Handbook
D O N A L D BEEMAN, Editor
Manager, Industriaf P w e r Engineering
Industrial Engineering Seclwn
General Electric Company, Schenectady, New Yorlc
FIRST EDITION
Shortcircuitcurrent Calculating
Procedures
capacity of t,he power source. The larger the apparatus which supplies
electric power t o the system, the greater the shortcircuit current will be.
Take a simple case: A 440volt threephase lolip motor draws about
13 amp of current a t full load and will draw only this amount whether
supplied by a 25kva or a 2500kva transformer bank. So, if only thc
load currcnts arc considered when selecting motor branch circuit break
ers, a 15 or 20amp circnit, breaker wnuld he specified. However, the
size of t,he power system back of the circuit breaker has a real bearing on
the amount of the short,circuit,current. which can flow as a result of a
short circuit on the load side of the circuit breaker. Hence, a much
larger circuit breaker would be required to handle the shortcircuit current
from a 2500kva bank than from a 25kva bank of transformers.
A simple mathematical example is shown in Fig. 1.1. These numbers
MOTOR LOAD
El IOOV
100 A
CURRENT
5 AMP
~ ~ 1 0O.HM
1S
APPARENT
IMPEDANCE
20 OHMS
MOTOR LOAD
CURRENT
I000 A 5 AMP
2 1 = 0.01 OHMS
FIG. 1.1 Illustrotion showing that copocity of power source has more effect on rhort
circuitcurrent magnitude than load.
SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 3
All these can feed shorecircuit current into a short circuit (Fig. 1.3).
Generators are driven by turbines, diesel engines, water wheels, or
other types of prime movers. When a short circuit occurs on the circuit
fed by a generatar, the generator continues t o produce voltage because the
field excitation is maintained and the prime mover drives the generator
at substantially normal speed. The generated voltage produces a short
circuit current of a large magnitude which flows from the generator (or
generators) to the short circuit. This flow of shortcircuit current is
limited only by the impedance of the generator and of the circuit between
the generator and the short circuit. For a short circuit a t the terminals
of the generator, the current from the generator is limited only by its own
impedance.
FIG. 1.2 Normal load and shortcircuit currents are analogous to the conditions shown in
the hydroelectric plant.
SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT ULCULATlNG PROCEDURES 5
SHORT CIRCUIT
CURRENT FROM
INDUCTION
MOTOR
FIG. 1.3 Generators, synchronous motors, and induction motors all produce shortcircuit
current.
SYNCHRONOUS
MOTOR
€t
, \
SHORT CIRCUIT
CURRENT FROM
MOTOR
. ... .
SYSTEM

SYNCMOYOUS '
Yoroll
.
. . 1.._
FIG ,.__ ..,. l.r o.
5 IBmlowl c..o
e f. 0s
. ..
SHORT'. I cillogrclm of shortcircuit current
CIRCUIT produced by a synchronous
motor
The inertia of the load and rotor of an induction motor has exactly the
same effect on an induction motor as on a synchronous motor; i.e., it
drives the motor after the system short circuit occurs. There is one
major difference. The induction motor has no dc field winding, but
there is a flux in the induction motor during normal operation. This flux
acts like flux produced by the dc field winding in the synchronous motor.
The field of the induction motor is produced by induction from the
stator rather than from the dc winding. The rotor flux remains normal
as long as voltage is applied to the stator from an external source. How
ever, if the external source of voltage is removed suddenly, as it is when a
short circuit occurs on the system, the flux in the rotor cannot change
instantly. Since the rotor flux cannot decay instantly and the inertia
drives the induction motor, a voltage is generated in the stator winding
causing a shortcircuit current to flow to the short circuit until the rotor
flux decays to zero. To illustrate the shortcircuit current from an
induction motor in a practical case, oscillograms were taken on a wound
rotor induction motor rated 150 hp, 440 volts, 60 cycles, three phase, ten
poles, 720 rpm. The external rotor resistance was shortcircuited in each
case, in order that the effect might he similar to that which would he
obtained with a lowresistance squirrelcage induction motor.
Figure 1.6 shows the primary current when the machine is initially
running light and a solid threephase short circuit is applied a t a point in
the circuit close to its input (stator) terminals a t time TI. The current
shown is measured on the motor side of the short circuit; so the short
circuit current contribution from the source of power does not appear, but
only that contributed by the motor. Similar tests made with the machine
initially running a t full load show that the shortcircuit current produced
T.
TRANSFORMERS
ROTATINGMACHINE REACTANCE
CURRENT DETERMINED
BY SYNCHRONOUS
OF TOTAL OSCILLOGRAM
OCCURS AT ONLY TWO ENDS SHOWN
THIS TIME.
HERE. THIS REPRESENTS
THE BREAK BETWEEN
THE TWO PARTS.
TIME
(8)
FIG 1.8 Variation of generotor shortcircuit current wilh time.
These terms are used to describe the symmetry of the ac waves about
the zero axis. If the envelopes of the peaks of the current waves are
symmetrical about the zero axis, the current is called symmetrical current
(Figs. 1.9 and 1.10). If the envelopes of the peaks of the current waves
are not symmetrical about the zero axis, the current is called asymmetrical
ENVEWPES OF PEAKS
OF SINE WAVE ARE
SYMMETRIGAL ABOUT
THE ZERO AXIS.
ZERO
AXIS
ZERO AXIS
AX1 S
TOTALLY 0 F F SET
PARTIALLY O F F S E l
FIG. 1.11 Asymmetrical (Ic waver. The conditions shown here ore theoreticol a n d ore
for the purpose of illustration only. DC component will r a p i d l y d e c a y to zero i n a c t u a l
circuits.
current (Fig. 1.11). The envelope is a line drawn through the peaks of
the waves, as shown in Figs. 1.9 to 1.12.
For the sake of explanation, many of the illustrations, such as Figs.
1.11, 1.15 to 1.19, show sine waves of current uniformly offset for several
cycles. It should be noted that in practical circuits the amount of asym
metry decreases rapidly after the occurrence of the short circuit in the
system. This decrease of asymmetry is shown qualitatively in illustra
tions such as Figs. 1.12, 1.20, 1.23, and 1.24.
Oscillograms show that shortcircuit currents are nearly always asym
metrical during the first few cycles after the short circuit occurs. They
also show that the asymmetry is maximum at the instant the short circuit
occurs and that the current gradually becomes symmetrical a few cycles
after the occurrence of the short circuit. The trace of an oscillogram of a
typical shortcircuit current is shown in Fig. 1.12.
GENERATOR TRANSFORMER
REACTANCE, X = 19%
RESISTANCE. R = 1.4%
I
RESISTANCE I S LESS THAN OF THE REACTANCE HENCE MAY
BE NEGLECTED WITHOUT AN APPRECIABLE ERROR
 NEARLY 90'
DIAGRAM
SHOWING
SINE WAVES
CORRESPONDING
TO VECTOR
DIAGRAM
FOR ABOVE
CIRCUIT
FIG. 1.13 Diagrams Illustrating the phase relations of voltage and shortcircuit current.
14 SHORTCIRCUllCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES
GENERATED VOLTAGE
SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT
ZERO
AXIS
FIG. 1.14 Symmetric01 shortcircuit current and generoted voltage for zeropowerfactor
cirwit.
SHORT
CIRCUIT
CURRENT
If,in a circuit containing only reactance, the short circuit occurs a t any
point except a t the peak of the voltage wave, there will be some offset of
the current (Fig. 1.16). The amount of offset depends upon the point on
the voltage wave at which the short circuit occurs. It may vary from
zero (shown in Fig. 1.14) to a maximum (shown in Fig. 1.15).
I n circuits containing both
reactance and resistance, the s~,?&&,R&!~~
amount of offset of the short CURRENT
circuit current may vary be
tween the same limits as for
circuits containing only react
ance. However, the point on
the voltage wave a t which the
short circuit must occur to pro
duce maximum asymmetry
dependsupon the ratioof react
ance to resistance of the cir
cuit. Maximum asymmetry
is obtained when the short cir
cuit occurs a t a time angle
+
equal to 90" 0 (measured
forward in degrees from the
zero point of the voltage wave)
where tangent 0 equals there ASYMMETRICAL
actancetoresistance ratio of
FIG. 1.16 Shortcircuit current and generated
the circuit' The shortcircuit voltage in zeroDowerfactor circuit. Short cir
current will be symmetrical cuit occurred between the
when the fault occurs 90"from point and peak of the generated voltctge wove.
that point onthe voltage wave. This condition i s theoretical and for illustration
an example, assumeacir purporer only. The shortcircuit current will
gradually become symmetrical in practical
cuit that has equal resistance CiTCUit.,
and reactance, i.e., the react
ancetoresistance ratio is 1. The tangent of 45" is I ; hence, maximum
offset is obtained when the short circuit occurs a t 135' from the zero
point of the voltage wave (Fig. 1.17).
MAXIMUM OFFSET
FIG. 1.17 Shortcircuit current and generated voltage in circuit with equal reactance and
resistance. This condition i s theoretical and is shown for illustration purposes only. The
shortcircuit current will gradually become symmetrical in practical circuits.
ASYMMETRICAL
AC COMPONENT
TOTAL CURRENT
DC COMPONENT
AC COMPONENT
ZERO A X I S
a = b = D C COMPONENT
FIG. 1.19 Components of asymmetrical shortcircuit current in which short circuit occurred
at some point between the zero point and p e a k of the generated voltage wave. This is a
lhsoretical condition similar to that shown in Fig. 1.18.
I8 SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES
As mentioned previously, the examples shown in Figs. 1.13 and 1.18 are
for purposes of illustration only. In practical circuits the dc component
decays very rapidly, as shown in Fig. 1.20.
INITIAL M A G N I T U D E OF DC C O M P O N E N T
The magnitude of the dc component depends upon the iustant, the
short circuit occurs and may vary from zero, as in Fig. 1.14, to a maximum
initial value equal to the peak of the ac symmetrical compoiieiit, as i n
Figs. 1.15 and 1.18. When the short circuit occurs at any other point,
such as shown in Fig. 1.19, the initial magnitude of the dc componciit is
equal to the value of the ac symmct,riral component a t thc instant of
short circuit. The above limit,s hold true for the initial magiiitudc of dc
eomporient in a system regardless of the reactance and resistance. Ilow
ever, the dc componeut does not continue to flo~va t a constant value, as
shown i n Figs. 1.18 and 1.19, unless there is zero resistauce i i i the circuit.
DECREMENT
C COMPONENT
AC COMPONENT
FIG. 1.20 Trace of orcillogrom showing decay of dc component and how orymmetricd
shortcircuit currenl gradually becomes symmetrical when dc component diroppearr.
SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 19
until the circuit was interrupted. However, all practical circuits have
some resistance; so the dc romponent decays as shown in Fig. 1.20. The
combination of the decaying of dc and symmetriral a(*components gives
an asymmetrical wave that changes to a symmetriral wave whcti the
dc component has disappeared. The rate of decay of the currents is
called the decrement.
X/R RATIO
The X / R ratio is the ratio of the reactance to the resistance of the cir
cuit. The decrement or rate of decay of the dc component is propor
tional to the ratio of reactance to resistance of the complete circuit from
generator to short circuit. The theory is the same as opening the circuit
of a battery and an inductive coil.
If the ratio of reactance to resistance is infinite (i.e., zero resistance),
the dc component never decays, as shown in Figs. 1.18 and 1.19. On the
other hand, if the ratio is zero (all resistance, no reartance), it decays
instantly. FOFany ratio of reactarice to resistance in between these
limits, the dc component takes a definite time to decrease to substantially
zero, as shown in Fig. 1.20.
! I n generators the ratio of subtransient reactance to resistance may be as
?much as 7 0 : l ; so it takes several cycles for the dc component to dis
appear. In circuits remote from generators, the ratio of reactance to
resistance is lower, and the dc component decays more rapidly. The
higher the resistance in proportion to the reactance, the more IaRloss
from the dc c.omponent, and the energy of the direct current is dis
sipated sooner.
a = 37Y. OF b (APPROX )
C TIME
CONSTANT I N OF D C COMPONENT
SECONDS
nent. The dc time constant is the time, in seconds, required by the dc
component to reduce to about 37 per cent of its original value a t the
instant of short circuit. I t is the ratio of the inductance in henrys to the
resistance in ohms of the machine or circuit. This is merely a guide to
how fast the dc component decays.
Stated in other terms, it is the time in seconds for the dc component to
reach zero if it continued t o decay a t the same rate it does initially
(Fig. 1.21).
The rms values of ac waves are significant since circuit breakers, fuses,
and motor starters are rated in terms of rrns current or equivalent kva.
The maximum rrns value of shortcircuit current occurs at a time of about
one cycle after short circuit, as shown in Fig. 1.20. If there were no
decay in the dc component, as in Fig. 1.18, the rrns value of the first
cycle of current would be j.732 times the rrns value of the ac component.
I n practical circuits there is always some dc decay during the first cycle.
An approximate rrns value of one cycle of an offset wave whether it is
partially or totally offset is expressed by the equation
MULTIPLYING FACTOR
In the general case for circuits rated above 600 volts, the multiplying
factor to account for dc component is 1.6 times the rms value of the ac
symmetrical component at the first half cycle.
For circuits rated 5000 volts or less where there is no local generation,
that is, where the supply t,o the bus is through transformers or long lines,
the multiplying factor to ralculate the total current at the first half cycle
may be reduced to 1.5. For circuits 600 volts and less, t,he multiplying
factor to calculate the total current at the first half cycle is 1.25 when the
circuit breaker is applied on the average current in three phases. Where
singlephase conditions must be considered in circuits GOO volts and less,
then to account for the dc component in one phase of a threephase cir
cuit a multiplying factor to calculate the total current at the first half
cycle of 1.5 is used.
For some calculations, rms current evaluations a t longer time intervals
than the first half cycle, such as three to eight cycles corresponding to the
interrupting time of circuit breakers, are required. Multiplying factors
for this purpose may be taken from the curve in Fig. 1.22.
Table 1.2 gives the multiplying factors commonly used for applying
FIG. 1.22 Charts showing multiplying factors to account for decoy of dc component for
various X / R ratio of circuits.
22 SHORTCIRCUITCURREM CALCULATING PROCEDURES
RG. 1.23 Tracer of orcillogramr of rym FIG. 1.24 Arymmelrical shortcircuit current
metrical shortcircuit currents from utility, from dl sources illustrated in Fig. 1.23 plus
panerator, synchronous motors, and induc dc component.
lion motors. The shape of the total com
bined currents is illurtmted by the bottom
hace.
24 SHORT.CIRCUITCURRENT U L C U U l l N G PROCEDURES
I !
I (
I t
a
/
SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 27
is not designed to interrupt the rated mva but will interrupt some
value less than rated mva.
This is very significant in the rating of power circuit breakers for,
as poiuted out later, the circuit hreaker will interrupt a maximum of
only so many amperes regardless of voltage. At any voltage less
than the minimum operating voltage the product of the maximum
kiloampere interrupting rating times the kv times the square root of
3 is less than the mva interrupting rating of the circuit breaker.
56. Insulation Level (Withstand Test)
5 . Lowfrequency rrns kv (19): the 60cycle highpotential test.
6. Impulse crest kv (60) : a measure of its ability to withstand lightning
and other surges. This is applied with an impulse generator as a
design test.
79. Current Ratings in Amperes
7. Continuous 60 cycles (1200 or 2000): the amount of load current
which the circuit breaker will carry continuously without exceeding
the allowable temperature rise.
89. Shorttime Rating
8. Momentary amperes (60,000) : the maximum rms asymmetrical cur
rent that a circuit breaker will withstand including shortcircuit cnr
rents from all sources and motors (induction and synchronous) and
the dc component. This rating is independent of operating voltage
for a given circuit breaker.
This is just as significant a limitation as mva interrupting rating.
It defines the ability of the circuit breaker to withstand the mechani
cal stresses produced by the very large offset first cycle of the short
circuit current. This rating is nnusually significant because the
mechanical stresses in the circuit hreaker vary as the square of the
current. It is the only rating that is affected by the square law, and
therefore is one of the most critical in the application of the circuit
breakers. The rating schedules of power circuit breakers are so pro
portioned that the momentary rating is about 1.6 times the maximum
interrupting rating amperes.
9. Foursecond (37,500): the maximum current that the circuit breaker
will withstand in the closed position for a period of 4 sec to allow for
relaying operating time. This value is the same as the maximum
interrupting rating amperes.
1013. Interrupting Ratings
10. Threephase rated mva (250): the threephase mva which the circuit
breaker will interrupt over a range of voltages from the maximum
design kv down t o the minimum operating kv. In this case the
28 SHORTCIRCUITCURREM CALCULATING PROCEDURES
interrupting rating is 250 rnva between 4.76 and 3.85 kv. The mva
to be interrupted is obtained by multiplying the kv a t which the cir
cuit breaker operates times the symmetrical current in kiloamperes to
be interrupted times the square root of 3. The product of these must
not exceed the rnva interrupting rating a t any operating voltage.
11. Amperes a t rated voltage (35,000): the maximum total rms amperes
which the circuit breaker will interrupt a t rated voltage, i.e., in the
case of the example used above 35,000 at 4.16 kv (4.16 X 35.000 x
fi = 250 mva). These figures are rounded. This figure is given
for information only and does not have a limiting significance of
particular interest to the application engineer.
12. Maximum amperes interrupting rating (37,500) : the maximum total
rms amperes that the circuit breaker will interrupt regardless of how
low the voltage is. In this example, this current is 37,500 amp. At
minimum operating voltage, 3.85 kv, this corresponds to 250 mva,
and, for example, a t a voltage of 2.3 kv this corresponds to 150mva.
The circuit breaker will not interrupt this much current a t all volt
ages, i.e., i t will not interrupt this much current if the product of
current, voltage, and the square root of 3 is greater than the mva
interrupting rating. This current limit determines the minimum kv
a t which the circuit breaker will interrupt rated mva (column 4). At
any voltage lower than that given in column 4, this maximum rms
total interrupting current determines how much the circuit breaker
will interrupt in mva. Therefore, when the voltage goes below the
limit of column 4, the mva which the circuit breaker will interrupt is
lower than the rnva rating given in column 10 by an amount propor
tional to the reduction in operating voltage below the value of column 4.
13. Rated interrupting time (8 cycles on 60cycle basis): the maximum
total time of operation from the instant the trip coil is energized until
the circuit breaker has cleared the short circuit.
What limits the Application of Power Circuit Breakers an on inter
ruptingand Momentaryduty Basis? In so far as applying power cir
cuit breakers on an interruptingduty basis is concerned i t can be seen
from the foregoing that there are four limits, none of which should be
exceeded. These must all be checked for any application.
1. Operating voltage should never at any time exceed the limit of
column 3, Table 1.1, i.e., the maximum design kv.
2. Interrupting rnva should never be exceeded a t any voltage. This
limit is sig’nificant only when the operating voltage is between the limits
of columns 3 and 4, Table 1.1. It is not significant when the operating
voltage is below the limit of column 4, Table 1.1, because maximum inter
rupting amperes limit the mva to values less than the rnva rating.
3. Maximum interrupting rating amperes should never be exceeded
SHORTCIRCUIT.CURRENT CALCUUTING PROCEDURES 29
even though the product of this current times the voltages times the
square root of 3 is less than the interrupting rating in mva. This figure
is the controlling one in so far as interrupting duty is involved when the
voltage is below that of column 4, Table 1.1 (minimum operating voltage
a t rated mva).
4. Momentary current should never be exceeded a t any operating
voltage. Modern power circuit breakers generally have a momeutary
rating in rms amperes of 1.6 times the maximum interrupting rating in
rms amperes. As a result, where there is no shortcircuitcurrent contri
bution from motors, a check of the interrupting duty only is necessary.
If this is within the circuitbreaker interrupting rating then the maximum
Shortcircuit current, including the dc component, mill be within the
momentary rating of the circuit breaker.
Where there is shortcircuit contribution from motors, the momentary
rating of the circuit breaker may be exceeded, before the interrupting
rating is exceeded in a given cirruit. Whenever there are motors to be
considered in the shortcircuit calculations, the momentary duty and the
interrupting duty should both be checked.
How to Check Momentary Duty on Power Circuit Breakers. Siuce the
shortcircuit current is maximum a t the first half cycle, the shortcircuit
current must be determined a t the first half cycle to determine the maxi
mum momentary duty on a circuit breaker.
To determine the shortcircuit current a t the first half cycle, it is neces
sary to consider all sources of shortcircuit current, that is, the generators,
synchronous motors, induction motors, and utility connections. The
subtransient reactances of generators, synchronous motors, and inductiou
motors are employed in the reactance diagram. Since the dr component
is present a t this time, it is necessary to account for it by the use of a
multiplying factor. This multiplying factor is either 1.5 or l.G, as out
lined in Table 1.2. Typical circuits where the 1.5 multiplying factor can
be used are shown in Fig. 1.25. The procedure is the same, regardless of
the type of power circuit breaker involved.
How to Check Interrupting Duty on Power Circuit Breakers. To check
the interrupting duty on a power circuit breaker, the shortcircuit current
should be determined a t the time that the circuitbreaker contacts part.
The time required for the circuitbreaker contacts to part will vary over a
considerable range, because of variation in relay time and in circuit
breaker operating speed. The fewer cycles required for the circuit
breaker contacts to part, the greater will be the curreut to interrupt.
Therefore, the maximum interrupting duty is imposed upon the circuit
breaker when the tripping relays operate instantaneously. In all short
circuit calculations, for the purpose of determining interrupting duties,
the relays are assumed to operate instantaneously. To account for
SEPESDIVEN
SENRIOEIELI', tCA
1
30 SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES
HIGH VOLTAGE
INCOMING LINE
2400
4160
4800 VOLT
INCOMING
L I N E FROM
UTILITY
$ o,:4600
A6,0 V BUS
T O P L A N T LOAD TO P LANT L O AD
(0) NO GENERATION NO GENERATION (b)
IN THE P L A N T IN THE P L A N T
13.6 KV
U U
USE 1.6
MULTIPLYING
FACTOR
u.L NO GENERATION
ON THIS BUS
NO GENERATION
2400, 4160 OR
(C) TO LOAD
FIG. 1.25 Oneline diogrom of carer where the multiplying factor 1.5 may be used on
circuits rated less than 5 h.
c
.: .. . .. ,
,, ,.. . .
SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 31
1 Generators. 1 I
I I 1 frequency
changers I 0
w
C
a
Interrupting duty 2
Eight cycle or slower (general case). .......... Above 600 wlh Any ploee where symmetricmi I .O Subtransient
Rva cycle.. .............................. Above 600 volt, shortcircuit kva i s loss than 1.1 Subtransient
500 mva ii
Momentary duty s
s
z
Generol GOSO.. ........................... Above 600 volt) Near generoting station 1.6 Subtransient
Lar than 5 k.. .......................... 601 to 5000 volh Remote from generating do 1.5 Subtransient
lion (X/R rotio l e u thon I01
Highvoltaqe Fuses
5
Threephose I n o interrupting duly
All typos, including dl wrrontlimiting fuses. .... Above 600 wih Anywhere in system I .O Subhqndent 1 Transient 1 Neglect
0
Cirwit b r w b r or contocto~lype. ............ 601 to MOO volts bywhere in system 1.6 Subtransient Subtrmdent Subtransient
Clrcvit b r e e b r or contartor type.. ........... 601 lo 5000 volts temote from gener.ting 11. 1.5 Subtransient Subtrmdent Subtransient 8
lion lX/R ratio leis than 101 R
0
m
Apparatus. 600 Volts and Below z
Interrupting or momentary duty
WAVE OF AVAILABLE
1
FIG. 1.26 Grophic sxplonotion of the currentlimiting action of currentlimiting fuses.
See Fig. 1.27 for method of determining available shortcircuit current.
SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CAKULATING PROCEDURES 35
These threephase mva ratings have been selected so they will line u p
with powercircuitbreaker ratings. For example, a highvoltage fuse
rated 150 mva and a power circuit breaker rated 150 mva can he applied
on the basis of the same shortcircuitcurrent calculations. Of course, the
application voltage must he factored in each case.
Highvoltoge M o t o r Starters. Highvoltage motor starters generally
employ for shortcircuit protection either currentlimiting fuses or power
circuit breakers. The shortcircuitcurrent calculations for applying
these motor starters are the same as those for highvoltage fuses and
power circuit breakers, respectively.
0 GENERATOR
TRANSFORMER
MOTORS
CABLE
SHORT ClRCUlTED 8 1
J UMPER OF Z E R O CABLE
IMPEDANCE
SHORT
CIRCUIT
FIG. 1.27 Connections for determining available shortcircuit current for testing rhort
circuit protective devices.
38 SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES
Base kvo
DIAGRAMS
GENERATOR
C
I UTILITY SYSTEM
TRANS D GENERATOR
CABLE E
SHORT
CIRCUIT
LARGE CABLE J
MOTOR
480 VOLT
MOTORS
INFINITE
H BUSES
4160V.
I I I
1T ?;
A&??
Y T T  3
& + * +
r y rx
MAX. DUTY FOR
THESE BREAKERS
OCCURS FOR
SHORT CIRCUIT
HERE
FIG. 1.30 Location of faults for maximum Shortcircuit duty on circuit breakers.
44 SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES
impedance diagram. The example of Fig. 1.31 shows the error that
might result in neglecting cable resistance.
I n secondary network systems of 600 volts and less, the resistance as
well as the reactance of the tiecable circuits between substation buses
should be included in the impedance diagram. The example of Fig. 1.32
shows the effect of cable resistance in reducing shortcircuit current in a
typical industrial network.
n n
SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT USING
REACTANCE ONLY = 51000 AMPERES,
T I E CIRCUITS
208 Y / l Z O V O L T S .
200 FT
2 250 M,CM
3 CONO. CABLES ~~~~~T
I N PARALLEL
200 F T
FIG. 1.32 Oneline diogrtlm of lowvoltage secondary network system showing effect of
resistance of cable tie circuits.
REbCTbNCE QOW,
TO UTILITY SYSTEM OF UTILITY OR5.,s 0.25% OR
SYSTEM 25 %
REbCTbNCE OF
REbCTbNCE EQUIVALENT
OF 7 5 0 K V b MOTOR
TRbNSF. 5.5%
IMPEObNCE O I b G R b M
750 K V b BASE
SHORT EQUIVALENT MOTOR
CIRCUIT 750 KVb
El
hKVA
SHORT
CIRCUIT
TO UTILITY SYSTEM
EQUIVILENT MOTOR
375 K V b
REbCTbNCE
OF UTILITY
SYSTEM
REbCTbNCE
OF 7 5 0 KVb
TRbNSF.
IMPEObNCE OIbGRbM
2 0 8 Y / 1 2 0 VOLT SYSTEMS
750 K V b BASE
0.50% OR
50 %
REACTbNCE OF
EQUIVALENT
MOTOR
FIG. 1.33 Oiagromr illustrating how to include motors in lowvoltage radial systems.
40 SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES
any one time is equal t,o 50 per cent of the combined rating of all step
down trausformers and/or generators supplying power to that one bus,
Fig. 1.33. For large commercial buildings the 50 per cent figure may
be too low. Check carefully the mot,or load on all large 208Y/120volt
systems.
I n the generalized rases referred t o in paragraphs 1 and 2 , no specific
ratio of induction t o synchronous motors or no specific number of motors
which prcduce unusually high shortcircuit current,s has been set fort,h.
T o account for these variables, a n average motor reitctance ihcluding
leads is assumed t o be 25 per cent for the purpose of preparing application
tables like Table 1.5 and in making shortcircuit st,udies where no more
accurat,e data are available. It will he noted that the average motor
reactance of 25 per cent is based on the transformer or supplygenerator
kva rating. This figure is between the values of 28 per cent for induc
tion mot,ors and 21 per cent for synchronous motors given in Table 1.14.
Where the division between synchronous and iuduction motors is known,
then more accurate calculations can be made by using the assumed motor
reactances of Table 1.14. T h e reactances given in Table 1.14 are based
on motor kva ratings and not supply transformer or generator ratings.
750 KVA
T
A 500 KVA 750 KVA
480 VOLTS
500 KVA
v
FIG. 1.34 Diagram illustrating how lo include motors in lowvoltage secondary network
rvrternr.
SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 49
After it has been decided what elements of the oneline diagram are
to be considered in the impedance diagram, the mechanirs of making
the impedance diagram and of determining the shortcircuitcurrent
magnitude are as follows.
Treatment of Sources of Shortcircuit
7
GENERATOR OR MOTOR OF Current. The generators and motors
ZERO IMPEDANCE are treated as if they comprised a gen
erator of zero reactance plus an external
reactor to represent the reactance of the
EXTERNAL TO machine windings, Fig. 1.35. The first
REPRESENT IMPEDANCE OF step in making an impedance diagram
GENERATOR OR MOTOR. is torepresent every generator and motor
or groups of motors and utility supply
FIG. 1.35 Oneline representation by a reactance connected to a zero im
of generator or motor in impedance pedance bus or socalled “infinite bus,”
diogmm. Fig. 1.36. This bus represents the in
ternal voltage of the generators and motors.
Completing the Impedance Diagram. The second step is to add the
reactance of cables, buses, transformers, current transformers, circuit
INFINITE BUS
SHORT 6.04V
INFINITE BUS CIRCUIT
I 0.0805 %
X ~ O ~ z
FIG. 1.37 Complete reaclomce diagram for system shown in Fig. 1.28. Steps for com
bining reactances into o single resultant value.
52 SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES
The base number is also called unit value since in the perunit system
it has a value of 1, or unity. Thus, base voltage is also called unit
voltage.
Any convenient number may be selected for the base number. For
example, for the columns below, a base of 560 is used:
Perunit Volue
Number with 560 as a Base
93 0.17
125 0.22
560 1 .oo
2053 3.65
numbers that are similarly related to two different base numbers. For
example :
Core A Cole B
Norm01 "0th 2300 460
Volts during motor starting 2020 420
The above figures in themselves have little significance until they are
compared each with its normal condition as follows:
Vollr during starting perunit of normal 0.88 0.91
Per Cent. Obviously per cent and perunit systems are similar. The
per cent system is obtained by multiplying the perunit value arbitrarily
by 100 to keep many frequently used perunit values expressed as whole
integers. By definition,
a number
Per cent =
base number
x 100 (1.22)
Do not then in addition arbitrarily select base ohms since it has already
been fixed by the first two selections because of Ohm’s law.
z = E
I
base volts
Base ohms = (1.23)
base a m p z s
Using the selected base values, all parts of an electric circuit or system
may be expressed in perunit terms as follows:
volts
Perunit volts = (1.24)
base volts
amperes
Perunit amperes = (1.25)
base amperes
ohms
Perunit ohms = (1.26)
base ohms
In practice it is more convenient to select:
Base volts
Base kva
The base values of other quant.ities are thus automatically fixed. Hence,
for a singlephase system,
base kva X 1000
Base amperes = (1.27)
base volts
base kva
Base amperes = (1.28)
base kv
base volts
Base ohms = (1.23)
base amperes
where base kva is singlephase kva and base volts is singlephase volts.
For a threephase system:
base kva X 1000
Bme amperes = (1.29)
X base voks
base kva
Base amperes = (1.30)
4 X base kv
hase volts
Base ohms = (1.31)
4 X base amperes
where base kva is threephase kva, base volts is linetoline, and hase ohms
is per phase.
Perunit Ohms. In practice i t is desirable to convert directly from
ohms to perunit ohms, without first determining base ohms. By Ohm’s
law,
base volts
Base ohms = (1.23)
base amperes
SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 55
Substitute Eq. (1.27) (which gives the base amperes) into Eq. (1.23), to
obtain
base volts
Base ohms =
(base kva X 1000)/base volts
(base volts)P
Base ohms = bsse kva x 1000
(1.32)
By definition:
ohms
Perunit ohms = (1.26)
base ohms
Substitute Eq. (1.32) into Eq. (1.26) to obtain
ohms
Perunit ohms =
(base volts)e/(base kva X 1000)
ohms X base kva X 1000
Perunit ohms = (1.33)
(base voltd2
ohms X base kva
Perunit ohms = (1.34)
(base kv)2 X 1000
where base kva is singlephase kva and base kv is singlephase kv.
When dealing with a threephase system, i t is usual to select threephase
kva and linetoline volts for the base values. Convert the above expres
sions to these bases to obtain
ohms X base kva X 1000 X 3
Perunit ohms =
(base volts X d .3 ,)z
ohms'X base kva X 1000
Perunit ohms =
(base volts)2
ohms X base kva
Perunit ohms = (1.35)
(base kv)* X 1000
where ohms are per phase, kva is threephase kva, and kv is linetoline
voltage.
Usual Base Numbers for System Studies. If per cent or perunit ohms
reactance is used, the next step is to choose a kva base.
In system studies it is usually desirable to select as the base voltage the
nominalsystem voltage or the voltage rating of the generators and supply
transformers. Base kva will usually be selected as the kva rating of one
of the machines or transformers in the system, or a convenient round
number such as 1000, 10,000, or 100,OOO kva. After choosing the kva
base, convert ohmic reactance of cables, wires, current transformers,
etc., to per cent or perunit ohms reactance on the chosen base, using
Eq. (1.1) or (1.2) or Table 1.3.
If ohms reactance is used, convert all per cent reactances to ohms by
Eq. (1.3).
Where two systems of differing voltage are interconnected through a
56 SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES
transformer, select a common kva base for both systems and the rated
voltage of each system as its own base voltage. (These base voltages
must have the same ratio t o each other as the turn ratio of the transformer
connecting the two systems.) Base ohms and base amperes for the two
systems will thus he correspondingly different. Figure 1.38 shows a
typical example.
Once the system values are expressed as perunit values, the two inter
connected systems may be treated as a single system and any calculations
necessary carried out. Only in reconverting the perunit values of the
results to actual voltage and current values is i t necessary t o remember
t h a t two different voltages actually existed in the system.
Change of Base Number. Frequently the impedance of a circuit ele
ment may be expressed in terms of a particuiar base kva, and it may be
desirable t o express it in terms of a different base kva. For example, the
reactance of devices like transformers, generators, and motors is given in
per cent on their own kva rating, and their reactances must be converted
to the common base, chosen for the study by means of Eq. (1.5) or (1.36).
Perunit ohms on kva base 2
 base kva
x (perunit ohms on kva base 1) (1.36)
base kva 1
Similarly, a machine rated a t one voltage may actually be used i n a
circuit a t a different voltage. Its perunit impedance must thus be
changed to a new base voltage.
GENERATOR MOTOR
1000 KVA I0;YKVA o(lOOO KVA)
13800 2300
VOLTS VOLTS
PRIMARY SECONDARY
RATING RATING
13200 2400
VOLTS VOLTS
FIG. 1.38 Method of converting bore volts, kva, amperes, and ohms from one value to
onother.
SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES n
Reference to Eq. (1.35) shows that perunit ohms is inversely propor
tional to the square of base volts. Thus:
Perunit ohms on new base volts   (old base volt.s)* (1.37)
Perunit ohms on old base volts (new base volts)*
and
Perunit ohms on new base volts = perunit ohms on old base volts
(old base volts)2
(1.38)
(new base volts)2
Equations (1.37) and (1.38) may be used for per cent ohms as well as per
unit ohms.
Converting Ohms to a Common Voltage Base. When using ohms
instead of per cent or perunit in the impedance diagram, it is important
to convert the ohmic values to a common voltage base by Eq. (1.13).
For example, if the shortcircuit current is being calculated in a 480volt
system (supplied by transformers rated 480volt secondary) fed through a
cable and a transformer from a 2400volt system, the ohms impedance of
the cable in the 2400volt circuit must be multiplied by 48O2/24OO2to
convert it to ohms on a 480volt base. The transformer ratings, i.e., 480,
240, etc., and not system ratings, if different from transformer rating, are
used as the voltage base for shortcircuitcurrent calculations.
Representing the Utility Supply System. The utility system must be
represented by a reactance in the impedance diagram. Sometimes this
utilitysystem reactance is available in per cent on a certain base. If so,
it is merely necessary to convert this value to the common base used in
the impedance diagram. To do this, use Eq. (1.5). In some cases the
utility engineers will give the shortcircuit kva or current that the utility
system will deliver a t the plant site. In otker cases, only the interrupting
capacity of the incomingline circuit breaker is known. In these cases to
convert shortcircuit kva, current, or incomingline breaker interrupting
rating to per cent reactance on the kva base used in the reactance diagram,
proceed as follows:
If given shortcircuit kva, convert to per cent by using Eq. (1.6).
If perunit is desired, use also Eq. (1.4).
If given shortcircuit amperes (rms symmetrical), convert to per cent
by Eq. (1.7) and to perunit by Eqs. (1.7) and (1.4).
If only the kva interrupting rating of the incoming line circuit breaker
is known, convert to per cent by Eq. (1.8) and to perunit by Eqs. (1.8)
and (1.4).
XI = 
(d(z2)
21 +
22
(1.40)
For combining several parallel reactances
1 1 1 1 1 1
=_
2. 2,
+  +  +X I + E
2 2 2,
(1.41)
SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 59
INFINITE
c.
P~T& T( $*,
* T . Pm EQUIVALENT Y
e c , TO
CONVERT P I T I , PITI
c. EQUIVALENT Y.
STEP x z
STEP# I
COMBINE SERIES REACTANCES
PI~TI,RBT~,ETC.
I
&Pa.
&
Ct
cs
a"3+c*
L c4 +
COMBINE 2 C t , 3 + C+ AND
THEN REPEAT STEPS 2.3 e 4
UNTIL ONE EOUIVALENT
DRAW NEW DIAGRAM REACTANCE IS OBTAINED.
STEP* 3 STEP t t 4
Some systems are such that they cannot he reduced by merely com
bining series and parallel rgactances. For example, take the oneline
diagram of a circuit as show in upper lefthand corner of Fig. 1.39. The
\
reactance diagram is shown the ypper righehand corner of Fig. 1.39.
In addition to combining serieszind parallel reactances, it is necessary to
convert a triangle of reactances such as PI,
TI,PzrT , and C1to an equiva
lent Y of reactances by the formulas of Fig. 1.40. By these conversions,
I
B=
ob + a c + be a=
0c
b A+B+C
a b + a c + bc "
c= b:
A+B+C
A = ob+oc+bc A8
C:
a A+B+C
FIG. 1.40 Formula for converting a triangle or delta of three impedances to a Y of three
equivalent impedances, and vice verso.
3 SERIES EQUIVALENT
IMPEDANCES IMPEDANCE
FIG. 1.41 Example illustrating the combining of series impedances.
The equivalent impedance
rl
2 %= VZ + + +
73 j(z1 + zz+ 4 (1.42)
Using the numerical values of Fig. 1.41,
2, = 1+ j 2
22 = 2 +j3
= 0.5 + j l
21 = (1 + 2 + 0.5) + j ( 2 + 3 + 1) = 3.5 + j G
The above is applicable when impedances are expressed in ohms, per
unit or per cent.
Combining Parallel Impedances. Parallel impedances may be
reduced to one equivalent impedance as follows (see Fig. 1.42):
(1) Reduce the per cent values of resistance and reactance in each of
the given parallel circuits to a perunit basis by dividing per cent figures
by 100 or convert the per cent values to ohms. Per cent values can be
used in the following if the multiplier 100 is applied properly, e.g.,
T X
(Branch 1) 0.05 0.15
(Branch 2) 0.008 0.108
(2) Calculate the impedance squared z2 of each circuit
2% = r' + 2
'
1
(Branch 1) rlz + = ZI', e.g., 0 .052+ 0.15470>25
21'
(Branch 2) r 2 + zz2= zz2, e.g., 0.008z+ 0.108* = 0.0117
(3) Obtain the ratios of r/z' of each circuit
Tl 0.05
(Branch 1) ', e.g., = 2.0
21 0.025
rz
(Branch 2) , e.g., 0.0°8  0.683
z'2 0.0117
~
1
Any number of parallel circuits may be accommodated by additional
horizontal columns as fo branch 1 and branch 2, etc., their resultant
(r/z2)’s and (x/z2)’s heling added to obtain G O and Bo.
Multiplying and Dividing Impedances. Two impedmces may be
multiplied as per the following equations:
(21) (22) = 23
21 = TI +jXl
ZP = T S +j x ,
23 = r8 +
jxa
2 3 = (TI +
jXl)(Tt + jZ2)
= (TIT2  2 1 2 2 ) + j(TIX2 + TBZL)
13 = (nrz  XIXZ)
j a = j(r1zz +
rczJ 1
Two impedances may be divided according to the following equations:
(1.44)
TI +j x ,  jxt
=x TZ
r2 +j x 2 TZ  jxt
(1.45)
After the reactance diagram has been reduced to a single value, the
value of symmetrical shortcircuit kva can be determined by Eq. (1.14),
(1.15), or (1.16). To determine the symmetrical shortcircuit current, use
Eq. (1.17), ( l . l S ) , or (1.19).
Equations (1.14) to (1.19) do not allow for any dc component. Table
1.4 gives figures for converting kva to amperes.
Apply Proper Multiplying Factor. The final step is to apply the
proper multiplying factor from Table 1.2. To determine the total rms
shortcircuit current or kva, use Eq. (1.20).
64 SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES
11,000 0.0525
11,500 0.0502
12,000 0.0481

