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7

7.1

Cylindrical Tubular Members


GENERAL REMARKS

The design of square and rectangular tubular sections as flexural and compression members is discussed in Chaps. 3 to 6. This chapter deals with the
strength of cylindrical tubular members and the design practice for such members used as either flexural or compression members.
Thin-walled cylindrical tubular members are economical sections for compression and torsional members because of their large ratio of radius of gyration to area, the same radius of gyration in all directions, and the large
torsional rigidity. In the past, the structural efficiency of such tubular members
has been recognized in building construction. A comparison made by Wolford
on the design loads for round and square tubing and hot-rolled steel angles
used as columns indicates that for the same size and weight, round tubing
will carry approximately 212 and 112 times the column load of hot-rolled angles
when the column length is equal to 36 and 24 times the size of section,
respectively.7.1

7.2

TYPES OF CYLINDRICAL TUBES

The buckling behavior of cylindrical tubes, which will be discussed later, is


considerably affected by the shape of the stressstrain curve of the material,
the geometric imperfections such as out of roundness, and the residual stress.
It would therefore be convenient to classify tubular members on the basis of
their buckling behavior.
In general, cylindrical tubes may be grouped as (1) manufactured tubes
and (2) fabricated tubes.7.2 Manufactured tubes are produced by piercing,
forming and welding, cupping, extruding, or other methods in a plant. Fabricated tubes are produced from plates by riveting, bolting, or welding in an
ordinary structural fabrication shop. Since fabricated tubes usually have more
severe geometric imperfections, the local buckling strength of such tubes may
be considerably below that of manufactured tubes.
Manufactured structural steel tubes include the following three types:
1. Seamless tubes
2. Welded tubes
3. Cold-expanded or cold-worked tubes
408

7.3

FLEXURAL COLUMN BUCKLING

409

For the seamless tubes, the stressstrain curve is affected by the residual
stress resulting from cooling of the tubes. The proportional limit of a fullsized tube is usually about 75% of the yield point. This type of tube has a
uniform property across the cross section.
Welded tubes produced by cold forming and welding steel sheets or plates
have gradual-yielding stressstrain curves, as shown in Fig. 2.2 due to the
Bauschinger effect and the residual stresses resulting from the manufacturing
process. The proportional limit of electric-resistance welded tubes may be as
low as 50% of the yield point.
Cold-worked tubes also have this type of gradual yielding because of the
Bauschinger effect and the cold work of forming.

7.3

FLEXURAL COLUMN BUCKLING

The basic column formulas for elastic and inelastic buckling discussed in
Chap. 5 [Eqs. (5.3a) and (5.7a) are usually applicable to tubular compression
members having a proportional limit of no less than 70% of the yield point.
For electric-resistance welded tubes having a relatively low proportional limit,
Wolford and Rebholz recommended the following formulas on the basis of
their tests of carbon steel tubes with yield strengths of 45 and 55 ksi (310
and 379 MPa):7.3
1. For KL/r 3 2E/Fy,

T Fy 1

2
33

F E KLr
y
2

(7.1)

2. For KL/r 3 2E/Fy,


e

2E
(KL/r)2

(7.2)

where Fy, E, K, and L are as defined in Chap. 5. The radius of gyration r of


cylindrical tubes can be computed as
r

D 2o D 2i

where Do outside diameter


Di inside diameter
R mean radius of tube

R
2

(7.3)

410

CYLINDRICAL TUBULAR MEMBERS

The correlation between the test results and Eqs. (5.3), (5.7), (7.1), and
(7.2) is shown in Fig. 7.1.3.84,7.4,7.5 Also shown in this figure are the test data
reported by Zaric.7.6
Because cylindrical tubes are now commonly used in offshore structures,
extensive analytical and experimental studies of the strength of tubular members have recently been made by numerous investigators throughout the
world.7.77.15

7.4

LOCAL BUCKLING

Local buckling of cylindrical tubular members can occur when members are
subject to
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Axial compression
Bending
Torsion
Transverse shear
Combined loading

Each item will be discussed separately as follows.

