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# Industrial Power Systems

Handbook

D O N A L D BEEMAN, Editor
Manager, Industriaf P w e r Engineering
Industrial Engineering Seclwn
General Electric Company, Schenectady, New Yorlc

FIRST EDITION

## McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC.

1955 New York Toronto London
Ch.UPh?r 1 by Donald Beeman, Alan Graeme Darling,
and R. H. Kaufmann

Short-circuit-current Calculating
Procedures

## FUNDAMENTALS OF A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS

The determination of short-circuit currents in power distribution sys-
tems is just as basic and important as the determination of load currents
for the purpose of applying circuit breakers, fuses, and motor starters.
The magnitude of the shoncircuit current is often easier to determine
than the magnitude of the load current.
Calculating procedures have been so greatly simplified compared with
the very complicated procedures previously used that now only simple
arithmetic is required to determine the short-circuit currents in even the
most complicated power systems.

## If adequate protection is to he provided for a plant electric system, the

size of the electric power system must also be considered to determine
how much short-circuit current i t will deliver. This is done so that cir-
cuit breakers or fuses may he selected with adequate interrupting capac-
ity (IC). This interrupting capacity should be high enough to open
safely the maximum short-circuit current which the power system can
cause to flow through a circuit breaker if a short circuit occurs in the
feeder or equipment which it protects.
The magnitude of the load current is determined by the amount Of
work that is being done and hears little relation to the size of the system
supplying the load. However, the magnitude of the short-circuit current
is somewhat independent of the load and is directly related to the size or
I
2 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

capacity of t,he power source. The larger the apparatus which supplies
electric power t o the system, the greater the short-circuit current will be.
Take a simple case: A 440-volt three-phase lo-lip motor draws about
13 amp of current a t full load and will draw only this amount whether
supplied by a 25-kva or a 2500-kva transformer bank. So, if only thc
load currcnts arc considered when selecting motor branch circuit break-
ers, a 15- or 20-amp circnit, breaker wnuld he specified. However, the
size of t,he power system back of the circuit breaker has a real bearing on
the amount of the short,-circuit,current. which can flow as a result of a
short circuit on the load side of the circuit breaker. Hence, a much
larger circuit breaker would be required to handle the short-circuit current
from a 2500-kva bank than from a 25-kva bank of transformers.
A simple mathematical example is shown in Fig. 1.1. These numbers

El IOOV
100 A
CURRENT
5 AMP
~ ~ 1 0O.HM
1S
APPARENT
IMPEDANCE
20 OHMS

E
-
ZT
: -
I00
0.1
= 1000- AMPERES

## MUST BE CAPABLE OF INTERRUPTING 10,000 AMPERES

CURRENT
I000 A 5 AMP
2 1 = 0.01 OHMS

FIG. 1.1 Illustrotion showing that copocity of power source has more effect on rhort-
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 3

## have been chosen for easy calculation rather than a representation of

actual system conditions.
The impedance, limiting the flow of load current, consists mainly of
the 20 ohms apparent impedance of the motor. If a short circuit occurs
at F , the only impedance t o limit the flow of short-circuit current is the
transformer impedance (0.1 ohm compared with 20 ohms for the motor);
therefore, the short-circuit current is 1000 amp, or 200 times as great as
the load current. Unless circuit breaker A can open 1000 amp, the
short-circuit current will continue to flow, doing great damage.
Suppose the plant grows and a larger transformer, one rated a t 1000
amp, is substituted for the 100-amp unit. A short circuit a t F , (bottom
in Fig. 1.1) will now be limited by only 0.01 ohm, the impedance of the
larger transformer. Although the load current is still 5 amp, the short-
circuit current will now he 10,000 amp, and circuit breaker A must be
able t o open that amount. Consequently it is necessary to coiisider the
size of the system supplying the plant as well as the load current, to be
sure that circuit breakers or fuses are selected which have adequate
interrupting rating for stopping the flow of the short-circuit current.
Short-circuit and load currents are analogous t o the flow of xvater in a
hydroelectric plant, shoivn in Fig. 1.2. The amount of water that flows
under normal conditions is determined by the load on the turbines.
Within limits, it makes little difference whether the reservoir behiiid the
dam is large or small. This flow of water is comparable to the flow of load
current in the distribution system in a factory.
On the other hand, if the dam breaks, the amount of water that will
flow will depend upon the capacity of the reservoir and will bear little
relation to the load on the turbines. Whether the reservoir is large or
small will make a great difference in this case. This flow of water is
comparable t o the flow of current through a short circuit in the distribu-
tion system. The load currents do useful work, like the water that flows
down the penstock through the turbine water wheel. The short-circuit
currents produce unwanted effects, like the torrent that rushes madly
downstream when the dam breaks.

## When determining the magnitude of short-circuit currents, it is

extremely important that all sources of short-circuit current he considered
and that the reactance characteristics of these sources be known.
There are three basic sources of short-circuit current:
1. Generators
2. Synchronous motors and synchronous condensers
3. Induction motors
4 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

All these can feed shorecircuit current into a short circuit (Fig. 1.3).
Generators are driven by turbines, diesel engines, water wheels, or
other types of prime movers. When a short circuit occurs on the circuit
fed by a generatar, the generator continues t o produce voltage because the
field excitation is maintained and the prime mover drives the generator
at substantially normal speed. The generated voltage produces a short-
circuit current of a large magnitude which flows from the generator (or
generators) to the short circuit. This flow of short-circuit current is
limited only by the impedance of the generator and of the circuit between
the generator and the short circuit. For a short circuit a t the terminals
of the generator, the current from the generator is limited only by its own
impedance.