~
/
SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 65
EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS
LEX REACTOR
O N E LINE DlAGRPlM
I
J
k GENERATOR
XI fc
FIG. 1.43 Oneline diagram and equivalent circuit for duplex reactor.
66 SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCUUllNG PROCEDURES
circuit for the duplex reactor is as shown in Fig. 1.43. For preliminary
calculations, an average figure off. = 0.5 should give results of sufficient
accuracy.
Equivalent Circuit of Threewinding Transformer. When making
shortcircuit calculations of power systems which include threewinding
transformers, there is a question on how to use the designer's reactance
values. Designers give reactance values between pairs of windings.
Figure 1.44A shows a threewinding transformer, and Fig. 1.44B shows
its equivalent circuit. The following equations are easily derived and are
the proper ones to use in shortcircuit studies:
xs = + X2e c 
XIB XAC
(1.46)
(A1 mi
FIG. 1.44 (A1 Oneline diagram and (61 equivalent circuit diagram of threewinding
transformer.
INCOMING LINE
A
A
SOURCE 0.25 Yt
MOTORS
I
TRANSFORMER
750 KVA
5.5 x x
(0.055%)
REACTANCE DIAGRAM
480 VOLTS
M$ (0)
0.0625 1 2 5 v 1x=XIXI%
+x20.0625t025
0.0625XC1250,05% T 5 %
 yj;xo,4&
750
I
o,050
X 18,000 AMPERES SYMMETRICAL [ 1.18)
(d)
FEEDERS
BREAKERS
 PLAN
CHANNEL B U $  4 0 0 0 A
150'
n
I w nus o'
II
NETWORK TRANSFORMER
NETWORK
PROTECTOR
1 3 2 0 0  2 1 6 ~ / I 2 5 VOLTS Z500 A
KvA
y Z
INCOMING LINE
5 O YVA SC L
rnY"l
ELEVATION
.""...
CD"Yl
CIRCUIT
BREAKER
4000
FIG. 1.46 Arrmgement of equipment for large 208Y/120volt spot network system.
SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 69
The equipment for this example is arrauged as shoirn iir Fig. 1.46. The
oneline diagram is shown in Fig. 1.47.4 which iurludes the hayir reartanre
data on the circuit elemenk. The impedauce diagram is shown i n Fig.
1.47B. Figure 1.47C shows the condensed diagram to illustrate t,he rela
tive distribution of reactance in the system. It will be noted t,hat the
overhead bus R has 70 per cent as much impedance as the romhinatiotr of
all the transformers an8,huses ahead of it,. Elimiiiatiug this item would
J
cause a serious error in t h magnitude of shortcircuit, curretit.
The intermediate steps etween Figs. 1.47H and 1.47C can be worked
out by followiug t h e fa oing text.
The short circuit is located just ahead of the maiii 4000amp circuit
breaker as this determiires the available shortcircuit, curreut, which this
circuit breaker must interrupt. As pointed out previously, air circuit
breakers are applied 011 the basis of availahle rurreiit, and therefore \\.heir
calculat,ing the short,rirruit duty oil them, t,he impedalire of t,he rirciiit
breaker is not included.
Large Highvoltage Power System. T h e examplc shown in Fig. 1.48
is typical of what might, be eucouritered i n a steel mill. The kva base
chosen is 100,000 kva. Precise data are available 011 large motors and are
used in the short,circuit, st,udy. Since the large mot,ors roiistitute only
part of the motor load, the remaining motor load is estimated. For short
circuits on the 22kv system t,he motor load is assumed to be equal to the
capacity supplying each 22kv bus, or 62,500 k r a aiid 20,000 kva.
Should more precise data be available regarding ronnevted mot,or load,
these data should be used for simulating motor ront,ribution for faults on
the 22kv system. In t,his example, the connected horsepower 011 the
6.0kv bus mas known t,o be as shown in t,he diagram.
To check the momentary dut,y at F , 011the KYkv bus, the primary sys
tem should be represented by its equivalrut, subt,raiisieiit reartaure nf
12.2 per cent. For interrupting d u t y on the 6.9kv bus, t,he primary
syst,em should be represented by a reartanre equivalent t o the iirterrupt
irig duty on t,he 22kv system, or 17.5 per cent.
These large complicated syst,ems should he set up 011 a calculating
board to enable accurate ausivers t,o he obtained easily.
and shortcircuitcurrent calculation procedure for spot network system show in Fig. 1.46.
72 SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES
c:
74 SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES
4tL
PRIMARY SYSTEM REACTANCE ON 3PHASE BASIS.
TRANSFORMER X =O.O3Ym
TOTAL X ~ 0 . 0 4 %
1
F+ 100 000 KV4 3 PH4SE
SH& ClRCUlT DUTY
B4SE 5 0 KV4
0.00198
PRlM4R"X
TR4NS X
0036%

PRIM4RY SYSTEM RE4CT4NCE ON 3 P H 4 K 84%
:0 0005~~
B451S~00a)5X2iOO019~
H4LF WlNDlNG RE4CT4NCE OF TRMIYORMER42 XO0310036X
TWW R
00172%
'I RESIST4NCE " .' ~144X0012~001720/1
:o.
ticularly in circuits of 60 volts or less, many charts, tables, and curves
have been prepared to eliminate the necessity for detailed calculations.
Some of the more usef 1 ones are presented here.
UNIT SUBSTATIONS
%
?]'"
"2 x,
SHORT CIRCUIT primary shortcircuit capacity of 150,000
kva.
See 480volt application table. Follow
FIG. 1.51 0 n e  k diagram the vertical column under the 1000kva suh
showing location of short circuit
station rating down to the 150,000kvaavail
for determinotion of shortcircuit
currents shown in Table 1.5. able primary threephase shortcircuit kva
line in thetable. The availableshortcircuit
current a t the 480volt bus is indicated as 30,400 amp.
The unit substation application Tables 1.5 and 1.6 make it easy to
determine the shortcircuit current a t the main unit substation bus. By
the use of the simple estimating curves the shortcircuit, current at the end
of the secondary feeders can he easily determined too. Henre these tables
and the curves shown in Figs. 1.52 and 1.53 make it easy quickly to esti
mate the shortcircuit current a t any point in a secondary system 600
volts and less fed by standard loadcenter unit substations.
The curves are for 60cycle operation. Figure 1.52 is for cable cirruits
and Fig. 1.53 for bus feeders.
The results are in terms of the threephase average asymmetrical rm
value during the first cycle corresponding with the basis of rating for low
SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 77
FIG. 1.52 Chart for determining shortcircuit current a t end of cable circuit consisting of
threeconductor cable in conduit or interlockedarmor cable (60cycler).
2
TABLE 1.5 Available Short circuit C u r r e n t f r o m ' t o n d a r d T h r e e  p h a s e Unit S u b s t o t i o n s
SECONDARY RATING: 2 0 8 Y / l 2 0 VOLTS, THREE PHASE SECONDARY RATING: 240 VOLTS, THREE PHASE
Substation kva rating Substotion kra rclting
Available
Primary 112.5 150 225
1 1 I I I 1 1 300 500 750 1000 I500
three
phase
short Normol current, amp rmal current, en

Fi.C"it
kw 313 417 625
1 1 1 1 1 1 834 1388 2080 2780 4170 270 361 1 542 722 1 1203 1804

Total lowvoltoge shortcircuit Curlenh, thousands of amperes
. ~ ~

50.000 10.0 11.9 15.9 20.7 32.4 42.3 53.3 48.7 9.4 11.2 15.1 19.7 31.1 41.3 52.2 71.2
100.000 10.3 12.2 16.5 21.7 35.0 46.8 60.4 61.3 9.6 11.5 15,6 20.6 33.3 45.1 58.3 82.5
'$
150.000 10.4 12.3 16.7 22.1 36.0 48.5 63.3 74.5 9.7 11.6 15.8 21.0 34.2 46.6 60.8 87.5 2
250,000 10.4 12.4 16.9 22.4 36.8 50.0 65.9 80.0 9.7 11.7 16.0 21.2 I 34.9 48.0 63.0 92.0 5
500.000 10.5 12.5 17.1 22.6 37.5 51.3 67.9 85.5 9.8 11.8 16.1 21.5 35.5 49.0 64.8 95.9 2
Unlimited 10.5 12.6 17.2 22.9 38.1 52.5 70.2 90.0 9.8 11.8 16.2 21.7 I 36.1 50. I 66.7 100.0 $
~

NOTE: or different voltoge bare, multiply shortcircuit current values in table by NOTE: 3. For differed wltmge hose. I tipiy 9
208 240
the ratio values in toble by the ralio
naw voltoge n o r *olt.*e
NOTE: 2. Motor shortcircuit current contribution is 2.5 times the transformer normal NOTE: 4. Motor shortcircuit currentcontribution is 5.0 t i m n lhe t m n r
I a
current for 50% connected motors. former norm01 current for 100% connected moton.
former
4.0 4.5 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.5 5.5 5.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.5 5.5 5.5
impedance,
%
80 SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES
FIG. 1.53 Chart for determining shortcircuit current (it end of feeder bur. The type
designations refer to General Electric Company bus I60 cycles).
Required Data. The basic data needed to enable the use of Figs. 1.52
and 1.53 are the following:
1. System operating voltage
2. Available shortcircuit current at the source bus (average asym
metrical)
3. Length and construction of the feeder circuit
4. Connected motor load at the feeder terminal
Procedure for Use of Figs. 1.52 and 1.53. The evaluation of feeder
terminal shortcircuit current involves only four simple steps (see Fig.
1.54):
1. Locate the magnitude of sourceend shortcircuit current on the
proper lefthand operating voltage scale.
2. From this starting point move along to the right following along a
curve or an interpolation between adjacent curves until the desired length
of specific feeder construction (horizontal scales) is reached.
3. Project the latter point horizontally to the left and read the short
circuit current contributed by the feeder on the same scale as used in 1.
SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 81
t
k
H I
.
1
i
I
,/CP)OICI I I l l I
I_ 850
FEEDER L m m " I
FIG. 1.54 Example rhowing how to use the charts of Fig. 1.52 and 1.53.
Available primary
25 137.5 I I 1
50 75 100 150 1 1 I 1
200 250 333 500
24,550 amp
Motor contribution, bus R = 5 X 03 = 315~
K
.........
XdRt ratio..
................... I 1 I I I 1
1;;s I:* s1: !l Ii6
2
1.02
4
FEE0ER:Zf:Rf tjxf OHMSIPHASE
IFROH TABLES)
:'I
\J VAIL4ELE
SHORT ClRCUlT CURRENT DESIRED HERE
IS'CURRENT CONTRIBUTION FROM FIG. 1.56 Oneline diagram for rhort
SOURCE *"STEM circuitcurrent calculation ot the end of
ly*CURRENT CONTRlBUTlON FROM
LOAD LCCAL YOTORS feeder circuitsgenernl core.
SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 07
I 4 R X
I
I CABLE
FIG. 1.57 Equivalent circuit for determining cable lengths given in Tables 1.6 lo 1.9.
From the equivalent circuit per phase shown in Fig. 1.57 and using the
nomenclature of Fig. 1.57, a general expression for the length of cable t o
limit the shortcircuit current can be derived. The equation is
L 2 R2  X
~ Z 2 1 , 2 / I ,
E= 221,
Where I J I , is large or R is small, the equation reduces to
88 SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES
Conductor
Coble length 1, ft
size
__
I
 
No. 14 A x g
No. 12 Awg
..
..
No. 10 A w g . .
26.9
42.6
67.5
7.3
11.4
17.9
::::
69.0
1:;
21.8
4.7
7.4
11.7
27.5
43.6
69.5
9.1
14.4
22.8
5.3
8.5
13.4
2.4
3.8
5.9
No. 8 Awg ... 106.5 28.0 109.4 34.2 18.3 110.0 36.0 21.1 9.3
No. 6 Awg ... 165.0 42.6 170.3 53.0 28.0 171.5 56.1 32.7 14.2
N e . 4 A w g ... 254.0 63.7 263.0 81.0 42.6 265.5 86.3 43.8 21.4
No. 2 A w g . . . 384.5 91 .O 402.0 122.1 63.0 407.0 131 .O 75.8 31.8
No. I Awg , , . 468.0 111.0 488.0 146.8 75.2 497.0 159.1 91 .4 38. I
No. 110 Awg . 564.0 126.8 592.0 175.0 87.2 606.0 192.8 110.7 44.0
No. 2 '0 A x g . 664.0 144.8 706.0 206.0 100.8 723.0 228.5 128.8 50.9
No. 3/0 Awg . 775.0 162.0 827.0 237.5 114.2 852.0 267.0 149.1 55.4
No. 4/0 Awg . 890.0 180.0 960.0 271.0 127.8 990.0 308.0 171.2 64.7
250MCM.. . . 962.0 190.5 038.0 290.5 135.5 1072.0 333.0 184.1 69.0
  
I , = avail le shortcircu: urrent in kiloamperes a t source end of cable
I f = shortcircuit current kiloamperes ior short circuit a t end of cable of length L
SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 89
I. 50 1005~ 100
I5
I, 25
5 / 1 25
5 / 50
5 i l 50 5 ~ 2 5 /
Conductor
Cable length 1, fl
sire
 ~ ~
No. I 4 Awg. , ... 21.5 5.8 21.9 7.0 3.8 22.0 7.3 4.3 1.9
No. 12 Awg.. , .. 34.1 9.2 34.6 11.0 6.0 34.9 11.5 6.8 3.0
No.lOAwg ..... 54.1 14.3 55.2 17.4 9.3 55.7 18.3 10.7 4.7
No. 8 A x g . . , ... 85.4 22.4 87.6 27.4 14.6 88.1 28.8 16.9 7.4
No. 6 Axg.. . ... 132.5 34.1 136.5 42.4 22.4 44.8 26.2 11.4
No. 4 Axg.. .... 203.3 51.0 210.5 64.8 34.1 69.0 39.9 17.2
No. 2 Axg.. , ... 308.0 73.0 321.5 97.8 50.4 105.0 60.7 25.5
No. I A x g ...... 374.0 89.0 391.0 117.5 60.2 127.4 73.2 30.5
No. 1/0 Awg .... 452.0 101.5 474.0 140.1 69.8 485.0 154.2 88.7 35.2
No. 210 Awg .. . . 532.0 115.8 566.0 164.8 80.6 579.0 183.1 03.0 40.7
No. 3/0 Awg . ... 621.0 29.6 663.0 190.0 91.4 682.0 214.0 19.3 44.4
No. 4/0 Awg , .. . 713.0 144.1 768.0 216.8 102.2 793.0 246.5 37.0 51.8
250 M C M . . ..... 771 . O 52.5 832.0 232.8 108.6 860.0 266.8 47.7 55.2
~     
I. = availab short rcuit current kiloampcrcs i S O I I I ~ Pcnd of
I1 = shortc uit current in kiloarnperPs for short circuit at m i l of c
TABLE 1.9 limiting Effect of Cable on Shortcircuit Currents a t 240 Volts,
Three Phase
Three Singleconductor Cables in a Mmgnetic Duct
 
100 100
25 50

I
~
Conduclor
Cable length 1, ft
*i*e
 __   __  ~ __
No. 1 4 A x g ....__..10.8 2.9 11.0 3.5 1.9 11.0 3.7 2.2 I .o
No.12Axg ........ 17.1 4.6 17.3 5.5 3.0 17.5 5.8 3.4 I .5
No. 1 0 A w g ........ 27.0 7.2 27.6 8.7 4.7 27.9 9.2 5.4 2.4
No. 8 Awg ......... 42.7 11.2 43.8 13.7 7.3 44. I 14.4 8.5 3.7
No.6 A x g ....__.._ 66.3 17.1 68.3 21.2 11.2 68.7 22.4 3.1 5.7
No. 4 A x g ......... 101.5 25.5 105.3 32.4 17.1 106.4 34.5 '0.0 8.6
No. 2 A w g . . ....... 153.8 36.5 160.8 48.9 25.2 163.0 52.5 0.4 2.8
No. 1 Awg ........_ 187.0 44.5 195.5 58.8 30.1 199.3 63.7 6.6 5.3
No. 110 A x g ....... 226.0 50.8 237.0 70. I 34.9 242.5 77. I 4.4 7.6
No. 2/0 A w g . . ..... 266.0 57.9 283.0 82.4 40.3 289.5 91.6 I .5 0.4
No. 3/0 A x g .._....310.0 64.8 331.5 85.0 45.7 341 .o 107.0 9.7 2.2
No. 4/0 Axg.. .. ... 356.0 72.1 384.0 108.4 51.1 396.5 123.3 8.5 5.9
250MCM ........_.385.0 76.3 416.0 116.4 54.3 430.0 !33.4 3.9 7.6
    
I. available shortcircuit currcnt in kiloampercs at source end of eahle
=
I , = shortcircuit current in kiloamperrs for short circuit a t end of cahlc of length L
PO SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES
Conductor
25
5 25
50 I I
lo:
Cable length 1, h
lG
100
25
100
50
sire
   
