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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2012)

Simulation and Analysis for Real and Reactive Power


Control with Series Type FACTS Controller
Vatsal J. Patel1, C.B.Bhatt2
1

PG Student, Electrical Engg. Department, Nirma University, SG Highway, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
Asst. Prof. Electrical Engg. Department, Nirma University, SG Highway, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.

10meee12@nirmauni.ac.in
chanaykya.bhatt@nirmauni.ac.in

Series Capacitors are installed in series with a


transmission line, which means that all the equipment has
to be installed on a fully insulated platform. Significant
device from the group FACTS is a TCSC, which finds
application in solving many
problems in the power
system. Its properties can increase the power lines
transmission capacity and power flow control. It also
provides a wide range of other uses to ensure effective,
trouble-free and economical operation of power systems.
Simulation behaviors of these devices are very important
before the real deployment of these devices to the power
system. Various computing and simulation programs,
which help in understanding the activities and setting
appropriate parameters of these devices, have found its
application to modeling and simulating these devices.
N. G. Hingorani and L. Gyugyi in [1] gives The
information about all series type facts controller design and
the basic definition, which define that how the series facts
controller are differ from the shunt controller for the
compensation of reactive power. Mathur R. Mohan and
Rajiv K. Varma in [2] described TCSC advantages, modes
of operation, controller, Analysis of TCSC, capability
characteristics, harmonic performance, losses and modeling
of TCSC. The operation, reactance characteristic and
resonance condition of TCSC from the paper [3] of
resonance behavior, For increasing power
transfer
capability the better degree of compensation in region
between 0.3 to 0.7. The reactive power at the receiving end
side is controlled using TCSC at different firing angle to
verify the TCSC characteristics curve[4]. The main aim of
this paper is to analyze the design of a TCSC controller for
stability enhancement, under normal operation and fault
conditions at different load power flows.
The power system stability enhance by decrease the
effective transfer reactance of transmission line at sending
end side and receiving end side for that the firing angles of
the thyristors are controlled to adjust the TCSC reactance in
accordance with a system control strategy, normally in
response to some system parameter variations.

Abstract A Thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC)


belongs to the flexible alternating current transmission
systems (FACTS) family of devices. It is a variable capacitive
and inductive reactance device that can be used to provide
series compensation in power transmission lines. One of the
significant advantages that a TCSC has over other series
compensation devices is that the TCSC's reactance is
instantaneously and continuously variable. This means that
the TCSC can be used not only to provide series compensation
but can also be used to enhance the stability of the power
system. In this paper, performance of TCSC is analyzed.
Initially, Real and reactive power flow through the
transmission line have been analyzed for fixed and then after
the same parameters are evaluated by inserting controllable
capacitor in the same transmission network. The considered
topology of TCSC consists of back to back thyristors that
controls the reactance of the TCSC. By changing the firing
angle of these back to back thyristors it is possible to vary the
reactance of the TCSC. As per the TCSC characteristics, in
inductive region at the firing angle =900 to 1300 the power
flow decreasing and in capacitive region at the firing angle
=1400 to 1800 the power flow increasing. For the simulation
3-phase model degree of compensation is 0.55, to increase
power transfer capability. The simulation is carried out by
using software package MATLAB /simulink.
Keywords TCSC, FACTS, Power flow control, Power
system, Modelling of TCSC.

I.

INTRODUCTION

The world's first Series Compensation on transmission


level, counted nowadays by the manufacturers as a
FACTS-device, went into operation in 1950. Series
Compensation is used in order to decrease the transfer
reactance of a power line at rated frequency. A series
capacitor installation generates reactive power that in a
self-regulating manner balances a fraction of the line's
transfer reactance. The result is that the line is electrically
shortened, which improves angular stability, voltage
stability and power sharing between parallel lines.

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2012)
In this paper the simulation on parallel line with
different load and different firing angle to evaluated
performance of TCSC characteristics in inductive region
and capacitive region for the control the reactive power at
the receiving end. The paper is structured as follows:
Section II gives the introduction about the basic TCSC
scheme and operation of TCSC controller. Section III
briefly describes the control scheme of a typical TCSC
controller. In Section IV the reactive power control at the
receiving end side by using TCSC. In Section V modeling
of the TCSC using two parallel line in MATLAB
simulation programmed. Simulation & results are showed
in Section VI. The conclusion is presented in section VII.
II.

