You are on page 1of 9

CONSERVATION AND ENVIRONMENT

14

E0 or No Apparent Erosion accounts for 24% of the total


land area and occurs typically in broad alluvial
plains, minor alluvial plains, residual terraces,
plateaus, foot slope and plains which are usually
found in Region III. These areas are classified as
prime agricultural lands.

E1 or Slight Erosion includes the formation of incipient


erosion manifested by sheets, rills and tiny
incisions along trails and creeks (1 rill/100 m).
Regions IV, V and VII have more than 35% of
their respective areas under this class.

E2 or Moderate Erosion accounts for 28% of the countrys


soil erosion area or approximately 8.5 M ha are
classified as marginal lands. Dominance of rock
outcrops and 80% of parent materials exposed
with patches of thin veneer of grass and an
intensity of 74gullies/100 m distance across
slope and landslides providing special features
around steep slopes.

E3 or Severe Erosion visible on steep, hilly or mountainous


areas with slopes above 30%, commonly seen in
areas destroyed by excessive logging and
deforestation. Soil under this class is shallow and
dry attributed to scouring and destructive impact
of heavy rainfall.

Table 1.1 shows the extent of soil erosion in the Philippines. It


summarize the data based on the regions. The data shows the
total soil loss, the soil loss due to flooding, river erosion etc.

RENEL M. ALUCILJA
Student
PhD in Agricultural Engineering

DR. ROMEO B. GAVINO


Professor
AE 815. Advanced Soil and
Water Coservatioon Engineering

CONSERVATION AND ENVIRONMENT

15

Table 1.1 Extent of soi erosion in the Philippines.

Conservation practice in the Philippines to control soil erosion includes


farming practices. Few of the practices are
Sloping Agricultural Technology (SALT) developed by the
Mindanao Baptist Rural Lice Center. Basically the technology is a
packaged of soil conservation and food production, integrating soil
conservation and measures in one setting.

Fig 1.5. Sloping Agricultural Land Technology (SALT)

RENEL M. ALUCILJA
Student
PhD in Agricultural Engineering

DR. ROMEO B. GAVINO


Professor
AE 815. Advanced Soil and
Water Coservatioon Engineering

CONSERVATION AND ENVIRONMENT

16

Geotextiles. Studies are also conducted on the use of Geotextiles


in controlling soil erosion. It is found out that Rice straw mat and
rice straw net are effective in controlling soil erosion. With the
abundance of agricultural waste products such as coco coir and rice
straw, there is an opportunity to turn this waste product into an
economic importance.
Drainage
Drainage practices date back in thousand of years. Some notable
example of drainage projects are the polders in Holland and the fens in
England. Drainage is recognized as essential for permanent crops.
Drainage removes sodicity and salinity, which were deposited in time.
It also maintains the water level solving salinity. Drainage systems can
be a surface or a subsurface system.
Drainage is important in providing a root zone environment to facilitate
plant growth and optimize crop production. Drainage is synonymous to
irrigation, It is said that you cannot have a good irrigation without good
drainage. However, technologies for drainage are often neglected due
to environmental concerns. Irrigation and Drainage technology usually
entails cost not only on the establishment but as well as on the
maintenance.
Sceumann (2002) list seven good reason for drainange.
1. Drainage protect the resource base for food production. Irrigation
and Drainage significantly contributed to 60% and 40%
production of rice and wheat respectively. Reports also indicates
that 0.5 to 1.0 million hectares are lost every year for food
production due to soil deterioration caused by waterlogging and
salinity.
2. Drainage sustains and increases yields and rural incomes.
Increase in agricultural productivity increases income. The
effects of saline and waterlogged land on farm economics are
detrimental because they cause land to be removed from
production and often result in significant yield depressions.
Saline and waterlogged conditions severely limit crop choice,
diversification, and intensification, adversely affect crop
germination and yields, and can make soils difficult to work.