No. 14 Awg....... 9.3 2.5 9.5 3.0 I.6 9.5 3.1 1.9 0.8
No. 12 Awg....... 14.8 3.9 15.0 4.8 2.6 15.1 5.0 2.9 1.3
No. 10 Awg...... . 23.4 6.2 23.9 7.5 4.1 24.2 7.9 4.6 2.0
No. 8 Awg........ , 37.0 9.7 38.0 11.9 6.3 38.2 12.5 7.3 3.2
No. 6 Awg........ 57.4 14.8 59.2 18.4 9.7 59.6 19.5 11.3 4.9
No. 4 Awg........ 88.0 22.1 91.3 28.1 14.8 92.2 29.9 17.3 7.5
No. 2 Awg........ 133.4 31.6 139.4 42.4 21 .9 141.4 45.5 26.3 11.0
No. 1 Awg........ 162.1 38.6 169.3 50.9 26.1 172.5 55.3 31.7 13.2
No. 110 Awg...... 196.0 44.0 205.3 60.7 10.3 210.0 67.0 38.4 15.3
No. 2/0 Awg...... , 230.5 50.2 245.0 71.5 14.9 L51.0 79.4 44.7 17.7
No. 310 Awg...... , 269.0 56.2 287.0 82.4 19.6 295.5 92.7 51.8 19.2
No. 4/0 Awg...... 308.5 62.4 132.5 94.0 i4.3 143.5 106.8 59.5 22.4
.......
,
250 MCM.. , 334.0 66.0 160.0 100.8 17. I 172.0 115.5 64.0 23.9

100
Per cent X : =
times normal stalled rotor current*
TABLE 1.1 1
Range Mt Common
1525 20
a Nearly all salientpole generators built by General Electric Company since 1935 have
amortisseur windings.
Add transformer reactance:
For compoundwound converters add 12 per cent.
For shuntwound converters add 7 per cent.
These data are useful for estimating reactances of individual large motors of
several hundred or several thoumnd horsepower.
* With rated voltage and frequency applied.
92 SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES
K w ..ling
w rating Volt.g* rating
__
0.8 power facer
1200 3600
rpm rpm
~
I per rent
Xi.
per cent
I 1
600 "0th or lessinduction 28'
600 volts or lewynchronous l i t e m 1 end 2 indude motor leads1 21 29
600 volh or l e u i n d u c t i o n 34'
600 volts or lesynchronour litems 3 and 4 indude motor leads 27* 35
and stepdown bansformen1
Motors above 600 voltinduction 20
Motors above 600 voltynchronwr 15 25
Motors above 600 volhindudon 26
Motors o b w e 600 voltriynchromur litems 7 and 8 include step 21 31
down transformers1
I
* Based on AIEE Standard No. 20.
1 
SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 95
Plant
Induction Sydrnnom
Cement .............................. 40 60
Machine shops ond IexHIe.. ............. 85 15
Rubber and rolling mills................. 50 50
Paper (excluding grinder mobs). ........ 67 33
Commercial ond offiso.. ................ 50 50
Installed
Energized
motor k w to
motor kva source kva
PI.3 to insbled (excluding
motor k w ,
SPW").
per cent por cent
Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per. cent Per cent
R X z R X z
~
3 1.7 I .5 2.3 2.2 1.7 2.8
5
10
15 1.5 1.7 2.3 I.6 I .6 2.3
25
75
100 I .2 2.3 2.6 1.2 3.5 3.7
Selfcooled or Forcedoil
High voltage Low voltage wotercooled cooled
rating, per cent rating, per Cenl
For highvoltagr insulation elassrs intermediatr of those given, use the imppdancr
of thc next higher listpd insulation class.
For transforrncrs with a loadratio control add 0.5 prr ccnt to the vaIu?s IistFd
abovc crcrpt in those eases in which a IOWPY impedaner has heen sprrifirtl.
Thc p ~ cr m t resistance on the hase given above rangrs from 1.0 down to 0.06.
X =
(
0.023 log, D
2s
+ K)
X = reactance, ohms per 1000 ft at 60 ryrlrs; S = spacing of couduc
tors (center t o center), in.
D = diameter of ronductors, in.; K = a rocffirient dependent upon ratio
of iriside diameter of a ronductor to outside diameter of condurtors. For
standard strand construction K = 0.25
98 SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES
This formula does not take into account any increase of reactance due
t o the spiraling of the strands. Such increase is usually negligible in
threeconductor cables and in large singleconductor cables, but it may
amount to 1 to 2 per cent in small singleconductor cables.
The effect of irregular spacing of the conductors and of magnetic
binder causes an increase of reactance of singleconductor cables, com
pared with otherwise equivalent threeconductor cables. Cable insula
tion thickness varies with different types of insulation for a cable of a
given voltage class. The approximate reactances of cables taking into
account these variables are shown in Tables 1.20 t o 1.22.
R' X R' X Z
N . 2 Awg . .
O 0.0203 0.00513 0.0209 0.0197 0.00344 0.02000
No. I Awg.. 0.0163 0.00500 0.0171 0.0157 0.00342 0.01606
No.l/OAwg. 0.0131 0.00495 0.0140 0.0125 0.00340 0.01296
R* X z R' X z
No. 14 Awg
No. 10 Awwg.
. 0.3135
0.1240
0.00969
O.OO8M
0.3135
0.1240
0.3135
0.1240
0.006664
0.005745
0.3291
0.1241
No. 8 Awg .. 0.0779 0.00788 0.0781 0.0779 0.005308 0.07808
Based (1 75 c.
 
TABLE 1.22 Correction Factors for Nonmagnetic Ducts
Singlecondudor a b l e ,
Where more precise data are not available, the values given in Tables
1.20 t o 1.23 may be used in shortcircuitcurrent calculations without
significant error.
System voltage
Plvgin type:
Upto600 ............. 98.8 24.7 15.8
60110 1000 ........... 62.4 15.6 10.0
Loximpedance type:
Upto600 ............. 45.2 11.4 7.3
60110 1000 ........... 17.2 4.3 2.7
135010 1600 .......... 10.8 2.7 1.7
2000 ................. 7.6 1.9 1.2
FIG. 1.58 Chart showing reactance VI. spacing of rectangular bus bars 160 cycler).
FIG. 1.59 Chart showing reactance VI. spacing of rectangular bur bars I60 cycler).
SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES
FIG. 1.60 Chart showing reactance YI. spacing of rectangular bus bars (60cycled.
104 SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES
FIG. 1.62 Chart showing reactance VI. spacing of channel bus bars I60 cycler).

~  B  I A I ~
spacings (up t o 8 ft) and from Figs. 1.64 and 1.65 for spacings up t o
20 ft.
Under usual application conditions, transmissiodine reactance
varies over quite a narrow range. Table 1.27 includes the usual varia
tions as well as “average ohms per mile” which are normally satis
factory for quick estimating work. Very large conductors, used to
carry unusually large amounts of power for short distances, have abnor
mally low reactance so that this tahlr is not applicable.
L 67“
4  P I N CROSSARM
AND SPOOL TYPE
SECONDARY RACK
6  P I N CROSSAM
FIG, 1.63 Spocing of pins on four and sixpin crossarms for vie in calculating line reoc
tance on 2400/4160Y or 48OOvolt circuits.
106 SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES
Normal tronrmiirion
Approximate
Line in.ul.tion equi*o1ent
class, kv dell. spocing of Reoctonce,
conductors. ft ohms per mile
size
lslrmded ~ o p p e i l
69 8
14
115
138 16 0.700.80
161 20 411 UIUDI sizes both copper 0.75
220 20 and oluminum
287 40
* 115 12 44 5.5
230 12 66 8.0
460 I8 I10 14.0
575 I8 112 16.5
2,300 30 I54 20.0
4,160 30 220 29.0
6,900 36
13.800 42
22,000 48
33,000 54
type W, covering current ratings from 100 t o 800 amp based on tests
at shortcircuit currents, are given in Table 1.30. The values in Table
1.30 apply t o t,ransformers with a serondary burden of I voltamp or
less at 5 amp or a t normal i:urrent. For higher burdens, the impedance
referred t o the primary side will be somewhat increased, but the increase
is far less than that occurring a t normal currents, berause of the reduced
mutual inductance between primary and secondary windings. The
reactance values based on low burden are conservative fur calculations
of maximum shortcircuit current.
TABLE 1.30 Overall Reactance of Type W Current Transformers,
Referred to Primary Winding
Approximate Values at Shortcircuit Cvrrenh with DC Component, Rms Symmetrical Component
Ronging from 15,000 to 55.000 Amp
Current Rating of Reactance (11
Primary Winding, 60 Cycles,
Amp Ohms
100 0.0035
I50 0.0017
200 0.0010
250 0.00066
300 0.00050
400 0.00032
500 0.00022
600 0.00019
800 0.00012
These values are also representative of t,he order of magnitude of the
reactance for current transformers of the following types, rated a t 5000
volts: JW1, JW4, JW6, JW14, WC12, WFI, WF6, and WF12.
Reactances for other designs of current transformers of the wound
primary type may be estimated by applying the folloming approximate
factors t o the values of Table 1.30.
Type of Current Foctor to Be Applied to
Transformer Reactance Vduer in Table 1.30
KF857,500 volt 1.8
JSI15,000 volt 0.4
Current Transformers Having a Bartype Primary Conductor. For
bartype current transformers with currerit rat,ings from 1000 t o 4000
amp, such as t,ypes bS2GO0 volts, WC155000 volts, KC60 7500 volts,
the react,arice has an approximate order of magnit,ude of 0.000070 ohm
a t currents within the range from 10,000 t o over 80,000 rms symmct,rical
amperes, with or ait,hout dc component,.
T h e reactauce depends on the spacing bctweeu phases, since a COIL
siderable amount of air flux links the primary bar conductor. The
value given is t,hat for !&in. phase spacirig wit,h the t,ransformers side by
side, reprcserit,ing an average value for the three phascs for t,hreephase
short circuits. Strictly speaking, the reactance in the three phascs will
I12 SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES
I
Per cent ,O(lCt(l"L*
Ion base of C ~ C .k rd
No. of No. of Circ. Kva of
Type phoier core, "Oil, r.g"l.tol
!
Min Avg Max
~ _ _ ~~
Indue.. ......... I or 3 .. 2400 I?
I n d w . . ......... Ior3 .. to I0 0.65 0.85 1.00
4800 96
_____ _ _
Amp
rO~Y1.101
~ _ _ _ _
Step ............ 1 1 2400 Allrolings O.O+ .... 0.6
Step. ........... 3 I lo to160omp O.O+ .... 0.7
Step. ........... 3 3 13,800 Over 160arnp 0.15 .... 1.0
SHORTCIRCUITCURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 113
REFERENCES
1. A I E C Committee Rrport. Simplified Calculation of Fault Currents, E k e . E’ng.,
Octobrr, 1912.pp. 509511.
2. A I I * X Committee Ilrport. Simplifird Calmlation ai Fault Currmts. Trans.
AlEE’. 1942, Vol. G I . pp. 113:311:35.
3. Revision Made to AIICI: Report, Simplified Calculation of Fault Currents, Efec.
Emf,.. February, 194d. p. 65.
4. Darling. A. G., 4C Short Cirrriit Caleiilating Procdure for Lonroltage Systems,
‘I‘mns. A I E E . l!)41, Vol. GO, pp. 11211136.
5. Srhurig, 0. It.. Fault Voltngr Drop and ImpPdanre a t Shortcircuit Ciirrmts in
Low Voltngr Circuits. Trans. A I E E , 1941, Vol. 60, pp. 479486.
6. AIEE Committw Rrport. Simplifird Calculation of Fault Currents, Trans. A I E E ,
1948, Vol, 67, p. 1433.
Chapter 2 by R, H. Kaufmann
SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
plugging. There mould he a balanced set of currents, but this time the
application of rated voltage would cause currents of about six times
rated value. In other words, the impedance appears to be the same in
all three phases, but its value is now $6 = 0.16 per
kJ!
unit, or 16 per cent. The effect of mutual winding
coupling alone may make the effective impedance
per phase as low as 16 per cent or as high as 300
or 400 per cent.
There is one significant observation. So long as
the three currents are equal and separated by the
same angular displacement, the effect of currents I s
and I , on the voltage drop in phase A will be iden
Thus Z , = Z B = Z c .
This also identities the fact that the impedance voltage drops I a Z A ,
I,Z,, and I c Z c are separated by the same angles as I,, I , , and I c .
These are two very important facts which emphasize the value of
symmetrical components.
Ic
CASE I CASE 2 CASE 3
lPOSlTlVE SEOUENCEl (NEGATIVE SEWENCE) (ZERO SEOUENCE)
THE OPERATOR 0
02
0.5tj0.866
f /71:a2
/ ,
,1.5tJO.866
/ /
\+
/
I /
/
I/ /
//
//' a3
\
Ir0.50.866
0.5 1.5~0.866
:I a
RESOLUTION OF SEQUENCE C O M P O N E N T S
Id = Ih0 = 1.0 =
I, + I, + I,
3
Positive sequenre:
I,, =
1, + a l e + a21c
2

IS,= all., =
a21A I S+ + alc
3
I C 1= aI., =
aIA + + Ic
a21a
3
SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREEPHASE SYSTEMS 121
Srgativc sequence:
I,, =
I, + a2IB+ a l e
3
.\I1 three i.urrctits whii.11 romprise each of the three component systems
now have been dekiiicd. The sum of all t,hree compotrcnt currents of
each phase should equal the original actual phase current.
Phase il :
Phase 13 :
I B + la? f
= Ib, IbO

 a?IA + I I I+ a l c + aIr t I , + azIc + I , + I , + I c
3 3 3
= >SIA(aP + a + 1) + I a ( l + 1 + 1) + I c ( a + a2 + 1)
= !5(0 + 31, + 0) = I B
Phase C:
Ic = + I,, + I d
I,,
 + a21e + IC a'IA + a l a + IC + I., + 1, + I c
+
3 3 3
= 4$IA(a + az + , I ) + IB(a* + a + 1) + I c ( 1 + 1 + 1)
= >$(O + 0 + 3Ic) = Ic
? >
1 hus a means now has been devised of separat,ing the three actual line
currents (or voltages) into t,hree systems of symmetrical components, and
further it, has bee11shown that the sum of the three component quantities
of earh phase does exactly equal the original true line current (or voltage).
Several fuiidamental equatioiis and commonly used relationships are
listed i n Tahle 2.1.
1.0 =
In + Is + I c = I,, = I d
3
PERUNIT SYSTEM'
value throughout a wide range of physical size and voltage rating. For
example, the impedance of a transformer mill be about 0.05 perunit (6 per
cent) on its own rat,ing as a base quite independent of size or voltage
rating. If expressed in ohms, the numerical value of Z would vary
widely wit,h 110 sigu of any common denominator. Also, in the perunit
system a particular perunit value of current flowing into one side of a
transformer comes out the other side as the same perunit value.
Refer to Chap. 1, page 54, for a complete list of equations relating
~ e r  u n i tvalues.
SYSTEM APPLICATION
Segative sequence:
0 = I.dZm + + +
ZL2 ZTJ Tio*
v., = + +
ra2(zGs zL2 zr2)
Zero sequence:
0 = I.o(Zo0 + + Zro) +
ZLO v.0
vm0= r,,(zoot z t o+ zTd
Combined :
Ti" = v.1 + ve/02+ v.,o
= E,  Iai(Zoi + Z L I+ Z T ~ Za,(Zci + Zr.2 + Z T ~
 I~O(200 + ZLO + ZTO)
It will be useful to draw the individual sequence circuits such as indi
cated on Fig. 2.7. Xote that the circuit for the positive sequence is
"WY
ZG ZL
.".. 1Ah
vb
Ec/
".,. ..."
E+T I6 w
V0
. .....
FIG. 2.6
.,.A
tc * vc
Typical symmetrical threephase circuit.
126 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREEPHASE SYSTEMS
E a = 101 ( Z G I + Z ~ I + Z T ~ I ~ V O I
0 = 102 ( Z G Z t Z L 2 1 Z T Z 1 t VO2
0  100 (ZGO+ Z L O t Z T O I t YO0
VA = v o l t v02+v00
= E o  I o l ( Z G l t Z L l tZT11102 (ZGZ+ZLZ+ZTZI
1w ~~tz,~+z,l
FIG. 2.7 Equivalenl sequence circuits of Fig. 2.6 (in terms of the A phase)
TYPE OF APPROACH
_ _ _ _~_ _  _   1 Ib=lol EO
POSITIVE
I 2, +ZX
SEQUENCE I IS= 0216
N+ v,; zx
 v/JI.  2
I IC = o h
_c
1.3
E2F
The boundary coiiditioris a t the shortcircuit point are
I, =0
I, = Ic
v, = vc
LINETO LINE SHORT CIRCUIT (SOLID1
vc
II'  0
Ig =Ic
vg =vc
SHORT CIRCUIT
EcE5 :.
v b<' VB vc
SHORT CIRCUIT
EOUIVALENT SEQUENCE CIRCUITS (A PHASE REFERENCE )
PER PHASE
Ian =
I* + I , + 5  o + I*  I ,
=o
3 3
The positive and negativesequence currents in the A phase will he
diametrirally opposite sinre
Id =
+ aIll + a l l ,  0 + a I s  a l l , ~
I, (aaa)IB
3 3 3
I,, + d l , + a I c   0 + a l l a _
a I= s _ (aza)Is
_   _ _ (aa’) I ,
I,? =
3 3 3 3
I., = Id
The solution now hinges 011 the equality of voltage on the B and
(‘phase ronductors at the short rircuit.
V B = a2E.  a21.1Z1  aI.*ZZ
V , = aE,,  aI.lZ1  azI.zZz
To make V” = ITc
aE.
al., =  aIa1  
z , + z,
la, = ~
the magiiit,ude is of interest,, in which case 110 attentioil need bc given the
relative phase angle between this current and the refereure voltage.
The same generalized siilution ran bc applied to a rase in vhich the
short circuit contains impedanre. Suppose the linctoline impedance t o
be Z F . This can be simulated by i.onsidering the systcm to he extended
through an additional symmetriral branch containing an impedance
ZF/" per phase. 4 solid linetoline fault at, the end of this branch pro
dures the efleot nf an impedance Z P ronnerted linetoline on the basic
system.
The solution is as follows, using Figs. 2.8 and 2.11:
Linetoline connect,ion (line B to line C )
( 2 ) connected to (3); (I) open
For a linetoline impcdance Z F , make ZX = Z F / ~
For a linetoline short rircuit, make ZX = 0
Reference phase: A
(Bourrdary conditions: I , = 0, I , =  I c , V ( , ) = V ( , ) ]
. .
 EG
 j
+ z,+ z,
Resolving further, the solution hecomes simply
E,
Is = v3 z, + ( Z F / 2 ) + z*+ ( Z P / 2 ) =  I,
En
= 41P.F z1+ z, + z,
POSITIVE
SEQUENCE
I
I
I
I
Iai 
~
 Val
"W&
zF/2
NEGATIVE
II
SEQUENCE I
N 22 va 2 zF/2
*  +v'AVP
1a2
FIG. 2.1 1 Equivalent circuit for linetoline shortcircuit analysis.
SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREEPHASE SYSTEMS 131
{+:%:
equivalent Zomill be three times the value of Z,.
..
EOUIVALENT SEQUENCE
CIRCUITS I N TERMS OF
T H E A PHASE
3Zn
I LG CONNECTION
: I THROUGH IMPEDANCE ZF
M 4 G h E TnE SYSTEM S
EXTEhDED THRObGh Q
BALAhCED C.RCJlT OF ZF
PER PhASE LZFI’ZF~=ZFO=ZFI
ZERO
N _____ 1
I
I
SEQUENCE zo ZF I
VVAv “20 .,,* +*., 1
Iao t
FI
I35
POSITIVE
SEOUENCE
'
I
I $+EO
Iai+
&
z vl:
  1
I I
I
ZERO
SEOVENCE VOO I
+A
100
FIG. 2.1 5 Equivalent circuit for double linetoground shortcircuit analysis.
TRANSFORMER CHARACTERISTICS
CONNECTION
ZERO SEQUENCE CIRCUIl
(
ZT
4 
x x
F 3 2
131 (  P H

Y
7:
SPECIAL CASE 3  P H CORE TVPE
(
N
131 Ipn
P
N

(see Fig. 2.18). Thus the zerosequence circuit will be interrupted at the
jurirtion with a Yconnected winding if the neutral is.uugrounded.
Iao
With standard dltaY or Ydelta transformms, H I (high voltage) will hc 30" shcad
of X I (law voltage) for normal phase sequence. H I will hc 30" behind X , with oppo
site phase sequence.
Many investigators pwfer to exprrss the relationship hetween high and lowten
sion line currents in B slightly different manner so as to simplify the associated phase
shift opcration, for example,
NOTE: If currents w e not in perunit, the transformation ratio must also he fac
tared in.
SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREEPHASE SYSTEMS I39
Zerosequence current, in a circuit connect,ed t o a groundedneutral
Yconnected winding can flow if zerosequence rurrent, in t,he secondary
windings can he caused t o flow in the direct,iori iiidicat,ed by the secoridary
arrows, (see~Fig.2.19).
If the secondary currents in Fig. 2.19 cannot flow, the primary zero
sequence current is limited t o the magnetizing current of the core (in t,he
order of 5 per cent of rated current for 100 per cent impressed voltage).
This represents a Z O of ahout, 2000 per cent on the transformer rating,
which for practical purposes may he regarded as infinite.
A n exception to this rulc is presented hy the thrcephase coretype
design whose construction is as indicated in Fig. 2.20. The flow of zero
sequence current, in the primary windirig produces magnetic flux whii,h
is in phase in the same direction in all three core legs. Since there are no
external core legs between upper and lower core yokes (as would exist in a
shell type of threephase design),
the zerosequenre flux must re
turn largely through the air.
The steel tank walls provide a
fairly low reluctance path forpart
ofthereturn circuit, but thecross
over to t,he core yoke at both the
topand bottom isdirectly through
air. The magnetizing reactance
represented by this flux path c
FIG. 2.20 The threephase c k  t y p e tronr
usually he in the order of 30 to ,, ..
50 per cent on the t,ransformer
rating, which is low enough to have practical significance.
Zerosequence current in a circuit connected to a groundedneutral
Yconnected winding can flow if another set of transformer wiridiiigs is
connected in delta as in Fig. 2.21. The closed delta provides a circuit for
t h e flow of zerosequence current. The impedance presented to the flow
of current is the interminding impedance Z, (the same as the normal
positive sequence ZT), Kote, however, that the zerosequence currents
are not repeated in the outgoing line circuit but are shortcircuited within
the delta winding.
140 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREEPHASE SYSTEMS
FIG. 2.21 A circuit connecting with a grounded Yconnected transformer winding with a
delta winding on the same core structure.
FIG. 2.22 A circuit connecting with a grounded Yconnected transformer winding with
another grounded Y winding on t h e same core structure.
SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREEPHASE SYSTEMS 141
MOT MOT
C U RR E N T IK=CTR.VIOI
VOLTAGE l i = mR A T I O I
ZERO SEO'lENCE POS!TIVE SEQUENCE
JO 8661

NOTE  8"
INTERCWNGING LINES B B C
METER WILL READ Vo2
cuits. The circuit breakers too are often inadequate in these old syst,ems.
Thus, when a short circuit does occur it is almost cert,ain to cause a major
shutdown with possible damage t o other propert,y as well as loss of
production.
5. Use an engineering approach. If the shortcircuit,protection proh
lem is approached on an engineering basis instead of depending on good
luck, the plant investment can be more adequately protected and undue
risks eliminated. Good luck over a period of years may give a false
assurance that failures are never going t,o occur, but, good luck eventually
runs out as it has in so many cases. The cost of a loss due t o a failure
then is far more than it would have been to modernize the switchgear oil
a planned stepbystep basis.
In the engineering approach a study is made to determine t,he weak
spots in t,he electric system and remedy them hefore a major shutdown
occurs, with attendant financial and production loss. The engineering
approach is of a prevent,ive nature, i.e., finding the weak spots and correct
ing them before a failure does occur.
No one would t,hink of running a boiler indefinitely just hecause “ i t
had never failed.” Preventive maint,enance involves continually repair
ing and replacing weak parts hefore they fail. The results of the failure
of an inadequate circuit breaker can he as serious as a boiler failure; so the
same intelligent engineering approach should be used in providing safe,
adeyuat,e circuit breakers as is used with other machinery even thongh
one has heen lucky enough over a period of years t o avoid the failure of an
inadequate circuit breaker. Luck might change for the worse tomorrow;
so it may pay real dividends not t o be complacent ahout shortcircuit
conditions.
To have a safe power system with low maintenance cost and high
service continuity, adequate circuit prot,ertive equipment is necessary
throughout the ent,ire system from the place where the power system
enters the plant down t o t,he smallest motor or light.
An Example of W h a t Can Happen When Available Shortcircuit Cur
rents Exceed the Interrupting Rating of Shortcircuit Protective Devices.
An inadequate circuit breaker mas mounted in a svit,ch riiiim which was
part of the distribution system. A short circuit occurred in the outgoing
rable. The shortcircuit duty was well above the interrupt,ing rating of
the circuit breaker i n the switch house. As a result, the circuit breaker
attempted to open the circuit hut did not havetheability todoso. There
fore, the circuit breaker failed, blew up, and when it did two things hap
pened. First, the circuit breaker at the source had t o clear the fault in
t,he failed circuit hreaker and thus drop all the load instead of just the one
load on the fauky hranch. This meant unnecessary loss of prodwt‘ * ion.
Second, a fire resulted and completely destroyed the switch house.
AC SHORTCIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 147
FIG. 3.1 Rerull of foilure of inodequote oil circuit breaker on heovy short circuit.
Fortunately the switrh house was isolated from nl.her I~uildit~gs, and orily
the switrh house burned dn\vn. llad this fsilurc ocwrrcd i n a fiict,ory
tiuilding, the damage could have been much more cxLensive.
r.
Ihe picture, Fig. 3.1, tells the st,nry of what happened hotter thaii ii
book of mords could.
The irony of this fiiilurc was that, the plant, erigineer had ri~cogriizetlt h e
inadequacy of the circuit hrcakers in this swit,ch house aiid was replacing
t,hem with adequat,e ones. The ot,her circuit breakers in this switi.h
house had already hcen rcplaced mit,li adequat,e unes, and t.liey \wre
destroyed too.
One can never tell how long hia luck will last wii.h inat1t.quat.e circuit
breakers or fuses. It, may rim out sooner tliaii one thinks.
CIRCUIT BREAKERSGENERAL
FUSESGENERAL
Fuses are often considered for circuit protection because of their low
first cost. Before selecting fuses in place of circuit breakers, there are
certain general characteristics and limitations which must be recognized
and considered as well as cost.
While fuses have their proper applications, one must look rarefully a t
the fuse picture in general and then more closely a t specific fuses to see
how many of the hasic requirements are met.
Generally Do Not M e e t All Requiremsnts. One of the first and fore
most considerations is that fuses in themselves do not meet the basic
requirements for a complete shortcircuit protective device. Fuses alone
(except t,he oilfuse cutouts) do not incorporate any switching means to
permit closing in on high currents or to switch load currents. T o meet
the basic requirements it is necessary that a fuse other than a n oilfuse
cutout be used in conjunct,ion with a properly rated interrupter or safety
switch. In this combination the fuse provides the ability to open ahnor
ma1 currents automatically. The switch should provide the ability to
open load currents and moderate overcurrents which are below the blow
ing point of the fuse and should provide the ability t,o safely close in on
shortcircuit currents up to the interrupt,ing rating of the fuse. When
the switch is in the closed position, it should be able to carry safely what
ever current the fuse will pass.
The operation of fuses in combination with interrupter switches at
moderate overcurrents imposes problems not easily overcome. The
fundamentals of the problem can be seen by referring to Fig. 3.2. To
illustrat,e one phase of the problem, let us assume that it takes $6 see only
to close and open a switch manually. Should there be a moderate over
load when the switch is opened and closed rapidly, as there may well be
because of connected motors, etc., the switch would have to open perhaps
several times its rating because the operation took place so quickly that
the fuse did not have time to melt. This area is represented by the
crosshatched section of Fig. 3.2. For example, an interrupter switch
might he rated to make 20,000 amp, carry 20,000 amp momentarily, and
to open 100 amp. This switch, when used with a 100amp Erated fuse*
or even a much smaller rated fuse, may not be adequate on moderate
values of current,. At 1000 amp, for example, the blowing time of the
fuse may be 3 see. An operator may close the switch and open it within
36 see. The fuse would not have had time to melt, and the switch vould
be required to open 1000 amp, or ten times its rating. Whenever
the circuit interruption takes place in two separate devices which are
* Erated fuses will carry their rated eurrmt eontinuouslv and blow in 5 to 10 min
at 200 to 264 per cent of rated current.
AC SHORTCIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 151
AMPERES
FIG. 3.2 Interrupterswitch rating and fuse timecurrent characteristics showing per
formonce on moderate overcurrent..
152 AC SHORTCIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT
and larger, they lose more and more of their currentlimiting ability.
Sinre the currentlimiting ability of fuses is most useful in branchcircuit
protection, the handirap of having to use small ratings to get effective
rurreutlimiting artion is not so pronounred, as most branch circuits are
of small rurrent rating anyway.
Industry Standards. Fuses above 600 volts are made according to
indnstry st,andardsesrept, that standardized levels of interrupting ratings
are not set up. Lowvoltage fuses have no ac interrupting standards,
although surh st,andards may be available in the future. See further
disrussion nuder voltage classification.
Mechanical Simplicity a t Low Current Ratings. Fuses and their asso
ciated switches for lowcurrent circuits, i.e., about 200 amp or less, are
simpler mechanically than circuit breakers. For higher current circuits
t,he switrh, if built, t o have the necessary momentary and interrupting
abilit,y, loses its advantage of mechanical simplicity.
I11 selecting circuit breakers YS. fuses, the techniral ronsideratious cer
tainly favor the rirruit breakers in most rases. Because of this, circuit
breakers are generally considered the only acceptable protective devices
by most engineers for all'lorations in industrial plants where switching
and shortrirruit protectioii is required except for some hranch circuits
and control circuits and motor starters. Fuses and switches are pre
ferred for some hranch rircuits because of the fast operation of the fuse.
Besides the technical roiisiderations, economirs is a factor. While cost
is very important, it is secondary to the technical considerations noted
above and secondary to select,ing the devire that has an adequate inter
rupting rating for t,he servire. Berause there may he in some cases a
wide difference in rost between circuit hreakers and fuses, there is a tend
ency to get so involved in economic issues in the selection of circuit
breakers vs. fuses that technical ronsiderations are lost sight of. AS a
result many hazardous syst,ems are installed to save a few dollars in first
cost, a saving that may soon be lost because of the poor performance and
higher maintenanre of inadequate equipment, particularly in lowvoltage
circuits. It is for that reason and because the technical cansiderations
vary somewhat with voltage that the technical considerations are reviewed
in further detail as a function of voltage class.
There are other factors in the selection of fuses for overcurrent protec
tion. These factors involve mainly coordination with relay timecurrent
characteristics or the timecurrent characteristics of builtin devices on
circuit breakers (see Chap. 9).
I54 AC SHORTCIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES A N D CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT
* Standai rating8 are 15, 20, 25,35, 50,70,90, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250,275,
.>   ., .__.)__., ....
or where it may he received from the utility at low voltage and for the
secondary svitchgear of loadcenter unit substations or in main subdis
tribution centers, Fig. 3.4. They are also applicable for individual
branchcircuit prokction where t,he highest qualit,y device is required and
where special timecurrent characteristics are necessary for coordination.
They are particularly applicable for branehcircuit protection for larger
loads over 200 amp or for smaller loads where, as stated above, highest
quality protection is desired or electrical operation is required. These
circuit breakers have longer life built into them than do other types of
lowvoltage circuit breakers and are, therefore, suitable for many more
operations, particularly where there is moderately repetitive duty imposed.
Selective Tripping vs. Cascading. Large air circuit breakers may
be used either in selective tripping systems or in cascade systems. Selec
tive tripping systems, Fig. 3.5, are those in which the circuit breakers are
set to trip selectively so that the one nearest the fault operates first so
that only the faulty portion of the circuit is deenergized. I n this case all
circuit breakers should have adequate interrupting ratings, that is, their
rating should be equal to or greater than the shortcircuit duty a t the
156 AC SHORTCIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND ClRCUlT EQUIPMENT
ELECTRICALLY
OPERATED
SU0  DISTRI0UTlON
CENTER