Fig. 1 Basic Thyristor-Controlled Series Capacitor scheme

The reactance of the TCSC can be capacitive or


inductive, depending on the trigger angle of the back to
back thyristors; The capacitive reactance characteristic of
the TCSC is a highly non-linear function of the trigger
angle of the back to back thyristors, The TCSC consists of
the series compensating capacitor shunted by a ThyristorControlled Reactor. In a practical TCSC implementation,
several such basic compensators may be connected in
series to obtain the desired voltage rating and operating
characteristics. The basic idea behind the TCSC scheme is
to provide a continuously variable capacitor by means of
partially canceling the effective compensating capacitance
by the TCR. The TCR at the fundamental system frequency
is continuously variable reactive impedance, controllable
by delay angle . The steady state impedance of the TCSC
is that of a parallel LC circuit, consisting of a fixed
capacitive impedance XC.
The variable inductive impedance XL():-

TCSC

The Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC)


belongs to the Flexible AC Transmission Systems
(FACTS) group of power systems devices. The concept of
the TCSC has been around since the mid 1980s, with the
first known commercial installation being in 1992 in the
United States of America. The TCSC controller was
developed for the Kanpur-Ballabhgarh 400kV single circuit
ac transmission line located in North India.
A TCSC is a series-controlled capacitive reactance that
can provide continuous control of power on the ac line over
a wide range. The principle of variable-series compensation
is simply to increase the fundamental-frequency voltage
across an fixed capacitor (FC) in a series compensated line
through appropriate variation of the firing angle . This
enhanced voltage changes the effective value of the seriescapacitive reactance. Essentially a TCSC is a variable
reactance device that can be used to provide an adjustable
series compensating reactance to a transmission line. Its
advantage over other series compensating devices is that its
reactance can be instantaneously and precisely controlled.
A TCSC consists of a fixed capacitor in parallel with a
variable inductive reactance as shown in Fig. 1. This
variable inductive reactance is obtained by connecting back
to back thyristors in series with a fixed-reactance inductor,
and is known as a Thyristor Controlled Reactor or TCR. By
controlling the trigger angle of the back to back thyristors,
it is possible to vary the effective inductive reactance of the
TCR, and hence control the reactance provided by the
TCSC.

XL() =XL

2 sin

, XL XL() .

The impedance of TCSC:XTCSC() =

X C . X L ( )
X L ( ) X C

The effective reactance of TCSC operates in three region:1. Inductive region:- 0 Llim.
2. Capacitive region:- Clim 90.
3. Resonance region:- Llim Clim.

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2012)

Fig. 3 TCSC Module


Fig. 2 Reactance Vs firing angle characteristic curve.

III.

If the TCSC valves are required to operate in the fully


on mode for prolonged durations, the conduction losses
are minimized by installing an ultrahigh-speed contact
(UHSC) across the valve. This metallic contact offers a
virtually lossless feature similar to that of circuit breakers
and is capable of handling many switching operations. The
metallic contact is closed shortly after the thyristor valve is
turned on, and it is opened shortly before the valve is
turned off. During a sudden overload of the valve, and also
during fault conditions, the metallic contact is closed to
alleviate the stress on the valve.

TCSC CONTROLLER

The main principles of the TCSC concept are two;


firstly, to provide electromechanical damping between
large electrical systems by changing the reactance of a
specific interconnecting power line. Secondly, the TCSC
shall change its apparent impedance for sub-synchronous
frequencies, such that a prospective subsynchronous
resonance is avoided.
There are essentially three modes of TCSC operation:1. Bypassed-Thyristor mode:2. Blocked-Thyristor Mode:3. Partially Conducting Thyristor, or Vernier, Mode:-

IV.

REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION BY TCSC

TCSC is an important device in the FACTS family. It


can have various roles in the operation and control of
power systems, such as scheduling power flow; decreasing
unsymmetrical components; reducing net loss; providing
voltage support; limiting short-circuit currents; mitigating
sub synchronous resonance (SSR); damping the power
oscillation; and enhancing transient stability. TCSC is one
of the most important and best known series FACTS
controllers. It has been in use for many years to increase
line power transfer as well as to enhance system stability.
The firing angles of the thyristors are controlled to adjust
the TCSC reactance in accordance with a system analogy,
normally in response to some system parameter variations.
According to the of the thyristor firing angle () or
conduction angle (), this process can be modeled as a fast
switch between corresponding reactance offered to the
power system.