FIG. 1.2 Normal load and short-circuit currents are analogous to the conditions shown in
the hydroelectric plant.
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT ULCULATlNG PROCEDURES 5

SHORT CIRCUIT
CURRENT FROM
INDUCTION
MOTOR

FIG. 1.3 Generators, synchronous motors, and induction motors all produce short-circuit
current.

## Synchronous motors are constructed substantially like generators; i.e.,

they have a field excited by direct current and a stator winding in which
alternating current flows. Normally, synchronous motors draw a-c
power from the line and convert electric energy to mechanical energy.
However, the design of a synchronous motor is so much like that of a
generator that electric energy can be produced just as in a generator, by
driving the synchronous motor with a prime mover. Actually, during a
system short circuit the synchronous motor acts like a generator and
rent from it (Fig. 1.4).
As soon as a short circuit is established, the voltage on the system is
reduced to a very low value. Consequently, the motor stops delivering
energy to the mechanical load and starts slowing down. However, the
inertia of the load and motor rotor tends to prevent the motor from slow-
ing down. In other words, the rotating energy of the load and rotor
drives the synchronous motor just as the prime mover drives a generator.
6 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

## The synchronous motor then becomes a generator and delivers short-

circuit current for many cycles after the short circuit occurs on the system.
Figure 1.5 shows an oscillogram of the current delivered by a synchronous
motor during a system short circuit. The amount of current depends
upon the horsepower, voltage rating, and reactance of the synchronous
motor and the reactance of the system to the point of short circuit.

## LOAD CURRENT FIG. 1.4 Normally motors draw

load current from the source or
utility system but produce rhort-
UlILITY circuit current when a short cir-
SYSTEM
w i t occurs in the d a d .

SYNCHRONOUS
MOTOR

-€t
,- \
SHORT CIRCUIT
CURRENT FROM
MOTOR

. .-.. .
SYSTEM

-
SYNCMOYOUS '
Yoroll
-.
. . 1.._
FIG ,.__ ..,. l.r o.
5 IBmlowl c..o
e f. 0s-
. ..
SHORT'. I cillogrclm of short-circuit current
CIRCUIT produced by a synchronous
motor

## SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT DELIVERED BY

A SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR.
SHORT.CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 7

## HOW INDUCTION MOTORS PRODUCE SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT

The inertia of the load and rotor of an induction motor has exactly the
same effect on an induction motor as on a synchronous motor; i.e., it
drives the motor after the system short circuit occurs. There is one
major difference. The induction motor has no d-c field winding, but
there is a flux in the induction motor during normal operation. This flux
acts like flux produced by the d-c field winding in the synchronous motor.
The field of the induction motor is produced by induction from the
stator rather than from the d-c winding. The rotor flux remains normal
as long as voltage is applied to the stator from an external source. How-
ever, if the external source of voltage is removed suddenly, as it is when a
short circuit occurs on the system, the flux in the rotor cannot change
instantly. Since the rotor flux cannot decay instantly and the inertia
drives the induction motor, a voltage is generated in the stator winding
causing a short-circuit current to flow to the short circuit until the rotor
flux decays to zero. To illustrate the short-circuit current from an
induction motor in a practical case, oscillograms were taken on a wound-
rotor induction motor rated 150 hp, 440 volts, 60 cycles, three phase, ten
poles, 720 rpm. The external rotor resistance was short-circuited in each
case, in order that the effect might he similar to that which would he
obtained with a low-resistance squirrel-cage induction motor.
Figure 1.6 shows the primary current when the machine is initially
running light and a solid three-phase short circuit is applied a t a point in
the circuit close to its input (stator) terminals a t time TI. The current
shown is measured on the motor side of the short circuit; so the short-
circuit current contribution from the source of power does not appear, but
only that contributed by the motor. Similar tests made with the machine
initially running a t full load show that the short-circuit current produced

T.

## FIG. 1.6 ,Tracer of oxillograms of short-circuit currents produced by an induction motor

8 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

## by the motor when short-circuited is substantially the same, regardless of

initial loading on the motor. Note that the maximum current occurs in
the lowest trace on the oscillogram and is about ten times rated full-load
current. The current vanishes almost completely in four cycles, since
there is no sustained field current in the rotor to provide flux, as in the
case of a synchronous machine.
The flux does last long enough to prodnce enough short-circuit current
to affect the momentary duty on circuit breakers and the interrupting
duty on devices which open within one or two cycles after a short circuit.
Hence, the short-circuit current produced by induction motors must he
considered in certain calculations. The magnitude of short-circuit cur-
rent produced by the induction motor depends upon the horsepower,
voltage rating, reactance of the motor, and the reactance of the system to
the point of short c. "cuit. The machine impedance, effective a t the time
of short circuit, cmesponds closely with the impedance a t standstill.
Consequently, the i iitial symmetrical value of Short-circuit current is
approximately equnl to the full-voltage starting current of the motor.