& 1500 KVA LOAD CENTER
A
UNIT SUESTDTION
ERANCH FEEDER
CIRCUIT BREDK
+FEEDER CABLE
/
SHORT CIRCUIT DUTY
DT THIS POINT 32.000 ~UEBU~
DMP RMS DSYMMETRICDL 7
A
*
/I' ERDNCH FEEDER CIRCUIT
)BREDKERS RATED 25000
DMP INTERRUPTING
V
SHORT CIRCUIT DUTY
DT THIS POINT 22000
DMP RMS DSYMMETRICDL

I
&I500
i KVA LOAD CENTER
UNIT SUBSTATION
MAGNETIC TYPE
I I '
MOTOR
I SHORT CIRCUIT DUTY
AT THIS POINT 50.000AMP
CONTRIBUTION RMS ASYMMETRICAL
9000AMP
FIG. 3.6 Oneline diagram showing large oir circuit breakers applied in cascade with
only one source of lowvoltage power.
I
f
&I000 KVA LObD CENTER
UNIT SUBSTATION
I I I knunar
I
NOTE! INSTbNTANEWS snom CIRCUIT DUTY
T R I P E L E M E N T ON HERE 26000 AMP RMS
FEEDER B R E I K E R B ISYMUETRICbL
MUST BE SET bT
12000 bMP(OQ X I 5 0 0 0 1
FIG. 3.7 Oneline diagram showing large air circuit breakers in cascade applied
remote from the main source of power.
160 AC SHORTCIRCUIT PROTEtTlVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT
Where there are two or more sources of current to a bus with cascaded
feeder rircuit breakers, the following rule applies, Fig. 3.8. All main A'
circuit breakers (i.e., A : , A : , A : ) must be tripped instantaneously when
the total shortcircuit current through the hackedup B circuit breaker
exceeds 80 per cent of its interrupting ratings.
The example in Fig. 3.8 shows what the various instantaneous over
current trip settings of the main circuit breakers should be for a given
case. The rule is that the instantaneous setting must be proportioned t o
the shortcircuit current delivered through the main circuit breaker in
question. The interrupting rating of the B circuit breakers is 50,000
amp. When the total current reaches 40,000 amp, the current delivered
by these various sources is 6000 amp, 8000 amp, and 18,800 amp. The
motor contribution is 7200 amp. All currents are rms asymmetrical.
Cascaded operation is a means of lowering the cost of shortcircuit pro
tection in secondary systems. In the cascaded system, smaller feeder
circuit breakers are used than in the selective system; therefore this
differential favors the cascaded system from an economic standpoint.
I t must be recognized, however, that the service reliability of a cascaded
system is poorer than that of a selective system because in a cascaded
system, whenever a feeder short circuit draws a current in excess of 80
per cent of the interrupting rating of the feeder circuit breaker, the main
circuit breaker is tripped out and service on all feeders served by that
main circuit breaker or breakers is lost until the service is restored by
reclosing the main circuit breaker. This application has proved satis
factory from a servicereliability standpoint for many industrial processes.
AC SHORTCIRCUIT PROTECTIVE OEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 161
d:3J)
7 4 7 , 0AMP
0 0
rMOTOR
CONTR IBUTION
7200 AMP
THIS FAULT DRAWS
40.000 AMP R M S
ASYMMETRICAL
FIG. 3.8 Oneline diogram showing lorge air circuil breakers in cascade wilh more
ihan m e source of power to ihe main lowvolloge bur.

bJ
m
TABLE 3.3 Aircircuitbreaker Application TablesCascade System and Selective System
600 Volts ond Less
Ratings required for equipment for Ironsformer and feeder circ~itl,with selection of circuit breaker 8 on basis of cascade sydsm and selective trip system. Other
fadois than shortcircuit duty ore important in the selection of circuit breakers for selective trionine. Refer to monvfocturer for other lirnitotions.
Standards. The XEMA Standards that, apply to all large air circuit
breakers are KO. SG31951.
I
&75D
A
1:
KVA MAX
CIRCUIT
CASE
MOLDED {1h
1 )
)
+MOLDED CASE
BREAKERS
I N PLUGIN
DEVICE
INDIVIDUAL
MOLDED CASE
BREAKERS
DISTRIBUTION CENTER
MOLDED CASE
BREAKERS
FIG. 3.10 Oneline diagram showing where moldedcore air circuit breakers can be ap
plied in a lowvoltage power distribution system.
Application. Because of their small size and lower cost, the molded
case circuit breakers find application for branchcircuit, protection where
the interrupting duty is within their interrupting rating, Fig. 3.10. They
also find applicabion on the secondaries of some small lightduty Ioad
center unit substations.
Not Suitable for Cascade Operation. These circuit breakers are not
suitable for cascade operation wit,h large air circuit breakers berause they
operate so fast that the large air circuit breakers are not able to protect
them (see iVEhlA Standards for Large Air Circuit Breakers, Section
SG33.43). Xeither are they suitable for cascading vith ot.her molded
case circuit breakers. This conclusion mas reached after exhaustive tests.
166 AC SHORTCIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT
I
600 ~ 0 1 1 s
rrrtingr amp
~
7,500 15100
20,000 15,000 15.000 15100
25,000 20,000 15.000 125225
30,000 25,000 25,000 125225
50,000 35,000 25.000 125600
FUSED SWITCHES
FIG. 3.1 1 Highcopocity interrupting (HCI) enclosed switch with high interruptingrating
currentlimiting silverrand fuses (EJ6).
Volts
! I,
Amperes Volts 1
I
Amperes
152030
and EJ6 fuse. amp
byml
100.000
100.000
100,000
200 l00,000
L LOAD CENTER
UNIT SUBSTATION
FIG. 3.1 3 Curves showing the currentlimiting choracterirtics of type EJ6 silversand
currentlimiting fuses (60cycler).
I70 AC SHORTCIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT
will withstand 9000 amp rms for 0.2 cycle. So, the 30amp fuse vill pro
tect a wire which will be required to carry 30amp load current.
This currentlimiting feature, in addition to protecting small wires in
systems of high shortcircuitcurrent capacity, can protect small switching
devices. It is for this reason that the type HCI switch can he used with
type EJ6 fuses 011 circuits where the available shortcirruitcurrent duty
is as high as 100,000 amp.
The t,ype HCI switch and EJG fuse combination has high interrupting
rating arid is currentlimit,ing in its operation which enables it to beusedin
many places where moldedcase circuit breakers would not have adequate
interrupting rating and where large air circuit breakers would be too ex
pensive, too large, or not applicable from an engineeriug standpoint. For
example, a circuit breaker for a 30amp circuit fed from a certain low
voltage bus may require a circuit breaker with 100,000 amp interrupting
rating. The wire or cable mould have t o be of the order of 350 MCM t o
withstand the shortcircuit current. I n the first place, a 100,000amp
interrupting rating circuit breaker cannot be built with a 30amp trip coil
that will withstand the shortcircuit forces or heating. I n the second
place, any 30amp load devire mould not have terminals that would
accommodat,e 350MCM cable, the size required to withstand 100,000
amp. The use of an EJG currentlimiting fuse and the HCI switch rated
30 amp would provide adequate shortcircuit protection, and the current
limiting effect of the fuse mould enable a wire of smaller size t o be used.
The switch and fuse comhinat,ion is not generally suitable for main feeder
circuit protection because of the fact that it is difficult to make the fast
currentlimiting fuses operate selectively with other overcurrent protec
tive devices that would be in the circuit between the fuse and the load.
Standards. Information for standards on fuses may be obtained from
the Underwriters Laboratories, Incorporated, bulletin, Standard for
Fuses.
Information on st,aridards for enclosed switches (safety switches) may
be obtained from IJnderwriters Laboratories, Incorporated, bulletin,
Standard for Enclosed Switches or NEMA Publication No. 4278,
Enclosed Switch Standards.
There are many types of power circuit breakers availahle, but basically
they are divided into the oil t,ypc and the nillcss type. I n the field 2.4 t o
13.8kv t,he oillesstype cirruit breaker, Fig. 3.14, has largely superseded
t h e oilt,ype circuit breaker. In indoor metalenclosed switehgear of the
st,ation t,ypc for circuits 13.8 Lo 34.5 kv, the airtype circuit breakers are
in general superseding the oiltype vircuit breakers. I n the field above
11.A kv for outdoor switchgear, oil circuit breakers are most commonly
used, Fig. 3.15. For the sake of the discussion here relative to d e c t i o n
of equipment>fiom a short,rircuit standpoint, it makes no difference
whcthcr the rircirit breakers are of t,he nil or oilless type.
Ratings Available. Highvoltage power circuit breakers are availahle
in ratings from 2.4 kv up to over 300 kv and in interruptirig ratings from
15 mva up to 25,000 mva. Complete listings of power circuit breakers
can he found iii the latest copy of S E R l A Standards SG&l954. T h e cir
cuit, breakers most comtnonly used in industrial plants are the oilless or
air type, sho\rn i n Fig. 3.14. The available ratings of this type of cir
cuit breaker are given in Table 1.1 (Chap. I).
FIG. 3.14 Typical ille err (air) power circuit breaker ar wed in metalclad switchgear for
c i t w i t s rated 2.4 to 13.8 kv.
172 AC SHORTCIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT
FIG. 3.15 Outdoor frometype oil circuit breaker 01 used in circuits rated above 15 kv.
This circuit breoker i s rated 34.5 kv.
Q P OUTDOOR POWER
C I R C U I T BREAKERS
Q GENERATOR T TYWI
GENERATOR TRANSFORMER
CIRCUIT BREAKER SECONDARY
CIRCUIT BREAKER
!
' MAlN FEEDER
CIRCUIT BREAKER
A AHEAD O F L I N E
OF L I M I T A M P
MOTOR STARTERS
LARGE OU
HIGH VOLTAGE
MOTORS
FIG. 3.16 Oneline diogrorn rhowing where oilless power circuit breakerr in metalclad
rwitchgeclr and outdoor power cirwit brecikerr may be applied in industrial power dir
tribution ryrtemr.
174 AC SHORTCIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT
There are many types of power fuses available for circuits rated 2.4 kv
and above. These t,ypes of fuses, generally speaking, divide t,hemselves
into three categories. The first is the power fuse, typical examples of
which are shown in Fig. 3.17 which are for highrapacity power circuits.
The second type that is slightly differeni, i n construct,ion i s the oilfuse
cutout, which i s really a combination of a cntout and a fuse immersed
in a container of oil, Fig. 3.18. The third type of fuse is used mainly in
distribntion cutouts for overhead opcirwire outdoor distriliutioii systems
of utilit.ics in urban and suburban areas, Fig. 3.119.
FIG. 3.17 Typical highvoltage (above 600 volts1 power furer: Ifeft) currentlimiting non
enpulrion silverrand type, (right] "oncurrentlimiting expulsion outdoor type.
176 AC SHORTCIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DNICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT
SMALL POWER
IyTy\ TRANSFORMER
I
LIMITING
FIG. 3.20 Oneline diagram rhowing where highvoltage (above 600 VOllS) Power
may be applied in industrial power distribution systems.
178 AC SHORTCIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT
MOTOR STARTERS
T i p s RH ............................................ 1 75 I50
5 75 145
8 75 140
Shortcircuit current.
~ ~~
omp
11.25 X rymmetricall 1.5 to 2 cycles
linrt. trip)
>g s*c
9,0001 0,000 ........................... No. 1 Awg No. 2/0 Awg No. 4/0 Awg
10,000 12.500 50 mvo .............. 250 mvo No. 1/0 Awg Na 3/0 Awg 250 M C M
12.50015,000 ...... 100 mva 150 m w ....... No. 2/0 Awr No. 4/0 Awg 300 M C M
15.00020.000 ........................... No. 3 / 0 A w r 300 MCM 400 M C M
20,00025.000 00 m w 150 m w 250 m w 500 m w No. 4/0 AWI 350 MCM 500 M C M
25,00030.000 ........................... 250 M C M 400 MCM 600 M C M
30.00035.000 ...... 250 mva ....... 750 mvo 300 M C M 500 MCM 750 M C M
35.00040.000 5 0 m r o ....... 500 mvm ....... 350MCM 600 MCM 750 M C M
AC SHORTCIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQVIPMENT 183
has been proved to be valid for canductor sizes of No. 8 Awg or larger*),
the conductor heating is governed by the following:
For Copper:
"I. 8.
FIG. 3.23 Shorttime bhortcircuit) heating limits of copper cables and correlation of
current and time to elevate the copper temperature from 75 to 150 C (dlheat is oirumed
to be stored in the copped.
Fuse S m a l l ~ twire
Sm.lle.t wire
roting, normally vied,
protected
amp RH insulation
EXAMPLES
former iri question is good for full shortcircuit current (sixteen times
normal) for 5 sec. It is desired that the feeder cable have the same
ability.
Solution: Rms symmetrical amperes = rated current X 16 = 240 x
16 = 3900 amp. The duration of this current as defined by the condi
tions of the problem is 5 sec.
Assume X / R ratio = 10 or less
From chart A of Fig. 3.23, K 1 = 1; ( X / R ratio of 10 and time of 5 sec)
Henre, the total rms amperes affecting cable heating = K , X 3900
= 1.0 X 3900 = 3900 amp
On the large rhart of Fig. 3.23, locate the intersection of the horizontal
3900amp line and the 250MCM conductor diagonal line. The per
missible time (read on the bottom scale) is indicated to be 12 sec (75 to
150 C hasis).
The 250MCM cable will adequately meet the 5sec requirement.
Example 2. Feeder circuits are t o be run from a 480volt 60cycle
loadcenter unit substation at which point the shortcircuit duty is
25,000 amp (20,000 symmetrical rms amperes). What is the smallest
reasonable feeder conductor size based on the use of a 25,000amp inter
rupting rating air circuit breaker which trips instantarieously (1.5 cycles)
a t currents in excess of fifteen times the normal rating?
solulion:
Symmetrical current = 20,000 amp
Time duration = 1.5 cycles
Rms amperes = 20,000 X 1.25 = 25,000
See preceding text for explanation of 1.25 factor K ,
On the large rhart of Fig. 3.23, locate the intersection of the horizontal
25,000amp line and the vertical 1.5cycle line. The minimum size con
ductor (75 to 150 C basis) whose curve is above the intersection is a
KO.1 Awg.
Example 3. A 4kv feeder is t o be run from a substation at which the
symmetrical shortcircuit current is 25,000 amp. A continuous load
caparit,y of 1000 kva is desired (113 amp), and a KO.2/0Awg coronol
cable run is being considered. Line relaying is to consist of standard
timeovercurrent relays on the & tap and S o . 5 timelever setting
v i t h 250/5amp rurrent transformers. Instantaneous attachments are
not planned, but could be used if set at 3000amp line current.
Solution:
Symmetriral shortcircuit current = 25,000 amp
Case 1. No instantaneous attachment on relay
Rms symmetrical shortcircuit current = 25,000 amp
Relay operating time = 50 cycles; (From published timecurrent
curves)
Circuitbreaker operating time = 8 cycles
188 AC SHORTCIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT
r
189
T i m e  seconds
I
190 AC SHORTCIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT
= 63.8 C, or 64 C
The maximum momentary temperature for coronol at 5 kv is 145 C
(see Table 3.6).
From detail chart B , Fig. 3.23, the correction factor K for an initial
conductor temperature of 64 C and final of 145 C is K = 1.13.
From the large chart of Fig. 3.23, the permissible time for 27,500 amp
in No. 3/0Awg conductor (75 to 150 C basis) is 6.7 cycles.
The permissible time corrected t o a 64 to 145 C basis is K X 6.7
= 1.13 X 6.7 = 7.6 cycles.
Therefore, a No. 4/OAwg conductor is the correct selection since a
No. 3/OAwg conductor would fail t o meet the 8.5cycle requirement.
The fusing current time curves for copper conductors are shown in
Fig. 3.21. The curves are based on the folloiving assumptions:
1. Radiatiou may be neglected because of the short time involved.
2. Resistance of 1 cu cm of copper at 0 C is 1.589 microhms.
3. Temperatureresistance coefficient of copper a t 0 C is 1/234.
4. Melting point of copper is 1083 C.
5. Ambient temperature is 40 C.
Data are an adaptation from the eight,h edition of “Standard Handbook
for Elect,rical Engineers.”*
* A . E. Knowlton (editorinchief), “Standard Handhook for Electrical Engineers,”
8th ed., Chap. 4, McGrawHill Book Company, h e . , S e w York, 1949.
Chapter 4 by W. R. Crites and Maynord N. Halberg*
VOLTAGE DESIGNATIONS *
It is necessary t o have a n understanding of the voltage names of sys
tems and t,he voltage rat,ings of various pieces of apparatus used in the
system before start,ing a discussion on systemvoltage problems so t h a t
the proper voltage identification can be used throughout. It is also
necessary t,o know v h y the voltage designat,ions are applied t o help in
understairding the systemvoltage disussion in the following sections.
The volt,ageidentification structure is summarized iu Table 4.1. For
each of the nominal syst,em voltages listed, t,he table gives voltage ratings
of generators, transformers, motors, and (in some cases) lamps. T o
illustrate the use of Table 4.1, consider a 13,800volt system. The
generators would be rated 13,800 volts. Transformers stepping power
down from transmission voltage would have secondary windings (I?,
Fig. 4.1) rated 13,800 volts. Transformers steppiug power down t o
utilization vokage in loadcenter substations would have primary mind
ings (C, Fig. 4.1) rated 13,800 volts. Motors connerted directly to the
13,800volt bus would lie rated 13,200 volts.
From the foregoing summary and Table 4.1 it is evident that care must
tie exercised in using the proper voltage ident,ifiration for each piece of
equipmelit as well as for the system. Some fundamental rules are as
follo\vs :
1. When speaking of equipment, the rated voltage is used, aud it is the
voltage to which the operating characteristics are referred.
2. When speaking of systems, rat.ed voltage is not an applicable term
because various piwes of equipment in a given system often have different
voltage ratings. Therefore, t,he term n o m i n a l s y s t e m vollage is used for
convenient designation of systems and circuits t o define the voltage class.
The problem of proper identification would be easier if all apparatus
of a given voltage class had the same vokage rating. Then, of course,
tem voltage could have that same value. Possibly if the
industry were starting over again, vokage ident,iticatioii mould be made
that simple. But, as syst,ems grew, voltages were ini,hed up t o compen
sate for t,he voltage drop between source arid load.
As a result, of t,hese changes that have taken pla(.e over a period of years,
transformer arid generator voltage rat,ings are generally higher than
utilizationeiiuipment vnltagc rat,ings. There is logic in this in that the
voltage rating of transformers, for example, is t,heir noload rating.
Since most plants are supplied by transformers, the concept has beeri
acceptcd that, supply equipment will have a higher voltage rating than
utilization equipment,. This means that in a 480volt system, for cxam
* For a iiirthrr rrpansion of t h i s srihjpet F W l < I ~ ~ I  X 1 5 MKPport.,
A l’refrrrrd Volt
age I h t i n g s of :\(: Systrrris and Equipmmt, N I X l’uhliration lo. R6. S E M A
I’ulilirstion l o . 117, \lay, 1‘JIU.
VOLTAGESTANDARD RATINGS. VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 193.
ple, transforniers or geiierators supplying motors ivoiild have a ratiiig of
480 volts whereas t,he motors irould have a ratiiig of 440 volts. Part of
this ditrereiicc: is compeiisated for by voltage drop iii the traiisformer aiid
in the distributioii system betiveeii the traiisformers aiid the motors.
Therefore, in general, the voltage at the motors is reasoiiably iiear thc
iiameplatc ratiiig iii the average system.
I n older types of distrihiitioii systems it i m s commoii prartire to use
stepdoivii trmçformers irith a Iower primary voltage ratiiig thaii thc
transformers which ivould siipply that systcm. For example, the ti'aiis
former steppiiig dowi from the iitility voltage ofteii hnil a ratiiig of 2400
volts oii the secoiidary, aiid the traiisformer steppiiig doi\ii to the utiliza
tioii voltage of 480 or 240 volts had a ratiiig of 2300 volts oii tlie primar?..
Becausc of the desigii of preseiitday systems nitli smaller drgi'ers of
volt,age drop, aiid judirioiis m e of taps i i i traiisformers, the prartirc is, as
INCOMING
4\
1
MASTER U N I T
SUBSTATION
( P R I M A R Y SUBSTATIONI
( A I P R I M A R I WINDING
u (IF USEDI
ml SECONDARY WINDING
X
P L A N T P R I M A R Y D I S T R I B U T I D N VDLTAGE
LOAD C E N T E R U N I T
SUBSTATION
(SECONDARY SUBSTATION IN FACTORYI
PRIMARY WINDING
WINDING
evident from Table 4.1, t o use the same voltage rating for all traiis
former windings connected t o a given system voltage. This is true
whether the transformers are stepping down to this system or steppiug
down from this system.
TABLE 4.1 Boric Pattern of Voltage Identification
Threephase Systems
208Y/120'
240
480*
600
20sY/l20
240
480
600
208Y/120
240
480
600
208 or 120
240
480
600
440
I
220 or 208 208.118. or 120
220 236
165
* In ~ P I Vinstallations, or W ~ P ~ P Ya srlwtion
P ~ oi voltngr can l i p ~ n a d rthrsr
. i ~ r cprc
ferrrd s y s t m valtagrs.
t Specifying t h e w valiirs for motor voltsgcs is itnportarrt: For instnnw. motors to
opprste on IltiO. GWC, or 18,800volt systrins should Iw rntcil 4000. (i(iO0. or 1:1,200
volts, resp2ctively.
The oneline diagram (Fig. 4.1) shows a t y p i i d method of distributing
power in industrial plants and will be used as referenre to identify some
portions of the systems and equipment referred to.
Transformer voltage ratings are hased on the noload values, and the
ratio of primary to secondary rated wltages is equal t o the turn ratio.
The transformers have a voltage rating for each xindiiig. These are
VOLTAGSSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 195
aiid two below normal, giving a total adjustment of plus or minus 5 per
cent,. With these t,aps in the primary winding, a transformer actually
has five different ratios. I t vould he very cumbersome to refer to all five
of these ratios in all discussions; therefore, when in the following dis
cussion a transformer is referred t o as having, for example, a rating of
2400480 volt,s, the discussion will apply equally well whether the trans
former is operated 00 the cenher t a p or other taps. Regardless of the tap
used, the t,raiisformerwill still be referred to as a 2100480volt transformer,
Comhined light arid power systems are frequently used where motors
are supplied a t 180 volts, for example, and lights are supplied at 120 volts
from the same 480volt system, using drytype transformers. The
standard primary volt,age ratings for t,hese light,ing transformers are 600
volts, 480 volts, arid 240 volts, aiid the standard secondary vohage ratings
are 208Y/120 volts and 120/240 volts. Two rated kva 5 per cent below
normal t,aps are provided in these transformers t,o allow for operation of
120volt lamps near t,heir rated voltage when the voltage on the 480volt
system is below 480 volts as it normally vill be.
2
mTwI
4I HIGH VOLTAGE BUS
FIG. 4.2
merit,
Unit transformer generator arronge
A t the other end of the system are the motors, and their rat,ings reflect
the fact that voltage at utilizatioii equipment is somewhat loirer t,haii a t
the sources of power because of voltage drop.
Singlephase motors are usually rated at 115 or 230 volts.
The standard voltage rat,ings of polyphase motors are given in Table
4.1.
TABLE 4.4 M o t o r Voltage Ratings
110 "0111 550 "011. 6,600 Volt.
208 volt. 2,300 ~011s I1.000 volt,
220 wit. 4,000 ~ o l t i 13,200 volts
440 rolls 4,600 volts
OTHER APPARATUS
rating and motor rating in a given voltage class. For instance, industrial
heating devices are rated at 115,230, 4G0, and 575 volts. Capacitors are
rated at 230, 460, 575, 2400, 4800, 7200, 12,470, and 13,800 volts.
Singlo Phase
120
120/240
240
Three Phore
An ideal electric power system is one which will supply constant fre
quency and volt,age at rated nameplate value t o every piece of apparatus
in the system. I n modern power systems, frequency is a minor problem.
It is impractical, however, t o design a power system which will deliver
absolutely constant rated nameplate voltage to every piece of apparatus.
Since this cannot he attained, what are the proper limits of voltage varia
tion in a n industrial plant? These should be determined by the charac
teristics of the utilization apparatus. First, certain definitions are
essential to underst,arid clearly the discussion of this problem.
Voltage Spread. Voltage spread is the difference between the maxi
mum and minimum voltages which appear at any location in a system
under riormal operating conditions. Voltage spread is not intended to
cover momentary voltage changes uf a transitory nat,ure such as those
due t o switching surges, motor starting, welders, etc. The first part
of this discussion is primarily concerned with voltage spread a t utiliaatiori
equipment. This is the diKercnce between the maximum and minimum
voltages a t the terminals of the utilization equipment under normal
system operating conditions (Fig. 4.3). Maximum values usually appear
during light load and minimum values a t full load on the electric system.
Another important type of voltage spread is primary or supply voltage
spread which is the difference between the maximum and the niinimum
voltage a t the service entrance or plant primary bus of a particular plant
under normal operating conditions.
Voltage Zone. Voltage zone is the envelope of all voltage spreads for
a particular voltage class of system.
For any specific voltage class designated by a nominal system voltage
there inherently exists an appreciable range of operat,ing voltages between
the systems having the highest and lowest voltages for this class. Coun
trywide, this zoue is larger thaii the voltage spread at, ariy one location
because of recognized differences in practices of different companies.
* The data in this sretion arc l a r ~ c l yadapted from an AIEE Industrial Power Sys
tem Coinmittre 1Lpurt. Industrid Voltag Ilrquirpmeats, Elec. Eng., vol. 6 i , 1948,
pp. 358374.
3.3 7. z
PRIMARY 5 , LONGEST SECONDARY FEEDER
SYSTEM
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _NO_ LOAD
_ _ _VOLTAGE
_~ _               480
1
2500
s
r SPREAD
2400 IN

0
Y Y
0 SECONDARY
2 SYSTEM
>
E 0
N
Y
v)
>
E
TRANSFORMER VOLTAGE DROP
k9 Q
2 2300
(L
P
FEEDER VOLTAGE DROP
T.
Y
NO LOAD VOLTAGE
<
0
5
>
0
> 2200 PRIMARY VOLTAGE SPREIO, NO LOAD TO F U L L LOAD AT VOLTS
*
I PLANT SERVICE LNTRANCE
I I
E
L 0
MINIMUM FULL TRANSFORMER VOLTAEE DROP
LOAD VOLTAGE
To show the effect of voltage drop in a plant it will be assumed that the
primary voltage is maintained a t a constant value regardless of plant load.
The simple circuit shown in Fig. 4.4 will be used as an illustration. The
primary voltage is assumed to be of such magnitude that the secondary
voltage on the transformer is 480 volts a t no load. Referring to Fig. 4.5,
a t extremely light load there is essentially no voltage drop through the
transformer or in any of the secondary circuits connected to the trans
former. Consequently, the voltage is substantially the same throughout
the plant, and any lights or other incidental load connected a t this time
is subject to practically the noload voltage. It is particularly significant
a t this point to recognize that transformer voltage ratings are the noload
SECONDARY BUS
TRANSFORMER
CIRCUIT
2 470
:rp
4 6 0 ~
y)
3
9 460
450
_ _ _ _ _ ~.