RENEL M. ALUCILJA
Student
PhD in Agricultural Engineering

DR. ROMEO B. GAVINO


Professor
AE 815. Advanced Soil and
Water Coservatioon Engineering

CONSERVATION AND ENVIRONMENT

17

3. Drainage protects irrigation investment. Irrigation has been the


largest recipient of public agricultural investment in the
developing world. The gross area served by irrigation increased
from 95 million hectares in 1940 to 250 million hectares in 1989
(WR1 1994).
4. Drainage infrastructure serves rural and urban residents as well
as industry. In many countries, off-farm drainage infrastructure is
also used by rural settlements, cities, and industry to dispose of
wastewater - a benefit rarely considered in planning drainage
projects.
5. Drainage protects human lives and assets against flooding and
high groundwater levels. Well-drained areas and drainage
infrastructure provide a buffer (retention area) for torrential
rainfall. Agricultural land no longer has the capacity to cope with
the high, and highly intense, rainfall. Tremendous losses of
human lives and damage to assets occur periodically through
uncontrolled floods.
6. Drainage services improve health conditions. The FAO (1997)
estimates that five million people die annually from water-related
diseases, i.e. water-related vector-borne diseases (malaria:
schistosomiasis. or bilharzasis; Guinea worm infection; lymphatic
filariasis, or elephantiasis): water-borne diseases that are of a
gastro-intestinal nature (diarrhea), caused by fecal matter, and
orally transmitted, as well as diseases related to the
transmission of pesticides and pesticide residues in drainage
water (non-communicable).
7. Drainage and protection of water quality. Irrigated agriculture
inevitably produces emissions, and in many countries agriculture
is the largest polluter of water bodies as a result of unsustainable
land management practices. Even if water is used efficiently,
irrigation uses entail a leaching fraction which contains salt.
Water quality problems increase with repeated reuse, disposal in
closed basins, and injections and percolation into deep wells,
where groundwater is contaminated.

RENEL M. ALUCILJA
Student
PhD in Agricultural Engineering

DR. ROMEO B. GAVINO


Professor
AE 815. Advanced Soil and
Water Coservatioon Engineering

CONSERVATION AND ENVIRONMENT

18

Irrigation
The introductions of sprinkler irrigations, drip irrigation combined with
other soil and water conservation practices in irrigation were adopted
by the Philippines.
The Irrigation system of the Philippines is managed by the National
Irrigation Administration (NIA). In 2014, NIA reported a total estimated
area of irrigable land of 3,019,609 hectares. This is based on the 3%
slope criteria. Of this area 56.67% is already developed or a total of
1,708,063 hectares with a remaining potential area to be developed of
1,311,546 ha.
Other Government Agencies involved in Irrigations include DA, DAR,
DENR and DOST.
The Department of Agriculture projects in Irrigation through its BSWM
includes:
Small Water Impounding Projects (SWIP)
Small Diversion Dam (SDD)
Shallow Tube Wells (STW) and
Small Farm Reservoir (SFR).
Labiano (2013) summarized the water management system in the
Philippines as follows:

Achievements in irrigation development level of 50% and


irrigated cropping intensity of 146%.
Shift in irrigation operations modality from typical (NIA as
the irrigation steward) to atypical (IAs as the irrigation
stewards) is slow so needing a strong shove.
Thrust for full rice self-sufficiency end of 2013 exemplifies the
predominance of irrigation development as an intervention to
staple food production.

Labiano also cited the Emerging Needs in Irrigation

Threat of global climate change is becoming more serious


manifested by several high casualty high-destruction torrents
and floods that already hit the country.

RENEL M. ALUCILJA
Student
PhD in Agricultural Engineering

DR. ROMEO B. GAVINO


Professor
AE 815. Advanced Soil and
Water Coservatioon Engineering

CONSERVATION AND ENVIRONMENT

19

Figure 6. Dam as part of Irrigation Project in the


Philippines

Impact of rationalization plan implementation to NIA is


structure downsizing, distinguished by the reduction in
personnel complement from 11,414 to 3,819.

Sternness in water allocation competition triggered by steady


growth and rising demands of the various society sectors,
makes water supply for agriculture diminishing.

One of the biggest irrigation project of the Philippines is the Southern


Philippines Irrigation Sector Project. The project was rated by ADB as
relevant to Design and Formulation, lees effective with respect to Achieving
the Project Outcome, less efficient in Resource Use in Achieving Outcomes
and Outputs, less like for sustainability and moderate impact to the socioeconomic of the community. Other evaluations include satisfactory in the
government for the performance as borrowers as well as the lending
institution, with an overall rating of partly successful (ADB 2013). It shows
that engineering design formulations are relevant to the needs and much of
the problem is on the implementation and on its impact to the community.
Flood Control and Water Supply
Flooding has cause thousand of lives in the Philippines for the last decade.
The current 3 major floods are one of the major flood in the whole world.
Sendong in 2011 ranks 71 claims 1268 lives, the Southern Leyte mud slide
rank 72 claims 1,144 lives and Ondor in 2009 claims 244 lives.

RENEL M. ALUCILJA
Student
PhD in Agricultural Engineering

DR. ROMEO B. GAVINO


Professor
AE 815. Advanced Soil and
Water Coservatioon Engineering

CONSERVATION AND ENVIRONMENT

20

In terms of flood Philippines rank 4th as flood prone country in Asia.


