(UHSC) across the valve. This metallic contact offers a

virtually lossless feature similar to that of circuit breakers

and is capable of handling many switching operations. The

metallic contact is closed shortly after the thyristor valve is

turned on, and it is opened shortly before the valve is

turned off. During a sudden overload of the valve, and also

during fault conditions, the metallic contact is closed to

alleviate the stress on the valve.

TCSC CONTROLLER

firstly, to provide electromechanical damping between

large electrical systems by changing the reactance of a

specific interconnecting power line. Secondly, the TCSC

shall change its apparent impedance for sub-synchronous

frequencies, such that a prospective subsynchronous

resonance is avoided.

There are essentially three modes of TCSC operation:1. Bypassed-Thyristor mode:2. Blocked-Thyristor Mode:3. Partially Conducting Thyristor, or Vernier, Mode:-

IV.

can have various roles in the operation and control of

power systems, such as scheduling power flow; decreasing

unsymmetrical components; reducing net loss; providing

voltage support; limiting short-circuit currents; mitigating

sub synchronous resonance (SSR); damping the power

oscillation; and enhancing transient stability. TCSC is one

of the most important and best known series FACTS

controllers. It has been in use for many years to increase

line power transfer as well as to enhance system stability.

The firing angles of the thyristors are controlled to adjust

the TCSC reactance in accordance with a system analogy,

normally in response to some system parameter variations.

According to the of the thyristor firing angle () or

conduction angle (), this process can be modeled as a fast

switch between corresponding reactance offered to the

power system.

(MOV), essentially a nonlinear resistor, is connected across

the series capacitor to prevent the occurrence of highcapacitor over voltages. Not only does the MOV limit the

voltage across the capacitor, but it allows the capacitor to

remain in circuit even during fault conditions and helps

improve the transient stability. The circuit breaker (CB) is

installed across the capacitor for controlling its insertion in

the line. In addition, the CB bypasses the capacitor if

severe fault or equipment-malfunction events occur. A

current-limiting inductor (LD) is incorporated in the circuit

to restrict both the magnitude and the frequency of the

capacitor current during the capacitor-bypass operation.

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2012)

The total current passing through the TCSC is

sinusoidal; the equivalent reactance at the fundamental

frequency can be represented as a variable reactance XTCSC.

There exists a steady-state relationship between and

reactance XTCSC. In power transmission applications, the

degree of compensation is usually chosen in the range 0.3

k 0.7. The relationship can be described the following

equation:2

k

XC 2 sin

4XC 2 cos ( 2) (k tan( 2)) (tan( 2))

XTCSC ( ) XC +

2

(XC XL)

XC XL k 1

where,

XC= nominal reactance of the fixed capacitor C.

XL= Inductive reactance of inductor L connected in parallel

with C.

=2(-),The conduction angle of TCSC controller.

k=

with and without TCSC, a LLLG fault is applied at

receiving end bus. The fault is cleared by breaker in 0.04s.

The purpose of simulation for parallel line is to increase

power transfer capability with used of TCSC controller. In

the first case without TCSC fixed capacitor the power

transfer is lower and adding a TCSC controller in one of

line as per simulation model the power transfer capacity

increase with different firing angle.

VI.

XC

X L ,The Compensation Ratio.

V.

MATLAB SIMPOWER SYSTEM

viewpoint of active power flow control has been created a

simple model of electrical network, in which was

subsequently implemented TCSC device. The model of

simple electrical network consists of a voltage source, load,

two parallel lines and units for measuring and displaying

measured electric variables.

In

Fig.5

show

simulation

modeled

in

MATLAB/SIMULINK

without

TCSC

controlled.

SIMULINK is used to model, analyze and simulate

dynamic systems using block diagrams. Further, it provides

a graphical user interface for constructing block diagram of

a system and hence is easy to use. SimPowerSystems

libraries of SIMULINK contain models of typical power

equipment such as transformers, lines, machines, and

power electronics. These models are proven and their

validity is based on the experience of the Power Systems.

Testing and Simulation Laboratory of Hydro-Qubec, a

large North American utility located in Canada, and also on

the experience of cole de Technologie Suprieure and

Universit Laval[5]. In the considered topology, the active

and reactive power flow in line is same at the sending end

side and receiving end side. The voltage at the load drops

due to loss of voltage on lines. This simulation model work

at P=300MW and Q=150MVAR. In this simulation model

active and reactive power at bus no.3 is P=88.7MW and

Q=53.8MVAR and at bus no.5 is P=206.3MW and

Q=93.7MVAR.