TOTAL VOLTAGE
TRANS FA NO
VOLTAGE DROP
THRU
15 VOLTS
sE~!~48oro~?p~"2~Ts
G?!E?
LOAD VOLTAGE480 VOLTS
]____________________
TRANSFORMER
l,z
VOLTAGE DROP IN
SECONDARV
FEEDERIOVOLTS
___________________
 ___
IN BRANCH
CIRCUIT
5 VOLTS
_
A
DROP
FIG. 4.6 Fullload voltage conditions for circuit shown in Fig. 4.4. No primary voltage
spread.
VOLTAGESTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 203
ratios. For example, a transformer rated 4160450 volts will produce
480 volts a t no load with 4160 volts applied to the primary.
When load is connected to the transformer, current flows, and this
causes a voltage drop in the secondary circuits as shown in Fig. 4.6. At
t,he secondary bus the voltage drop caused by the current flowing through
the transformer is assumed to be 15 volts. With constant primary volt
age the secondary bus voltage varies from 450 volts a t no load to 465
voks at full loadthe voltage spread a t this point is 15 volts. There are
assumed additional drops of 10 volts in the secondary feeder and 5 volts
in the branch circuit, making a total drop to load A of 30 volts. If the
lowest voltage in the plant exists a t load A , then the maximum voltage
spread is 30 volts (450 a t no load to 450 volts a t full load, or 30 volts).
In designing an industrial power system the voltage spread should be
kept t o a minimum consistent with reasonable first cost. If the spread is
too great,, the voltage may be too high a t light load, causing equipment
operating during that period to burn out, or voltage may he too low a t full
load a t much of the utilization apparatus, impairing the performance and
reducing the production obtained from the equipment,
The second cause of voltage spread is the primary voltage spread a t the
plant service connection. This may be caused by voltage drop in the
primary system, or it may be due to regulation of the primary system by
voltage regulators. To show the effect of primary voltage variation,
assume that the primary voltage drops as load comes on in the plant.
The transformer taps have been selected so that the noload voltage is
450 volts as in Fig. 4.5. When load comes on the power syst,em,the same
voltage drop occurs as in Fig. 4.6, but in addition, the primary system
voltage is assumed t,o drop sufficiently to cause an additional 10volt drop
in the vokage at the secondary of the transformer. This primary voltage
spread adds to the total voltage spread in the plant, making the spread
480 to 440 volts or a total of 40 volts as is shown in Fig. 4.7 instead of only
30 volts as shown in Fig. 4.8 where there was no primary voltage variation.
The primary voltage spread may not always be in the direction shown
in Fig. 4.7. The primary voltage may rise when the load comes on
because of voltage regulators in the primary feeder circuit or because of
other voltage regulators in the primary power system. This voltage rise
of the primary reduces the voltage spread in the plant, as shown in Fig. 4.5.
Very weak primary systems with a high drop or regulated primary sys
tems whose load cycle does not coincide with the load cycle of the plant
may cause excessive voltage spread in the plantbeyond the limits shown
in Table 4.9. This is illustrated in Fig. 4.9. Automatic voltage regula
tion is required in such cases to bring the voltage spread within the limits
shown in Table 4.9. Changing transformer taps to increase the vo1t:ige
a t full load will not solve the problem because that will increase the
noload voltage beyond 450 volts.
204 VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

480 
470
VOLTAGE DROP THRU VOLTAGE DROP IN
y1
TRANSFORMER SEOWDARI FEEDER
9 15 VOLTS
VOLTAGE DROP IN
450 
TOTAL VOLTAGE SPREAD
440 _________________________________
I
480 TO 440 VOLTS 140 VOLTS1  ______
FIG. 4.7 Fullload voltage conditions for circuit shown in Fig, 4.4 with 10 volts (on 480
volt baris) primary voltage spread. Primary voltage varies from maximum at no load to
minimum a t full load.
VOLTAGE DROP I N
SECONDARY FEEDER
10 VOLTS
FIG. 4.8 Fullload voltoge condition3 for circuit shown in Fig. 4.4 with 10 volt. (on 480
volt basis) primary voltage spread. Primory voltage varier from minimum at no load to
maximum at full load.
_____
;1
_________NO LOAD VOLTAGE  480 VOLTS
470 ~
4SO
G 440 ___
VOLTAGE DROP THRU
VOLTAGE DROP IN
SECONDARY FEEDER
430 TRANSFORMER lo VOLTAGE DROP
2s__vw3
420
TOTAL VOLTAGE SPREAD
4 8 0 TO 410 VOLTS 170 VOLTS)
410 .
.
J
V O L T A G b S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 205
I Voltage Variotion
This table s h o w gencral effcets, which will vary somewhat for specific ratings.
are applied by the utilities. The higher the motor voltage rises, the lower
the power fartor mill become. This may result in a greater penalty and
hence a higher power bill.
While the temperature rise at full load on standard motors decreases
slightly for moderate overvoltages, the temperature rise may increase on
certain types of sperial motors a t even very small overvoltages. Over
voltages of 10 t o 1.5 per cent have caused numerous burnouts on special
fourspeed grinder motors. Motors rated for intermittent load are also
materially affected by overvoltagcs.
While marry drive applications are not seriously affected by voltage
deviations as much as plus or minus 10 per cent from rated voltage, there
are import,ant applications that are.
Effect on Synchronous Motors. The effect of voltage variation on the
performance of synchronous motors is similar t o that on induction motors.
However, while t,he starting torque varies as the square of the voltage,
the maximum or pullout torque varies directly with the voltage.
From the above discussions it will be noted that, in general, voltages
slightly in excess of motor nameplate rating have less detrimental effect
V O L T A G k S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 207
!
3
i!
a
2
0
c PER CENT NORMAL VOLTS
3
9
a
FIG. 4.10 Characteristics of large garfilled incandescent type C lampr. There are the
average of many lampr.
208 V O L T A G b S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS
96.0 80 47 1900
102.0 85 58 850
108.0 90 70 400
110.4 92 75 300
112.8 94 81 225
115.2 96 87 170
117.6 98 93 130
120.0 100 I00 100
122.4 102 105 75
124.8 104 115 60
i
x I RECOMMENDED OPERATING RANGE
BEST PERFORMANCE
I I
L I N E VOLTAGES
Fluorescent lamps also differ from filament lamps in that the frequency
of start,irig is a factor iii the life obt,ained. Rated life is usually based on
3 hr of operation per start,. For 10 hr operation per start, the lamp's life
is increased approximat,ely 35 per cent.
Therefore, ally data 011 life vs. circuit voltage for the normal range in
operat,iiig voltage ivould have little significaiice. At voltages below the
lower limit, insufficient preheat current for proper cathode emission prior
t o starting may result in short life. At voltages heyoiid the upper limit,
the overcurrent operat,ioii may rcsult in unsatisfartory lamp life.
Effect on Mercury Lamps. The effect of voltage variation on mercury
lamps is shown in Fig. 4.12.
Effect on Resistance Heating Devices. The energy input and there
fore the heat output of resistaiice heaters varies in general with the square
of the impressed voltage. Thus a 10 per cent drop in voltage will cause
a drop of 19 per cent in heat, output. This, however, holds true only for
an operating range over which the resistance remains constant.
M a n y healing devices are conservat,ively designed arid if thermostati
cally controlled may operate satisfactorily even if the voltage varies 10
per cent or more.
However, in many rases the designer must confine his heating units into
a miiiimum of space and must, therefore, operate them near maximum
rating. Also the temperature requirements for many heating applica
tioiis IiecessiMe the operation of the heating units a t maximum tempera
ture. h drop i n voltage meaiis a drop in heat input, varying with the
square of the voltage, and a loss in production. On the other hand,
excessive voltage will increase the temperature of the heating units and
therefore will reduce their life. This condition applies especially t o fur
naces operating at high temperatures near the maximum permissible for
I I I I /I/ I I I
I I I I
I
I I
I
u OC
60
40
I
0
U
10
I
60
P R I M V0LTIT.F I
70
I
rn
CCYI
I
90
1
wo
I
110
I
iao
I
130
0 s TIIANSFORMER TAP SETTING
I
140
the type of heating unit used. To assure uniform high production and the
best operating conditions, the voltage should be maintained mithiu a
spread of plus or minus 5 per cent of rated voltage.
Effect on Infrared Heating Processes. Although the filaments of the
lamps used in these installations are of the resistance type, the energy
output does not vary with the square of the voltage because the resistance
varies a t the same time. The radiated energy vs. voltage is shown in
Fig. 4.13 for the rating of 115 volts used on industrial infrared lamps.
The wattage input is nearly proportional t o the energy output for a volt
age range of 50 t o 150 per cent of rated voltage. The change in wattage
and radiated energy is only 7 per cent for a 5 per cent change in voltage.
However, this might he more harmful thau a larger change in typical
resistance heaters employing thermostatic controls, if the product dryiiig
is very sensitive t o temperature differences. For the usual paintdrying
applications, no voltage coutrols are required with infrarcd lamps.
Uniformity of product speed in the oven is the usual objective for coii
veyerized operations. Differences in heating requirements are rea,dily
accomplished by connecting the infrared lamps to a number of circuits,
so that some of the lamps can be switched on and off in accord with t,he
exact, heat,ing needs. I n t,he cases vhere lamp sivitching cannot rom
pensat,e for the volt,age variat,ions, it may be necessary to use a voltage
regulator to maintain conveyer speed and product quality.
Effect on Electronic Equipment. The currentcarrying ability or emis
siou of all elect,ronic tubes is affect,ed seriously by voltage deviation from
rating. Figure 4.14 shows typical emission curves plotted agairist
cathode heater voltage. Curve 1, entitled Oxide Coated, applies t o most
of the thyratrons, pliotrons, and rereiving tubes. Curve 2 for thoriated
tungsten applies t o the small transmitter tubes and some of the hattery
FIG. 4.13 Radiantenergy output of General Electric Company industrial infrared lamps
QI a function of impressed voltoge.
212 VOLTAGE STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS
40LL
20
0
30 40
and 15 per cent undervoltage. Since an ac solenoid has an inrush current
of approximately ten times the sustained value when sealed, the branch
circuit sJpplying it should be of ample capacity to prevent an excessive
voltage drop.
Effect on Capacitors. The corrective capacity of capacitors varies
with the square of the impressed voltage. A drop of 10 per cent in the
supply voltage, therefore, reduces the corrective capacity by almost 20
per cent, and where the user has made a sizable investment in capacitors
for powerfactor correction, he loses the benefit of 20 per cent of this
investment.
480
A00 ! 440,* 460
550,* 575
! 420480
525600
Drsigriations for nominal system voltages are those commonly used in industrial
plants.
* ThPse are standard polyphasemotor voltage ratings.
t Polyphase power loads may not operate satisfactorily a t this l o m ~ rlimit
In designing industrial power distribution systems, the system design
engineer should design for voltage spreads not in excess of those mentioned
in Tables 4.8 and 4.9. If anything, it would be desirable to design for
closer limits to allow for critical utilization apparatus that may be devel
oped and widely used in the future. The history of electricity in indus
trial plants has been to extend its use to more and more functions. As
* Thcse rwommcndstions are in iuhstantial agreement with thP recommmdations
of the joint EMSEMA Committce whirh puhlishrd their findings in a report, Prc
ferrpd Voltage Ratings of AC Systems and Equipmcnt.
VOLTAGESTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 21s
Recommended limits af
voltage at terminalr of
highvoltage moiors
Nominal syitem Motornomeplote
dtage *oltoge rating
2400
2400 ~ 2300" 1I 2160
2250
3920
2380
2480
4320
1
4160
4800 4600 4500 5000
6900 6600 6470 71 30
I
* I'rmrnt standard rnot,or voltagc rating.
well as driving the utilization equipment, it is alço used for a11 types of
rritical proccss control systems; therefore, its role is hecorniiig exceedingly
important, and t o fulFiI1 this role effectively, good voltage must he rnain
taiiied iii industrial plants.
L I G H T FLICKER V O L T A G E REQUIREMENTS
5
0
Y
w 3
5
0
' t
t
z
Y
0
,'w
a
0
DllO PL" "0"I DlPI PLI1 SECOND
10 82 6 J 2 I 30 12 L
YlUUlLI IFCOYDL
TIME BETWEEN DIPS
FIG, 4.15 Relation of magnitude of voltage dips to frequency of dips for incandescent
IWlPS.
Some examples will serve t,o illustrate the better voltage conditions in
the loadcetit,er system. The average 480volt loadrenter substatioii is
rated 750 h a . With ail average load density of 10 va per sq ft, this sub
statioir will servc a i l arca of 73,000 s q ft,. Ideally, the load area would be
a square, with the substatioii esartly i i i the renter; then the longest feeder
length ivould tie about l(i5.ft. Rut it i d 1 he assumed t,hat t,he area is
somewhat rcctaiigular atid that the suhstatioii rannot he lorated exactly
at the center. The artual length of the longest feeder might then he
ahout 200 ft.
Figure 4.16 rontains charts showing the voltage profiles for this 480volt
suhstatioii. The trairsformcr taps should lie set for 480 secondary volts
when the primary voltage is at its maximum atid with no load on the sub
station. The highest, voltage that is eticoi~titered by ally equipment
served hy this substatioii is 480 volts. At maximum load, voltage drop
has its maximum effect. A 4 pcr rcnt voltage reduction i u the primary
system is assumed, to illustrate the Ionvoltage rondition. This could
he due to a dcrreasc i n the powervompauy supply voltage with inrreased
load on its system. h drop of 15 volts due t,o traiisformer react,ancc can
he experted. Assuming the 200ft feeder t o ronsist of a 250MCM cahle
per phase and to he fully loaded a t 80 per rent power factor, i t mill~iutro
218 V O L T A G b S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS
duce about another 7 volts drop. h final 5 volts may be lost in the branch
circuit. The result is a minimum voltage at the end of the branch circuit
of 433 volts. In this system, voltage varies between the limit,s of 433 volts
and 480 voltsa voltage spread that should, in general, be satisfactory.
The oldtype system often uses a suhstatioii as large as 3000 kva at 480
volts. And not heing of unit substation construction, it has to be located
at one edge of the load areaprobably with the t,rausformers outdoors.
With the same load density as before, 10 va per sq f t , the 3000kva snb
station must supply an area'of 300,000 sq ft,. I n this substation the
longest feeder will probably be ahout 900 ft. The corresponding feeder
voltage drop will be 29 volts. Here the voltage spread is from 411 to 480
volts. Such a spread is well heyond the recommeuded limits. A full
load voltage of 411 i s too low t o be coiisidered good practice; 420 i s the
recommended minimum voltage for 440volt motors.
7 5 0 KVA
SU0STATlDN
460
2440
420
400
NO LOAD VOLTAGE CONDITIONS WITH PRIMARY
VOLTAGE a T M A X I M U M
2 440 
> SECONDARY FEEDER/
420  VOLTAGE DROP 7 VOLTS
VOLTAGE DROP
VOLTAGESTANDARD RATINGS. VARIATIONS. CALCULATION O F DROPS 219
60
48
w
0
a
3
0
> ABLE FULL LOAL
k 51ZE AMP
3
U U0.4 90
n
U vo. I I40
w 000 210
z 500 MCM 4 0
7 24l 
201 
W
z
J
( 
5
SECONOARY FEEDER LENGTH(FEET1
FIG. 4.17 Chart showing length of threeconductor 600volt cable in iron conduit to
produce 2 3 per cent voltage drop a t the most unfavorable power factor and full load
on the cable.
FIG. 4.18 A typical outdoor packoged substation in which bodratio control con be
incorporated.
222 VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS, 'VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS
tem. When loadratio control is installed, both the utility and industrial
plant can operate their systems independently and to their own best
advautage without interference voltage wise.
Figure 4.18 illustrates an outdoor substation, typical of those whose
transformers can include loadratio control.
Voltage Regulators. If power is supplied by the utility at below
15 kv, the only transformation required is at the individual loadcenter
substations. Loadratio control in each industrial loadcenter unit sub
station is uneconomical and even may he impractical. Hence, where the
primaryvoltage spread is wide enough to require voltage regulation,
separate voltage regulators should be installed in the primary supply,
Fig. 4.19. For this service either threephase step voltage regulators
(Fig. 4.20) or induction voltage regulators (Fig. 4.21) can be used. Their
standard range of voltage regulation is plus or minus 10 per cent. The
question is sometimes raised as to whether two induction regulators
should be connected in open delta. This is slightly less expensive than
three regulators to regulate threephase circuits. However, the open
delta connection creates an unbalanced voltage condition that should be
avoided. The voltage unbalance is small but may be enough to increase
STEP OR
INDUCTION
VOLTAGE
REGULATOR
REGULATOR HOLDS
CONSTANT VOLTAGE
HERE
\ v v
t
Y
FIG. 4.20 Typicol threephore step voltage regulator roted 13,200 volts, 208 kvo, plus
or minus 10 per cent voltage regulotion.
FIG. 4.21 Typicol induction voltage regulator rated 225 kvo, 4330 volts, plus or minus 10
per cent voltoge regulation.
224 VOLTAGESTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS
the heating appreciahly in fully loaded polyphase motors. For this rea
son, best prartice avoids the opendelta conneition in favor of threephase
regulation.
It is rerommended that serious consideration be given the addition of
t,hese regulat,ors i n the plant supply lines whenever the expected voltage
spread in the primary supply lines exceeds ahout 5 per cent.
Regulators may he hypassed for maintenance and a t the same time
maint,ain unregulat,ed service t o the plant. Itegulat,ors, like any other
piece of apparatus, must be given consideration from a shortcircuit,
standpoint.
Feeder Voltage Regulation. trt,ilit,iesoften regulate individual feeders
at distribution voltage (2100 or 416F volts, for example) t o compensate
480 VOLTS
SECONDARY FEEDER
INDUCTION VOLTAGE
REGULATOR
FEEDERS TO
MOTORS, ETC
LIGHTING FEEDER
LIGHTING LOAD
120 VOLTS
FIG. 4.22 Oneline diagram showing the opplication of aircooled induction voltage
regulators for secondary feeder regulation.
VOLTAGESTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 225
for the voltage drop i n that, feeder. The itidustrial plaut does iiot often
ry, since \.oltage drops in individual primary ferde
usually small, less illan 1 or 2 per cent. Thus, regulation of voltage a t
the main h s is more rwmmotily used.
While there seems t o he little, jirstifiratioii for irrdividuul primaryfeeder
regulation, there may be many appliratioris for individual seroiidary
feeder reeulation.
._ . ,tlie voltage spread may I)<> satisfartory
For examuk,
for t,he majorit,y of utilization e q u i p
ment, such asmotors, welders, etr., but
not, considered good cliough for lights.
I n such cases, t,he lighting feeder may
be regirlat,ed and the rest irnregulated,
Fig. .4.2%. For such applications, air
~ooledregirlalorslikethat shown in Fig.
4.23 may be used.
I n other cases, individual loads a t
GOO volts or less may require voltage
regulation t,o obtain the desired per
formance from the equipment,. Rirh
loads might he heating unit,s, process
cont,rol, infrared ovens, hluepririt ma
chines, lights, radio arid television
transmitt,ers, brooders, etc. Where
these loads are served at, utilizat,ion
voltage, aii iridrictimi regulator like
that, of Fig. 4.23 may be used.
lnductrol P o w e r Pock. A iie\\ dc
velopment is a regulating loi\~voltage
subst,atioII known as the Inductrol
Power Pack. It, is a itiiit made up
primarilyof an indurtioii voltage regu
lator arid a dryt,ype transformer.
The transformer is rat,ed 480 or 600
volts on t,he primary aiid %08Y/lZOor FIG, 4.23 A modern induction voltage
120/240 volts on the secondary. A regulator for circuitr 600 volts and leis.
Typical of either single 01 three phase.
primary switching arid protective de
vice arid secondary terminals complete the package. This unit may
be used for supplying regulat,ed lighting power from generalpurpose 480
or 600volt feeders or for supplying any other loads with regulated 120
volt power from 480 or 600volt power systems.
Shunt C a p a c i t o r s . Refer t o Chap. 8 for a comp1et.e discussion of the
application of shunt capacitors t o improve voltage conditions.
Autotransformers. I n some cases where the general voltage level is
226 VOLTAGESTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS
lorn and transformt?r taps cannot he used t,o correct for it, autotrans
formers may he used t o provide a permanent boost i n voltage. T h e
autotrausformer does riot reduce t,he spread.
A t,ypiral appliration xvouid lie in the case of a, 208Y/120voll system
supplying 220nolt, mot,ors. The volt,ege may be proper lor the lights
hut not high eiiimgh for t,he 220volt motors. An autolrmisformer could
he used l o step 208 volt,s up t o 220 volts for the motors only.
Generator Voltage Regulators. Where power is generated by t h e
plant,’s oxvti geiir.ralors, the voltage on t,he powerhouse bns can be held
constant or exwi varied with load to compensate for voltage drop as load
comPs on. Problems of voltage rcgulat,ion where industrial generators
are operalnd iri parallel with utility systems are referred to in Chap. 15.
All modern transformers in ratings above 100 kva and most or those
helow that kva rating have taps in the windings to change the turn ratio.
The taps do not materially affect the voltage drop through the trans
former; they merely change the turn ratio, hence the noload voltage
ratio. For example, a standard transformer rated 2400480 volts may
have four 2>5 per cent taps in the 2400volt winding. The standard for
these taps in transformers used in industrial systems is to have two 256
pcr cent, taps above 2400 volts and two 24i per cent taps below 2400volts.
The noload ratios of such a transformer would be as given in Table 4.11.
TABLE 4.11 Noload Voltoge Ratios of Standard Transformer Rated
2400480 Volts
2520480 “0th 5% obove tap
2460480 volts 236% obove top
2400480 volts Norrnol rating top
2340 480 volts 2>P% below top
2280480 volts 5% below tap
These taps do not improve voltage regulation but are only for changing
the general vokage level iq the plant. If a 2400480volt transformer is
connected to a system whose maximum voltage is 2520 volts, then the
2520480volt tap could be used which would provide a maximum of 480
volts no load on the system, as shown by curve A , Fig. 4.25. If, for
example, another system had a maximum noload voltage of 2400 volts,
then the 240&480volt t a p could be used to provide 480 volts no load in
the plant. This would be as shown in curve B , Fig. 4.25. Similarly if a
plant had a maximum voltage of 2280 vo!ts, then the 2280480volt tap
could be used to provide a maximum of 480 volts no load in the plant, as
shown in curve C , Fig. 4.25. It will be noted that in all cases the second
ary noload voltage is 480 volts; so the secondary system does not know
2600



 4 8 0 VOLTS MAX
U  440 V
c 480 
2 2400   _ _ _MAX
VOLTS ____ MIN
>  ?
>
(r
 B 40
VOLTS
U  SPREAD
I
(L

a 440V
2300
  ________
480 VOLTS MAX MIN
VOLTAGkSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 229
noload voltage. By using the next tap u p on the transformer, that is,
the one rated 2460480 volts, the turn ratio of the transformer has now
been changed so that the noload voltage is 472 volts, as shown in curve
B , Fig. 4.26. The voltage spread will be substant,ially the same, i.e.,
40 volts, so that the minimum voltage is now 432 volts, which is well
above the recommended minimum for plant distribution systems.
By judicious selection of the transformer t a p t,he voltage within the
plant can he kept Tyithin acceptable 1imit.s provided that the primary
voltage does not vary more than about 5 per cent and that the plant dis
tribution system is designed along modern lines with the loadcenter sys
tem using short secondary feeders and transformers not larger than about
1500 kva a t 480 volts or proportional sizes a t other secondary volt,ages.
Changing taps cannot, correct conditions where voltage spread is t,oo
great. For example, suppose a plant suffered from low voltage at remote
points and had a large volt,age spread. T o be specific, suppose the spread
was 80 volts and the minimum voltage at the remote end was 400 volts,
then the maximum voltage would be 480 volts. If taps are changed to
raise the general voltaga level, the spread will not change but the 400volt
I
  4
8 5VOLTS   _
MAX
g 2400 40
a VOLTS
I SPREAD
J
0
5
> 440 V MIN
a
a
I

LL
P
FIG. 4.26 Voltage profile showing that rotisfactory voltages con be obtained without
excessive noload voltage by proper election of taps on transformer.
230 VOLTAGESTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

HIGH LOAD VOLTAGE
I . Normal
drop.
2. Normol NO load
i I Volt.ge r e g d o t o r
Tronlformer ,ap setting
Voltage 'egulalor
IBI
1A1
101
drop. Tranrformer top 'elting (A1
LIGHTING FLICKER
minimum may he raised t o 420 volts. At the same time the maximum is
raised to 500 volts, too high for generally sat,isfactory performance.
Conversely if the maximum voltage is too high and a wide spread exists,
the chatrgiug of taps, to reduce t,he maximum voltage, reduces the mini
mum vokagc still further.

