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PIPING MATERIAL

MODULAR FABRICATION YARD


PIPING MODULE PART II

INTRODUCTION
Piping Materials can be classified as

Metals (ferrous)
: CS, SS, Alloy Steel
Metals (non-ferrous) : Cupro Nickel, Al
Non-metals
: PVC, cement, glass
Materials are selected based on their mechanical
and metallurgical properties.
Mechanical properties: strength, ductility,
hardness, brittleness, toughness
Metallurgical properties: Chemical composition,
weldability

CARBON STEEL
Low Carbon Steel

: C < 0.15%
Condenser Tubes : SA 179
Weldability : Excellent

Mild Steel

: 0.15% < C < 0.30%


Pipes : SA 106 GR B
Weldability: Good

CARBON STEEL
Medium Carbon Steel : 0.3% < C < 0.5%
Machinery Parts
Weldability: Fair
High Carbon Steel
: 0.5% < C < 1%
Dies & punch, Tools
Weldability: Poor
Steel
: Carbon < 2%
Cast Iron
: Carbon > 2%

Weldability
As Carbon % increases , weldability decreases
Effect of carbon & other elements on the weldability of
carbon steels can be estimated by equating them to an
equivalent amount of carbon.

Carbon Equivalent:
Ceq = C + Mn/6 + Cr + Mo+ V + Cu + Ni
5
15
Killed Steel
During Steel making process oxygen present is removed
by adding Silica (De oxidizing agent).

ALLOY STEEL

Addition of elements such as Cromium, Nickel,


Molybdenum, Manganese, Silicon along with heat
treatment improves the properties of steels such
as mechanical strength, corrosion resistance,
toughness

Steel is a ferrous alloy having main constituent


Iron and other alloying elements / Impurities like
Carbon, Manganese, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Silicon,
Chromium, Nickel, Molybdenum

ALLOY STEEL
Solid solubility in ferrous alloys :
Interstitial solid solution :
Carbon with Iron forms interstitial solid solution
(Carbon steel)
Substitutional solid solution :
Cromium and Nickel with iron forms Substitutional
solid solution (Stainless steel)
Low alloy steels :
Alloying elements < 5%
High alloy steels :
Alloying elements > 5%.

STAINLESS STEEL

Alloy of iron with Cromium content more than


11% and less than 30% and other alloying
elements Nickel, Molybdenum etc is called
stainless steel.
Stainless steel has excellent resistant to
corrosion.
Stainless steel becomes corrosion resistant
(passive) because of formation of un-reactive film
which adheres tightly to the surface of metal. This
can be chromium oxide (Cr2O3) film that acts as
a barrier protecting metal against corrosion.

EFFECT OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS


Chromium
Nickel

: Increases resistance to Oxidation.


: Increases resistance to mineral acid,
produces tightly adhering high temperature
oxides.
Molybdenum: Increases resistance to chloride.
Copper
: Increases resistance to sulphuric acid.
Titanium
: Stabilize carbides to prevent formation of
chromium carbide
Niobium
: Stabilize carbides to prevent formation of
chromium carbide

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THE EFFECT OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS ON THE PROPERTIES OF STEEL

Silicon
Manganese in
perlit.steels
Manganese in
austenit.steels.
Chromium
Nickel in
perlit.steels
Nickel in
austennit.steels
Aluminum
Tungsten
Vanadium
Cobalt
Molybdenum
Copper
Sulphur
Phosphorous

=Increase

=Decrease

= constant

- = not characteristic or unknown

Several arrows =more intensive effect

STAINLESS STEEL
Classification based on
1. Alloying Constituents
2. Metallurgical Microstructure
3. Degree of sensitization

STAINLESS STEEL
Alloying constituents
200 Series

: Cr. Ni - Mn group
( Mn replaces a portion of Ni)

300 Series

: Cr - Ni group

400 Series

: Straight Chromium Group


( Cr < 30%)

STAINLESS STEEL
Metallurgical microstructure.
Austenitic SS:
Alloy of Cr, Ni, Fe
Non Magnetic
High Corrosion resistance at temp up to 1500F
Hardenable by cold working
Crystallographic form-Face centered Cubic lattice
(fine grain structure)
Possess high impact strength at low temp
Ex: Type 304, 304L,316,316L

