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7.1

GENERAL REMARKS

The design of square and rectangular tubular sections as flexural and compression members is discussed in Chaps. 3 to 6. This chapter deals with the

strength of cylindrical tubular members and the design practice for such members used as either flexural or compression members.

Thin-walled cylindrical tubular members are economical sections for compression and torsional members because of their large ratio of radius of gyration to area, the same radius of gyration in all directions, and the large

torsional rigidity. In the past, the structural efficiency of such tubular members

has been recognized in building construction. A comparison made by Wolford

on the design loads for round and square tubing and hot-rolled steel angles

used as columns indicates that for the same size and weight, round tubing

will carry approximately 212 and 112 times the column load of hot-rolled angles

when the column length is equal to 36 and 24 times the size of section,

respectively.7.1

7.2

considerably affected by the shape of the stressstrain curve of the material,

the geometric imperfections such as out of roundness, and the residual stress.

It would therefore be convenient to classify tubular members on the basis of

their buckling behavior.

In general, cylindrical tubes may be grouped as (1) manufactured tubes

and (2) fabricated tubes.7.2 Manufactured tubes are produced by piercing,

forming and welding, cupping, extruding, or other methods in a plant. Fabricated tubes are produced from plates by riveting, bolting, or welding in an

ordinary structural fabrication shop. Since fabricated tubes usually have more

severe geometric imperfections, the local buckling strength of such tubes may

be considerably below that of manufactured tubes.

Manufactured structural steel tubes include the following three types:

1. Seamless tubes

2. Welded tubes

3. Cold-expanded or cold-worked tubes

408

7.3

409

For the seamless tubes, the stressstrain curve is affected by the residual

stress resulting from cooling of the tubes. The proportional limit of a fullsized tube is usually about 75% of the yield point. This type of tube has a

uniform property across the cross section.

Welded tubes produced by cold forming and welding steel sheets or plates

have gradual-yielding stressstrain curves, as shown in Fig. 2.2 due to the

Bauschinger effect and the residual stresses resulting from the manufacturing

process. The proportional limit of electric-resistance welded tubes may be as

low as 50% of the yield point.

Cold-worked tubes also have this type of gradual yielding because of the

Bauschinger effect and the cold work of forming.

7.3

The basic column formulas for elastic and inelastic buckling discussed in

Chap. 5 [Eqs. (5.3a) and (5.7a) are usually applicable to tubular compression

members having a proportional limit of no less than 70% of the yield point.

For electric-resistance welded tubes having a relatively low proportional limit,

Wolford and Rebholz recommended the following formulas on the basis of

their tests of carbon steel tubes with yield strengths of 45 and 55 ksi (310

and 379 MPa):7.3

1. For KL/r 3 2E/Fy,

T Fy 1

2

33

F E KLr

y

2

(7.1)

e

2E

(KL/r)2

(7.2)

cylindrical tubes can be computed as

r

D 2o D 2i

Di inside diameter

R mean radius of tube

R

2

(7.3)

410

The correlation between the test results and Eqs. (5.3), (5.7), (7.1), and

(7.2) is shown in Fig. 7.1.3.84,7.4,7.5 Also shown in this figure are the test data

reported by Zaric.7.6

Because cylindrical tubes are now commonly used in offshore structures,

extensive analytical and experimental studies of the strength of tubular members have recently been made by numerous investigators throughout the

world.7.77.15

7.4

LOCAL BUCKLING

Local buckling of cylindrical tubular members can occur when members are

subject to

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Axial compression

Bending

Torsion

Transverse shear

Combined loading

Figure 7.1 Test data for column buckling of axially loaded cylndrical tubes.3.84

7.4

7.4.1

LOCAL BUCKLING

411

stability of the tube is more complicated than is the case for a flat plate.

Based on the small deflection theory, the structural behavior of a cylindrical

shell can be expressed by the following eighth-order partial differential equation:7.16

8

1 4

2

Et 4

Nx 2

0

D

x

DR 2 x 4

(7.4)

where

8 4(4 )

4

(7.5)

2 2 2 4

x 4

x y

y

4

and

coordinate in x direction

coordinate in tangential direction

displacement in radial direction

axial load applied to cylinder

thickness of tube

radius of tube

modulus of elasticity of steel, 29.5 103 ksi (203 GPa)

Et 3

D

12(1 2)

Poissons ratio, 0.3

x

y

Nx

t

R

E

See Fig. 7.2 for dimensions of a cylindrical tube subjected to axial compression.