 I ( R cos '+ sin
( I X cos 8  I R sin S ) l
+
+ 2(en I R cos 8 + I X sin 8 )
If es is known,
Linetoneutral voltage drop
= I R cos 8
 I R sin 8)*
+ I X sin 8 + ( I X cos 8 2e.
234 VOLTAGESTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS
SENDING END
OR BUS VOLTAGE
\
R E C E I V E R OR
LOAD VOLTAGE
CALCULATED
VOLTAGE DROP
F ACTUAL
VOLTAGE DROP
ERROR
FIG. 4.28 Diagram indicating magnitude of error when using Eqr. (4.7) and (4.8).
VOLTAGESTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 235
transformer rated 4160480 volts. The load is 1500 kva at, 0.85 power
fact,or.
Solution: Enter the chart on the horizontal scale a t 2000 kva. Extend
a vertical line t o its interpeetion with the 0.85power faetoP t u n e .
Extend a line from this point horizontally to the left t o its intersection
with the vertical scale of per cent voltage drop for rated load. Multiply
this value by the ratio of actual load to rated load.
Per cent drop at rated load = 3.67
Per cent drop at 1500 kva l5Oo X 3.67 = 2.75
= ~
2000
Actual voltage drop = 2.75 per cent X 480 = 13.2 volts
Figure 4.30 applies to the 34.5kv insulation class transformers in
ratings from 1500 to 10,000 kva. These curves can be used t o determine
the voltage drop for transformers in the 46 and 69kv insulation classes
by using appropriate multipliers a t all power factors except unity. To
correct for 46 kv, multiply the per cent vokage drop obtained from the
chart by 1.065, and for 69 kv multiply by 1.15.
Example. Find the per cent voltage drop in a 5000kva 69,000
13,800volt threephase 60cycle liquidfilled transformer carrying 3500
kw a t 0.8 power factor.
Solution: Enter chart Fig. 4.30 a t 5000 kva and read per cent voltage
drop where this transformer size intersects the 0.8power factor curve.
Per cent voltage = 4.25 for 5000 kva
6
NOTE: CURVES ARE BASED ON 6 PERCENT
Q IMPEDANCE FOR 34.5 KV CLASS
5 I I I I I I I
05
w
I
4
&
54
a
0
U
0
u
0
3
4
5
8
I
,
z
Y
Y
U
Y I
a
FIG. 4.30 Tronrformer voltagedrop curves for threephase transformers, 34%kv volt
age class.
VOLTAGbSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 237
W
LL
w
n
I
4
8
0
0
LL
w
0
u)
3
0
>
z

&
z
n
W
c
3
4
50
>
VOLTAGGSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 239
FIG. 4.33 Voltagedrop curves for threeconductor 5000volt cable in magnetic conduit
or interlockedormor cable.
242 VOLTAGESTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS
Voltoge Drop in Busway. Figures 4.35 and 4.36 may be used to deter
mine the approximate voltage drop in a busway. Figure 4.35 applies to
a busway that is designed specifically for lowvoltage drop. Figure 4.3F
applies t o a typical feeder busway of the type used with plugin switches.
Figure 4.35 gives the linetoline voltage drop in volts for GOO, 800,
1000, and 1350amp lowvoltagedrop busway. These curves apply
only for balanced loading of the busway at an operating temperature
of 70 C.
The voltage drops for other than rated load may be obtained by multi
plying the voltage drop for rated load by the ratio of actual load to rated
load, Similarly, the voltage drop for lengths other than 100 ft may he
M 40 60 BO W O 20 40 60 80 100
LOAD POWER FACTOR LOAD POWER FACTOR
W A D POWER FACTOR
FIG. 4.35 Voltagedrop curves for lowvoltagedrop burwoy ot rated load. 70 c
operating temperature assumed.
VOLTAGESTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 243
obtained hy multiplying the voltage drop for 100 f t by the ratio of actual
length to 100 ft.
These corrections are expressed in the following formula:
Actual lineto:ine voltage drop
actual load actual length
= voltage drop for 100 feet at rated load X
rated load 100 ft
Example. Find the voltage drop on a 200ft run of 800amp husway
carrying a 600amp load a t a 90 per cent power factor.
Solution: Enter Fig. 4.35 for au 800amp husway at 90 per cent power
factor on the horizontal scale. Follow a vertical line to its intersection
4 . 5 X 3 = 13.5 V O L T S
FIG. 4.36 Voltogedrop curves for typical plugin bvrwcly carrying rated load.
244 VOLTAGESTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS
OVERHEAD LINE
A
W
250 KVA
440 VOLTS
0.7 PF LAGGING
FIG. 4.37 System oneline diagrom used 01 a baris for examples of system voltagedrop
Calcdatio".
V O L T A G k S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 245
Solution
1
1
Equations'
used
I
I
Bur A I
i
Bur 8 I
I
Secondary
feeder load
Solution 2 was made by using the exact formulas Eqs. (4.3) and (4.4).
It shows that the phase angle of each successive voltage level is shifted to
lag slightly the noload voltage. It should he recognized that the use of
this exact formula does not necessarily mean that the answer is exact,
because it is necessary to use a cutandtry process in the solution. As
with any cutandtry process, a point is reached where the added accuracy
to be obtained does not justify another trial, and therefore the answer is
not absolutely exact.
In solution 3, voltagedrop charts were used to determine voltage drop.
The error involved in this method results from the greater margin of
error in reading charts and in the arithmetical additiou of voltage drops
slightly out of phase.
Solution 4 involved the use of charts but neglected t,he cutandtry
procedure necessarily employed in the other solutions. The cutandtry
procedure was used in the other solutious because the load kva x a s
assumed to be constant as the voltage changed and therefore t,he load
currents changed. In this solution the current x a s assumed to remain
constant as the load voltage varied.
Solutioii 1 is given helow as an example.
Solution 1: Calculatiou by approximate Eq. (4.7).
246 VOLTAGESTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS
6.73 ohms
x, = 6.0 X (34.4)'10,000
X (0.975)' X 10 =
v = 4X 155(3.09 X 0.8 +
8.25 X 0.6)
= 4X +
155(2.48 4.95)
= 4 X 155 X 7.43
= 1990 volts
Bus A volts
= (source voltage  voltage drop) X (power transformer ratio)
4.160
= (33,500  1990) 34,4
o,975
VOLTAGE STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 247
= 0.634 ohm
INTRODUCTION
I t is rharactrristic of most ac motors that the riirrent, which they draw
oii startiirg is mu(.h higher t,han t,heir rrormal running ( w r e n t . Syn
i~hronousand sqnirrelrape iudi~rtionmotors started 011 full voltage may
draw a c u r ~ w i tas high as sevt!ii or eight t,imes their fnllload running
rurrcnt. This sriddeir increase in the (.usrent, drawn from the power
system may r c s i i l t iii csressive drop i n volt,age unless it is considered in
VOLTAGbSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 249
the design of the system. Folloiiing are methods for ralculatiug the
voltage drop which results from startiug of threephase induction aud
synrhronous motors.
M O T O R  S T A R T I N G METHODS
........................
Full.roltage stmrter. 1 .O 1 .O 1 .O
Autotransformer:
........................
80 Per Cent t o p . . 0.80 0.64 0.68
65 per cent tap.. ........................ 0.65 0.42 0.46
50 per cent tap.. ........................ 0 .so 0.25 0.30
Resistor storm, single step [adjusted for motor
voltage to be 80 per cent of line voltogel 0.80 0.64 0.80
Reoctor;
50 per cent tap..
45 per <*"I top..
.......................
........................
.I 0.50
0.45
0.25
0.20
0.50
0.45
......................
37.5 per Cent t o p . . 0.375 0.14 0.375
Partwinding starter [lowspeed m o l ~ r sonlyl:
75 per cent winding. ..................... 1 .O 0.75 0.75
50 per cent winding. ..................... 1 .O 0.50 0.50
less than for fullvoltage starting. They are both changed approximately
in proportion t o the amount of winding connected. That is, for a typical
lowspeed motor, at the halfwinding connection, the current and torque
are approximately equal t o onehalf their full winding values. This
method is comparable in cost with autotransformer starting, and also
provides a smoother transfer to the running connection. However, this
method is seldom advantageous for motors above 514 rpm (fourteen
poles), because it provides relatively less torque for such motors.
Starting of Woundrotor Motors. Woundrotor motors are invariably
started on full voltage, but control is provided which inserts a high
resistance in the secondary winding on starting and short circuits this
resistance in one or more steps as the motor comes up to speed. This
serves to limit the starting current drawn by the motorusually to
about 150 per cent of fullload current. Furthermore, this current will
have a high power factor. Consequently, the voltage drop caused by
starting this type of motor is comparatively small. On the other hand,
woundrotor motors and their control have a relatively high cost.
100
90
80
$ 70
2
d"
>
5 50
Y
u 40
IL
f 30
20
ov
10
0 2 3 4 5 6
TIME SECONDS
motor is essentially similar, up to the time of pull in. I n the case illus
trated, a fullvoltage starter is used, and the fullvoltage starting kva is
ahout 100 per rent of t,he generator rating. I t is assumed that the gen
erator is provided with an automatic voltage regulator.
Curves .A and R show the performance, with the regulator operating,
for init,ial loads on the generator of zero and 50 per cent, respectively.
The minimum voltage is about 75 per cent and is not affected much by the
iriitial load. This is typical with most initial loads which consist of a
combination of lighting loads and partially loaded iuduction motors.
The voltage regulator restores the voltage tonard normal in about 2
see. At, this time the motor is usually st,ill at low speed and drawing a
high current.
The initial load on the generator has an important effect on the value t o
which the voltage is restored by regulator action. This is illustrated by
curve B , for whirh the voltage is restored by the regulator to only about
85 per cent of normal. This restored voltage is the voltage available for
breaking away and accelerating the motor. When the motor comes up
to speed, its current becomes much less, so that t,he regulator then restores
the generator voltage to 100 per rent. The reason the regulator usually
cannot restore the voltage to 100 per cent when a large motor is started
on a heavily loaded generator is that the exciter maximum (ceiling)
voltage limits the available generator excitation.
Sometimes it is only necessary to calculate the minimum voltage. In
other cases it is also necessary to calculate the restored voltage available
for break away and accelerations. Methods of estimating each of these
voltages are included.
Minimum voltage is needed to determine whether undervoltage devices
and contactors connected to the system mill drop out, or running motors
stall, during the disturbance. The minimum voltage is also a determin
ing factor in light flicker. The restored voltage is necessary to estimate
the torque available for starting the motor.
Usually it is sufficient to determine the minimum voltage and the
restored voltage based upon the current drawn by the motor at standstill,
i.e., upon the lockedrotor current. It is sometimes necessary, however,
to determine the restored voltage throughout the acceleration of the
motor. Although the current drawn by a motor decreases as it comes u p
to speed, resulting in an increasing generator voltage, the load torque
may also increase with speed so that a higher voltage is necessary to
ensure acceleration.
In the case of a synchronous motor i t may be necessary to check the
restored voltage at the speed at which field excitation is applied (95 per
cent of synchronous speed or higher) to make sure that the motor will
pull into step. The pullin torque of a synchronous motor varies approxi
VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 253
mately as the square of the voltage at the motor terminals just before
application of field.
Distributionsystem Voltage. Frequently there are transformers,
lines, or cables between the motor starter and the generator or generators
supplying the power for starting. The drop in the transformers, lines, or
cables will be additional to the generator drop. Often practically all the
drop is in this distribution equipment. The drop in this equipment is
not reduced by the action of voltage regulators. Consequently, when
practically all the drop is in transformers, lines, and cables, the voltage
falls immediately and docs not rerover till the motor approaches full
speed.
Minimum Voltage. The curves of Fig. 4.39 may he used for estimating
the minimum voltage occurring at the terminals of a generator supplying
power to a synchronous or squirrelcage induction motor which is being
254 VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS
GENEIIbTOR e I T E O K"&
~ W T DIRECTCONNECTED
" EXCITER * HULTlPLlERS TO *ILLOW FOR "IMIAITION OF EXClTER
.....~ WIT"
~ BELTED
.. EXCITER RESPONSE WlT" GENERATOR IN1TIAL L o l o
NUMBERS ON CURYES ARE R P N lNlTlbL LOAD (PER C E N T , UULTlPL" I( B"
NUMBERS I" BRACKETS &RE EXClTER R P H (00 ,70
75 I55
50 I"5
25 I25
0 ,oo
FIG. 4.40 Typical valuer of performance factor K for (Ic generators.
VOLTAGESTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 255
AC
GENERATOR
EXCITER
FIELD 1 u
GENERATOR
VOLTAGE
REGULATOR ''lL
( B A S E D O N Y l x l Y u Y EXCITATIONIZOPER C E N T O F R A T E D G E N E R A T O R F l E L O C U R R E N T I
which can be obtained by greatly inrreasing response; that is, the genera
tor voltage will dip a t least a certain amount before the excitation system
can do anything about it.
Effect of Initial Voltage. Often the voltage rating of the generator
supplying a motor is higher than that of the motor. A 440volt motor
might he supplied by R 480volt generator and a 2200volt motor by a
2400volt generator.
In such cases, the motorstart,ing kva should be adjusted t o take this
into account,. The kva drawn hy a motor increases as the square of the
line voltage. If t,hr startiiig inrush of a 410volt motor is 1000 kva a t
440 volts, it will be 1190 kva at 480 volts because (480/440)* = 1.19.
This is the value which should be used to determine the generator mini
mum voltage (from Fig. 4.39) regardless of the actual initial voltage.
For example, assume that, with an initial voltage of 480 volts, the starting
of the 440volt motor (drawing 1190 kva at 480 volts) causes the voltage
t o drop t o 75 per rent of the initial value, or 3G0 volts. If the voltage
regulator is set t o hold a voltage of 440 volts, starting of the same motor
will produre approximately the same voltage drop in per cent of the
initial voltage, i.e., the voltage will drop t o approximately 75 per cent of
440 volts, or 330 volts. This shows that, from the standpoint of the
minimum voltage, the regulator should be set t o maintain rated voltage
on the generator even though the motor voltage is lower.
As far as the restored voltage is concerned (Fig. 4.42), this is not
affected by the initial voltage except that the voltage mill not recover t o
a value higher than the initial voltage since this represents the setting of
the voltage regulator. For example, if the initial voltage (setting of volt
age regulator) is 90 per cent of rated generator voltage, the recovery
voltage in per cent of rated generator voltage will be as shown by the
curves of Fig. 4.42, except that all curves will become horizontal lines at
90 per cent voltage.
Effect of Initial load. The voltage curves of Figs. 4.39 and 4.42 were
prepared on the basis that the initial load on the generator draws con
stant current duririg the voltage disturbance. This sort of load charac
teristic is representative of many systems and results from the use of
induction motors, all of which are not fully loaded.
An induction motor at no load will draw a current approximately
proportional t o the applied voltage, because the current is principally
magnetizing current. A fully loaded induction motor will tend t o have
constant kva input since its speed and power factor do not change much
with variations in line voltage. Consequently, a fully loaded induction
motor will draw more current if the voltage is lower, t o maintain the
power constant, A system load consisting of both heavily loaded and
258 VOLTAGbSTANDARD RATINGS. VARIATIONS, UL6UUTION OF DROPS
lightly loaded motors will therefore tend to draw nearly constant current
since a lowering of the voltage causes a reduction in the current to some
motors and an increase in the current to others.
A constantcurrent type of load will have very little influence on the
minimum voltage during motor starting. It will, however, have an
important effect on the value of the restored voltage of generators, as
previously described.
Lighting loads usually have little effect upon voltage disturbances due
to motor starting. This is true because lighting loads usually constitute
a small proportion of the total load on a generator, and also because of
their high power factor.
If the system load consists primarily of lightly loaded induction motors,
the per cent minimum voltage and recovered voltage will both tend to be
higher than indicated by the curves.
If the initial load consists entirely of heavily loaded induction motors,
the voltage disturbance from motor starting will be more severe than
indicated by these figures.
Initially connected synchronous motors are beneficial in reducing the
disturbance due to motor starting. They are most beneficial when
lightly loaded. Therefore, it is helpful to start synchronous motors first
in a plant so that they will be on the line to help in the starting of large
induction motors later. Synchronous motors will not be helpful, how
ever, if the voltage disturbance is so great as to cause them to pull out of
step.
Although the curves in this section are based on initial loads of the
constantcurrent type, they may be used for cases involving other types.
This is done by adjusting the motorstarting kva by an amount corre
sponding to the change in current to the initial load, caused by the drop
in voltage. The increase or decrease in motorstarting kva is such as to
change the motorstarting current, a t the minimum voltage, by the same
amount as the change in the lagging wattless component of the initial
load. That is, the effect of the initial load is primarily due to a change
in the wattless component, and this can be simulated by a change in the
motorstarting kva. Since the change in current and the minimum volt
age are dependent upon each other, a trialanderror procedure is involved.
The first trial is often sufficient,if the change in current is determined a t
the voltage corresponding to the case of a constantcurrent initial load.
For example, consider a generator whose voltage would dip to 75 per
cent if a 100 per cent motorstarting load were applied when a 50 per cent
constantcurrent initial load is being carried. If, instead, the initial load
consisted of fully loaded induction motors a t 0.8 power factor, the dip
would be more severe, because a t 75 per cent voltage the lagging wattless
current to the running motors would be increased from 30 per cent of the
VOLTAGESTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 259
PF __
R C F N T
VOLTAGE
DROP
18
17 30
16
U 25
> 15
Y
14
20
z0 13
12 15
2 I ! 10
10 5
09
g 08
'
07
LL 06
05
a 04
w
2 03
F 02
1
3 01
= o
0 0'2 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 20
I N I T I A L LOAD KVA
RATIO OF
MOTOR STARTING KVA
seldom cause the starting power factor to he high enough to reduce volt
age drop greatly, except for the first steps when several are used.
Effect of Drop in Generator Speed. Since the power factor of motor
starting kva is low, the amount of kw load applied to a generator is seldom
large. Furthermore, the voltage drop, by reducing the electrical output,
also reduces the new load applied. For example, a motorstarting load
of 100 per cent of generatorrated kva at 0.3 power factor will involve a
suddenly applied km load less than 30 per cent of rated kva, or 37.5 per
cent of rated kw for an 0.8 powerfartor generator. The speed drop is
not likely to be excessive if good governing means are employed. For
most motorstarting problems, it may safely be neglected.
As speed dips, a corresponding dip appears in the voltage, which is in
addition t o the voltage drops considered in this section. For cases where
speed dip may be sufficiently great to be important, this should be con
sidered, but calculation of speed drop is beyond the scope of this book.
The voltage drops in lines, cables, and transformers are often as impor
tant as generator voltage drop. In fact, they are frequently more impor
tant. For example, if the total kva of connected generators in the power
system is more than 100 times the horsepower rating of the motor being
started, then the generator voltage dip will be less than 1 per cent, and it
will be quickly eliminated by regulators. In such a case, however, the
motor will probably be supplied through a transformer bank. If the
transformerbank kva rating is only slightly larger than the motor rating,
the voltage drop may be quite severe.
Voltage Drop of Transformers. The curves of Fig. 4.44 may he used
for estimating the voltage drop through typical transformers when start
ing a synchronous or squirrelcage induction motor connected to the
secondary of the transformer. The secondary voltage on starting of the
motor, in per cent of the initial secondary voltage, is plotted against the
motor starting kva. The latter is expressed in per cent of the trans
formerhank kva rating and is the kva which wouldhedrawnhythemotor
being started if rated transformer secondary voltage were maintained.
The curves of Fig. 4.41 neglect the effect of primaryvoltage drops
caused by motor starting. Methods of taking these into account will he
explained later.
Note that the secondary voltage is plotted in per cent of its initial
value. This initial secondary voltage is determined by the initial pri
mary voltage, the t a p setting, and the initial load. It may he deter
mined by measurement or by suitable calculations. It is usually slightly
less than the rated secondary voltage.
VOLTACbSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 261
The curves of Fig. 4.44 were prepared on the basis that the initial load,
if any, draws constant current during the voltage disturbance. This is
typical of a system consist,ing of both lightly loaded and heavily loaded
inductiou motors. If the initial load consist,s largely of fully loaded
induction motors, the curves of Fig. 4.44 may still be used provided that
the motorstarting kva is first multiplied by the fartor shown in Fig. 4.43.
The curves of Fig. 4.44 apply for motorstarting power factors in the
usual range of 10 t,o 40 per cent. For woundrotor motors which have a
starting power factor of about 80 per cent, the drop in voltage will be
about 70 per cent of that shown.
Voltage Drop of Cables and Overhead Lines. The curves of Figs.
1.45 and 4.4G may be used for estimating the voltage drop through cables
and overhead lilies nhcn start,iiig synchronous and squirrelcage induction
motors supplied through these circuits.
I n using these figures, it is first necessary t o determine the length of the
circuit in feet, the initial voltage at the load end of the circuit, and the
motorstarting kva a t the iuitial voltage. These quantities are combined
to obtain the loading factor .If as follows:
motorstarting kva
M =
at the initial voltage x (% )
ci:ri ne):,t
(initial voltage)2
262 VOLTAGkSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS
For example, if the motorstarting load were 1000 kva, the circuit 1000
ft long, and the initial voltage 2400 volts, the loading factor M would be
1000 x 1000 = o,1,3
(2400)'
Figure 4.45 shows that for this case the voltage drop at the load end of
a typical threeconductor cable is 1.5 per cent.
This illustration gives data for three circuits: a threeconductor cable,
a singleconductor cable, and an overhead line. It will be noted that the
voltage drop in an overhead line is greater than that for a cable.
If two circuits are in parallel, the drop is equal to that for a single cir
cuit of onehalf the actual length of each circuit.
The voltage drop in a line or cable depends upon the conductor size and
spacing. Consequently, for different cases than those illustrated in Fig.
4.45, the voltage drop may be somewhat different. This is illustrated by
Fig. 4.46 showing the voltage drop for a range of circuit configurations.
The points corresponding to the circled cases in Fig. 4.45 are circled in
Fig. 4.46.
Figure 4.46 applies for the condition hf = 1.0. It may be noted,
however, that the curves of Fig. 4.45 are nearly straight lines. Hence,
the voltage drop for other values of M may be estimated by multiplying
the values of Fig. 4.46 by M . This provides a simple method of esti
mating the voltage drop for motorstarting loads.
The power factor of the motorstarting load is assumed to be 0.3 power
factor. For conductor sizes above No. 0 Awg, variations over the usual
range from 0.2 to 0.4 power factor will not have an important effect on
voltage drop.
Figures 4.45 and 4.46 are based on a frequency of 60 cycles per sec.
Lines and cables for systems operating a t lower frequencies mill have less
voltage drop. The voltage drop will be reduced approximately in pro
portion to the frequency for all couductor sizes above KO. 0 Awg. For
smaller sizes, the reduction will he less.
Voltage Drop of Reactors. The voltage drop in a currentlimiting
reactor on starting a squirrelcage induction or synchronous motor may
be estimated from the transformer curves of Fig. 4.44.
Currentlimiting reactors are usually described as having a certain
per cent reactance on a specified systemkva and syst,emvoltage base.
The motorstarting kva of Fig. 4.44 should be that drawti at the specified
system voltage expressed in per cent of the specified system kva.
If the per cent reactauce of a reactor does not lie between 5 and 8 per
cent, multiply the motorstarting kva by the ratio X / 5 , where X is the
actual per cent reactance of the reactor, and read the voltage correspond
ing to this equivalent motorstarting kva on the 5 per cent reactance
curve.
V O L T A G E  S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 263
100 0
"
Y
Q
90 10
80 20
70 30
0
0 0.1 02 0.3 0.4 05 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
LOADING FACTOR, M = ~ ~ ( L E N G T H IN FT.) ~
(A) 3 CONDUCTOR C A B L E  (NO. 4 / 0  A W G  I 5 K V )
(6) I  CONDUCTOR C A B L E  ( N O . 4 / O  A W G  6 IN. SPACING)
(C) O V E R H E A D L I N E  N 0 . 4 / 0  A W G  1 5 K V
CIRCLED P O I N T S APPEAR O N FIG. N O 4 46
FIG. 4.45 Variation of voltage drop with looding factor M for typical liner and cables.
c:
FIG. 4.46 Voltage drop in lines and cables with loading factor M of unity.
264 V O L T A G b S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS
Effect of Series Capacitors. Sometimes it is advantageous t o include
series capacitors in the distrihut,ion system t o neutralize the reactance of
lines, cahles, or t,rausformers. Series capacitors redure voltage drop.
The amount of redurt,ion depends upon the raparitor rating. For further
informat,ion on series capacitors, refer to Chap. 8.
Voltage Drop of Power Systems. Motors are frequently supplied
from power systems cotisistirig of complicated uetworks of lines and
cables for which a calculation of the voltage drop ~vouldhe difficult.
The voltage drop may be est,imated, however, if t,he shortcircuit current
is known at the point of power delivery.
The shortcircuit rurrent is usually expressed in kva.
When motorstarting kva is drawl from a system, the voltage drop in
per cent of the initial voltage is approximately equal to 100 times the
motorstartiiig kva divided by the sum of this kva and the shortcircuit
kva. The motorstarting kva used should be that drawn by the motor if
the initial system \&age were maintained. For example, if a 1000hp
motor has a startirig kva of 5000 if initial system voltage were maintained
and the system shortcirruit kva is 50,000, the voltage drop will be
approximately
5000/(5000 + 50,000) X 100 = 9 per cent of the initial voltage
In many systems the shortcircuit kva varies over a wide range, depend
ing upon the number of parallel h e s that are in service, system inter
connections, etc. In such cases the highest shortcircuit kva is the one
usually determined since it must he the one used in selection of equipment
which is t o carry or iritcrrupt the shortcircuit current. For calculating
voltage drop, oil the other hand, the minimum shortcircuit kva should
be used since the corresponding operating condition will give the highest
voltage drop.
The shortcircuit kva of power systems varies over a wide range, as
shown in Table 4.14. A corresponding variation occurs in the voltage
drop produced by a certaiu motorstarting kva.
TABLE 4.14 Powersystem Shortcircuit Kva
Usual Range of
System Voltage Shortcircuit Kvo
2,400 15.0001 50,000
4,160 25.000250.000
6,900 50.000500.000
13.800 100.0001,000,000
23,000 I50.0001,500,000
34,500 150.0001,500,000
69,000 150,000I,500,000
I 15.000 250.0002.500.000
The various curves and other data that have been presented allow
estimates of the voltage drop due to motor starting to be made quirkly
with minimum iuformation on the motor and circuit elements involved.
For cases not adequately covered by these data, the formulas given below
may he used.
Static Circuit Elements Only. First assuming that all the voltage
drop occurs in static circuit elements such as transmission lines, cables,
transformers, and reactors, the voltage at the motor starter mill he
equal to
Z.W
(4.12)
before adding to the ohmic resistances and reactances of the motor and
other circuit elements on the serondary of the transformer. If two or
more transformers are in series between the circuit element and the
motor, the actual resistance and reactance in ohms should be multiplied
by the square of the product of the various noload voltage transforma
tion ratios. For transformers equipped with taps 011 either primary or
secondary winding, the voltage ratings used in the above formulas should
correspond to the t a p setting.
Using the perunit system, it is generally convenient to select as base
kva the kva drawn by the motor at rated motor voltage, which is
X starting current in amperes X rated motor volts (4.13)
1000
268 VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS
and select rated motor voltage as the base voltage. Iii this case Z , = 1.
The per cent resistanre and reactance of a transformer, with the motor
connected t o its secondary, should be multiplied by
f Motorstarting kva at \ Isecondary voltage ratiug\'
rated motor voltage
\ G t i n g of transformer ) \ of transformer
rated motor voltage
1
(4.14)
A second transformer in series would have its per cent resistance and
reactance multiplied b j the above expression and also bj' the square of
the noload volhage transformation ratio (secondary voltage divided by
primary voltage) of t,he first transformer. The resistaiice and reactaiice
of circuit elements that are expressed iii ohms should be multiplied hy
Motor starting kva at rated motor voltage
."
(Rated "r )
volts ' x 1000
(4.15)
except where the circuit element is separated from the motor by a trans
former, in vhich case the multiplier is
Motorstarting kva at rated mot,or voltage
(~~__
Prjmary voltage r a h g of transformer
x
Secondary voltage rating of transformer
rated motor volts
1000
) x 1000
(4.16)
If t v o or more transformers are in series bet,ween the circuit element and
the motor, the transformer noload voltage ratio which appears in the
above espression should be replaced by the product of the noload vokage
transformation ratios of the various traiisformers. Where voltage taps
are provided on a t,ransformer, the voltage ratirigs used in the above for
mulas should correspoiid t o the t a p sett,ing.
The resistance and reactance of circuit elements connected in series
can be added directly. For circuit elemeots connected in parallel, equiva
lent wlnes of resistance and react,ance can be det,ermined hy the method
given in Chap. 1.
If current to other loads is flowing in one or more of the circuit elements
between the motor and the const,ant voltage point mhen the motor is
started, the above formula for voltage a t the motor mil1 still apply,
assuming that these other loads are of the constantcurrent type, i.e.,
the current drawn does not change ivhen the voltage drops. Such load
currents must, of course, be considered io determining the initial voltage
at the motor starter. A method for taking into account loads whose
current varies u i t h voltage will be given later.
Often it is desirable t o know the effect of motor starting on the voltage
V O L T A G b S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS. C A L C U U T I O N OF DROPS 269
d(Rw
d(RX + Rs)*+ (x.w
(X, +
+ R i ) 2+ + x1)2
XS)2
X initial voltage a t motor starter (4.17)
X
+ n,)z +
d(fi,,
Z I,
(x,“+ xsjz
rated geiierator voltage
x(.initialgeiieratorvoltage
.. ) (4.19)
(4.20)
If there is a transformer between the generator arid the motor, the vollagc
a t the mot,or starter should be multiplied by the noload volt,agc traus
formation ratio (primary voltage ratiiig divided by secondary voltage
rating) of the transformer before suhstitutiiig it in the above formula.
With t,wo or more transformers in series, use as a multiplier the product
of their noload voltage transformation ratios. If the calculated mot,or
st,arting kva a t rated generator vokage differs appreriably from the first
estimate, a serond estimate based on the calculated value can be made
and the calculatioiis repeated until a close rherk is obtained.
Motorstarting Power Foctor. Use of the preceding formulas requires
a knoivledge of the motorstart,ing power fartor ((WS 8.,,). The starting
power factor of squirrelcage induction and synchronous motors var
ies over a rather wide range, depending upon the rating and desigii
characteristics.
Approximat,e values of starting power factor for typiral squirrelrage
induction motors are given in Fig. 4.47.
Lowspeed (450 rpm aiid below) synchronous motors for reriprovatirrg
compressor drive usually have a start,itig p o m r fartor bet,ween 0.20 aiid
0.40. Synchronous motors for rrntrifugal pump drive, on the other
hand, have starting power fartors generally between 0.15 and 0.35.
Where motorstart,ing power factor must be kuo\vn more acrurately, a
value should be ohtailled from the motor manufacturer.
With reduced voltage starting, the p o m r factor of the rurreut drawl
from the line may be somewhat different from the motorstarting power
factor. An autotransformer starter has oiily a small effect on the porver
fact.or, but the magnetizing current of the autotransformer makes the
power factor of the current drawn from the line slightly less t,han the
motorstarting p o w r factor. With a reactor st,arter, the power factor
"
50.60
0.70
=
A
0.50
0.40
0.M
=w 0.20
B O.I0
0.001 I I I I l l I I 1 1 I I I I
5 K) I5 20 30 40 50 75 100 150 M o 300 500 700 1000
HORSEPOWER RATING
FIG. 4.47 Approximate 3tor:ing power factor of typical squirrelcage induction motors.
272 VOLTAGESTANDARD RATINGS. VARIATIONS. CALCULATION OF DROPS
of thc. riirri.iit dmwi from t h r liiie \ri11 eqiial the motorstartiiig power
f w t o r miiltiplird Iiy thi: volt,age ratio (motor volt,age divided hy liiie
voltage) of t h r startcr. .i rc:sist,»r starter, oii the other haiid, results i i i a
power fartor for t h r riirreiit drawii from the liiie equal t o
REDUCEDFREQUENCY STARTING
I LINE
TRANYORMER
rrT" BANK
From Fig. 4.46, for M = 1, 4/0 line, 3ft spacing, voltage drop is 11.5
per cent. Since M = 0.292, drop in line is 0.292 X 11.5 = 3.36 per
cent. Voltage a t end of line (neglecting generator voltage drop) is
100  3.36 = 96.64 per cent of initial voltage (6700 volts).
Kva applied to generator a t rated generator voltage
voltage a t end of line
= starting kva a t rated generator voltage X
initial line voltage
VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 275
i
( itransformer
n i t i a l secondary
X 0.9664 X 0.93 =
secondary
voltage
2690 kva
voltage ) = 2300 X (
6900 X mo
22002400)
The perunit system will be used n.ith base kva equal to the motor
starting kva a t rated motor voltage (2300 kva) and base voltage equal to
rated motor voltage (2200 volts). On this basis, the motor constants are
z, = 1
cos On/ = 0.3 B M = 72.5'
R.u = Z . w cos BM = 0.3
X M = Z M sin Bar = 0.954
The resistance and reactance of the transformer vill equal the per cent
values multiplied by
Motorst,arting kva a t secondary voltage rat
rated motor voltage ing of transformer
Kva rating of transformer rated motor voltage
X
z Y (rated generator voltage
d ( R , ,+ &)2 + (X,, + Xs)*
~~
far below the singleimpulse \vit,hstaiid abilit,y. One may conclude that
a reduct,ion in either the magnitude or duration of overvoltage stress will
in general result in longer useful life.
OVERVOLTAGE SOURCES
There are many varied sources of overvoltages of sufficient magnitude
to be damaging t o the insulation of ac industrial power distributioii sys
tems. 111t,liis chapter the mechanism by which the more prominent over
volt,ages are created v i l l be described and preventative measures sug
gested. ‘Treatment of t,he following will be included:
I . Static
2 . Physical contact nith a higher voltage system
3. I1esouani.e effects ill series inductivecapacitive circuits
4. Repetitive int,ermittent short circuits
5 . SITitrhing surges
(i. Forcedcurrent zerocurrent interruptiou
7. Autotransformer connections
8. Lightiiitig
Of these, most are the result of effevtsdirectly within the electric system
itself. I n contrast, lightning (a vicious source of overvokage) is com
municated to the electrical system from nature’s powerhouse in the
heavens above.
STATIC
Windblown sand or dust can become highly charged and impart rela
tively high voltage to exposed overhead electric conductors. Moving
belts rutiiiing on iioiimet,allic pulleys can also develop high voltages by
st,at,icmeans which may in turn be communicated t o electric system con
ductors if electric enclosing frames arc improperly grounded. The rate
a t wtrirh electric i,harge is communicated t o electric system conductors
by stat,ir means is extremely low. Even a rather highresistance ground
i~iiincrtionon the electric system n d l discharge these stat,ic currents t o
ground as fast as they are rereived with negligible overvoltages. I n
addition to grounding the elect,ric service system, it is important that
electric machiue frames arid all metallic enclosures which contain electric
circuit conductors be effectively grounded (see Chap. 7).
both circuits at the point of contact. If Lhe lowvoltage circuit does not
have its neutral grounded, its potential will be increased t o t h a t of the
highvoltage system or flashover mil1 occur. If Lhe lowvoltage system is
anchored close t o ground potential as hy Lhe use of a solidly grounded
neutral, high values of current may flow from the highvoltage system,
b u t a much lower voltage will appear than with an isolated neutral system.
Accidental cootacts hetmeen primary and secondary voltages on indus
trial systems are guarded against by the use of metal enelosures and metal
barriers which separate conductor systems of different operating poten
tials. In some cases overhead circuits have both primary and secondary
on the same pole, but substantial clearances reduce Lhe danger of acci
dental contact t o a minimum. Occasional crossups have occurred
between primary and secondary on overhead circuits, and a few cases are
known where failure has occurred between primary and secondary inside
a transformcr.
UNINTENTIONAL
CONNECTION
PHYSICbL CONNECTIONS
7
'..
N O R M b L POSITION O F
P, / 4 8 0 V VOLTAGE TRIbNGLE C xq
I \:ol,
I I \,\
I
I 1
I 3
L
2 Eb= 2 4 0 0 V
b
L,'
I
e0
FIG. 5.1 Overvollage on 480volt ungrounded ryrtem rerulting from contcxt with a higher
roltoge ryrtem.
GENERATOR OR
TRANSFORMER
xs A PHASE
"A"*"
Eg E'.c
%
5
I
I
.
" 4
Y
J
z
LL
4 3
"Y
7
Ec
' 2
.i