TRANSFORMERS

## Transformers are often spoken of as a source of short-circuit current.

Strictly speaking, this is not correct, for the transformer merely delivers
the short-circuit current generated by generators or motors ahead of the
transformer. Transformers merely change the system voltage and mag;
nitude of current but generate neither. The short-circuit current deliv-
ered by a transformer is determined by its secondary voltage rating and
reactance, the reactance of the generators and system to the terminals of
the transformer, and the reactance of the circuit from the transformer to
the short circuit.

ROTATING-MACHINE REACTANCE

## The reactance of a rotating machine is not one simple value as it is for a

transformer or a piece of cable, but is complex and variable with time.
For example, if a short circuit is applied to the terminals of a generator,
the short-circuit current behaves as shown i n Fig. 1.7. The current starts
out a t a high value and decays to a steady state after some time has
elapsed from the inception of the short cirroit. Since the field excitation
voltage and speed have remained snbstantially constant within the short
interval of time considered, a change of apparent react,ance of the machine
may he assumed, to explain the change in the magnitude of short-circuit
current with time.
The expression of such variable reactance at any instant after the
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 9

## occurrence of any short circuit requires a complicated formula involving

time as one of the variables. For the sake of simplification in short-cir-
cuit calculating procedures for circuit-breaker and relay applications,
three values of reactance are assigned to generators and motors, viz.,
subtransient reactance, transient reactance, and synrhronous reactance.
The three reactances can be briefly described as follows:
1. Subtransient reactance X y is the apparent reactance of the stator
winding at the instant short circuit occurs, and it determines the current
Row during the first few cycles of a short circuit.
2. Transient reactance X i is the apparent initial reactance of the
stator winding, if the effect of all amortisseur windings is ignored and
only the field winding considered. This reactance determines the cur-
rent following the period when subtransient reactance is the controlling
value. Transient reactance is effective up to 45 see or longer, depending
upon the design of the machine.
3. Synchronous reactance X d is the apparent reactance that deter-
mines the current flow when a steady-state condition is reached. It is not
effective until several seconds after the short circuit occurs; consequently,
it has no value in short-circuit calculations for the application of circuit
breakers, fuses, and contactors but is useful for relay-setting studies.
Figure 1.8 shows the variation of current with time and associates the
various reactances mentioned above with the time and current scale.

CURRENT DETERMINED
BY SYNCHRONOUS

OF TOTAL OSCILLOGRAM
OCCURS AT ONLY TWO ENDS SHOWN
THIS TIME.
HERE. THIS REPRESENTS
THE BREAK BETWEEN
THE TWO PARTS.

## FIG. 1.7 Trace of orcillograrn of hart-circuit current produced by a generator.

10 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

## MAX, SUBTRANSIENT CURRENT- USE SUBTRANSIENT REACTANCE X"d

/-

TIME-
(8)
FIG 1.8 Variation of generotor short-circuit current wilh time.

## current delivered by a generator. The value of X i or X y generally

given by the machine designer is the lowest value obtainable. Hence, its
use will show maximum short-circuit current.
Certain characteristics of short-circuit currents must he understood
before a system analysis can he made.

## SYMMETRICAL AND ASYMMETRICAL SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS

These terms are used to describe the symmetry of the a-c waves about
the zero axis. If the envelopes of the peaks of the current waves are
symmetrical about the zero axis, the current is called symmetrical current
(Figs. 1.9 and 1.10). If the envelopes of the peaks of the current waves
are not symmetrical about the zero axis, the current is called asymmetrical

ENVEWPES OF PEAKS
OF SINE WAVE ARE
THE ZERO AXIS.

ZERO
AXIS

## FIG. 1.9 Symmelrical a-c wove.

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 11

ZERO AXIS

## ENVELOPES OF PEAKS ARE NOT

AX1 S
TOTALLY 0 F F SET

PARTIALLY O F F S E l

FIG. 1.11 Asymmetrical (I-c waver. The conditions shown here ore theoreticol a n d ore
for the purpose of illustration only. D-C component will r a p i d l y d e c a y to zero i n a c t u a l
circuits.

## FIG. 1.12 Trace of o r c i l l o g r a m of a t y p i c a l short-circuit current

12 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

current (Fig. 1.11). The envelope is a line drawn through the peaks of
the waves, as shown in Figs. 1.9 to 1.12.
For the sake of explanation, many of the illustrations, such as Figs.
1.11, 1.15 to 1.19, show sine waves of current uniformly offset for several
cycles. It should be noted that in practical circuits the amount of asym-
metry decreases rapidly after the occurrence of the short circuit in the
system. This decrease of asymmetry is shown qualitatively in illustra-
tions such as Figs. 1.12, 1.20, 1.23, and 1.24.
Oscillograms show that short-circuit currents are nearly always asym-
metrical during the first few cycles after the short circuit occurs. They
also show that the asymmetry is maximum at the instant the short circuit
occurs and that the current gradually becomes symmetrical a few cycles
after the occurrence of the short circuit. The trace of an oscillogram of a
typical short-circuit current is shown in Fig. 1.12.