STAINLESS STEEL
Ferritic SS:
Alloy of Cr, Fe
Magnetic
Non Hardenable by heat treatment
Crystallographic form- Body centered cubic lattice
(coarse grain structure)
For marine application. (10.5% Cr alloy with no nickel)
Contains high carbon, therefore brittle & relatively poor
corrosion resistance
Has resistance to chlorides stress corrosion cracking
Ex: Type 409, 430, 439

STAINLESS STEEL
Martensitic SS.
High hardness (carbon added to the alloy)
Corrosion resistant
Heat treatable to high hardness level
Crystallographic form-distorted lattice
Type 410,420.

STAINLESS STEEL
Precipitation Hardened SS
Magnetic
Heat treatable to high strength.
Weldable and corrosion resistant similar to type
304
Ex:-17-7PH, 17-4PH

STAINLESS STEEL
Duplex SS

Contain both Austenite & Ferrite in microstructure. Ni (4 to


7%).
When ferrite- Resistant to chloride stress corrosion cracking.
When Austenite-Sensation to chloride stress corrosion
cracking.
High strength, Good corrosion resistance
Ex: Alloy 2205, Alloy 255

STAINLESS STEEL
3. Degree of sensitization of grain boundaries
GROUP 1
SS grade 304,316,309,310.
They are susceptible to sensitization.
(During welding, flame cutting)

STAINLESS STEEL
GROUP 2
Stabilized stainless steel type 321 &347
Grain boundaries sensitization eliminated by alloying
elements like Titanium or Columbium. (Because
Titanium or Columbium forms carbides first).
Columbium (Type 347) is stronger stabilizing agent than
Ti (Type 321), Hence Type 347 is superior to 321

STAINLESS STEEL
GROUP 3
Extra low carbon stainless steel Type 304L, 316L
Can be stress relieved, welded & cooled slowly without
significantly increasing their susceptibility to IGC.

PROPERTIES OF STAINLESS STEEL ALLOYS

ALLOYS

UNS NO

UTS
(PSI)

YS
( PSI)

Elongation
(%) min

MODULUS
OF
HARDNESS
ELASTICITY

1) Austenitic SS
Type 304
Type 304L
Type 316
Type 316 L

S
S
S
S

30,400
30,403
31,600
31,603

75,000
70,000
75,000
70,000

30,000
25,000
30,000
25,000

30
35
30
35

29,000,000
29,000,000
28,000,000
28,000,000

80 RB
75 RB
80 RB
75 RB

2) Ferritic SS
Type 430
Type 439
Type 409

S 43,000
S 43,035
S 40,900

60,000
60,000
55,000

30,000
30,000
30,000

20
20
20

29,000,000
29,000,000
29,000,000

85 RB
90 RB
85 RB

3) Duplex SS
Alloy 2205
70 Mo Plus
Alloy 255

S 31,805
S 32,950
S 32,550

90,000
90,000
1,10,000

65,000
70,000
80,000

25
20
15

29,000,000
29,000,000
30,500,000

30 RC
30 RC
32 RC

4) Martensitic SS
Type 410
Type 420
Type 440L

S 41,000
S 42,000
S 44,050

1,90,000 1,50,000
2,40,000 2,00,000
2,80,000 2,70,000

15
5
2

29,000,000
29,000,000
29,000,000

41 RC
55 RC
60 RC

5) Precipitatim SS
17.7 PH
17.4 PH
Custom 455

S 17,700
S 17,400
S 45,500

2,10,000 1,90,000
1,90,000 1,70,000
2,30,000 2,20,000

5
8
10

32,500,000
28,000,000
29,000,000

48 RC
45 RC
48 RC

ASTM / ASME Nomenclature

Materials are listed based on their known chemical


composition, manufacturing processes, mechanical
strength etc, in different codes i.e,ASTM, ASME, DIN,
MSS etc, and common UNS number
ASTM Standard gives various details of materials like
manufacturing process, Grades, Chemical Composition,
and Mechanical Properties.
ASME Code accepts the ASTM materials with some
additional specified properties.