For a given cylindrical tube the buckling behavior varies with the length

of the member. For this reason, from the structural stability point of view, it

has been divided into the following three categories by Gerard and Becker:

7.16

2. Moderate-length tubes, 2.85 Z 50

3. Long tubes, Z 50

Here

412

L2

1 2

Rt

0.954

(7.6)

L

Rt

For very short tubes (i.e., the radius of the tube is extremely large compared

with its length), the critical local buckling stress is

cr

2E(t 2 /12)

(1 2)L 2

(7.7)

which is identical with the Euler stress for a plate strip of unit width.

For extremely long tubes, the tube will buckle as a column. The critical

buckling load is

Pcr

2EI

L2

(7.8)

I R 3t

(7.9)

cr

2E R

2

L

(7.10)

in Fig. 7.3. The critical local buckling stress is

7.4

LOCAL BUCKLING

413

cr CE

t

R

(7.11)

the value of C can be computed as

C

1

3(1 2)

0.605

(7.12)

Therefore

cr

E

t

t

0.605E

2

R

3(1 ) R

(7.13)

Whenever the buckling stress exceeds the proportional limit, the theoretical

local buckling stress is in the inelastic range, which can be determined by

cr aCE

t

R

(7.14)

a

1 2

1 2p

1/2

Es

E

Et

E

12

(7.15)

414

where

p

Es

El

E

Poissons ratio in the plastic range, 0.5

secant modulus

tangent modulus

modulus of elasticity

Results of numerous tests indicate that the actual value of C may be much

lower than the theoretical value of 0.605 due to the postbuckling behavior of

the cylindrical tubes, which is strongly affected by initial imperfections.

The postbuckling behavior of the three-dimensional cylindrical tubes is

quite different from that of two-dimensional flat plates and one-dimensional

columns. As shown in Fig. 7.4a, the flat plate develops significant transversetension membrane stresses after buckling because of the restraint provided by

the two vertical edges. These membrane stresses act to restrain lateral motion,

and therefore the plate can carry additional load after buckling.

For columns, after flexural buckling occurs, no significant transversetension membrane stresses can be developed to restrain the lateral motion,

and therefore, the column is free to deflect laterally under critical load.

For cylindrical tubes, the inward buckling causes superimposed transverse

compression membrane stresses, and the buckling form itself is unstable. As

a consequence of the compression membrane stresses, buckling of an axially

loaded cylinder is coincident with failure and occurs suddenly, accompanied

by a considerable drop in load (snap-through buckling).

Since the postbuckling stress of a cylindrical tube decreases suddenly from

the classic buckling stress, the stress in an imperfect tube reaches its maximum well below the classic buckling stress (Fig. 7.5).

On the basis of the postbuckling behavior discussed above, Donnell and

Wan developed a large-deflection theory which indicates that the value of C

7.4

LOCAL BUCKLING

415

Figure 7.5 Postbuckling behavior of flat plates, columns, and cylindrical tubes.7.16

varies with R/t ratio as shown in Fig. 7.6, which is based on average imperfections.7.17

During recent years the local buckling strength of cylindrical tubes subjected to axial compression has been studied at Lehigh University,7.187.20 the

University of Alberta,7.21 the University of Tokyo,7.22 the University of Toronto,6.30 and others.7.117.15,7.31 The test data obtained from previous and recent

research projects have been used in the development and improvement of

various design recommendations.1.4,7.237.25

416

7.4.2

member is somewhat different compared with that of the axially loaded compression member. On the basis of their tests and theoretical investigation,

Gerard and Becker7.16 suggested that elastic local buckling stress for bending

be taken as 1.3 times the local buckling stress for axial compression. This

higher elastic buckling stress for bending results from the beneficial effect of

the stress gradient that exists in bending. However, some investigators have

indicated that there is not much difference between the critical stress in bending and that in axial compression.3.84

The bending strength of cylindrical tubes has been studied by Sherman,7.26

and by Stephens, Kulak, and Montgomery.7.21

7.4.3

torsion can be computed by7.2

(cr)torsion

0.596a

t

E

(1 2)5 / 8

R

0.632aE

t

R

5/4

5/4

R

L

1/2

(7.16)

1/2

R

L

a

1 2

1 2p

3/4

Es

E

1.16 s

E

E

(7.17)

Previous studies indicate that the effect of imperfection on torsional postbuckling is much less than the effect on axial compression. Test data indicate

that due to the effect of initial imperfection, the actual strength of the member

is smaller than the analytical result.