0.55, so that power transfer capability is increase. In power

transmission applications, the degree of compensation is

usually chosen in the range 0.3 k 0.7. For simulation

purpose using two parallel line in which first fixed

capacitor compensation applied in one line and then TCSC

is applied into that line.

10

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2012)

By using fixed capacitor compensation method the fixed

capacitor value is 220F. The LLLG fault is applied on

receiving end side bus and breaker is operating 0.04s to

clear a fault. In Fig. 9 result show that a receiving end

power by conventional method. The receiving end power

by Without TCSC is P=294MW and Q=147.5MVAR.

power flow in given lines according to level desired. This

change is achieved by changing the impedance of line, in

which is installed TCSC device. With the entry values of

angle switching thyristors , TCSC can change the

impedance of the line and thereby regulates the power flow

as required. When such a change power flow, the power

flow on lines is reallocated to another ratio, but the

resulting flow performance remains unchanged.

Fig. 9 Receiving end power at the firing angle =1800

network at adjusted angle = 90. Impedance of TCSC is

inductive and therefore there is a change in power flow on

lines No.1 and No.2. This value of the angle of switching

leads to decrease power flow on line, whose value has

reduce from the original value of P = 285.5 MW to Q =

142.7 MVAR (measured at the load).

In Fig. 9 is showed situation in modeled electrical network

at adjusted angle = 180. Impedance of TCSC is

capacitive and therefore there is a change in power flow on

lines No.1 and No.2. This value of the angle of switching

leads to increase power flow on line from the original value

of P = 295.8MW to Q = 147.9 MVAR (measured at the

load).

Fig.7 Series compensation by TCSC Controller for close loop

11

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2012)

The result of convectional compensation and TCSC

compensation method shows that the power is decreasing

in case of TCSC compensation at the firing angle between

900 to 1300(inductive mode region) and the power is

increasing at the firing angle between 1400 and 1800

(capacitive region). The degree of compensation is 0.55 for

this simulation model, so the power transfer capability

increases.

TABLE I

POWER FLOW IN THE LINE AT THE LOAD P=300MW AND

Q=150MVAR

Firing Angle

Power

Without

TCSC

900

1300

1400

1800

P(MW)

294

285.5

284.1

298.7

295.8

Q(MVAR)

147.5

142.7

141.5

148.6

147.9

REFERENCES

[1]

Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC Transmission

Systems, IEEE Press. New York, 1999.

[2]

Controllers for Electrical Transmission Systems,

press,Piscataway 2002.

TABLE II

POWER FLOW IN THE LINE AT THE LOAD P=300MW AND

Q=200MVAR

[3]

Selection of TCSC parameters capacitor and inductor.

Martin German-Sobek, _ubomr Be_a, Roman Cimbala, Using of

the Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor in Electric Power

System. ELEKTROENERGETIKA, Vol.4, No.4, 2011.

[4]

Firing Angle

Power

Without

TCSC

900

1300

1400

1800

P(MW)

292.2

273.8

272.4

297.8

294.3

Q(MVAR)

194.8

182.5

182.29

198.1

196.1

APPENDIX

The parameters of the model are as follows:

Ideal Three-Phase Voltage Source

Line to-line voltage VLL = 400 kv,

Phase angle = 0,

Frequency f = 50 Hz,

Three-Phase Parallel RL Load

Active power P = 300 MW,

Reactive power Q = 150 MVAr,

Configuration Y (grounded),

Three-Phase PI Section Line n.1 and n.2

Line resistance R = 0.028/km,

Line inductance L = 0.904 mH/km,

Line capacity C = 0.012707F/km,

Line length l = 100 km,

Maximum current of line Imax = 1200 A.

According to parameters the line series impedance is Z=0.028+j0.28386.

The line series reactance is XL =0.028386/km*100km

XL=28.386

The Capacitive reactance TCSC devices is XC=15.688.

Percentage of compensation can be = XC/XL*100 =55.27%

inductive action of the TCSC the power flow into the line

in decreasing manner. In the case of capacitive operation,

when capacitance TCSC acts on impedance of line No.1,

will decline impedance of line No.1 and thereby will

increase the power flow through the line No.1 and reduced

the power flow through the line No.2. The results shows at

firing angle =1400 to 1800, the power flow in line

increasing compare with conventional method(without

TCSC). The table also shows result for different load and

firing angle to verify the TCSC reactance Vs firing

characteristics curve in Fig. 2.

VII.

IEEE

CONCLUSION

stability limit better than convectional compensation

method by changing the firing angle of the back to back

thyristors. From the simulation point of view, TCSC can

control the power at the different load condition and also in

different firing angle of thyristors.

12

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