## In the usual industrial power systems the applied or generated voltages

are of sine-wave form. When a short circuit occurs, substantially s i n e
wave short-circuit currents result. For simplicity, the following discus-
sion assumes sine-wave voltages and currents.
In ordinary power circuits the resistance of the circuit is negligible com-
pared with the reactance of the circuit. The short-circuit-current power
factor is determined by the ratio of resistance and reactance of the circuit
only (not of the load). Therefore the short-circuit current in most power
circuits lags the internal generator voltage by approximately 90" (see
Fig. 1.13). The internal generator voltage is the voltage generated in
the stator coils by the field flux.
If in a circuit mainly containing reactance a short circuit occurs at the
peak of the voltage wave, the short-circuit current would start at zero
and trace a sine wave which would be symmetrical ahout the zero axis
(Fig. 1.14). This is known as a symmetrical short-circuit current.
If in the same circuit (i.e., one containing a large ratio of reactance to
resistance) a short circuit occurs at the zero point of the voltage wave, the
current will start a t zero but cannot follow a sine wave symmetrically
about the zero axis because such a current would be in phase with the
voltage. The wave shape must be the same as that of voltage hut 90'
behind. That can occur only if the current is displaced from the zero
axis, as shown in Fig. 1.15. In this illustration the current is a sine wave
and is displaced 90' from the voltage wave and also is displaced from the
zero axis. The two cases shown in Figs. 1.14 and 1.15 are extremes.
One shows a symmetrical current and the other a completely asym-
metricd current.
WORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 13

GENERATOR TRANSFORMER

## ONE LINE IMPEDANCE

ioxazx 7x 0.m

REACTANCE, X = 19%
RESISTANCE. R = 1.4%

I
RESISTANCE I S LESS THAN OF THE REACTANCE HENCE MAY
BE NEGLECTED WITHOUT AN APPRECIABLE ERROR

- NEARLY 90'

## SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT

DIAGRAM
SHOWING
SINE WAVES
CORRESPONDING
TO VECTOR
DIAGRAM
FOR ABOVE
CIRCUIT

FIG. 1.13 Diagrams Illustrating the phase relations of voltage and short-circuit current.
14 SHORT-CIRCUll-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

GENERATED VOLTAGE
SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT

ZERO
AXIS

## SHORT CIRCUIT OCCURRED AT THIS POINT

FIG. 1.14 Symmetric01 short-circuit current and generoted voltage for zero-power-factor
cirwit.

-SHORT
CIRCUIT
CURRENT

## FIG. 1.15 Asymmetrical short-circuit current and generated voltage in zero-power-factor

circuit. Condition i s theoretical and is shown for illustration purposes only.
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES IS

If,in a circuit containing only reactance, the short circuit occurs a t any
point except a t the peak of the voltage wave, there will be some offset of
the current (Fig. 1.16). The amount of offset depends upon the point on
the voltage wave at which the short circuit occurs. It may vary from
zero (shown in Fig. 1.14) to a maximum (shown in Fig. 1.15).
I n circuits containing both
reactance and resistance, the s~,?&&,R&!~~
amount of offset of the short- CURRENT
circuit current may vary be-
tween the same limits as for
circuits containing only react-
ance. However, the point on
the voltage wave a t which the
short circuit must occur to pro-
duce maximum asymmetry
dependsupon the ratioof react-
ance to resistance of the cir-
cuit. Maximum asymmetry
is obtained when the short cir-
cuit occurs a t a time angle
+
equal to 90" 0 (measured
forward in degrees from the
zero point of the voltage wave)
where tangent 0 equals there- ASYMMETRICAL
actance-to-resistance ratio of
FIG. 1.16 Short-circuit current and generated
the circuit' The short-circuit voltage in zero-Dower-factor circuit. Short cir-
current will be symmetrical cuit occurred between the
when the fault occurs 90"from point and peak of the generated voltctge wove.
that point onthe voltage wave. This condition i s theoretical and for illustration
an example, assumeacir- purporer only. The short-circuit current will
cuit that has equal resistance CiTCUit.,
and reactance, i.e., the react-
ance-to-resistance ratio is 1. The tangent of 45" is I ; hence, maximum
offset is obtained when the short circuit occurs a t 135' from the zero
point of the voltage wave (Fig. 1.17).

## Asymmetrical alternating currents when treatedas a single current wave

are difficult to interpret for circuit-breaker application and relay-setting
purposes. Complicated formulas are also required to calculate their
magnitude unless resolved into components. The asymmetrical alter-
nating currents are, for circuit-breaker applications and relay-setting
16 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCUUTING PROCEDURES

MAXIMUM OFFSET
FIG. 1.17 Short-circuit current and generated voltage in circuit with equal reactance and
resistance. This condition i s theoretical and is shown for illustration purposes only. The
short-circuit current will gradually become symmetrical in practical circuits.

## purposes, arbitrarily divided into simple components, which makes it

easy to calculate the short-circuit magnitude a t certain significant times
after the short circuit occurs.
The asymmetrical alternating current behaves exactly as if there were
two component currents flowing simultaneously. One is a symmetrical
a-c component and the other a d-c component. The sum of those two
components a t any instant is equal t o the magnitude of the total asym-
metrical a-c wave a t the same instant.
The d-c component referred to here is generated within the a-c system
with no external source of direct current being considered. I n some cases,
particularly in the neighborhood of the d-c railways, direct current from
the railways flows through neighboring a-c systems. This type of d-c
current is not considered in this discussion or in the calculating procedures
which follow.
As an example of the resolution of asymmetrical alternating currents
into components, refer to Fig. 1.15 which shows an asymmetrical short-
circuit current which is resolved into a symmetrical a-c and a d-c compo-
nent in Fig. 1.18. If the instantaneous values of the two components
(dashed lines) are added a t any instant, the resultant will be that of the
asymmetrical current wave.
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 17

ASYMMETRICAL

AC COMPONENT

## FIG. 1.18 Theoretical Ihort-circuit-cvrrent wove illustrating components of asymmetrical

current. In practical circuits, d-c component would decay to zero in o few cycler.