ASTM / ASME Nomenclature


SA 312 TP 304
S
: ASME approved Material
A
: Ferrous
312
: Manufacturing Process No.
TP
: Tubular Product
304
: Grade
SA 234 GR WPB
S
: ASME approved Material
A
: Ferrous
234
: Manufacturing Process No.
GR
: Grade.
WP
: Wrought Product
B
: Grade

ASTM / ASME Nomenclature

SA 350 LF 2

: Low Temperature Forging Grade 2

SA 216 WCB: Weldable Casting Grade B

SA 335 P 11

: Pipe Grade 11

SA 182 Gr F11

: Forging Grade 11

SA 351 Gr CF 8

: Centrifugal Cast, Carbon % - 0.08%

SA 351 Gr CF 3

: Centrifugal Cast, Carbon % - 0.03%

SA 351 Gr CF 8M

: Centrifugal Cast, Carbon % - 0.08%, Mo

SA 351 Gr CF 3M

: Centrifugal Cast, Carbon % - 0.03%, Mo

CORROSION

Corrosion is the tendency of any metal to return to its most


stable thermodynamic state i.e. state with most negative
free energy formation. . More simply stated, it is a chemical
reaction of metal with environment to form an oxide,
carbonate, sulphate or other stable compound.

Corrosion is broadly classified into two categories:


Low temperature corrosion (corrosion at room
temperature and below)
High temperature corrosion (corrosion at elevated
temperature including molten metal.)

CORROSION
Classification :

General or uniform corrosion.


Localized Corrosion

Inter granular corrosion (IGC)


Pitting corrosion
crevice corrosion
Stress corrosion cracking
Micro biological influenced corrosion.

INTER GRANULAR CORROSION

During Welding:- ( at Temp. 800-1600 F ), Carbon


molecules diffuse to grain boundary & precipitate
out of solid solution as chromium carbide at the
grain boundaries. This result in the depletion of
chromium content in the thin envelope
surrounding each grain, Hence Stainless Steel
becomes susceptible to Inter Granular Corrosion
& is said to be sensitized.
Corrosion property of sensitized steel can be
restored by desensitization i.e. heat above 1600
F, & rapid cooling.
Testing Standard: IGC Practice A/B/C/D/E

SULPHIDE STRESS CORROSION CRACKING

A cracking process that requires simultaneous


action of corrodant and sustained tensile stress.
Testing Standard: NACE TM- 01/77
Reporting of test result: Curve shall be reported as
per NACE-TM-01-77 for various stress level
between 72%and 90% of SMYS.
Acceptance Criteria: At 72 % SMYS, time of failure
shall not be less than 720 hrs.

HYDROGEN INDUCED CRACKING

Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) is also known as cold


cracking, delayed cracking or under bead cracking
HIC occurs in piping or vessel as a result of hydrogen pick
up in service
It occurs in steels during steel manufacturing, during
fabrication, and in service. It occurs as a result of welding,
the cracks are sited either in HAZ of parent material or in
the weld metal it self.
Testing Standard: NACE TM- 02/84

NACE
NACE: National Association of Corrosion Engineers
NACE Standard gives chemical composition, Manufacture, Fabrication
& testing Requirements for Steels intended to be used for Sour
Service environment
Sour service Requirements
Steel shall be manufactured by Basic Oxygen Process or Electric arc
furnace
Steel to be Killed & fine grained
Materials shall be in Normalized Condition
Nickel % limited to < 1%
Carbon content< 0 .23%
Carbon Equivalent < 0.43%
Hardness < 22 HRC
Sulpher content< 0.002%

Material Selection Criteria


Service media

Corrosive-sea water, H2S, Ammonia


Non Corrosive

Temperature

Cryogenic
Low temperature
Medium temperature
High temperature

Pressure

Low pressure
High pressure

Standard

Material specification
Additional requirements

Economy

Cost
Availability
Weldability
Manufacturability

Material Selection for Temperature


SERVICE
TEMPERATURE (F)

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PLATE

PIPE

FORGING

SA 240 types
304, 304L, 347

SA 312 types
304,304L, 347

SA 182 grades
F304,
F304L,
F347

SA 240 types 304,


340L, 316, 316L
SA 353

SA 312 types
304, 304L, 316,
316L

SA 182 grades
F304,
F304L,
F316

(-425) (-321)

