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CHE150-1L Chemical Engineering Laboratory

4th Quarter SY 2015-2016

FLUID FLOW REGIMES (Reynolds Number Apparatus)


Fumera, Joenel O1
1

Student, ChE150-1L/B41, School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Mapa Institute of Technology

ABSTRACT
This experiment is mainly focused in the determination of the fluid flow regime with the aid of Reynolds
number apparatus and the dye as the indicator of which the fluid patterns are to be considered smooth,
unstable or partly smooth/partly unstable. As water flows inside the glass tube and completely filled the tube,
and average velocity of the fluid was calculated from the volumetric flow rate, which is measured by
collecting flow in a 1L beaker during a measured time interval (10s). After gathering all the essential data, a
plot of Reynolds number against volumetric flow rate was generated and discussed.
Generally, this experiment aims to relate the observed flow pattern with that of the calculated Reynolds
number.
Keywords:

1. INTRODUCTION

produced a rational means of predicting the nature of


flow. Reynolds showed that the behavior depends on

When a fluid flows next to a solid boundary the nature

the balance between inertia and viscous forces in the

of the flow depends on the velocity relative to that

fluid. This led to the definition of a non-dimensional

boundary. At low velocities the layers of fluid move

parameter, now called Reynolds Number, which

smoothly over one another and this is termed laminar

expresses the ratio of inertial resistance to viscous

flow also known as streamline flow or _____. However,

forces and can be used to identify the condition under

as the velocity is increased small disturbances cause

which the flow changes from laminar to turbulent.

eddies which mix-up the layers of fluid and produces


a different pattern of flow, which is termed turbulent
flow. This changed has a marked effect on the forces
acting between the fluid and the solid boundary and an
understanding of the behavior is of fundamental
importance in the study of fluid mechanics.
When fluid flows along a pipe the nature of the flow
determines the pressure loss and hence the power
required to pump the fluid along the pipe. [2]
British Physicist named Osborne Reynolds first

The dimensionless parameter can be expressed


mathematically as:

N =

Du

----- (1)

where: D inside diameter of the pipe/tube


u- the average velocity of the fluid

the density of the fluid


the viscosity of the fluid

identified the variables controlling the flow and

Experiment 01 Group No. 2 May 3, 2016

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CHE150-1L Chemical Engineering Laboratory


4th Quarter SY 2015-2016

Courses through tubes or pipes are imperative and basic

2. METHODOLOGY

utilizations of fluid mechanics. There are two


administrations of stream in funnels. In laminar stream,
liquid streams in smooth lamina or layers, and there is
no plainly visible blending. Laminar streams happen at
low speeds and in little tubes.

In this experiment, the dimensionless parameter called


the Reynolds number will be determined through the
use of Reynolds number apparatus and also the
determination of fluid flow regime was facilitated.
Figure 1 shows the picture of the Reynolds number

Turbulent stream is all the more generally experienced

apparatus.

in building frameworks. Irregular, high-recurrence


vacillations are superimposed on the fundamental
stream. These produce naturally visible blending of
liquid from nearby layers. Shear hassles and divider
rubbing are expanded by the upgraded energy move in
turbulent stream.

Before

indulging

ourselves

in

performing

the

experiment, we educate ourselves first by reviewing the


procedures written in the manual and also wearing the
appropriate attire when in contact with the apparatus
and the different reagents in the pilot plant to avoid
accidents. Other than the Reynolds number apparatus,

By experiment, it was found that the change always

we also utilized the 1L beaker this served as the

occurred at a similar value of Reynolds number

container of the discharged fluid of the apparatus, stop

irrespective of the fluid and the size of pipe. The

watch, thermometer, for the determination of the

Reynolds number and Transitional flow demonstrates

temperature of the discharged fluid in the 1L beaker

the kind of experiment conducted to show the

(The density and viscosity of the fluid were evaluated at

dependence of flow on Reynolds number. The

this temperature) and dye.

apparatus enables the nature of the flow in a pipe to be


studied by observing the behavior of a filament of dye

Experimentation

injected into the fluid. The flow rate can be varied and
the change, or transition, between laminar and

The first thing that we did was we made sure that the

turbulent flow can be clearly demonstrated. [1]

dye supplies were enough throughout the experiment


and the water from the supply doesnt have any conflict

Through the experiment, the ways on how to use the

flowing inside the Reynolds number apparatus. Instead

Reynolds number apparatus will be familiarized.

of us measuring the inside diameter of the smaller glass

Moreover, the main purpose of the experiment is to

tube, the lab assistant provided it for us. This is one of

relate the observed flow pattern with that of the

the values that will be used in the determination of the

calculated Reynolds number.

dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds number.


Then, the water from the supply filled completely the
glass tube of the apparatus, and the discharge valve had
been opened slightly allowing enough water to flow out
of the glass tube. After which, the valve that

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CHE150-1L Chemical Engineering Laboratory


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corresponds to the dye was opened and maintained until

c. Transition region. (retrieved from:

a smooth and distinct line was obtained. Subsequently,

www.insaat.anadolu.edu.tr)

the temperature of the water in the 1L beaker was


measured and recorded. The observation of the flow
behavior of the dye in the water was also recorded for a
comparison and justification of results will be
conducted at the end of the experiment. Next, using
stopwatch, water from the discharge valve was
collected in a 1L beaker for 10 seconds and the volume
was approximated. From the gathered data, the
volumetric flow rate was calculated. The formula is as
follows:

volume of water
Q=
time
--- (2)
Successively, we computed the Reynolds number and
assessed with it the observed fluid flow regime of the
dye in water. Four more trials were performed but this
time there was an increase in the opening of the
discharge valve per trial and try to achieve all three
different types of Fluid flow regimes.