## INSTANT OF SHORT CIRCUIT

TOTAL CURRENT

DC COMPONENT

AC COMPONENT

ZERO A X I S

a = b = D C COMPONENT

FIG. 1.19 Components of asymmetrical short-circuit current in which short circuit occurred
at some point between the zero point and p e a k of the generated voltage wave. This is a
lhsoretical condition similar to that shown in Fig. 1.18.
I8 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

As mentioned previously, the examples shown in Figs. 1.13 and 1.18 are
for purposes of illustration only. In practical circuits the d-c component
decays very rapidly, as shown in Fig. 1.20.

INITIAL M A G N I T U D E OF D-C C O M P O N E N T

The magnitude of the d-c component depends upon the iustant, the
short circuit occurs and may vary from zero, as in Fig. 1.14, to a maximum
initial value equal to the peak of the a-c symmetrical compoiieiit, as i n
Figs. 1.15 and 1.18. When the short circuit occurs at any other point,
such as shown in Fig. 1.19, the initial magnitude of the d-c componciit is
equal to the value of the a-c symmct,riral component a t thc instant of
short circuit. The above limit,s hold true for the initial magiiitudc of d-c
eomporient in a system regardless of the reactance and resistance. Ilow-
ever, the d-c componeut does not continue to flo~va t a constant value, as
shown i n Figs. 1.18 and 1.19, unless there is zero resistauce i i i the circuit.

DECREMENT

## There is uo d-c voltage in the system t o sustaiu the flax of direct

current; therefore the energy represeuted by the dirert. component of
current will be dissipated as ZZR loss from the direct current flowiug
through the resistance of the circuit. If the circuit had zero resistance,
the direct current would flow at a constant value (Figs. 1.18 and 1.19)

## TOTAL ASYMMETRICAL CURRENT

C COMPONENT

AC COMPONENT

FIG. 1.20 Trace of orcillogrom showing decay of d-c component and how orymmetricd
short-circuit currenl gradually becomes symmetrical when d-c component diroppearr.
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 19

until the circuit was interrupted. However, all practical circuits have
some resistance; so the d-c romponent decays as shown in Fig. 1.20. The
combination of the decaying of d-c and symmetriral a-(*components gives
an asymmetrical wave that changes to a symmetriral wave whcti the
d-c component has disappeared. The rate of decay of the currents is
called the decrement.

X/R RATIO

The X / R ratio is the ratio of the reactance to the resistance of the cir-
cuit. The decrement or rate of decay of the d-c component is propor-
tional to the ratio of reactance to resistance of the complete circuit from
generator to short circuit. The theory is the same as opening the circuit
of a battery and an inductive coil.
If the ratio of reactance to resistance is infinite (i.e., zero resistance),
the d-c component never decays, as shown in Figs. 1.18 and 1.19. On the
other hand, if the ratio is zero (all resistance, no reartance), it decays
instantly. FOFany ratio of reactarice to resistance in between these
limits, the d-c component takes a definite time to decrease to substantially
zero, as shown in Fig. 1.20.
! I n generators the ratio of subtransient reactance to resistance may be as
?much as 7 0 : l ; so it takes several cycles for the d-c component to dis-
appear. In circuits remote from generators, the ratio of reactance to
resistance is lower, and the d-c component decays more rapidly. The
higher the resistance in proportion to the reactance, the more IaRloss
from the d-c c.omponent, and the energy of the direct current is dis-
sipated sooner.

## Often it is said that generators, motors, or circuits have a certain d-c

time constant. This refers again to the rate of decay of the d-c compo-
O C COMPONENT

a = 37Y. OF b (APPROX )

C- TIME
CONSTANT I N OF D C COMPONENT
SECONDS

## FIG. 1.21 Graphic illustration of time constant.

20 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

nent. The d-c time constant is the time, in seconds, required by the d-c
component to reduce to about 37 per cent of its original value a t the
instant of short circuit. I t is the ratio of the inductance in henrys to the
resistance in ohms of the machine or circuit. This is merely a guide to
how fast the d-c component decays.
Stated in other terms, it is the time in seconds for the d-c component to
reach zero if it continued t o decay a t the same rate it does initially
(Fig. 1.21).