7.4.4

In Ref. 7.2, Schilling suggests that in the elastic range, the critical shear

buckling stress in transverse shear be taken as 1.25 times the critical shear

buckling stress due to torsion, that is,

(cr)transverse

shear

1.25 0.632aE

t

0.79aE

R

5/4

t

R

R

L

5/4

1/2

R

L

1/2

(7.18)

7.5

7.4.5

417

The following interaction formula may be used for any combined loading:7.2

cr

cr

where

cr

cr

7.5

(7.19)

critical buckling stress for normal stress alone

actual computed shear stress

critical buckling stress for shear stress alone

The AISI design criteria for cylindrical tabular members were revised in the

1986 and 1996 editions of the specification on the basis of Refs. 1.158, 7.5,

and 7.30. For additional information, the reader is referred to Refs. 8.25

through 8.32.

7.5.1

the important effect of the initial imperfection, the design provisions included

in the AISI Specification were originally based on Plantemas graphic representation7.27 and the additional results of cylindrical shell tests made by

Wilson and Newmark at the University of Illinois.7.28,7.29

From the tests of compressed tubes, Plantema found that the ratio Fult /Fy

depends on the parameter (E/Fy)(t/D), in which t is the wall thickness, D is

the mean diameter of the tubes, and Fult is the ultimate stress or collapse

stress. As shown in Fig. 7.7, line 1 corresponds to the collapse stress below

the proportional limit, line 2 corresponds to the collapse stress between the

proportional limit and the yield point (the approximate proportional limit is

83% of Fy at point B), and line 3 represents the collapse stress occurring at

yield point. In the range of line 3, local buckling will not occur before yielding, and no stress reduction is necessary.

In ranges 1 and 2, local buckling occurs before the yield point is reached.

In these cases the stress should be reduced to safeguard against local buckling.

As shown in Fig. 7.7, point A represents a specific value of (E/Fy)(t/D)

8, which divides yielding and local buckling. Using E 29.5 103 ksi (203

GPa), it can be seen that tubes with D/t ratios of no more than 0.125

E/Fy are safe from failure caused by local buckling. Specifically, Plantemas

equations are as follows:7.4

418

Fult

1

Fy

(7.20)

2. For 0.125E/Fy D/t 0.4E/Fy (inelastic buckling criterion represented by line 2),

Fult

E

0.031

Fy

Fy

t

0.75

D

(7.21)

Fult

E

0.33

Fy

Fy

t

D

(7.22)

Based on a conservative approach, AISI specifies that when the D/t ratio

is smaller than or equal to 0.112E/Fy, the tubular member shall be designed

for yielding. This provision is based on point A1, for which (E/Fy)(t/D)

8.93.

7.5

419

based on the local buckling criteria. For the purpose of developing a design

formula for inelastic buckling, point B1 was selected by AISI to represent the

proportional limit. For point B1,

E

Fy

t

2.27

D

and

Fult

0.75

Fy

(7.23)

Fult

E

0.037

Fy

Fy

t

0.667

D

(7.24)

The correlation between the available test data and Eq. (7.24) is shown in

Fig. 7.8.

Let A be the area of the unreduced cross section and A0 be the reduced

area due to local buckling, then

AFult A0Fy

(7.25)

or

Figure 7.8 Correlation between test data and AISI criteria for local buckling of

cylindrical tubes under axial compression.