3.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Fig. 2. The three types of Fluid Flow Regimes


that can be depicted in the Reynolds number
apparatus. a. laminar flow, b. turbulent flow,
PROPERTIES OF WATER:

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CHE150-1L Chemical Engineering Laboratory


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Density = 995.28 kg/m3

Temperature = 34C

Viscosity = 0.743 cP

CHARACTERISTIC OF PIPE:
Cross-Sectional Area = 0.0003441 m2

Inside Diameter = 0.02093 m

Table 1: Data gathered per trial of the experiment

Trial
u (m/s)
Q
(m3/s)
1
2
3

0.000024
0.000025
0.0000425

0.06975
0.07265
0.12351

4
5

0.0000548
0.000055

0.15926
0.15984

NRE

Flow Pattern

Type of Flow

1955.55
2036.86
3462.8

Smooth
Smooth
Smooth or

Laminar
Laminar
Transition

unstable
4465.11
Unstable
Turbulent
4481.37
Unstable
Turbulent
It is depicted in figure 3 that as the volumetric of the

From table 1 shows the review of the gathered data of

water flowing inside the glass tube of the apparatus

the experiment. Every sample of water from the

increased, the Reynolds number computed also

discharge valve was collected in the 1L beaker at an

increased. Meaning the higher the volume discharge per

interval of 10 seconds and the Reynolds number was

10 seconds the more disorder and unstable the fluid

calculated using equation. In this experiment, volume

pattern is thus presence of eddies of swirls can be seen

of the water from the discharge valve was monitored as

and state.

well as the temperature of the water for the evaluation


of its properties.

Numerous factors are important in the process of


transition from laminar to turbulent flow in a pipe,

Based on the findings, the Reynolds number computed

including the flow speed, pipe diameter, fluid density,

converged with the observed fluid pattern during the

fluid viscosity, inlet conditions, pipe roughness and

conduction of the experiment. And all of the three fluid

system vibrations.

flow regimes were achieved.


Figure 2 shows the plot of the volumetric flow rate

For a given fluid, the pipe diameter, fluid properties,

versus the computed Reynolds number.

inlet conditions and pipe roughness are fixed. This


leaves flow speed and system vibrations under the
control of the person performing the experiment.
Sources of Error

5000

Errors such as calculation errors and Human error in

4000
3000
2000
1000

Volumetric
flow rate

reading the exact temperature of the water and also

Nre

seconds made somehow a small flaw in the computed

failing to close the discharge valve at exactly 10


Reynolds number. We also consider the machines

0
1

Fig. 3. Volumetric flow rate vs NRE

Experiment 01 Group No. 2 May 3, 2016

effectiveness;

because

of

it

being

antique

performance reduce as the time passes by.

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4th Quarter SY 2015-2016

[2] Dr. Ismil Haltas ( April 7, 2015). Reynolds Number


4.

CONCLUSION

and Transitional Flow.


[3]

The objectives were successfully achieved thought the


conduction of the experiment. The determination of the
dimensionless parameter which is the ratio of inertia to
that of viscous forces called the Reynolds number was
computed and compared to that of the observed fluid
pattern in the Reynolds number apparatus. Fluid Flow
Regime has 3 types namely Laminar, Turbulent and
Transition region flow. When the fluid flow in the glass
tube with the aid of the dye is smooth and distinct it is
said to be in Laminar flow (NRE <2100), but when the
fluid pattern is erratic and unstable we coin our flow to
be Turbulent (NRE>4000). Between Laminar and
Turbulent arises this so called Transition region flow
(2100<NRE<4000) where the flow pattern is either
laminar (smooth/distinct) or turbulent (unstable/erratic).
From table 1 and figure 3, it can be established that the
Reynolds number is directly proportional to the
volumetric flow rate of the water from the discharge
valve. Parameters such as viscosity and density of water
depend strongly on temperature which can be evaluated
using ChE Handbook by Green and Perry (8th Ed).
It can be commended that inner diameter of the glass
tube must be known. Other than that, the temperature of
the water, the volume of water collected per 10 seconds
must be fabricated in order to attain a viable result.

COMPUTATIONS

Also, care must be implemented during opening of the


discharge valve to make accurate findings.

Properties of water at T = 34C


Inside Diameter of the pipe = 0.02093 m

5.

REFERENCES

[1] John, C., & Geankoplis. Principles of Transport


processes and Separation Processes.

Experiment 01 Group No. 2 May 3, 2016

Cross-sectional Area of the pipe = 0.0003441 m2


(kg/m3)
996.4
X

(kg/m-s)
0.00860
X

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37.8

994.7

Q=0.000025
s

-By Interpolation-

a. Solving for Density of Water

T 2T
2
=
T 2T 1 2 1

Solving for the Average velocity (fluid)

u=

37.834
996.4
=
37.826.7 996.4994.7

Q
A
3

=995.28

kg
3
m

m
s
u=
2
0.0003441 m
0.000025

b. Solving for viscosity of Water

u=0.07265

T 2T
2
=
T 2T 1 2 1
37.834
0.00860
=
37.826.7 0.008600.00682
=0.000743

Solving for Reynolds Number

N =

kg
ms

volume of water
Q=
time

Q=

250 mL(

Du

m
kg
)( 995.28 3 )
s
m
kg
0.000743
ms

(0.02093 m)(0.07265
N =

Computing for Volumetric Flow rate

m
s

N =2036.86

1L
1 m3
)(
)
1000 mL 1000 L
10 s

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