## RMS VALUE INCLUDING D-C COMPONENT

The rms values of a-c waves are significant since circuit breakers, fuses,
and motor starters are rated in terms of rrns current or equivalent kva.
The maximum rrns value of short-circuit current occurs at a time of about
one cycle after short circuit, as shown in Fig. 1.20. If there were no
decay in the d-c component, as in Fig. 1.18, the rrns value of the first
cycle of current would be j.732 times the rrns value of the a-c component.
I n practical circuits there is always some d-c decay during the first cycle.
An approximate rrns value of one cycle of an offset wave whether it is
partially or totally offset is expressed by the equation

## where C = rrns value of offset or asymmetrical current wave over one

cycle
a = rrns value of a-c component
b = value of d-c component at one-half cycle

MULTIPLYING FACTOR

## Calculation of the precise rrns value of an asymmetrical current a t any

time after the inception of a short circuit may be very involved. Accu-
rate decrement factors to account for the d-c component a t any time are
required, as well as accurate factors for the rate of change of the apparent
reactance of the generators. This precise method may he used if desired,
but simplified methods have been evolved whereby the d-c component is
accounted for by simple multiplying factors. The multiplying factor
converts the rrns value of the symmetrical a-c wave into rms amperes of
the asymmetrical wave including a d-c component.
The magnitude of the d-c component depends upon the point on the
voltage wave a t which the short circuit occurs. For protective-device
application, only the maximum d-c component is considered, since the
circuit breaker must be applied to handle the maximum short-circuit
current that can occur in a system.
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 21

In the general case for circuits rated above 600 volts, the multiplying
factor to account for d-c component is 1.6 times the rms value of the a-c
symmetrical component at the first half cycle.
For circuits rated 5000 volts or less where there is no local generation,
that is, where the supply t,o the bus is through transformers or long lines,
the multiplying factor to ralculate the total current at the first half cycle
may be reduced to 1.5. For circuits 600 volts and less, t,he multiplying
factor to calculate the total current at the first half cycle is 1.25 when the
circuit breaker is applied on the average current in three phases. Where
single-phase conditions must be considered in circuits GOO volts and less,
then to account for the d-c component in one phase of a three-phase cir-
cuit a multiplying factor to calculate the total current at the first half
cycle of 1.5 is used.
For some calculations, rms current evaluations a t longer time intervals
than the first half cycle, such as three to eight cycles corresponding to the
interrupting time of circuit breakers, are required. Multiplying factors
for this purpose may be taken from the curve in Fig. 1.22.
Table 1.2 gives the multiplying factors commonly used for applying

FIG. 1.22 Charts showing multiplying factors to account for decoy of d-c component for
various X / R ratio of circuits.
22 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURREM CALCULATING PROCEDURES

## short-circuit protective devices. These factors range from 1 t o 1.6,

depending upon whether the short-circuit calculation is being made t o
determine the interrupting or momentary duty on the short-circuit pro-
tective device.

## This term is referred t o frequently in short-circuit discussions. With

present AIEE procedures of short-rircuit ralrulations, it has become a n
accessory with no practical significance from this standpoint. For the
sake of completeness, a definition is given here.
Short-circuit ratio
-~
-
field current t o produce rated voltage a t no load
field current t o produce rated current at sustained short circuit
No further mention will he made of short-circuit ratio.

## The total symmetrical short-rirruit current is made up of currents from

several sourves, Fig. 1.23. At the top of the figure is shown the short-
circuit current from the utility. This act,ually comes from ut,ility gener-
ators, but generally the industrial system is small and remote electrically
from the utility generators so that the Symmetrical short-rircuit current
is substant,ially constant,. If there are generators in the indust,rial plant,
then they cont,ribute a symmet,rical short-circuit rurreiit which for all
practical purposes is constant over the first few cycles. There is, how-
ever, a slight decrement, as indicated in Fig. 1.23.
The other sources are synchronous motors which act something like
plant generators, except that t,hey have a higher rate of decay of the sym-
metriral component, and induction motors whirh have a very rapid rate
of dccay of the symmetrical component of current. When all these cur-
rents are added, the total symmetrical short-circuit rurrent is typical of
that shown a t the bottom of Fig. 1.23.
The magnitude of the first few cycles of the t,otal symmetrical short-
circuit, current is further increased by the presence of a d-c compouent,
Fig. 1.24. The d-c component, offsets the a-c ware and, therefore, makes
it asymmetrical. The d-c component decays t o zero within a few cycles
in most indust,rial power systems.
It is this total rms asymmetrical short-circuit current, as shown in Fig.
1.24, that must he determilied for short-circuit protective-derice applira-
tion. The problem of doing this has been simplified by standardized
procedures to a poiut xhere t o determine the rms asymmetriral current
one need only divide t,he line-to-neutral roltage by the proper reactance
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 23

RG. 1.23 Tracer of orcillogramr of rym- FIG. 1.24 Arymmelrical short-circuit current
metrical short-circuit currents from utility, from dl sources illustrated in Fig. 1.23 plus
panerator, synchronous motors, and induc- d-c component.
lion motors. The shape of the total com-
bined currents is illurtmted by the bottom
hace.
24 SHORT.CIRCUIT-CURRENT U L C U U l l N G PROCEDURES

Table 1.2.

## BASIS OF RATING A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES

The background of the circuit-breaker rating structure as well as the
basic characteristics of short-circuit currents must be understood to
enable the engineer to select the proper rotating-machine reactances and
multiplying factors for the d-c component to determine the sbort-circuit-
current magnitude for checking the duty on a particular circuit breaker,
such as momentary duty or interrupting duty.
The rating structure of circuit breakers, fuses, and motor starters is
designed to tell the application engineer how circuit breakers, fuses, or
motor starters will perform under conditions where the short-circuit cur-
rent varies with time. In discussing these rating bases, and for the sake
of clarity, they will be arbitrarily divided into two sections, i.e., the rating
basis of high-voltage short-circuit protective devices above 600 volts and
the rating basis of low-voltage Short-circuit protective devices 600 volts
and below.
HIGH-VOLTAGE SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES (ABOVE 600 VOLTS)