420

A0

Fult

A

Fy

(7.26)

Substituting Eq. (7.24) into Eq. (7.26), the following equation can be obtained

for D/t 0.441E/Fy:

A0

0.037

0.667 A A

(D/t)(Fy /E)

(7.27)

7.5.2

Compressive Strength

direction of the member axis passing through the centroid of the section, the

AISI design provision was changed in the 1996 Specification to reflect the

results of additional studies of cylindrical tubular members and to be consistent with Sec. C4 of the Specification. The following equations are now included in Sec. C6.2 of the AISI Specification and Supplement No. 1 for

determining the nominal axial strength Pn of cylindrical tubular members

having a ratio of outside diameter to wall thickness, D/t, not greater than

0.441E/Fy.1.314,1.333

Pn Fn Ae

(7.28)

Fn flexural buckling stress determined as follows:

For c 1.5,

Fn (0.658c )Fy

2

(7.29)

For c 1.5,

Fn

0.877

Fy

c2

(7.30)

where

c

Fy

e

(7.31)

7.5

421

of the Specification

Ae effective area of the cylindrical tubular member under axial compression determined as follows:1.333

Ae A0 R (A A0)

(7.32)

R Fy /2Fe 1.0

(7.33)

A0

0.037

0.667 A A

(DFy)/(tE)

(7.34)

Equations (7.28) through (7.34) can be summarized in Fig. 7.9. It can be seen

that Eq. (7.32) gives Ae Ao when c 0, and Ae A when c 2. The

latter is due to the fact that for long columns the stresses at which the column

buckles are so low that they will not cause local buckling before primary

buckling has taken place.

Consequently, for the design of axially loaded cylindrical tubular members,

the allowable axial load Pa for the ASD method is determined by Eq. (7.35):

422

Pa Pn / c

(7.35)

where c factor of safety for axial compression 1.80. For the LRFD

method, the design axial strength is cPn, in which c 0.85.

7.5.3

Bending Strength

In Art. 7.4.2, it was pointed out that for cylindrical tubular members, the

elastic local buckling stress for bending is higher than the elastic local buckling stress for axial compression. In addition, it has been recognized that for

thick cylindrical members subjected to bending, the initiation of yielding does

not represent the failure condition as is generally assumed for axial loading.

For relatively compact members with D/t 0.0714 E/Fy, the flexural strength

can reach the plastic moment capacity, which is at least 1.25 times the moment at first yielding. As far as the local buckling is concerned, the conditions

for inelastic buckling are not as severe as the case of axial compression due

to the effect of stress gradient. Based on the results of recent studies, the

following AISI design provisions for determining the nominal flexural

strength are included in Sec. C6.1 of the Supplement to the 1996 edition of

the Specification for tubular members having D/t 0.441E/Fy.1.314,1.333

1. For D/t 0.0714E/Fy:

Mn 1.25 FySf

(7.36)

Mn 0.970 0.020

(E/Fy)

FS

(D/t) y f

(7.37)

Mn [0.328E /(D/t)]Sf

(7.38)

Sf elastic section modulus of the full, unreduced cross section

The allowable bending moment, Ma, for the ASD method is determined by

using Eq. (7.39):

Ma Mn / b

(7.39)

where b factor of safety for bending 1.67. For the LRFD method, the

design flexural strength is bMn, in which b 0.95.

7.6

DESIGN EXAMPLES

423

compared with the 1980 edition of the AISI Specification, it can be shown

that the increases of the nominal moment range from about 13 to 25% according to the value of the (E/Fy)(t/D).

7.5.4

The interaction formulas presented in Chap. 6 can also be used for the design

of beam-columns using cylindrical tubular members. The nominal axial

strength and nominal flexural strength can be obtained from Arts. 7.5.2 and

7.5.3, respectively.

7.6

DESIGN EXAMPLES

Example 7.1 Use the ASD and LRFD methods to determine the design axial

strength for the cylindrical tube having a 10-in. outside diameter to be used

as an axially loaded simply supported column. Assume that the effective

424

column length is 15 ft, the yield point of steel is 33 ksi, and the thickness of

the tube is 0.105 in.

Solution

A. ASD Method. Using the AISI design criteria, the limiting D/t ratio is

D

t

0.441

lim

E

29,500

0.441

394.23

Fy

33

D

10

95.24 394.23

t

0.105

O.K.

A

(D 2o D 2i )

4

[(10.0)2 (10.0 2 0.105)2]

4

3.264 in.2

D 2o D 2i

4

(10.0)2 (10.0 2 0.105)2

3.500 in.

a.

KL 15 12

51.43

r

3.50

According to Eq. (5.56), the elastic flexural buckling stress is

Fe

2E

2(29,500)

110.08 ksi

(KL/r)2

(51.43)2

7.6

DESIGN EXAMPLES

425

c

Fy

Fe

33

0.548 1.5

110.08

2

29.10 ksi

Ac Ao R(A Ao)

where

R Fy /2Fe

33/(2 110.08) 0.150 1.0

A0

0.037

0.667 A

(D/t)(Fy /E)

O.K.