f
BROKEN L I N E
GROUNDED
AN INDUCTIVE WINDING :CIDENTbLLY b GROUNO FAULT bT A F U S E PROTECTED ONE BROKEN OVERHEbO LINEGROUNDED
CONNECTED BETWEEN 01 PHASE h N D T R I N S F O R H E R C I N BLOW ONE FUSE ON T H E L O A D SIDE OF T H E B R E A K
GROUND LEbVING THE REACTbNCE OF TRANSFORMERS CONNECTS T H E REACTANCE OF TRANSFORMERS
12 4 N D T 3 I N P b R A L L E L B E T W E E N L I N E AND 12 AND 13 I N PARbLLEL B E T W E E N L I N E
GROUND 1 NOTE I I b N D GROUND [NOTE II
NOTE I
Y U N G R O U N D E D T R I N S F O R M E R CONNECTIONS
WOULD PRODUCE T H E SAME EFFECT
FIG. 5.4 Examples of unintentional highreactance connections between line and ground.
284 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESCAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES
48OV 3PH 6 0 C Y
o
s i i o m m ~ uTO~GROUND 
PHVSlCbL CONNECTDNS
NORMAL POSITION
OF
?.
IP
UOLTME TRIANGLE; ,,,
/'
b
remain at a dc potential equal to the crest value of the ac voltage wave.
All this merely says that there will be little tendency for any voltage to
reappear across the gap in the short circuit immediately following the
current zero which occurs at B .
During the next half cycle, however, the ac generat,ed voltages will
reverse their polarities (vectors rotate 180°),which would cause the three
phase vector voltage pattern to assume the position shown in the upper
part of C . Kote that during this onehalf cycle time interval, the poten
tial of the A phase has progressively inrreased from zero value to about
twice the normal linetoneutral crest voltage relative to ground potential.
This value of linetoground potential of the A phase may he sufficient to
break down the gap in the groundfault circuit arid reestablish the corinec
tion between the A phase and ground. If so, the Aphase potential will
tend to be suddenly yanked to ground potential. Iuevitably there will
be some system reactance in the Aphase conductor to the ground short
circuit point which would result in an oscillation of the Aphaseconductor
potential between plus 2 and minus 2 at a frequency probably 20 to 100
times normal. If the short circuit consisted of a solid metallic connection,
this oscillation would decay to zero, leaving the Aphase conductor at
ground potential. Xote that associated with this highfrequency transi
Ei"' E;
Y
+ $ CYCLE tC $ CYCLE 4
€0
NORMAL
A B C D
FIG. 5.7 Overvoltages on ungrounded systems due to repetitive momentary contact be
tween one line and ground.
288 SYSTEM 0VERVOLTAGES.CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES
although it does produce 73 per cent overvoltage on two of the phase con
ductors. It therefore seems reasonable to assume that the multiple
failures result from the appearance of overvoltages considerably in
excess of 173 per cent normal.
Distributionsystem ox,ervoltages of repetitiverestrike or intermittent
ground origin can be entirely eliminated by effective system neutral
grounding (see Chap. 6). Resistance grounding with a resistance ground
fault of any value upward of the linetoground charging current mill be
effective. For various other reasons it mill he evident that higher values
of available groundfault current will he desirable. If reactance ground
ing is contemplated (it rarely finds application in industrial systems), it
is important to keep the reactance of the grounding circuit sufficiently
low so that the ratio of X o is no more than ten times X , . If this ground
ing reactanre value is exceeded, opportunity is given for another type of
repetitive restrike action which can result in overvoltages t o ground.
The groundfault neutralizer (Petersen coil) represents one special case
of highreactance grounding which is free of overvoltages by repetitive
restrike action. This is due t o the fact that the reactance value is care
fully selected so that the oscillating circuit formed hetmeen it and the
systemtoground capacitance will oscillate a t normal line frequency.
Following a groundfault cnrrent shutoff point as at B in Fig. 5.7, the
potential of the electric system neutral with respect t o ground would
oscillate between plus and minus 1 at fundamental frequency as controlled
by the tuned grounding reactor and system capacitance t o ground. Thus
as the potential of the nphase conductor with respect t o the neutral due
to the generat,ed voltage in the supply system alternates from minus 1 t o
plus 1, the free oscillation of the zerosequence circuit remains in step
with it, with the net result that the potential of the Aphase conductor
tends t o remain at ground potential. Voltage of normal frequency
gradually reappears as the free oscillation in the zerosequence circuit
decays. I n general, some 15 or 20 cycles will elapse before the potential
of the previously shorted phase increases t o threequarters of normal
value. Thus, the freedom from restrike is due t o the longdelayed
reappearance of voltage across the linetoground circuit.
SWITCHING SURGES
normal current zero and prevent reestablishing current flow during the
following half cycle. As a result of this action it is unnecessary that the
stored magnetic energy in the inductance of the circuit be disposed of
during interruption. Interruption takes place at a normal current zero,
at which time the stored magnetic energy is zero.
A quaiitative understanding of the mechanism whereby such over
voltages are generated will be useful. Of first consideration is the amount
of voltage change which would tend to appear across the switching con
tacts if they were switched open. For example, in Fig. 5.8, a linetoline
shortcircuit condition between phases A and B is illustrated. With the
circuit breaker still closed, the potential of a' and b' must be common and
will lie midway between potentials e, and ea, as indicated in the vector
diagram. With the vector relationships shown in the figure, the current
in the faulted circuit will be going through zero, which affords an oppor
tunity for the circuit breaker to make an interruption if the contacts have
parted. If current flow is interrupted at this current zero, the potential
of a' tends to return to e. while that of point b' tends to return to eb.
SHORT CIRCUIT
;, \, ,
,, " ' "
VOLTAGE RELATIONSHIP WITH
SHORTCIRCUITON AT THE T I M E OF A
CURRENT ZERO IN THE SHORT CIRCUIT
CIRCUIT e.' = eb'
(VOLTAGE mob AT MAX VALUE1
FIG. 5.8 Overvoltages due to interruption of (I linetoline short circuit at current zero.
SYSTEM O V E R V O L T A G E S  C A U S E S A N D PROTECTIVE MEASURES 291
CBPOLENOI ISTHE
4e, FIRST TO CLOSE
c, MOTOR TERMINAL B
W I L L TEND TO ABRUPTLY
JUMP TO e. BUT OUE TO
FIG. 5.9 Possible switching overvoltage when motor running breaker closes lopencycle
autotransformer start).
292 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESCAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES
.. . .... ..
\i,
A L L C B POLES S T I L L CLOSE0
e,....
i
0 1W I L L T E N 0 TO JUMP TO e0,AND
Q p T O T H E NEW EA WITH .TRANSITORY
EXCURSIONS SHOWN BY DOTTED LINES
FIG, 5.10 Possible overvoltager when interrupting o synchronous motor during outof
step conditions.
294 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESCAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES
FORCEDCURRENTZERO INTERRUPTION
however the overvoltage will persist until the magnitude of current has
been returned t o zero value.
Because of the overvoltage problems, the vacuum contact switch finds
little applicatioii. The vacuum switch tends t o shut off current com
pletely the instaiit that the contacts part. Unless suitable overvoltage
suppressors are associated with such an interrupter, high voltages will be
developed if applied in inductive circuits. The overvoltages so produced
may he sufficient t o sparkover the outside of the vacuum switch unless
some other portion of the circuit breaks dowu a t a lower voltage.
Currentlimiting fuses constitute an example of a forced current
interrupter. They possess the property of being able t o reduce the rur
rent t o zero value ahead of a normal current zero. Overvoltages are
developed during the operation of such an interrupter. As supplied by
reputable manufacturers, the design of the internal elements contains
special features mhirh rontrol the magnitude of such overvoltages, and
fullsrale tests are applied to prove the resulting performance t o ensure
that overvoltages so developed d l be within the safe withstand value of
the electric insulation of the voltage class t o which it is t o be applied.
Because of the overvoltage problem, currentlimiting fuse interrupters
of a particular voltage rating should not be applied t.o electric systems
of lower operating voltage. I n other words, a 7500volt rated current
limiting fuse should not he applied on a 2400volt operating system
because overvoltages developed iu its operation will be dangerous t o a
2400volt insulation level.
AUTOTRANSFORMER CONNECTIONS
PHYSICAL CONNECTIONS
\
\ I
i FIG. 1 1 1 Overvoltage on un
\ I
'"'
b
grounded systems due to a
ground connection on the wind
ing of an autotrans
RESULTING (IOLTAGE vEcmR DIAGRAM former.
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESCAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 1P7
character to be found in test areas are of relatively small physical size
and do not impose restrictive requirements on the necessary system
grounding equipment. As a matter of fact, on all lowvoltagesystem
equipment (GOO volts and less) it is the standard practice to ground the
neutral solidly.
The application of threephase transformers or threephase banks of
singlephase transformers, mhich do not incorporate a closeddelta wind
ing in their makeup, should in general be avoided or quite rarefully
examined to ensure that the resulting operation will be free of damaging
overvoltages. This would be equally true of Yconnected autotrans
formers (see reference 4). Berause of the nonlinear shape of transformer
magnetizing curves, the required transformer magnetizing current to
produce a fundamental frequency sine wave of voltage will contain rather
prominent amounts of harmonic currents. In a Yconnerted transformer
system energized from a threephase supply in the absence of a delta
connected winding, the transformers are unable to obtain a sourre of
thirdharmonic current or multiples thereof because these are of zero
sequence. As the result of the inability to obtain a thirdharmonic
exciting current, there will appear a thirdharmonic voltage whirh may
be as much as 50 per cent of the normal operating potential. Should the
neutral of such a transformer system become grounded intentionally or
accidentally and the supply system be ungrounded or highresistance
grounded, this thirdharmonic voltage will be imparted to and appear on
the system phase conductors and represent a sustained source of over
voltage. Even though the transformer system neutral is ungrounded,
some fraction of the thirdharmonic voltage will appear on the phase con
ductors, depending on the ratio of capacitance to ground within the trans
former structure to the distributed capacitance to ground of the rest of the
system.
Coretype threephase transformers present a fairly low zerosequence
magnetizing reactance which would hold the zerosequence voltage to
much lower levels than shelltype threephase transformers or banks of
three singlephase transformers and are thus much less susceptible to
overvoltage difficulties. If operated with grounded neutral on an
ungroundedneutral system, a careful check should be made to ensure
freedom from neutral instability, as treated in reference 3.
While grounding the electric system neutral may not solve all the
troubles of the YY transformer connections, it will eliminate appearance
of overvoltage on the phase conductors of a system to which such a bank
of transformers might be connected.
Overvoltage Example. A great many specific cases of system over
voltages have been analyzed, identified, and catalogued. All types are
well represented. Space will not allow a lengthy treatment of these
298 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESCAUSES A N D PROTECTIVE MEASURES
(A1
APHASE
FUSE OPEN
( FJI
FIG. 5.1 2 Circuit conditions responsible for an orenoltoge experience on an ungrounded
power system.
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESCAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 299
outdoor) through exposed overhead lines which often bring power t o the
plant or, in some cases, distribute power withiu the plant.
Direct Strokes and Induced Surges. Lightning may produce an over
voltage on a transmission line either by a direct stroke to the line or by
electrostatic induction from a stroke t o earth iri the vicinity of the line.
The probable maximum voltage appearing ori a liiie by a direct stroke is
15 million volts and for an induced surge, 500,000 volts. These voltages
appear between conductor and ground.
Wave Shopes. Although the voltage surges produced hy lightning
have high magnitudes, their duration is very short. I t is measured in
microseconds (millionths of a second). Typically, the voltage rises very
rapidly (in 1 t o 10 psec) t o the maximum or “crest,” value and theu decays
more slowly, reaching 50 per cent of the crest value in 20 t o 150 psec.
As illustrated in Fig. 5.13, the shape of a voltage or current, surge pro
duced hy lightning (and those produced artificially for test purposes) is
customarily expressed by two numherç. The first, is the time from the
“virtual zero” of t,he wave front t o the time the wave reaches crest value,
while the second numher is the time from the virtual zero t o the time the
voltage or current has decreased t o 50 per cent of the crest value. The
CREST VALUE
t
f

I
I
I
ZERO TIME O F CURRENT WAVE
I
.
ZERO TIME O F VOLTAGE WAVE
I
b
&tu
t 3 
4 I
T i a N
MICROSEMXIDS
1. _I
WAVE SHAPE OF
VOLTAGE WAVE ti X 12
CURRENT WAVE t 3 X t e
virtual zero of a wave front is the intersection with the zero axis of a
straight line drawn through the points on the front of the wave which
are 30 per cent and 90 per cent of the crest value for a voltage wave and
10 per cent and 90 per cent of crest value for a current wave. Both times
are usually expressed in microseconds. To illustrate, a 95kv lf.5 X
40psec wave is one that has a crest value of 95 kv, rises to crest value in
134 pser from the time of virtual zero, and decays to 50 per cent of crest
value (47.5 kv) in 40 psec from the time of virtual zero.
Traveling Waves. The voltage surge produced on a transmission line
by lightning does not appear simultaneously at all points on the line;
instead, it appears at successively later intervals of time as the distance
from the point of the st,roke increases. Furthermore, the magnitude and
shape (voltage vs. time) of the surge remain approximately the same at
all points of a uniform line, but are simply displaced in time phase. In
effect then t,he surge which appeared as a voltagetime wave on the line
where the stroke occurred becomes two identical voltagedistance waves
on the line which travel at uniform velocity in oppvsite directions from
the point of origin.
Keglecting all resistances, it can be shown that
1. The voltage waves travel along the conductor without change in
magnitude or shape with a velocity equal to l / d T C fps, where L is the
inductance in henrys per foot of line and C i s the capacitance in farads per
foot of line.
2. A current wave accompanies the voltage wave and is of exactly the
same shape, that is, a t any instant at any point on the line, the current
flowing in the conductor is directly proportional to the voltage from con
ductor to ground.
3. The ronstant of proportionality between the current and voltage is
called t,he surge impedance Z and is equal to 4 r C ohms, where I, i s the
inductance in henrys for any unit length of the line and C is the capaci
tance in farads for the same unit length. The current in amperes is equal
to the voltage in volts divided by the surge impedance in ohms.
The inductanre and caparitance of an overhead line are such that the
velocity of a current or volt,age wave (called velocity of propagation) is
equal to the velocity of light in free space, which is 984 ft per psec. In
most ralrulations the round number 1000 is used. The propagation
velority in a cable varies with its construction, but a typical value is
600 f t per psec.
The surge impedanre of an overhead line varies with the size of the
ronductor and its height aboveground, but is usually between 400 and
500 ohms. A typical value for a cable is 30 ohms.
Reflection of Traveling Waves. A change occurs in a traveling wave
when it reaches the junction between two conductors of different surge
302 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESCAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES
impedance, for example, an overhead line and rahle. The original wave,
called the inrident wave, gives rise to two waves at the t,ransition point,
namely, a “refracted” wave whirh rontinues on through the second con
ductor and a “reflected” wave which starts traveling hack over the first
conductor.
If, at any instant, E is the voltage of the incident wave at the junc
tion, then E X (Z,  Z,)/(Z, + ZJ is the voltage of the reflected
wave, where Z, is the surge impedance of the first rouductor (over whirh
the surge arrived) arid Z , is the surge impedaure of the second ronduc
tor. The voltage of the refracted wave at the junrtiorr is the sum of
the voltages of the incident and reflected waves, that is, it equals
E X (222)/(Z2 + Zi).
Reflected and refracted current waves accompany the corresponding
voltage waves, the constant, of proportionality being t,he surge impedanre
ZIor Z2 of the conductor the wave is traveling oil. A reversal of dirert,ion
of a voltage wave, without change i n polarity, reverses t,he direction of
flow of current.
As indirated by t,he equations, if Z 2 is greater than Z,, a voltage wave
reflects positively at, the junctioo and the voltage a t the junrtion (equal
to the voltage of the refracted wave) is greater than the vokage of the
incident wave. In the limiting rase if 2%is infinite (the line is open), the
voltage at t,he junction is double the voltage of the inrident wave. On
the other hand, if Z,is less than Z , , the wave reflerts negatively and the
refracted wave is less than the incident wave. For the limiting rase of
Z2 equal t o zero (the line is shorted t o ground), the volt,age a t the junr
tion is, of course, equal t o zero. The current t o ground will equal twire
the current of the incident wave.
Although neglecting all resistances represents an idealized condition,
the simplified relations this makes possihle are useful in many practical
situations.
INSULATION CHARACTERISTICS
short duration, it is the impulse tests that are important as far as protec
tion against these overvoltages is concerned.
Basic Impulse Insulation levels. The impulse test which is most com
monly used consists of the application of a 155 X 4Opsec fullwave volt
age surge of a specified crest value to the insulation of the equipment
involved. The crest value of the wave is called the basic impulse insula
tion leuel (abbreviated BIL) of the equipment. T o simplify the design
and appliration of elertrical equipment, the Joint Committee on Coordi
nation of Insulation of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers
(AIEE), the Edison Electric Institute (EEI), and the Xational Electrical
Manufacturers Association (KEMA) have established a series of Stand
ard Basic Impulse Insulation Levels. These are listed in Table 5.1. It
was the intent that the impulse level assigned t o any equipment should he
taken from the standard series. This has generally been done, but in
some cases the value adopted for a given insulation class is that shown in
Table 5.1 for a different reference class.
Boric
Reference impulse Reference
<I.., in."lation <I..,
kv led. kv
kv
~
*The 95kv BIL was estahlished for rertain types of equiprnrnt in t h e 15kv class.
Oilimmersed
Oilimmersed
distribution transformers and
power transformers and
"Oltage regulotorl;
currentlimiting reactors
in.trument trondormers'
lnlUlotior
.I.%,
kv
Chappedwore test 56
"IIr.Yc
X 40 ! Choppedrare test
tell
Min time to ,mat, Min time to
Crest, 311,, crest,
Rashover, Rorhovar.
kv kv kv
p*oc
I .2
2.5
5.0
8.66
30
45
60
75
ii
69
88
1 1 .o
1.25
1.5
1.6
45
60
75
1 %i I I .5
1.5
1.6
15 95 110 I 1.8
 I
* Thr YSIUP ivm for the 15kv insulation rlass apply to instrument transiormers
oi the 151.kv ulatiou PLSS. For the 1511kv class thc fullwavr test is 110 kv and
the rlropp~rlwnrrt p s t is 130 kv with 2.0 ~ S C Cto flashover.
8.66 35
I5 50
PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
place as the ac current goes through zero. The action is similar t o the
operation of an expulsion fuse.
I n the valvetype arrester, on the other hand, interruption of follow
current depends upon having in series with the gaps a column of material
whose resistance varies inversely a s some power of the voltage applied.
Hence, this “valve ” material exhibits a relatively low resistance when the
overvoltage due t o lightning exists, but as soon as the voltage returns to
normal its resistance increases t o a high value. This reduces the magni
tude of the follow current to a value which can be interrupted by the
series gaps. Xormally interruption takes place the first time the ac
current goes through zero. The construction features of one design of
valvetype arrester are shown in Fig. 5.14.
Expulsiontype arresters have assigned current interrupting ratings
FIG. 5.14 A valvetype lightning arrester with section removed to show features of
construction.
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESCAUSES A N D PROTECTIVE MEASURES 307
slid should not he applied to systems whose fault current exceeds such
ratings. Furthermore since some of the gasproducing material is
destroyed each time the arrester operates, there is a limit t,o the number
of operations t o which they can he safely subjected. Valvetypc arresters
have ueither of these limitations. The expulsion arrester also has a
higher sparkover voltage, although following sparkover it exhibits a
lower resistanre t,o the flow of lightniug discharge current than does the
valvetype arrester. Finally the gaseous disrharge from an expulsiorr
type arrester makes it uusuitable for moiiriting wit,hin equipment enclo
sures or in close proximity to other elertrical apparatus. For these
reasons the valvetype arrester is used almost exclusively for the prot,ec
tion of equipment on industrial power systems.
Voltage Rating of Arresters. The voltage rating of an arrester is
defined as the highest ac voltage (rms value) hetween its line and ground
terminals a t which it is desigued t o perform its operating duty cycle.
I n effect it represents the highest voltage at, which it is guaranteed to
interrupt the follow current after sparkover on a voltage surge. It does
not represent the voltage at which the arrester sparks over; in fact,
industry standards specify that an arrester shall not sparkover at any
60cycle voltage less than 150 per cent of its rating.
As n.ill be shown (see Application Proredure) the proper voltage rating
of a n arrester for any system depends not only on the syst,em voltage but
also on how the system is grounded.
Protective Characteristics of Arresters. The two characteristics of a
lightning arrester which determine the degree of protection it can provide
are (1) its impulse sparkover voltage and (2) its discharge voltage, i.e.,
the voltage which appears across its terminals during the passage of dis
charge current. The latter is sometimes referred t o as the I R voltage
drop or simply I R drop.
Two different sparkover voltages are usually published by the arrester
manufacturers. One is the “critical sparkover voltage” with a l!i X 40
psec wave, i.e., it is the crest value of the 1>6 X 40 wave which will cause
sparkover on 50 per cent of the applications of this wave. Sparkover
occurs on the tail of the wave. The other is the average voltage at which
front of wave sparkover occurs with the voltage wave rising at the rate
specified in the AIEE standards for arrester tests, namely, 100 kv per
psec for each 12 kv of arrester rating. This sparkover voltage is generally
higheras much as 50 per cent higher for some arrestersthan the crit,i
cal sparkover voltage for a I f 5 X 40psec wave.
Arrester discharge voltages usually published are the average crest
values of the voltage appearing across the arrester terminals when dis
charging a 10 X 20psec current wave having various crest values such as
1500, 3000, 5000, 10,000 and 20,000 amp.
300 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESCAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES
Type of Arrester
1 ayeroge "(IiYe, per cent
..........
Distribution. 25 20
Line................. 20 15
.............
Stotion. I5 10
Effect of Altitude. Since the sparkover voltage of a gap varies with the
atmospheric pressure, the protective characteristics of arresters are
afferted by the altitude a t which they are installed. This is true even if
the arrester has a sealed gap since the seals employed are not expected t o
maintain a pressure different from the surrounding atmosphere for any
extended period. Standard arresters are considered suitable for altitudes
up to GOO0 ft. Special arresters are available for altitudes of 6001 t o
12,000 ft and for altitudes of 12,001 t o 18,000 f t .
Classification of Highvoltage Arresters. Arresters in ratings of 1000
voks and higher are classified in accordance with their principal charac
t,eristirs and field of application as follows:
1. Distributiontype arresters
2. Linetype arresters
3. Stationtype arresters
Distributiontype arresters are available in voltage ratings of 1, 3, 6,
9, 12, 15, arid 18 kv. Though designed primarily for the protection of
dist,ribut,ion transformers, they are also used to protect other equipment
such as metering and switching devices, voltage regulators, distribution
rapacitors, and cable. The arresters are small, lightweight units t h a t are
readily mounted on poles or crossarms, have reasonably good protective
rharacteristics, and are very low in cost.
Linetype arresters are available in voltage ratings of 20, 25, 30,37, 40,
50, GO, and 73 kv. They are relatively small and lightweight, are moder
ate in cost, and have good protective characteristics. They are used for
the protection of the smaller transformers and substations in the medium
voltage range.
309 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESCAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES
Type of Arrester
1 ayeroge "(IiYe, per cent
..........
Distribution. 25 20
Line................. 20 15
.............
Stotion. I5 10
Effect of Altitude. Since the sparkover voltage of a gap varies with the
atmospheric pressure, the protective characteristics of arresters are
afferted by the altitude a t which they are installed. This is true even if
the arrester has a sealed gap since the seals employed are not expected to
maintain a pressure different from the surrounding atmosphere for any
extended period. Standard arresters are considered suitable for altitudes
up to GOO0 ft. Special arresters are available for altitudes of 6001 to
12,000 ft and for altitudes of 12,001 t o 18,000 f t .
Classification of Highvoltage Arresters. Arresters in ratings of 1000
voks and higher are classified in accordance with their principal charac
t,eristirs and field of application as follows:
1. Distributiontype arresters
2. Linetype arresters
3. Stationtype arresters
Distributiontype arresters are available in voltage ratings of 1, 3, 6,
9, 12, 15, arid 18 kv. Though designed primarily for the protection of
dist,ribut,iontransformers, they are also used to protect other equipment
such as metering and switching devices, voltage regulators, distribution
rapacitors, and cable. The arresters are small, lightweight units that are
readily mounted on poles or crossarms, have reasonably good protective
rharacteristics, and are very low in cost.
Linetype arresters are available in voltage ratings of 20, 25, 30,37, 40,
50, GO, and 73 kv. They are relatively small and lightweight, are moder
ate in cost, and have good protective characteristics. They are used for
the protection of the smaller transformers and substations in the medium
voltage range.
310 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESCAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES
Average discharge
A v e r a g e impulse
oltage with 10,00O~mp
rporkover voltage
10 x zopsec CUrlent
V0ltog on AlEE test wove, kv
wave, kv
rating,
kr __
Distribution
OrreSler.
~ ~
3 I8 13 I5 11
6 34 23 30 22
9 48 35 44 33
I2 61 43 55 44
I5 71 53 69 54
18 84 ... 78
Line Line
Or,e.te,S O,,&e,*
20 75 72 92 72
25 93 89 Ill 90
30 110 I06 I35 108
37 136 131 I64 132
40 147 136 I77 144
50 183 178 222 179
60 220 214 271 217
73 267 261 328 262
97 ... 345 ... 349
I09 ... 388 ... 394
121 ... 430 ... 438
145 ... 51s ... 523
169 ... 602 ... 610
195 ... 691 ... 698
242 ... 860 ... 872
FIG. 5.16 Rotatingmachine form of stationtype FIG. 5.17 Surge protective capaci
lightning arrester rated 6 kv. tor rated 6900 volts, 25 to 60
cycler, 0.5 ilf.
312 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESCAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES
FIG. 5.19 Singlepole lightning arrester FIG. 5.20 Threepole lightning or
with porcelain housing roted 650 volts, rester in metol core roted 650 volt>.
for outdoor service. for indoor or outdoor service,
FIG. 5.21 Capacitortype lightning orrerter rated 0 to 750 volts, 4 rrf for w e on dc
cirwiti. lnruloting cop and sleeve removed ot one end to show terminol.
314 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESCAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES
APPLICATION PROCEDURE
age. It depends upon the relation between the zero and positive
sequence impedances of t,he syst,em. For example, if the ratio of zero
sequence reactance X Ot o the positivesequence reactance X I is positive
and less than 3 and the rat,io of the zerosequence resistance R , t o the
positivesequence reactance X I is less thau 1, the voltage from sound
conductors to ground will not exceed 140 per cent of the system liueto
neutral voltage or about 80 per cent of t,he system linetoline volt,age.
Such a system is said to he “effei.t,ivelygrounded,” and t,he arresters used
are referred to as “80 per rent arrest,ers.” Some syst,ems are grouudcd so
that arresters of even lower voltage rating can he used as far as the orer
voltage caused by linetoground f a u h is concerued. This, however,
should he done only after a careful check of the possible overvoltages
from all sources t,o make sure that v o h g e s in excess of t,he arrester rating
are not likely to occur at the time of sparkover.
Table 5.5 lists the voltage ratings of arresters usually selected for
(1) ungrounded or resistaucegrouuded systems and (2) “effectively
grounded” systems. Selections are show1 for all system voltages likely
to he encountered in industrial plants.
As shown in Table 5.5, 3kv arresters are often used on 2.4/4.1C,Ykv
groundedoeutral systems and 9kv arresters on 7.2/12.47kv grourided
neut,ral syst,ems, akhough in t,hcse cases the arrester rating is only 125 per
cent of t,he nominal system linetoneutral voltage. Before using these
lmier rat,ed arresters, the maximum operating voltage and the rise iu
soulidconduct,ortoground rokages with a linnt,ogrouud fault, should be
determitied t o make sure that under these conditions the voltage applied
to the arresters will not exceed their rating. I n geueral they should not
be used on industrial pmver systems unless (1) the ratio of zerosequenre
reart,ance X o to the positivesequence reactance X I is less thau 1.5 and
(2) the ratio of the zerosequence resistance Ro t,o t,he positivesequence
reactance X I is less thau 0.5.
Even though a system meets the qualifications of an eflectively
grounded system at the power source, it may not a t other points in the
system because of the impedance of intervening lines. Furthermore,
the system may be “effectively grounded” under uormal operating
conditions, but certain faults or other emergencies may result in the
opening of switches which leaves a portion of the system ungrounded
but still energized either from generators or from mot,ors whirh can
temporarily act as generators. Such possibilities should he considered
before selecting the voltage rating of arresters to he applied on what
appears t o be an effectively grounded system.
Choice of Arrester Type. Where the arrester voltage ratiug required
is 3 t o 15 kv, a choice must be made between the distributiontype and
the stationtype arrester. Similarly, if the rating required is hetween 20
316 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESCAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES
Nominal system
voltage, kv Sy*tom "e"Ir.1 System neutral
ungrounded or effectively
'eiirtonce groundeq grounded
2.4 3 3
2.4/4. I6Y 4.5. or 6 t 4.5,;or 6
4.16 4 . 9 or 6 4.5. or 6
4.8 6 4.5* or 6
6.9 7.5*or9 6
12 I5 12
7.2112.47Y 15 9 t o r I2
13.2 (or 13.81 15 12
23 25 20
34.5 37 30
46 50 40
69 73 60
115 121 97
I38 145 121
FIG. 5.22 Effect of reparotion between a lightning arrester and the protected equip
ment on the rotio of the maximum voltage a t the equipment to the sparkover voltage of the
arrester (doer not include any effect of the voltage at the arrester following its sparkover).
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESCAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 319
PROTECTION OF TRANSFORMERS
Separation diitonce, ft
tributiontype arrcsters are usually used a t the junction, but those at the
switchgear should preferably be of the station type (see Fig. 5.23).
If the cable eoiiiiectiiig niet,alclad gear t o an exposed overhead line
does have ii coritiiiiious metallie sheath, the set:orrd set, of arresters at the
gear may or may not be rec.]uired. It depends upon (1) tho iiisulation
level of the gear, ( Z j the type and
... . . . .. voltage rating of the arresters
provided at the junction, aiid (3)
the length of the cable. An
analysis of this ease was made
on t,he basis of the followiiig
assumptions :
1. The arrestors at the jiinc
tioii maintain a voltage at, this
point which does not exceed the
sparlrover voltage of the arrester
as given in Table 5.8.
2. The maximum voltage at
the switchgear must be limited
to 80 per cent, of its BIL.
3. The volt,age waves which
appear on the overhead liue arid
reach the cable junction have a
const,ant rate of rise which does
not exceed 1000 kv per psec.
4. The surge impedance of the
overhead line is 500 ohms, and
t h a t of the cable is 30 ohms.
FIG. 5.23 Stofiontype lightning orresterr
5 . The velocity of propagat,ion
(rotatingmochine form) mounted in metal
clad switchgear. of the surge iii the cable is GOO f t
per $see.
The r e s u k of the analysis are shown in Table 5.7.
I n all cases the grouiid terminal of the junction arrester should be cori
iiected to t,lre cable sheath as me11 as t o ground, aiid at the switchgear the
cable sheat,h should he eonri d to the ground bus (see Fig. 5.24A).
This is essential if no arresters are provided in the gear aiid is desirable
in any case. Where large singlecoiiductor cables are used, it may not be
desirable t o ground bot,b ends of the sheath because of excessive sheath
curreiit. I n this case the lightningarrester ground terminal should still
be coririected directly t o the cable sheath arid the sheath grounded at the
switchgear, hut the connection t o ground at the arrester should be made
through aii isolatiiig gap, as shown in Fig. 5.24R.
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESCAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 323
’The use of