Figure 7.1 Test data for column buckling of axially loaded cylndrical tubes.3.84

7.4

7.4.1

LOCAL BUCKLING

411

Local Buckling under Axial Compression

When a cylindrical tube is subject to an axial compressive load, the elastic


stability of the tube is more complicated than is the case for a flat plate.
Based on the small deflection theory, the structural behavior of a cylindrical
shell can be expressed by the following eighth-order partial differential equation:7.16
8

1 4
2
Et 4
Nx 2
0
D
x
DR 2 x 4

(7.4)

where
8 4(4 )
4

(7.5)

2 2 2 4
x 4
x y
y
4

and

coordinate in x direction
coordinate in tangential direction
displacement in radial direction
axial load applied to cylinder
thickness of tube
radius of tube
modulus of elasticity of steel, 29.5 103 ksi (203 GPa)
Et 3
D
12(1 2)
Poissons ratio, 0.3

x
y

Nx
t
R
E

See Fig. 7.2 for dimensions of a cylindrical tube subjected to axial compression.
For a given cylindrical tube the buckling behavior varies with the length
of the member. For this reason, from the structural stability point of view, it
has been divided into the following three categories by Gerard and Becker:
7.16

1. Short tubes, Z 2.85


2. Moderate-length tubes, 2.85 Z 50
3. Long tubes, Z 50
Here

412

CYLINDRICAL TUBULAR MEMBERS

Figure 7.2 Cylindrical tube subjected to axial compression.

L2
1 2
Rt

0.954

(7.6)

L
Rt

For very short tubes (i.e., the radius of the tube is extremely large compared
with its length), the critical local buckling stress is
cr

2E(t 2 /12)
(1 2)L 2

(7.7)

which is identical with the Euler stress for a plate strip of unit width.
For extremely long tubes, the tube will buckle as a column. The critical
buckling load is
Pcr

2EI
L2

(7.8)

where I is the moment of inertia of the cross section of the tube,


I R 3t

(7.9)

Therefore, for long tubes the critical buckling stress is


cr

2E R
2
L

(7.10)

Moderate-length tubes may buckle locally in a diamond pattern as shown


in Fig. 7.3. The critical local buckling stress is

7.4

LOCAL BUCKLING

413

Figure 7.3 Local buckling of moderate-length tubes.

cr CE

t
R

(7.11)

According to the classic theory (small-deflection theory) on local buckling,


the value of C can be computed as
C

1
3(1 2)

0.605

(7.12)

Therefore
cr

E
t
t
0.605E
2
R
3(1 ) R

(7.13)

Whenever the buckling stress exceeds the proportional limit, the theoretical
local buckling stress is in the inelastic range, which can be determined by
cr aCE

t
R

(7.14)

Here a is the plasticity reduction factor,7.2


a

1 2
1 2p

1/2

Es
E

Et
E

12

(7.15)

414

CYLINDRICAL TUBULAR MEMBERS

where
p
Es
El
E

Poissons ratio in the elastic range, 0.3


Poissons ratio in the plastic range, 0.5
secant modulus
tangent modulus
modulus of elasticity

Results of numerous tests indicate that the actual value of C may be much
lower than the theoretical value of 0.605 due to the postbuckling behavior of
the cylindrical tubes, which is strongly affected by initial imperfections.
The postbuckling behavior of the three-dimensional cylindrical tubes is
quite different from that of two-dimensional flat plates and one-dimensional
columns. As shown in Fig. 7.4a, the flat plate develops significant transversetension membrane stresses after buckling because of the restraint provided by
the two vertical edges. These membrane stresses act to restrain lateral motion,
and therefore the plate can carry additional load after buckling.
For columns, after flexural buckling occurs, no significant transversetension membrane stresses can be developed to restrain the lateral motion,
and therefore, the column is free to deflect laterally under critical load.
For cylindrical tubes, the inward buckling causes superimposed transverse
compression membrane stresses, and the buckling form itself is unstable. As
a consequence of the compression membrane stresses, buckling of an axially
loaded cylinder is coincident with failure and occurs suddenly, accompanied
by a considerable drop in load (snap-through buckling).
Since the postbuckling stress of a cylindrical tube decreases suddenly from
the classic buckling stress, the stress in an imperfect tube reaches its maximum well below the classic buckling stress (Fig. 7.5).
On the basis of the postbuckling behavior discussed above, Donnell and
Wan developed a large-deflection theory which indicates that the value of C

Figure 7.4 Buckling patterns of various structural components.