## Power-circuit-breaker Rating Basis. The standard indoor oilless power

circuit breakers as used in metal-clad switchgear will be used here t o
explain power circuit-breaker ratings. The same fundamental principles
apply to all other high-voltage power circuit breakers.
The circuit-breaker rating structure is complicated because of the time
of operation of the circuit breakers after a short circuit occurs.
The few cycles needed for the power circuit breaker to open the circuit
and stop the flow of short-circuit current consist of the time required for
(1) the protective relays to close their contacts, (2) the circuit-breaker
trip coil to move its plunger to release the breaker operating mechanism,
(3) the circuit-breaker contacts to part, and (4)the circuit breaker to
interrupt the short-circuit current in its arc chamber. During this time,
the short-circuit current produces high mechanical stresses in the circuit
breaker and in other parts of the circuit. These stresses are produced
almost instantaneously in phase with the current and vary as the square
of the current. Therefore, they are greatest when maximum current is
flowing. The foregoing discussion showed that t,he short-circuit current
is maximum during the first cycle or loop, because of the presence of the
d-c component and because the motors contribute the most short-circuit
current a t that time. Thus, the short-circuit stresses on the circuit
breakers and other parts of the circuit are maximum during the first loop
of short-circuit current.
During the time from the inception of the short circuit until the circuit-
breaker contacts part, the current decreases in magnitude because of the
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 25

## decay of the d-c component and the change in motor reactance, as

explained previously. Consequently, the current that the circuit breaker
must interrupt, four or five cycles after the inception of t.he short circuit,
is generally of less magnitude than the maximum value of the first loop.
The fact that the current changes in magnitude with time has led to the
establishment of two bases of short-circuit-current ratings on power cir-
cuit breakers: (1) the momentary rating or its ability to withstand
mechanical stresses due to high short-circuit current and (2) the inter-
rupting rating or its ability t,o interrupt the flow of short-circuit current
within its interrupting element.
What Comprises the Circuit-breaker-rating Structure. Circuit-
breaker-rating structures are revised and changed from time to time. It
is suggested that where specific problems require the latest information on
circuit-breaker ratings the applicahlc American Standards Association
(ASA), National Electrical Manufacturers Association (XEMA), or
American Instituteof Elect,rical Engineers (AIEE) standards he referred to.
To illustrate the various factors that comprise the circuit-breaker-
rating structure, an oilless power circuit breaker for metal-clad switchgear
rated 4.16 kv 250 mva* has been chosen. The complete rating is shown
on line 5, Table 1.1. The following will explain the meaning of the several
columns of Table 1.1, starting at the left. The rircuit-breaker-type
designation, column 1, varies among manufacturers. For the sake of com-
pleteness the General Electric Company nomenclature is used in this col-
umn. The remainder of the items are uniform throughout the industry.

## 1. Type of Circuit Breaker (AM-4.16-250)

AM = magne-blast circuit breaker
4.16 = for 4.16-kv class of circuits (not applicable to 4800- and 4800-
volt circuits)
250 = interrupting rating in mva a t 4.16 kv

## 2-4. Voltage Rating

2. Rated kv (4.16): the nominal voltage class or classes in which the
circuit breaker is rated.
3. Maximum design kv (4.76): the maximum voltage a t which the cir-
cuit breaker is designed to operate. The 4.16-kv circuit breakers,
for example, are suitable for a 1330-volt system plus 10 per cent for
voltage regulation or 4.76 kv.
(Note: 4330 is 4% X 2500.) Some utility syst.ems operate a t 1330
volts near the substation.
4. Minimum operating kv a t rated mva (3.85) : the minimum voltage a t
which the circuit breaker will interrupt its rated mva or in this case
it is 3.85 kv. At any voltages below this value, the circuit breaker
* blegavalt-amperes (see Appendix).
t
i.
16 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

I !

I (
I t
a

/
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 27

is not designed to interrupt the rated mva but will interrupt some
value less than rated mva.
This is very significant in the rating of power circuit breakers for,
as poiuted out later, the circuit hreaker will interrupt a maximum of
only so many amperes regardless of voltage. At any voltage less
than the minimum operating voltage the product of the maximum
kiloampere interrupting rating times the kv times the square root of
3 is less than the mva interrupting rating of the circuit breaker.
5-6. Insulation Level (Withstand Test)
5 . Low-frequency rrns kv (19): the 60-cycle high-potential test.
6. Impulse crest kv (60) : a measure of its ability to withstand lightning
and other surges. This is applied with an impulse generator as a
design test.
7-9. Current Ratings in Amperes
7. Continuous 60 cycles (1200 or 2000): the amount of load current
which the circuit breaker will carry continuously without exceeding
the allowable temperature rise.
8-9. Short-time Rating
8. Momentary amperes (60,000) : the maximum rms asymmetrical cur-
rent that a circuit breaker will withstand including short-circuit cnr-
rents from all sources and motors (induction and synchronous) and
the d-c component. This rating is independent of operating voltage
for a given circuit breaker.
This is just as significant a limitation as mva interrupting rating.
It defines the ability of the circuit breaker to withstand the mechani-
cal stresses produced by the very large offset first cycle of the short-
circuit current. This rating is nnusually significant because the
mechanical stresses in the circuit hreaker vary as the square of the
current. It is the only rating that is affected by the square law, and
therefore is one of the most critical in the application of the circuit
breakers. The rating schedules of power circuit breakers are so pro-
portioned that the momentary rating is about 1.6 times the maximum
interrupting rating amperes.
9. Four-second (37,500): the maximum current that the circuit breaker
will withstand in the closed position for a period of 4 sec to allow for
relaying operating time. This value is the same as the maximum
interrupting rating amperes.
10-13. Interrupting Ratings
10. Three-phase rated mva (250): the three-phase mva which the circuit
breaker will interrupt over a range of voltages from the maximum
design kv down t o the minimum operating kv. In this case the
28 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURREM CALCULATING PROCEDURES