In the Fig. 3 shows that A metal-oxide varistor


(MOV), essentially a nonlinear resistor, is connected across
the series capacitor to prevent the occurrence of highcapacitor over voltages. Not only does the MOV limit the
voltage across the capacitor, but it allows the capacitor to
remain in circuit even during fault conditions and helps
improve the transient stability. The circuit breaker (CB) is
installed across the capacitor for controlling its insertion in
the line. In addition, the CB bypasses the capacitor if
severe fault or equipment-malfunction events occur. A
current-limiting inductor (LD) is incorporated in the circuit
to restrict both the magnitude and the frequency of the
capacitor current during the capacitor-bypass operation.

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2012)
The total current passing through the TCSC is
sinusoidal; the equivalent reactance at the fundamental
frequency can be represented as a variable reactance XTCSC.
There exists a steady-state relationship between and
reactance XTCSC. In power transmission applications, the
degree of compensation is usually chosen in the range 0.3
k 0.7. The relationship can be described the following
equation:2
k

XC 2 sin
4XC 2 cos ( 2) (k tan( 2)) (tan( 2))
XTCSC ( ) XC +
2
(XC XL)

XC XL k 1

where,
XC= nominal reactance of the fixed capacitor C.
XL= Inductive reactance of inductor L connected in parallel
with C.
=2(-),The conduction angle of TCSC controller.
k=

In this electrical network during the simulation process


with and without TCSC, a LLLG fault is applied at
receiving end bus. The fault is cleared by breaker in 0.04s.
The purpose of simulation for parallel line is to increase
power transfer capability with used of TCSC controller. In
the first case without TCSC fixed capacitor the power
transfer is lower and adding a TCSC controller in one of
line as per simulation model the power transfer capacity
increase with different firing angle.
VI.

SIMULATION & RESULTS

XC
X L ,The Compensation Ratio.
V.

MODELLING OF THE TCSC BY USING


MATLAB SIMPOWER SYSTEM

For demonstration of action TCSC device, from the


viewpoint of active power flow control has been created a
simple model of electrical network, in which was
subsequently implemented TCSC device. The model of
simple electrical network consists of a voltage source, load,
two parallel lines and units for measuring and displaying
measured electric variables.

Fig. 5 3-phase Series compensation by conventional method.

In
Fig.5
show
simulation
modeled
in
MATLAB/SIMULINK
without
TCSC
controlled.
SIMULINK is used to model, analyze and simulate
dynamic systems using block diagrams. Further, it provides
a graphical user interface for constructing block diagram of
a system and hence is easy to use. SimPowerSystems
libraries of SIMULINK contain models of typical power
equipment such as transformers, lines, machines, and
power electronics. These models are proven and their
validity is based on the experience of the Power Systems.
Testing and Simulation Laboratory of Hydro-Qubec, a
large North American utility located in Canada, and also on
the experience of cole de Technologie Suprieure and
Universit Laval[5]. In the considered topology, the active
and reactive power flow in line is same at the sending end
side and receiving end side. The voltage at the load drops
due to loss of voltage on lines. This simulation model work
at P=300MW and Q=150MVAR. In this simulation model
active and reactive power at bus no.3 is P=88.7MW and
Q=53.8MVAR and at bus no.5 is P=206.3MW and
Q=93.7MVAR.

Fig. 4. Block diagram of the model of electrical network with TCSC.

The degree of compensation for this simulation model is


0.55, so that power transfer capability is increase. In power
transmission applications, the degree of compensation is
usually chosen in the range 0.3 k 0.7. For simulation
purpose using two parallel line in which first fixed
capacitor compensation applied in one line and then TCSC
is applied into that line.
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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2012)
By using fixed capacitor compensation method the fixed
capacitor value is 220F. The LLLG fault is applied on
receiving end side bus and breaker is operating 0.04s to
clear a fault. In Fig. 9 result show that a receiving end
power by conventional method. The receiving end power
by Without TCSC is P=294MW and Q=147.5MVAR.