Water supply and distribution in the Philippines are undertaken by
o Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage Services
(MWSS) servicing 62.28% of Metro Manila
o the Local Water Utilities Administration (LWUA) and its
water district offices for other cities and municipalities,
servicing 58 percent of the total urban population
within its area of responsibility; and
o the departments of Interior and Local Government
(DILG) and Public Works and Highway (DPWH) and
local governments which manage community water
systems (usually involving point sources and piped
systems with communal faucets), servicing 86.85
percent of the countrys rural population.
The regulation water supply is regulated by the following agencies.
o The Department of Environment and Natural
Resources (DENR) formulates policies for the
enforcement of environmental protection and pollution
control regulations. It is primarily responsible for the
preservation of watershed areas and ensures water
quality with respect to rivers, streams and other
sources of water.
o The Department of Health (DOH) is responsible for
drinking water quality regulation and supervision of
general sanitation activities.
Conservation efforts are focused on solving the problems of
Watershed degradation, Groundwater depletion and saline intrusion
and water quality
The water supply and distribution have some area of concerns such as
o Non-systematic approach to water resources
management.
o Very low priority given to sanitation and sewerage
o Inadequate financial support to water, sanitation and
sewerage programmes
o Unreliable water supply databases

RENEL M. ALUCILJA
Student
PhD in Agricultural Engineering

DR. ROMEO B. GAVINO


Professor
AE 815. Advanced Soil and
Water Coservatioon Engineering

CONSERVATION AND ENVIRONMENT

21

o Inadequate capacity building in the water supply


sector, including operations and Maintenance
o Poor community participation and management,
especially among women in the water sanitation and
sewerage sector
Various Project Implemented by the Government aligned to Soil and
Water Conservation
1. Promotion of Water Saving Technology: AlternateWetting and
Drying (AWD) in Upper Pampanga River Integrated Irrigation
System (UPRIIS) and Groundwater Irrigation Project in Tarlac;
2. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)Technical
Cooperation Program I and II: Promotion of Water Saving
Technology;
3. Sustainable System of Irrigated Agriculture;
4. AgrikalikasanModified Rapid Composting Program;
5. National Coconut Productivity Program;
6. Hydrobiological Assessment of Lake Lanao;
7. Water Quality Monitoring Focusing on Industrial Wastewater, River
Systems and Coastlines;
8. Organicbased Agriculture Tamang Abono Project;
9. Mercury Assessment Project;
10. Site Specific Nutrient Management for Corn Areas;
11. Communitybased Watershed Management Approach in Improving
Livelihood Opportunities in Selected Areas in the Philippines;
12. Construction of Doppler Radar Project;
13. Establishment of Automatic Weather Stations (AWS);
14. Mindanao Rural Development Program (MRDP)APL II (World
Bankfunded);
15. Infrastructure for Rural Productivity Enhancement Sector (InFRES)
Asian Development Bank (ADB) funded;
16. Support to Emergency and Livelihood Assistance Program; and
17. Construction and Installation of Flood Forecasting and Early
Warning System for Maragusan, Compostela Valley.

RENEL M. ALUCILJA
Student
PhD in Agricultural Engineering

DR. ROMEO B. GAVINO


Professor
AE 815. Advanced Soil and
Water Coservatioon Engineering

CONSERVATION AND ENVIRONMENT

22

References:
ADB 2013, Philippines: Southern Philippines Irrigation Sector
Project. ADB Validation Report. December 2013
Aguinaldo, T.G. Agulto, I.C., Gavino, H.F., Javellonar, R.P., Sicat,
E.V. and Taylan, V.T. Rice Straw Geotextile As Ground Cover
For Soil Erosion Mitigation. Journal of Energy Technologies
and Policy. Vol.3, No.11, 2013
Atienza, RN., Hapdal, J. and Morga, E. Legislative and Institutional
Aspects of Soil and Water Conservation: The Philippine
Experience.\
BSWM 2010. The Updated Philippine National Action Plan to
Combat Desertification, Land Degradation and Drought
(DLDD) FY 2010-2020. January 2010
Elliot, W.J., Fangmeier, D.D., Huffman, R.L., and Workman, S.R.
Soil and Water Conservation Engineering. 7 th Edition. Pp 17.
Dayrit, H. The Philippine Formulation of Water Vision: From Vision
to Action A synthesis of Experience in Southeast Asia. The
FAO-ESACP pilot project in national water visions. Bangkok
Thailand 2001.
. FAO, ISBN:974-88406-3-8 pp 43-70
Dutta, D., Herath S. Trend of Floods in Asia and Flood Risk
Management with integrated Water Basin. January 2004.
Labiano, B.S. Agricultural Water Management Systems in the
Philippines. Current Status and Policy Directions. Food and
Fertilizer
Technology
Center.
March
4,
2014.
(url:http://www.fftc.agnet.org/files/lib_articles/
20140304162637/eb%20651.pdf)
Scheumann, W and C. Freisem. The role of drainage for sustainable
agriculture. Journal of Applied Irrigation Science, Vol. 37. No
1 /2002, pp. 33 61
Internet Sources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservation_(ethic) (retrieved October
1, 5, 2015
http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/engineer/facts/12-051.htm
http://www.fftc.agnet.org/files/ap_policy/77/77_1.pdf

RENEL M. ALUCILJA
Student
PhD in Agricultural Engineering

DR. ROMEO B. GAVINO


Professor
AE 815. Advanced Soil and
Water Coservatioon Engineering