0.037

0.667 (3.264)

(95.24)(33/29,500)

3.311 in.2

Because 3.311 A 3.264 in.2, use A0 3.264 in.2 Therefore,

3.264 in.2

Pn Fn Ae

(29.10)(3.264) 94.98 kips

3. Allowable axial load, Pa . From Eq. (7.35), the allowable axial load

is

Pa Pn / c 94.98/1.80

52.77 kips

426

B. LRFD Method. For the LRFD method, the design axial strength is

cPn 0.85(94.98)

80.73 kips

Example 7.2 All data are the same as those of Example 7.1, except that the

thickness of the tube is 0.06 in.

Solution

A. ASD Method. Use the same procedure employed in Example 7.1.

D

t

0.441

lim

E

394.23

Fy

D

10

166.67 394.23

t

0.06

O.K.

A

r

1.874 in.2

4

(10.0)2 (10.0 2 0.06)2

3.51 in.

a.

KL 15 12

51.28

r

3.51

Fe

2E

2(29,500)

110.72 ksi

(KL/r)2

(51.28)2

c

33

0.546 1.5

FF 110.72

y

e

2

29.13 ksi

7.6

427

DESIGN EXAMPLES

Ae A0 R (A A0)

where R Fy /2Fe 33/(2 110.72) 0.149 1.0

A0

O.K.

0.037

0.667 (1.874) 1.622 in.2

(166.67)(33/29,500)

Ae 1.622 (0.149)(1.874 1.622) 1.660 in.2

The nominal axial strength is

Pn FnAe (29.13)(1.660) 48.36 kips

3. Allowable Axial Load, Pa . From Eq. (7.35), the allowable axial load

is

Pa Pn / c 48.36/1.80

26.87 kips

B. LRFD Method. For the LRFD method, the design axial strength is

cPn 0.85(48.36)

41.11 kips

Example 7.3 Use the ASD and LRFD methods to determine the design

flexural strength of cylindrical tubes used in Examples 7.1 and 7.2 if these

tubes are to be used as flexural members.

Solution

A. ASD Method

1. Use the data given in Example 7.1,

Fy 33 ksi

Do 10 in.

t 0.105 in.

D/t 95.24 0.441E/Fy

O.K.

428

10-in. tube having a wall thickness of 0.105 in. is

Sf

(D 4o D 4i )

D 4 D 4i

0.098175 o

32Do

Do

0.098175

(10.0)4 (9.79)4

7.99 in.3

10.0

0.0714E/Fy 0.0714(29,500)/33 63.83

0.318E/Fy 0.318(29,500)/33 284.27

Since 0.0714E/Fy (D/t 95.24) 0.318E/Fy, according to

Eq. (7.37), the nominal flexural strength is

Mn 0.970 0.020

0.970 0.020

(E/Fy)

FySf

D/t

(29,500/33)

(33)(7.99)

95.24

305.26 in.-kips

allowable design flexural strength is

Ma Mn / b

305.26

182.79 in.-kips

1.67

Fy 33 ksi

Do 10 in.

t 0.06 in.

D/t 166.67 0.441E/Fy

O.K.

10-in. tube having a wall thickness of 0.06 in. is

7.6

Sf 0.098175

DESIGN EXAMPLES

429

(10.0)4 (9.88)4

4.628 in.3

10.0

0.318E/Fy,

Mn 0.970 0.020

(29,500/33)

(33)(4.628)

166.67

164.53 in.-kips

flexural strength is

Ma Mn / b

164.53

98.52 in.-kips.

1.67

B. LRFD Method

Using the LRFD method, the design flexural strengths for the cylindrical tubes used in Examples 7.1 and 7.2 can be computed as follows:

1. For the cylindrical tube used in Example 7.1, the nominal flexural

strength computed in Item (A) above is

Mn 305.26 in.-kips

The design flexural strength is

bMn 0.95(305.26) 290.00 in.-kips

2. For the cylindrical tube used in Example 7.2, the nominal flexural

strength computed in Item (A) above is

Mn 164.53 in.-kips

The design flexural strength is

bMn 0.95(164.53) 156.30 in.-kips

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