Fig. 8 Receiving end power at the firing angle =900

Fig. 6 Receiving end power by conventional method

Inclusion of TCSC device to one of the lines changes the


power flow in given lines according to level desired. This
change is achieved by changing the impedance of line, in
which is installed TCSC device. With the entry values of
angle switching thyristors , TCSC can change the
impedance of the line and thereby regulates the power flow
as required. When such a change power flow, the power
flow on lines is reallocated to another ratio, but the
resulting flow performance remains unchanged.
Fig. 9 Receiving end power at the firing angle =1800

In Fig. 8 is showed situation in the modeled electrical


network at adjusted angle = 90. Impedance of TCSC is
inductive and therefore there is a change in power flow on
lines No.1 and No.2. This value of the angle of switching
leads to decrease power flow on line, whose value has
reduce from the original value of P = 285.5 MW to Q =
142.7 MVAR (measured at the load).
In Fig. 9 is showed situation in modeled electrical network
at adjusted angle = 180. Impedance of TCSC is
capacitive and therefore there is a change in power flow on
lines No.1 and No.2. This value of the angle of switching
leads to increase power flow on line from the original value
of P = 295.8MW to Q = 147.9 MVAR (measured at the
load).
Fig.7 Series compensation by TCSC Controller for close loop

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2012)
The result of convectional compensation and TCSC
compensation method shows that the power is decreasing
in case of TCSC compensation at the firing angle between
900 to 1300(inductive mode region) and the power is
increasing at the firing angle between 1400 and 1800
(capacitive region). The degree of compensation is 0.55 for
this simulation model, so the power transfer capability
increases.

TABLE I
POWER FLOW IN THE LINE AT THE LOAD P=300MW AND
Q=150MVAR

Firing Angle
Power

Without
TCSC

900

1300

1400

1800

P(MW)

294

285.5

284.1

298.7

295.8

Q(MVAR)

147.5

142.7

141.5

148.6

147.9

REFERENCES
[1]

N. G. Hingorani and L. Gyugyi, Understanding FACTS


Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC Transmission
Systems, IEEE Press. New York, 1999.

[2]

R. M. Mathur and R.K. Varma, Thyristor based FACTS


Controllers for Electrical Transmission Systems,
press,Piscataway 2002.

TABLE II
POWER FLOW IN THE LINE AT THE LOAD P=300MW AND
Q=200MVAR

[3]

Rajesh Kumar Nema S. Meikandasivam and Shailendra Kumar Jain.


Selection of TCSC parameters capacitor and inductor.
Martin German-Sobek, _ubomr Be_a, Roman Cimbala, Using of
the Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor in Electric Power
System. ELEKTROENERGETIKA, Vol.4, No.4, 2011.

[4]

Users Guide of MATLAB R 2011a.

Firing Angle
Power

Without
TCSC

900

1300

1400

1800

P(MW)

292.2

273.8

272.4

297.8

294.3

Q(MVAR)

194.8

182.5

182.29

198.1

196.1

APPENDIX
The parameters of the model are as follows:
Ideal Three-Phase Voltage Source
Line to-line voltage VLL = 400 kv,
Phase angle = 0,
Frequency f = 50 Hz,
Three-Phase Parallel RL Load
Active power P = 300 MW,
Reactive power Q = 150 MVAr,
Configuration Y (grounded),
Three-Phase PI Section Line n.1 and n.2
Line resistance R = 0.028/km,
Line inductance L = 0.904 mH/km,
Line capacity C = 0.012707F/km,
Line length l = 100 km,
Maximum current of line Imax = 1200 A.
According to parameters the line series impedance is Z=0.028+j0.28386.
The line series reactance is XL =0.028386/km*100km
XL=28.386
The Capacitive reactance TCSC devices is XC=15.688.
Percentage of compensation can be = XC/XL*100 =55.27%

As per table data at firing angle = 900 to 1300 as a


inductive action of the TCSC the power flow into the line
in decreasing manner. In the case of capacitive operation,
when capacitance TCSC acts on impedance of line No.1,
will decline impedance of line No.1 and thereby will
increase the power flow through the line No.1 and reduced
the power flow through the line No.2. The results shows at
firing angle =1400 to 1800, the power flow in line
increasing compare with conventional method(without
TCSC). The table also shows result for different load and
firing angle to verify the TCSC reactance Vs firing
characteristics curve in Fig. 2.
VII.

IEEE

CONCLUSION

The TCSC is controlling the reactive power and voltage


stability limit better than convectional compensation
method by changing the firing angle of the back to back
thyristors. From the simulation point of view, TCSC can
control the power at the different load condition and also in
different firing angle of thyristors.

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