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Fumera, Joenel O1

1

Student, ChE150-1L/B41, School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Mapa Institute of Technology

ABSTRACT

This experiment is mainly focused in the determination of the fluid flow regime with the aid of Reynolds

number apparatus and the dye as the indicator of which the fluid patterns are to be considered smooth,

unstable or partly smooth/partly unstable. As water flows inside the glass tube and completely filled the tube,

and average velocity of the fluid was calculated from the volumetric flow rate, which is measured by

collecting flow in a 1L beaker during a measured time interval (10s). After gathering all the essential data, a

plot of Reynolds number against volumetric flow rate was generated and discussed.

Generally, this experiment aims to relate the observed flow pattern with that of the calculated Reynolds

number.

Keywords:

1. INTRODUCTION

flow. Reynolds showed that the behavior depends on

a different pattern of flow, which is termed turbulent

flow. This changed has a marked effect on the forces

acting between the fluid and the solid boundary and an

understanding of the behavior is of fundamental

importance in the study of fluid mechanics.

When fluid flows along a pipe the nature of the flow

determines the pressure loss and hence the power

required to pump the fluid along the pipe. [2]

British Physicist named Osborne Reynolds first

mathematically as:

N =

Du

----- (1)

u- the average velocity of the fluid

the viscosity of the fluid

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4th Quarter SY 2015-2016

2. METHODOLOGY

administrations of stream in funnels. In laminar stream,

liquid streams in smooth lamina or layers, and there is

no plainly visible blending. Laminar streams happen at

low speeds and in little tubes.

the Reynolds number will be determined through the

use of Reynolds number apparatus and also the

determination of fluid flow regime was facilitated.

Figure 1 shows the picture of the Reynolds number

apparatus.

vacillations are superimposed on the fundamental

stream. These produce naturally visible blending of

liquid from nearby layers. Shear hassles and divider

rubbing are expanded by the upgraded energy move in

turbulent stream.

Before

indulging

ourselves

in

performing

the

procedures written in the manual and also wearing the

appropriate attire when in contact with the apparatus

and the different reagents in the pilot plant to avoid

accidents. Other than the Reynolds number apparatus,

studied by observing the behavior of a filament of dye

Experimentation

injected into the fluid. The flow rate can be varied and

the change, or transition, between laminar and

The first thing that we did was we made sure that the

and the water from the supply doesnt have any conflict

Then, the water from the supply filled completely the

glass tube of the apparatus, and the discharge valve had

been opened slightly allowing enough water to flow out

of the glass tube. After which, the valve that

2 of 6

4th Quarter SY 2015-2016

www.insaat.anadolu.edu.tr)

measured and recorded. The observation of the flow

behavior of the dye in the water was also recorded for a

comparison and justification of results will be

conducted at the end of the experiment. Next, using

stopwatch, water from the discharge valve was

collected in a 1L beaker for 10 seconds and the volume

was approximated. From the gathered data, the

volumetric flow rate was calculated. The formula is as

follows:

volume of water

Q=

time

--- (2)

Successively, we computed the Reynolds number and

assessed with it the observed fluid flow regime of the

dye in water. Four more trials were performed but this

time there was an increase in the opening of the

discharge valve per trial and try to achieve all three

different types of Fluid flow regimes.

3.

that can be depicted in the Reynolds number

apparatus. a. laminar flow, b. turbulent flow,

PROPERTIES OF WATER:

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4th Quarter SY 2015-2016

Temperature = 34C

Viscosity = 0.743 cP

CHARACTERISTIC OF PIPE:

Cross-Sectional Area = 0.0003441 m2

Trial

u (m/s)

Q

(m3/s)

1

2

3

0.000024

0.000025

0.0000425

0.06975

0.07265

0.12351

4

5

0.0000548

0.000055

0.15926

0.15984

NRE

Flow Pattern

Type of Flow

1955.55

2036.86

3462.8

Smooth

Smooth

Smooth or

Laminar

Laminar

Transition

unstable

4465.11

Unstable

Turbulent

4481.37

Unstable

Turbulent

It is depicted in figure 3 that as the volumetric of the

and state.

of its properties.

transition from laminar to turbulent flow in a pipe,

system vibrations.

Figure 2 shows the plot of the volumetric flow rate

leaves flow speed and system vibrations under the

control of the person performing the experiment.

Sources of Error

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

Volumetric

flow rate

Nre

Reynolds number. We also consider the machines

0

1

effectiveness;

because

of

it

being

antique

4 of 6

its

4th Quarter SY 2015-2016

4.

CONCLUSION

[3]

conduction of the experiment. The determination of the

dimensionless parameter which is the ratio of inertia to

that of viscous forces called the Reynolds number was

computed and compared to that of the observed fluid

pattern in the Reynolds number apparatus. Fluid Flow

Regime has 3 types namely Laminar, Turbulent and

Transition region flow. When the fluid flow in the glass

tube with the aid of the dye is smooth and distinct it is

said to be in Laminar flow (NRE <2100), but when the

fluid pattern is erratic and unstable we coin our flow to

be Turbulent (NRE>4000). Between Laminar and

Turbulent arises this so called Transition region flow

(2100<NRE<4000) where the flow pattern is either

laminar (smooth/distinct) or turbulent (unstable/erratic).

From table 1 and figure 3, it can be established that the

Reynolds number is directly proportional to the

volumetric flow rate of the water from the discharge

valve. Parameters such as viscosity and density of water

depend strongly on temperature which can be evaluated

using ChE Handbook by Green and Perry (8th Ed).

It can be commended that inner diameter of the glass

tube must be known. Other than that, the temperature of

the water, the volume of water collected per 10 seconds

must be fabricated in order to attain a viable result.

COMPUTATIONS

discharge valve to make accurate findings.

Inside Diameter of the pipe = 0.02093 m

5.

REFERENCES

processes and Separation Processes.

(kg/m3)

996.4

X

(kg/m-s)

0.00860

X

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4th Quarter SY 2015-2016

37.8

994.7

Q=0.000025

s

-By Interpolation-

T 2T

2

=

T 2T 1 2 1

u=

37.834

996.4

=

37.826.7 996.4994.7

Q

A

3

=995.28

kg

3

m

m

s

u=

2

0.0003441 m

0.000025

u=0.07265

T 2T

2

=

T 2T 1 2 1

37.834

0.00860

=

37.826.7 0.008600.00682

=0.000743

N =

kg

ms

volume of water

Q=

time

Q=

250 mL(

Du

m

kg

)( 995.28 3 )

s

m

kg

0.000743

ms

(0.02093 m)(0.07265

N =

m

s

N =2036.86

1L

1 m3

)(

)

1000 mL 1000 L

10 s

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