7.4

LOCAL BUCKLING

415

Figure 7.5 Postbuckling behavior of flat plates, columns, and cylindrical tubes.7.16

varies with R/t ratio as shown in Fig. 7.6, which is based on average imperfections.7.17
During recent years the local buckling strength of cylindrical tubes subjected to axial compression has been studied at Lehigh University,7.187.20 the
University of Alberta,7.21 the University of Tokyo,7.22 the University of Toronto,6.30 and others.7.117.15,7.31 The test data obtained from previous and recent
research projects have been used in the development and improvement of
various design recommendations.1.4,7.237.25

Figure 7.6 Local buckling imperfection parameter versus R / t ratio.7.16

416

CYLINDRICAL TUBULAR MEMBERS

7.4.2

Local Buckling under Bending

The local buckling behavior in the compression portion of a flexural tubular


member is somewhat different compared with that of the axially loaded compression member. On the basis of their tests and theoretical investigation,
Gerard and Becker7.16 suggested that elastic local buckling stress for bending
be taken as 1.3 times the local buckling stress for axial compression. This
higher elastic buckling stress for bending results from the beneficial effect of
the stress gradient that exists in bending. However, some investigators have
indicated that there is not much difference between the critical stress in bending and that in axial compression.3.84
The bending strength of cylindrical tubes has been studied by Sherman,7.26
and by Stephens, Kulak, and Montgomery.7.21
7.4.3

Local Buckling under Torsion

The theoretical local buckling stress of moderate-length tubes subjected to


torsion can be computed by7.2
(cr)torsion

0.596a
t
E
(1 2)5 / 8
R

0.632aE

t
R

5/4

5/4

R
L

1/2

(7.16)

1/2

R
L

where cr is the critical shear buckling stress due to torsion and,


a

1 2
1 2p

3/4

Es
E
1.16 s
E
E

(7.17)

Previous studies indicate that the effect of imperfection on torsional postbuckling is much less than the effect on axial compression. Test data indicate
that due to the effect of initial imperfection, the actual strength of the member
is smaller than the analytical result.
7.4.4

Local Buckling under Transverse Shear

In Ref. 7.2, Schilling suggests that in the elastic range, the critical shear
buckling stress in transverse shear be taken as 1.25 times the critical shear
buckling stress due to torsion, that is,
(cr)transverse

shear

1.25 0.632aE

t
0.79aE
R

5/4

t
R

R
L

5/4

1/2

R
L

1/2

(7.18)

7.5

7.4.5

AISI DESIGN CRITERIA1.314

417

Local Buckling under Combined Loading

The following interaction formula may be used for any combined loading:7.2

cr
cr

where
cr

cr

7.5

(7.19)

actual computed normal stress


critical buckling stress for normal stress alone
actual computed shear stress
critical buckling stress for shear stress alone

AISI DESIGN CRITERIA1.314

The AISI design criteria for cylindrical tabular members were revised in the
1986 and 1996 editions of the specification on the basis of Refs. 1.158, 7.5,
and 7.30. For additional information, the reader is referred to Refs. 8.25
through 8.32.

7.5.1

Local Buckling Stress

Considering the postbuckling behavior of the axially compressed cylinder and


the important effect of the initial imperfection, the design provisions included
in the AISI Specification were originally based on Plantemas graphic representation7.27 and the additional results of cylindrical shell tests made by
Wilson and Newmark at the University of Illinois.7.28,7.29
From the tests of compressed tubes, Plantema found that the ratio Fult /Fy
depends on the parameter (E/Fy)(t/D), in which t is the wall thickness, D is
the mean diameter of the tubes, and Fult is the ultimate stress or collapse
stress. As shown in Fig. 7.7, line 1 corresponds to the collapse stress below
the proportional limit, line 2 corresponds to the collapse stress between the
proportional limit and the yield point (the approximate proportional limit is
83% of Fy at point B), and line 3 represents the collapse stress occurring at
yield point. In the range of line 3, local buckling will not occur before yielding, and no stress reduction is necessary.
In ranges 1 and 2, local buckling occurs before the yield point is reached.
In these cases the stress should be reduced to safeguard against local buckling.
As shown in Fig. 7.7, point A represents a specific value of (E/Fy)(t/D)
8, which divides yielding and local buckling. Using E 29.5 103 ksi (203
GPa), it can be seen that tubes with D/t ratios of no more than 0.125
E/Fy are safe from failure caused by local buckling. Specifically, Plantemas
equations are as follows:7.4

418

CYLINDRICAL TUBULAR MEMBERS

Figure 7.7 Ultimate strength of cylindrical tubes for local buckling.