arresters on a 4.16kv system requires an X d X , ratio IPSS than
Y
that necessary t o make the system “effectively grounded” (see Selection of Arrester
Voltage Rating).
t The 4.5 and 7.5kv arresters are available only in the station type.
t Arresters required in snitchgesr if length of cable exceeds this value.
Sparkover voltogs. k r
V0lt.go rating
of arraters,
Distributiontype Stofiontype
kv
.r,der* .lr,e*t*r*
I 3 22
I 15
6 42.5 25
P 60 37
12 74 52
15 81.5 64
324 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGLSCAUSES
AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES
type arresters and a set of protective capacitors (as used for rotating
macliitie protection) at the junction of the rable and overhead line. The
ground terrniual of both the arresters aiid the caparitors should be con
nected to the rable sheath as \yell as t o ground (directly or through a n
isolating gap), aud the (.able sheath should he eoiniected t o the ground
bus a t the switchgear.
11, a l l  P ~ ~
I?
CABLESHEATH
 . T
q&2 ’
4
1
<4p
~
4 
PROTECTION OF SUBSTATIONS
FIG. 5.25 Substation with lightning masti for direct stroke protection and stationtype
lightning arresters far protection agoinrt surges entering the station over the incoming
liner.
326 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESCAUSES A N D PROTECTIVE MEASURES
The best protection that can he provided for aerial cahle against direct
lightning strokes consists of grounding the messenger and sheath a t every
pole and securing as low a ground resistance as possible. This is to
allow a lightning stroke to the messenger to drain off by current flow to
earth without causing the voltage of the messenger and sheath to rise
excessively above the voltage of the cable conductors. If an aerial cable
joins a n openwire line, lightning arresters should be installed at the
junction to protect the cable insulation against lightning surges which
arrive over the open line. The ground terminal of these arresters should
be connected directly to the cable messenger and sheath as well as to
ground.
Since the voltage and current surges produced in the messenger of
aerial cable by a lightniug stroke to the messenger result in voltage and
current surges in the cable conductors, it is generally recommended that
aerial cahle be considered the same as openwire lines as far as the pro
tection of terminal equipment is concerned.
stand is simply the crest of the fi0cycle highpotential test whose rms
value is twice rated (linetoline) voltage plus 1009 volts. This means
that special effort must be made to limit the magnitude of the surge
voltage which reaches the terminals of the machines. Secondly, the
steep front of the voltage surge produced by lightning may damage the
turn insulation even though the magnitude of the surge is limited t,o a
value which can be safely withstood by the major (ronductortoground)
insulation. Such damage is avoided by reducing the steepness of the
voltage wave which reaches the machine. Finally, as a result of the
above limitations, lightning protertive equipment must be considered
even though the machine is connected to the exposed overhead line
through a transformer whose line side is adequately protected by a
lightning arrester. A voltage surge of a magnitude and a steepness of
front u,hich will damage machine insulation can be t,ransmitted through
a transformer by electrostatic and electromagnetic coupling.
The scheme of protection recommended differs somevhat for (1)
machines connected direct,ly to exposed overhead lines and ( 2 ) machines
connected to exposed overhead lines through transformers.
Protection of Machines Connected Directly to Exposed Overhead
lines. First to protect the turn insulation, the maximum rate of change
of voltage (steepness of wave front) applied to the machine must be
reduced to a value which will limit the resultant turntoturn voltage to a
safe value. This is accomplished by (1)connecting a protective capacitor
between each line and ground in the path of the incoming surge (pref
erably a t the terminals of the machine) and ( 2 ) connecting a distribution
type arrester from line to ground a t a distance of 1500 to 2000 f t out on
each directly connected exposed line. Then to ensure reliable protection
of the major insulation, a stationtype arrester should be connected in
parallel with the protective capacitor.
When located at the terminals of the rotating marhine, the ground
terminals of both the arresters and capacitors should be connected
directly to the machine frame, which of course should be connected to the
plant ground bus. When the protective devices cannot be located
directly at the terminals of the machine, it is preferable to bring the
incoming lines to the terminals of these devices and then on to the
machine, as shown in Fig. 5.26A4,rather than use separate leads from the
machine terminals to the protective devices, as shown in Fig. 5.2CR.
For additional improvement in the protection provided, the exposed
lines should be shielded by overhead ground wires for a distance of approxi
mately 2000 ft out from the plant, This reduces the possibility of direct
strokes terminating on the circuits close to t,he station. It also ensures
that a voltage surge originating on the line, beyond the arrester which is
installed 1500 to 2000 f t from the station, will have its amplitude limited
328 SYSTEM 0VERVOLTAGES.CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES
n
r3 L
J 'I
3
MACHINE t
I 
DISTRIWTIONTYPE
ARRESTER
' 6
f+t ARRESTER
Ls c GROUND
CDNNECTION
I
t 15002000 FT I
FIG. 5.27 Arrmgement of lightning protective equipment for <I rototing mochine com
nected directly 10 on exposed overheod lhe.
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESCAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 329
FIG. 5.28 Arrmgemenl of lightning protective equipment for D rotating machine con
nected to on e.,,ored overhead line through a transformer.
330 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESCAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES
ARRESTER
*GROUND
'CONNECTION
f7
CONNECT ARRESTER
.ARRESTER
ARRESTER GROUNDCONNECTEDTO
TRANSFORMER TANK
OVERHEAD GROUND WIRE
MACHINE
DISTRIBUTIONTY PE
ARRESTER
OONNECTYM
FIG. 5.30 Arrangement of lightning protective equipment for a rotating machine con
nected to exposed overhead lines both directly and through a transformer.
Mochine
Protective capacitors
  ~
st.tiontype orrester, 1 Distributiontype orrc~tcrs
~
*olt.ge
rating Voltage rating Voltage rating
Iphoseto
~ ~
I ~
1
RECTIFIER
TRANSFORMER ANODES
MERCURY
CATHODE
I ~
+ DC
T I
I/
4
FIG. 5.31 Typical scheme of lightning prokction for a mercuryarc rectifier.
334 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESCAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES
REFERENCES
1. Modern Conwpts of Lightning ProtPetion for Transmission and Distribution
Circuits, Ocneral Electric Company Publication GETI720A, 1948.
2. Lightning Protective Equipment for Rotating Machines, Gerieral Electric Com
pany Puhlication GEAl743H, 1953.
3. Shott. €1. S.. and H. H. Peterson, Critoris. for Xeutral Stability of WyeGrounded
Primary Ijroken Delta Secondary Transformw Circuits, Tmns. A I E E , vol. 60,
November, 1941.
4. Blrmie, L. F., and A. Bwajian, "Transformer Engineering," 2d ed., John Wiley
& Sons, Ine.. New York, 1951.
5. Schroeder. T. W.,The Cause and Control of Somr Typcs of Switching Surges,
Tions. A I E E , vol. 6 2 , November, 1943.
6. AIEH Committee Rcport, Poner Systmn Overvoltages Produccd by Faults and
Switching Operations, 1948.
7. AIEE Committee Rcport, Corrdation of System Overvoltagcs and Pystem
Grounding Impedance, 1943.
8. Lewis, W. W.."The Protection of Transmission Systems Against Lightning,"
John UIIPy & Sons, Inc., New lork, 1950.
9. Brwley. L. V., "Traveling Waves on Transmission Systems," 2d ed., John WilQy
& Sons, Inc., New York. 1951.
10. Joint Cornmittcc on Coordination ai Insulation of AIEE, E E I , and KEMA,
Standard Basic lmpulsc Insulation l,evels, EEI Publication No. H8, NEMA
Publication No. 109, 1941.
11. National Clcetrieal Manufacturers Association, Standards of Lightning Arresters,
Publiention Kos. LAl1852 to I,A51952, 1952.
12. "American Standard for Lightning Arrestprs for Alternating Current Power
Circuits," ASA Standard C62.1, 1944.
13. Hunter, E. M.,E. Pragst, and P. H. Light, Dctermination of Groundfault Cur
rent and Voltages on Transmission Systrrns, Cen. Elec. Rev., August and Novem
ber. 1939.
336 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESCAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES
System Grounding'
spot on the coil. Much to the bewilderment, of the operating men and
according to the expectations of the plant engineer, no mnre than the 73
per cent increase in the voltage to ground on the other two phases
occurred. The main ingredient of the overvoltage (discontinuous con
duction) had been omitted.
This is an actual case of severe prolonged experience of overvoltage of
repetitive restrike origin on a 280volt ungrounded system.
This story is spectacular because of the magnitude of the disturbance
and consequential damage. Similar occurrences of lesser extent are not
uncommon, however, and there is evidence that they are more frequent
than realized. It is a characteristic of ungrounded systems that they are
subject to relatively severe transient overvoltages. This trouble can be
avoided by proper grounding of the system, and other importaut benefits
are also obtained. For a detailed explanation of the nature and causes of
these overvoltages, refer to Chap. 5 .
System grounding has been practiced since the beginning of electric
power systems. This method of operation has not been universally uni
form even within a given voltage class of systems or between various
operating companies. On the other hand, rertain systems are nearly
always grounded, for example, 120volt lighting circuits.
The problem of whether or not a system neutral should be grounded,
and how it should be grounded, has sometimes not had the complete
understanding and engineering analysis which it deserves. As a conse
quence, the grounding of many systems has heen hased on past experience
or opinion, and therefore system grounding practice is found to vary
widely on existing systems. On the other hand, most new systems con
form to modern grounding practices.
A comprehensive review of the problems involved in grounding the
neutrals of industrial power systems clearly shows that it is generally
advantageous to ground all powersystem neutrals regardless of voltage
or of process in the plant. The application in practical systems, however,
must be tempered by the availability of standard a p p a r a h s for new sys
tems and the equipment and practices in an existing plant.
DEFINITIONS
The word “grounding” is commonly used in electric power system
work to cover both “system grounding” and “equipment grounding.”
To avoid confusion or possible misunderstanding, this chapter is devoted
exclusively to the subject of system grounding. The following chapter
(7)is devoted to equipment grounding.
These terms are defined by the National Electrical Code as follows:
SYSTEM GROUNDING 339
UNFAULTED
CIRCUIT
UNGROUNDED
 4 )TRANSIENT
OVERVOLTAG ES
fI
+
POWER SOURE
t I MAY CAUSE
1
I SECOND FAULT
I HERE

4,
c
lb POTENTIAL
, SINGLE LINE TO
~ GROUND FAULT
' I
i SECChD
GROUNC
FAULT
FIG. 6.2 Double linetoground faults on ungrounded system result in outages of two
circuits and highlevel fault currents which can cause severe damage to equipment.
FIG. 6.3 One ground foult on an ungrounded ryrtem may cause ground foultr in other
connected apparatus.
:;i:::VOLTAGE
FU LL LIN E T O 
LINE VOLTAGE
NEUTRAL
NORMAL
GROUND
GROUND * P O T E NT I A L
VOLTAGE
Y
cent higher than normal. Figure G.4 illustrates the increase i n lineto
ground voltage due t o a ground fault. Usually the insulation het,ween
each line and ground is adequate t,o withstand full linetoline voltage.
However, if this voltage is applied for loug periods, it may result in failure
of insulation which may have deteriorated hecausc of age or severe
service conditions.
Linetoground faults on ungroundediieutral systems muse a very
small groundfault current t o flow through the raparkanre of cahles,
transformers, and other electrical equipment ou t h e system. This current
may have a magnitude from a few amperes t o 25 amp or more 011 larger
rLA
J
 ~.
1 I I
T T h
1Y 1Y s
Y
2Y
T
s5 3
"
5
SWITCHES
hll. G K g
FIG. 6.6 Ungrounded lowvoltage system with single linetoground fault in one circuit.
SYSTEM GROUNDING 345
Groundedneutral system
I Ungrounded system
Safety. ... . .. . . ... SAFESTOnly 277 voits to ground Normolly 277 volts to ground when
at m y time (assume good ground no around on sydem. 480 vdti 10
and 480 volts maximum line to line1 ground on two conductors when one
phore i s grounded
SAFESTVoltage on system limited Voltage on recondory system may be
to obout 277 volts when primary to as high as primary voltage for
secondary failure OCCUR in Irons breakdown between primary and
former supplying system rocondory Ironsfarmer windings
SAFESTGround fault in ~ontroi Control circuit ground fault likely to
wiring cmn put only 58 per ~ e n line
f put full v ~ l t o g eon cantactor closing
volloge on linetoline connected coils
LO"t.dO, closing coil.
Service rdiobility. HIGHESTGround faults ore mod Port or 011 of system must be taken
ily located and repaired; syitem out of service to Rnd ground faults
need not be taken out to Rnd Subject to severe transient overvolt
ground faults age*
HIGHESTGround foults arc locd Ground faulh if not removed may
ired and trip off immediately upon occurrence of a second
HIGHESTh%nimizes Irondent over ground foult cause N o circuits to
voltages on the system goout atonce, thus causing 0 lossof
twice (IS much production equipment
HIGHTESTFlooting grounds are Floating or arcing grounds likely
very unlikely
Maintenonce cost.. .. LOWESTGround faults arc easily Time must be spent hunting ground
located fault,
Fin1 coil. . . .. ...... About same (IS deltaconnected
substation and ground detector
Highvollage Rvoresce Provides 277 volts for direct opera Mud use stepdown handormen
lighting lion of fluorescent lights. resulting from 480 to 277 volts or lower
in a cod roving by lhe elimination
of lighting Ironsformers and a
reduction in copper
348 SYSTEM GROUNDING
Groundedneutral system
I Ungrounded system
Safely. ..... ....... SAFEST: Single linetoground faulh Subject lo severe troniient over
are tripped off immediocly voltages
Somice roiiobllity . .... HIGHEST: Ground faults are readily Part or 011 of system must be taken
located and repaired out of service to find fovltr
HIGHEST:Limited fault current C(IUSFI Ground foulh, i f not removed, may
a minimum of damage to equip upon occurren~eof (I second ground
ment [with conventional resistonce fault C W S ~ two circuiti to go out at
grounding) once, lhur couiing the 1 0 s of Wice
as much production equipment
HIGHEST: Minimizer transient over High fault current assdated with two
voltages on lhe system linetoground, faulh moy result in
more damage to equipment
Maintenance cost.. ... LOWEST: Ground fauih ore easily Ground faulh ore more diticult lo
locoled locote
First C o l t . . . .... ..... ABOUT SAME: Adds cost of resistor Requires grounddetector and fault
and nwtral relaying locator equipmentto be comparable
GROUNDING TRANSFORMERS
System neutrals may not be available, particularly in many old systems
600 volts or less and many existing 2400, 48On, and 6900volt systems.
When it is desired to ground existing deltaconnected lowvoltage sys
tems (0600 volts), grounding transformers are used to form a neutral
which is then connected solidly to ground. I n like manner, 2.4 t o 15kv
SYSTEM GROUNDING 34P
>
L I N E LEADS
1171
1 t _.)
I 
(0) WINDING SHOWN ON CORE
NEUTRAL LEAD

(b) SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
OF CONNECTIONS
FIG. 6.7 Zigmg threephore grounding transformer.
350 SYSTEM GROUNDING
APPLICATION
A
A A

GROUNDING
TRANSFORMER
GROUNDING
R E S l STOR

T R A N SFORMER
{Jq3GROUNDlNG i
L
~
GROUNDING
RESISTOR
$ (b)
SOLID GROUNDING
0
I UNGROUNDED
Y
I
5?
3. RESISTANCE GROUNDED cp
5 GROUND F A U L T
NEUTRALIZER
GENERATOR
SOLIDLY
GROUNDED
POWER
TRANSFORMER
SOLIDLY
GROUNDED
GROUNDING
TRANSFORMER
SOLIDLY 7
T
FIG. 6.1 1 Methods of solidly grounding the neutral of threephase systems.
RESISTANCE GROUNDING
ground voltages which exist during a linetoground fault are nearly the
same as for an ungrounded system (except transient overvoltages). This
is illustrated in Fig. 6.13.
A system properly grounded by resistance is not subject to destructive
transient overvoltages. For resistancegrounded systems at 15 kv and
$9 Y
NORMAL
LINETO,
NEUTRAL
+' POTENTIAL
 VOLTAGE DROP
+! IN GROUNDED
PHASE,DUE TO
GROUND CURRENT
FIG. 6.1 3 System voltage diagrams during single linetoground faults. (All voltage5
a t operating frequencytransient voltages not shown.)
SYSTEM GROUNDING 357
REACTANCE GROUNDING
GROUNDFAULT NEUTRALIZERS
POWER CIRCUIT
BREAKER REOUIRED
GROUNDING
REACTOR)
FEEDERS
3 CT’S
FIG. 6.15 Threecurrent transformers and ground relay required for each circuit in
special groundfaultneutralirer application.
the voltage ratings commonly required, plus the advantage of being able
to operate the low voltage either grounded or ungrounded. Substations
rated 240 volts are normally deltaconnected. To obtain grounded
neutral operation in this voltage class, either the 208Y/120volt substa
tions or 240volt delta substations with grounding transformers may be
used.
Relatively high groundfault currents are usually required to operate
the standard overcurrent protective devices in circuits 600 volts or less.
Thus lowvoltage systems are solidly grounded to assure sufficient fault
current for operation of protective devices.
Three levels of fault current are of interest in considering grounding
methods for lowvoltage systems. These are (1) groundfault currents
greater than threephase fault current, (2) groundfault currents equal to
threephase fault currents, and (3) groundfault currents less than three
phase fault current. I t is desirable to design toward condition 2. There
fore, systems supplied only by transformers are grounded solidly, in which
case condition 2 will obtain. However, if generator neutrals are grounded
solidly, condition 1 will obtain. Since the generator may not be braced
for the values of groundfault current which can flow, it is necessary to
use a lowvalue neutral reactor t o bring the groundfault current down to
threephase faultcurrent value. For all practical purposes. this is
thought of as “solid” grounding rather than “reactance” grounding
because the resulting groundfault current remains high.
Where grounding transformers are required to establish a neutral, it is
usually desirable to limit the groundfault current to less than threephase
fault current to keep the transformer size within practical limits. In this
case it is necessary t o investigate the tripping characteristics of interrupt
ing devices and establish a transformer reactance which will assure ade
quate current for tripping.
Condition 3 romes about in actual practice, either with transformer
solidly grounded or generator grounded through a neutral reactor, because
of the resistance of the ground return path. In mediumvoltage systems,
this resistance has little effect. Referring to Table 6.4, 0.1 ohm in a
13.8kv system neutral has practically no currentreducing effect. How
ever, in lowvoltage systems this resistance has a considerable effect.
Thus, 0.1 ohm in the neutral of a 240volt system reduces the current by
as much as 95 per rent. Also, the system voltage is low enough that the
hazard from shock due to the flow of ground current through thestructure
of a building is minimized compared with higher voltage systems. All air
circuit breakers and fused knife switches must have three overcurrent
elements for application on threephase groundedneutral circuits. These
devices will trip for the same value of current whether the fault is three
phase or single phase t o ground. Hence, special ground relays are not
362 SYSTEM GROUNDING
D. If Yconnected generators on system Use resistonce grounding 1. Ganaroton used for grounding should be of ode
quate sire bee Toble 6.61
2. When severe lightning exposure is present, gen.
erator may be grounded through 1owvobe reactomc
Grounding reiistor to permit use of g'~vndednevtmlt~pOlightning
orrede.,
3. Small systems. where the resulting groundfault cur
rant would not be excessive, may be reactance
grounded, if desired, in the interest of economy v)
<
Do not ground solidly

E. If Yconnected transformers on system Use redstance grounding
[we tronsformen which supply power to
the system, ovoid transformen which are
___
G! Y ~ 
1. Capacity of transformen used for grounding should
be of odequote size (see Toble 6.61
2' . Smell systemr, where the resulting growdfault cur 0
a
P
c
loads on the system) rent would not be excessive, may be solidly grounded. z
if desired, in the interest of economy 0
Resistor 
2
0
~ ___ _ _ __ __
F. If no Yconnected generators or tronr Use one or more grounding transformers with resistors I. In m o l l systems. where the r e d l i n g groundfault cur
formers on system rent would not be exesrive, lhe growding trans
former may be solidly grounded in the intorest of
economy
to bur

366 SYSTEM GROUNDING
7 X 250,000
100o = 1750 kva
lnduitriol Utility
I10 K V SYSTEM
83 K V S Y S T E M
4 16 K V S Y S T E M
Nn
"f GROUND REQUIRED HERE TO %ROUND
N E U T R A L OF 4 8 0 V O L T S Y S T E M
480 VOLT S Y S T E M
GROUND AT L O A D
When there are two or more major source bus sections, each section
should have a t least one grounded neutral point, since the bus tie circuit
may be open, as shown in Fig. 6.18. If there are two or more power
sources per bus section, there should be provisions for grounding at least
two sources at each section.
GROUNDING
RESISTOR GROUNDING
RESISTOR
(MAY BE OPEN)
FIG. 6.18 Grounding CI system consisting of two or more sections which may operate
independently.
SYSTEM GROUNDING 371
When a power system has only one sourre of power (geuerat,or or trans
former), grounding of the neutral of this sourre may he arcomplished as
shown in Fig. 6.19.
Provision of a switrh or rirruit breaker to opeu the neutral rirruit is
not necessary berause (1) neutral rirvuits have prartirally zero poteutial
with respect t o ground exrept duriug the short interval of a fault; heuw
breakdowns are unlikely; (2) it is not desirable to operate the system
ungrounded by haviug t,he ground ronnertiou open while the generator
or transformer is in service; (3) uenbral si7itrhing equipment greatly
increases the cost of grounding.
I n the event that some means of disrounertiug t,he grouud (.ounertion
is required in a particular rase, a metalrlad rircuit hreaker should he
used rather than a n open disconnert s\vit,rh for indoor iustallatioirs. The
latter is hazardous t o personnel if a ground fault should orcur at the time
the switch is opened or closed. The merit of metalrlad equipment over
open wiring and open devices is generally rerognised for all types of
electric equipment notwithstanding the iurreased rost for metalclad
switehgear.
4%
S I N G L E GENERATOR
$ Y8
Y
SINGLE TRANSFORMER
( 0 ) (b)
FIG. 6.19 Grounding CI single power source.
372 SYSTEM GROUNDING
ances are frequently used. With this arrangement, the neutral of each
generator or main transformer bank is connected directly toits neutral im
pedance without intervening switching equipment, as illustrated by Fig.
6.20 ( a ) t o ( c ) . No special operating instructions are required since each
impedance is automatically connected whenever the corresponding power
9
Y
$
Q$ v
GROUND BUS
A A A
v v v
GROUNDING
RESISTOR
$
Y Y
(d) $
Y
FIG. 6.21 Neutra1 grounding b>i rneonr of neutrd bur and switchgear.
374 SYSTEM GROUNDING
RESISTANCE GROUNDING
UNGROUNDED GROUNDED  N E U T R A L
GENERATOR NO.1 GENERATOR NO.2
FAULT OCCURS
ÇOMEWHERE IN GROUNDING
WINDING E E  RESISTOR
TWEEN NEUTR
AND L I N E _íGROUND)
TERMINAL
 t
""'~
" " ' ~ " ~ ' ~ 
(GROUND P O T E N T I A L )
' ~ ' ~
t
@
VOLTAGE FROM ELECTRICAL
NEUTRAL TO ANY POINT ON
WINDING I S EETWEEN 50%
AND 100%
part of the windings. Therefore, a ground fault at any point in the wind
ing w i l l produce a groundfault current of 50 per cent or more of the
resistor current rating.
REACTANCE GROUNDING