(-320) (-151)

PRESSURE
BOLTING

Bolts: SA 320 gr. B8


strain. Hardened
Nuts: SA 194 gr.8
(S5 SA 20)

Material Selection for Temperature (Continued)


SERVICE
TEMPERATURE (F)

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PLATE

PIPE

FORGING

(-150) (-76)

SA 203 GR.D OR E

SA 333 GR.3

SA 350 GR.
LF3

(-75) (-51)

SA 203 GR.A OR B

SA 333 GR.3

SA 350 GR.
LF3

(-50) (-21)

SA 516 ALL GRADES


IMPACT TESTED

SA 333 GR.1

(-20) (+4)

SA 516 ALL GRADES


OVER 1 IN. THICK
IMPACT TESTED

(+5) (+32)

SA 516 ALL GRADES


OVER 1 IN. THICK
IMPACT TESTED

SA 53
(SEAMLESS) OR
SA 106

SA 350 GR.
LF1 OR LF2

PRESSURE
BOLTING

BOLTS: SA 320
GR.L7
NUTS: SA 194
GR.4

BOLTS: SA 193
GR.B7
NUTS: SA 194
GR.2H

Material Selection for Temperature (Continued)


SERVICE
TEMPERATURE (F)

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(+33) (+60)

(+61) (+775)

PLATE

PIPE

FORGING

SA 53 (SEAM
LESS) OR SA
106

SA 181 GR.I
OR II
SA 105 GR.I
OR 11

PRESSURE
BOLTING

SA 285 GR.C, IN.


THK. MAX.
SA 515 GR.55, 60, 65,
1.5IN. THK. MAX.
SA
516
ALL
GRADES, ALL THK.

SA 285 GR.C, IN.


THK. MAX.
SA 515 GR.55, 60, 65,
1.5IN. THK. MAX.
SA
516
ALL
GRADES, ALL THK.
SA 204 GR.B ALL

Bolts: SA 193 gr.


B7
Nuts: SA 194 gr.
2H

Material Selection for Temperature (Continued)


SERVICE
TEMPERATURE (F)
(+776) (+875)
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PLATE

PIPE

SA 204 GR.B OR C

SA 335 GR.P1

(+876) (+1000)

SA 387 GR.11 CL1


SA 387 GR.12 CL.1

SA 335 P11
SA 335 P12

(+1000) (+1100)

SA 387 GR.22 CL1

SA 335 P22

FORGING
SA 182 GR.F1

SA 182 GR.
F11
SA 182 GR.
F12

SA 182 GR.22

(+1100) (+1500)

ABOVE +1500

SA 240 TYPES 304,


316,
321,
347,
347PREFERED

TYPE
STAINLESS
INCOLOY

310

SA 312 TYPES
304H, 316H, 312,
347H

PRESSURE
BOLTING

SA 182
GRADES
304H, 316H,
321H, 347H

BOLTS: SA 193
GR.L7
NUTS: SA 194
GR.2H

SA 193 GR.B5
SA 194 GR.3

SA 193 GR.B8
SA 194 GR.8

GROUPING OF MATERIALS
Base Metal
P1
P3, P4,P5
P6, P7
P8
P9
P10, P11

Type
: Carbon Steel
: Alloy Steel
: Ferritic & Martensitic Steel
: Austenitic Stainless Steel
: Nickel Steel
: Quenched & Tempered Steel

MATERIAL AND ITS SPECIFICATIONS


DESCRIPTION

CS

AS

SS

DSS

PIPE

A 106 GR B

A 335 GR P11

A 312 TP 316

A 790 UNS S31803

BW FITTINGS

A 234 GR WPB

A 234 GR WP 11

A 403 WP 316

A 815 UNS S 31803

FORGED
FLANGES/
FITTINGS
FASTNERS

A 105

A 182 GR F11

A 182 GR F 316

A 182 GR F 51
UNS S 31803

A 193 GR B7/
A 194 GR 2H

A 193 GR B16/
A 194 GR 2H

A 193 GR B7M/
A 194 GR 2HM

A 453 GR 660 CL A

A 516 GR 70

A 387 GR 11

A 240 GR 316

A 240 UNS S 31803

PLATES

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