1. For D/t 0.125E/Fy (yielding failure criterion represented by line 3),


Fult
1
Fy

(7.20)

2. For 0.125E/Fy D/t 0.4E/Fy (inelastic buckling criterion represented by line 2),

Fult
E
0.031
Fy
Fy

t
0.75
D

(7.21)

3. For D/t 0.4E/Fy (elastic buckling criterion represented by line 1),

Fult
E
0.33
Fy
Fy

t
D

(7.22)

Based on a conservative approach, AISI specifies that when the D/t ratio
is smaller than or equal to 0.112E/Fy, the tubular member shall be designed
for yielding. This provision is based on point A1, for which (E/Fy)(t/D)
8.93.

7.5

AISI DESIGN CRITERIA1.314

419

When 0.112E/Fy D/t 0.441 E/Fy, the design of tubular members is


based on the local buckling criteria. For the purpose of developing a design
formula for inelastic buckling, point B1 was selected by AISI to represent the
proportional limit. For point B1,


E
Fy

t
2.27
D

and

Fult
0.75
Fy

(7.23)

Using line A1B1, the maximum stress of tubes can be represented by

Fult
E
0.037
Fy
Fy

t
0.667
D

(7.24)

The correlation between the available test data and Eq. (7.24) is shown in
Fig. 7.8.
Let A be the area of the unreduced cross section and A0 be the reduced
area due to local buckling, then
AFult A0Fy

(7.25)

or

Figure 7.8 Correlation between test data and AISI criteria for local buckling of
cylindrical tubes under axial compression.

420

CYLINDRICAL TUBULAR MEMBERS

A0

Fult
A
Fy

(7.26)

Substituting Eq. (7.24) into Eq. (7.26), the following equation can be obtained
for D/t 0.441E/Fy:
A0

0.037
0.667 A A
(D/t)(Fy /E)

(7.27)

where D is the outside diameter of the cylindrical tubular member.


7.5.2

Compressive Strength

When a cylindrical tubular member is subject to a compressive load in the


direction of the member axis passing through the centroid of the section, the
AISI design provision was changed in the 1996 Specification to reflect the
results of additional studies of cylindrical tubular members and to be consistent with Sec. C4 of the Specification. The following equations are now included in Sec. C6.2 of the AISI Specification and Supplement No. 1 for
determining the nominal axial strength Pn of cylindrical tubular members
having a ratio of outside diameter to wall thickness, D/t, not greater than
0.441E/Fy.1.314,1.333
Pn Fn Ae

(7.28)

where Pn nominal axial strength of the member


Fn flexural buckling stress determined as follows:
For c 1.5,
Fn (0.658c )Fy
2

(7.29)

For c 1.5,
Fn

0.877
Fy
c2

(7.30)

where
c

Fy
e

In the above equations,

(7.31)

7.5

AISI DESIGN CRITERIA1.314

421

Fe the elastic flexural buckling stress determined according to Sec. C4.1


of the Specification
Ae effective area of the cylindrical tubular member under axial compression determined as follows:1.333
Ae A0 R (A A0)

(7.32)

R Fy /2Fe 1.0

(7.33)

A0

0.037
0.667 A A
(DFy)/(tE)

(7.34)

A area of the unreduced cross section


Equations (7.28) through (7.34) can be summarized in Fig. 7.9. It can be seen
that Eq. (7.32) gives Ae Ao when c 0, and Ae A when c 2. The
latter is due to the fact that for long columns the stresses at which the column
buckles are so low that they will not cause local buckling before primary
buckling has taken place.
Consequently, for the design of axially loaded cylindrical tubular members,
the allowable axial load Pa for the ASD method is determined by Eq. (7.35):

Figure 7.9 Nominal compressive load of cylindrical tubular members.

422

CYLINDRICAL TUBULAR MEMBERS

Pa Pn / c

(7.35)

where c factor of safety for axial compression 1.80. For the LRFD
method, the design axial strength is cPn, in which c 0.85.
7.5.3

Bending Strength

In Art. 7.4.2, it was pointed out that for cylindrical tubular members, the
elastic local buckling stress for bending is higher than the elastic local buckling stress for axial compression. In addition, it has been recognized that for
thick cylindrical members subjected to bending, the initiation of yielding does
not represent the failure condition as is generally assumed for axial loading.
For relatively compact members with D/t 0.0714 E/Fy, the flexural strength
can reach the plastic moment capacity, which is at least 1.25 times the moment at first yielding. As far as the local buckling is concerned, the conditions
for inelastic buckling are not as severe as the case of axial compression due
to the effect of stress gradient. Based on the results of recent studies, the
following AISI design provisions for determining the nominal flexural
strength are included in Sec. C6.1 of the Supplement to the 1996 edition of
the Specification for tubular members having D/t 0.441E/Fy.1.314,1.333
1. For D/t 0.0714E/Fy:
Mn 1.25 FySf

(7.36)

2. For 0.0714E/Fy D/t 0.318E/Fy:

Mn 0.970 0.020

(E/Fy)
FS
(D/t) y f

(7.37)

3. For 0.318E/Fy D/t 0.441E/Fy:


Mn [0.328E /(D/t)]Sf

(7.38)

where Mn nominal flexural strength


Sf elastic section modulus of the full, unreduced cross section
The allowable bending moment, Ma, for the ASD method is determined by
using Eq. (7.39):
Ma Mn / b

(7.39)

where b factor of safety for bending 1.67. For the LRFD method, the
design flexural strength is bMn, in which b 0.95.

7.6

DESIGN EXAMPLES

423

Equations (7.36) through (7.38) are shown graphically in Fig. 7.10. As


compared with the 1980 edition of the AISI Specification, it can be shown
that the increases of the nominal moment range from about 13 to 25% according to the value of the (E/Fy)(t/D).
7.5.4

Combined Bending and Compression

The interaction formulas presented in Chap. 6 can also be used for the design
of beam-columns using cylindrical tubular members. The nominal axial
strength and nominal flexural strength can be obtained from Arts. 7.5.2 and
7.5.3, respectively.

7.6

DESIGN EXAMPLES

Example 7.1 Use the ASD and LRFD methods to determine the design axial
strength for the cylindrical tube having a 10-in. outside diameter to be used
as an axially loaded simply supported column. Assume that the effective

Figure 7.10 Nominal flexural strength of cylindrical tubular members.

424

CYLINDRICAL TUBULAR MEMBERS

column length is 15 ft, the yield point of steel is 33 ksi, and the thickness of
the tube is 0.105 in.
Solution
A. ASD Method. Using the AISI design criteria, the limiting D/t ratio is

D
t

0.441

lim

E
29,500
0.441
394.23
Fy
33

The actual D/t ratio is


D
10

95.24 394.23
t
0.105

O.K.

1. Sectional Properties of Full Section


A

(D 2o D 2i )
4
[(10.0)2 (10.0 2 0.105)2]
4

3.264 in.2

D 2o D 2i

4
(10.0)2 (10.0 2 0.105)2

3.500 in.

2. Nominal Axial Strength, Pn


a.

KL 15 12

51.43
r
3.50
According to Eq. (5.56), the elastic flexural buckling stress is
Fe

2E
2(29,500)

110.08 ksi
(KL/r)2
(51.43)2

7.6

DESIGN EXAMPLES

425

b. Based on Eq. (7.31),


c

Fy

Fe

33
0.548 1.5
110.08

Fn (0.658 c )Fy (0.6580.548 )(33)


2

29.10 ksi

c. Based on Eqs. (7.32), (7.33), and (7.34),


Ac Ao R(A Ao)
where
R Fy /2Fe
33/(2 110.08) 0.150 1.0

A0

0.037
0.667 A
(D/t)(Fy /E)

O.K.

0.037
0.667 (3.264)
(95.24)(33/29,500)

3.311 in.2
Because 3.311 A 3.264 in.2, use A0 3.264 in.2 Therefore,

Ae 3.264 (0.150)(3.264 3.264)


3.264 in.2

From Eq. (7.28), the nominal axial load is


Pn Fn Ae
(29.10)(3.264) 94.98 kips

3. Allowable axial load, Pa . From Eq. (7.35), the allowable axial load
is
Pa Pn / c 94.98/1.80
52.77 kips

426

CYLINDRICAL TUBULAR MEMBERS

B. LRFD Method. For the LRFD method, the design axial strength is
cPn 0.85(94.98)
80.73 kips

Example 7.2 All data are the same as those of Example 7.1, except that the
thickness of the tube is 0.06 in.
Solution
A. ASD Method. Use the same procedure employed in Example 7.1.

D
t

0.441

lim

E
394.23
Fy

The actual D/t ratio is


D
10

166.67 394.23
t
0.06

O.K.

1. Sectional Properties of Full Section


A
r

[(10.0)2 (10.0 2 0.06)2]


1.874 in.2
4
(10.0)2 (10.0 2 0.06)2

3.51 in.

2. Nominal Axial Strength, Pn


a.

KL 15 12

51.28
r
3.51
Fe

2E
2(29,500)

110.72 ksi
(KL/r)2
(51.28)2

b. Based on Eq. (7.31),


c

33
0.546 1.5
FF 110.72
y
e

Fn (0.658 c )Fy (0.6580.546 )(33)


2

29.13 ksi

7.6

427

DESIGN EXAMPLES

c. Based on Eqs. (7.32), (7.33), and (7.34),


Ae A0 R (A A0)
where R Fy /2Fe 33/(2 110.72) 0.149 1.0
A0

O.K.

0.037
0.667 (1.874) 1.622 in.2
(166.67)(33/29,500)

Since A0 A 1.874 in.2, use A0 1.622 in.2


Ae 1.622 (0.149)(1.874 1.622) 1.660 in.2
The nominal axial strength is
Pn FnAe (29.13)(1.660) 48.36 kips
3. Allowable Axial Load, Pa . From Eq. (7.35), the allowable axial load
is
Pa Pn / c 48.36/1.80
26.87 kips

B. LRFD Method. For the LRFD method, the design axial strength is
cPn 0.85(48.36)
41.11 kips

Example 7.3 Use the ASD and LRFD methods to determine the design
flexural strength of cylindrical tubes used in Examples 7.1 and 7.2 if these
tubes are to be used as flexural members.
Solution
A. ASD Method
1. Use the data given in Example 7.1,
Fy 33 ksi
Do 10 in.
t 0.105 in.
D/t 95.24 0.441E/Fy

O.K.

428

CYLINDRICAL TUBULAR MEMBERS

a. Section modulus of the full section. The section modulus of the


10-in. tube having a wall thickness of 0.105 in. is
Sf

(D 4o D 4i )
D 4 D 4i
0.098175 o
32Do
Do

0.098175

(10.0)4 (9.79)4
7.99 in.3
10.0

b. Nominal flexural strength, Mn


0.0714E/Fy 0.0714(29,500)/33 63.83
0.318E/Fy 0.318(29,500)/33 284.27
Since 0.0714E/Fy (D/t 95.24) 0.318E/Fy, according to
Eq. (7.37), the nominal flexural strength is

Mn 0.970 0.020

0.970 0.020

(E/Fy)
FySf
D/t

(29,500/33)
(33)(7.99)
95.24

305.26 in.-kips

c. Allowable design flexural strength, Ma . Based on Eq. (7.39), the


allowable design flexural strength is
Ma Mn / b

305.26
182.79 in.-kips
1.67

2. Use the data given in Example 7.2,


Fy 33 ksi
Do 10 in.
t 0.06 in.
D/t 166.67 0.441E/Fy

O.K.

a. Section modulus of the full section. The section modulus of the


10-in. tube having a wall thickness of 0.06 in. is

7.6

Sf 0.098175

DESIGN EXAMPLES

429

(10.0)4 (9.88)4
4.628 in.3
10.0

b. Nominal flextural strength, Mn . Since 0.0714E/Fy D/t


0.318E/Fy,

Mn 0.970 0.020

(29,500/33)
(33)(4.628)
166.67

164.53 in.-kips

c. Allowable design flexural strength, Ma . The allowable design


flexural strength is
Ma Mn / b

164.53
98.52 in.-kips.
1.67

B. LRFD Method
Using the LRFD method, the design flexural strengths for the cylindrical tubes used in Examples 7.1 and 7.2 can be computed as follows:
1. For the cylindrical tube used in Example 7.1, the nominal flexural
strength computed in Item (A) above is
Mn 305.26 in.-kips
The design flexural strength is
bMn 0.95(305.26) 290.00 in.-kips

2. For the cylindrical tube used in Example 7.2, the nominal flexural
strength computed in Item (A) above is
Mn 164.53 in.-kips
The design flexural strength is
bMn 0.95(164.53) 156.30 in.-kips