interrupting rating is 250 rnva between 4.76 and 3.85 kv. The mva
to be interrupted is obtained by multiplying the kv a t which the cir-
cuit breaker operates times the symmetrical current in kiloamperes to
be interrupted times the square root of 3. The product of these must
not exceed the rnva interrupting rating a t any operating voltage.
11. Amperes a t rated voltage (35,000): the maximum total rms amperes
which the circuit breaker will interrupt a t rated voltage, i.e., in the
case of the example used above 35,000 at 4.16 kv (4.16 X 35.000 x
fi = 250 mva). These figures are rounded. This figure is given
for information only and does not have a limiting significance of
particular interest to the application engineer.
12. Maximum amperes interrupting rating (37,500) : the maximum total
rms amperes that the circuit breaker will interrupt regardless of how
low the voltage is. In this example, this current is 37,500 amp. At
minimum operating voltage, 3.85 kv, this corresponds to 250 mva,
and, for example, a t a voltage of 2.3 kv this corresponds to 150mva.
The circuit breaker will not interrupt this much current a t all volt-
ages, i.e., i t will not interrupt this much current if the product of
current, voltage, and the square root of 3 is greater than the mva
interrupting rating. This current limit determines the minimum kv
a t which the circuit breaker will interrupt rated mva (column 4). At
any voltage lower than that given in column 4, this maximum rms
total interrupting current determines how much the circuit breaker
will interrupt in mva. Therefore, when the voltage goes below the
limit of column 4, the mva which the circuit breaker will interrupt is
lower than the rnva rating given in column 10 by an amount propor-
tional to the reduction in operating voltage below the value of column 4.
13. Rated interrupting time (8 cycles on 60-cycle basis): the maximum
total time of operation from the instant the trip coil is energized until
the circuit breaker has cleared the short circuit.
What limits the Application of Power Circuit Breakers an on inter-
rupting-and Momentary-duty Basis? In so far as applying power cir-
cuit breakers on an interrupting-duty basis is concerned i t can be seen
from the foregoing that there are four limits, none of which should be
exceeded. These must all be checked for any application.
1. Operating voltage should never at any time exceed the limit of
column 3, Table 1.1, i.e., the maximum design kv.
2. Interrupting rnva should never be exceeded a t any voltage. This
limit is sig’nificant only when the operating voltage is between the limits
of columns 3 and 4, Table 1.1. It is not significant when the operating
voltage is below the limit of column 4, Table 1.1, because maximum inter-
rupting amperes limit the mva to values less than the rnva rating.
3. Maximum interrupting rating amperes should never be exceeded
SHORT-CIRCUIT.CURRENT CALCUUTING PROCEDURES 29

even though the product of this current times the voltages times the
square root of 3 is less than the interrupting rating in mva. This figure
is the controlling one in so far as interrupting duty is involved when the
voltage is below that of column 4, Table 1.1 (minimum operating voltage
a t rated mva).
4. Momentary current should never be exceeded a t any operating
voltage. Modern power circuit breakers generally have a momeutary
rating in rms amperes of 1.6 times the maximum interrupting rating in
rms amperes. As a result, where there is no short-circuit-current contri-
bution from motors, a check of the interrupting duty only is necessary.
If this is within the circuit-breaker interrupting rating then the maximum
Short-circuit current, including the d-c component, mill be within the
momentary rating of the circuit breaker.
Where there is short-circuit contribution from motors, the momentary
rating of the circuit breaker may be exceeded, before the interrupting
rating is exceeded in a given cirruit. Whenever there are motors to be
considered in the short-circuit calculations, the momentary duty and the
interrupting duty should both be checked.
How to Check Momentary Duty on Power Circuit Breakers. Siuce the
short-circuit current is maximum a t the first half cycle, the short-circuit
current must be determined a t the first half cycle to determine the maxi-
mum momentary duty on a circuit breaker.
To determine the short-circuit current a t the first half cycle, it is neces-
sary to consider all sources of short-circuit current, that is, the generators,
synchronous motors, induction motors, and utility connections. The
subtransient reactances of generators, synchronous motors, and inductiou
motors are employed in the reactance diagram. Since the d-r component
is present a t this time, it is necessary to account for it by the use of a
multiplying factor. This multiplying factor is either 1.5 or l.G, as out-
lined in Table 1.2. Typical circuits where the 1.5 multiplying factor can
be used are shown in Fig. 1.25. The procedure is the same, regardless of
the type of power circuit breaker involved.
How to Check Interrupting Duty on Power Circuit Breakers. To check
the interrupting duty on a power circuit breaker, the short-circuit current
should be determined a t the time that the circuit-breaker contacts part.
The time required for the circuit-breaker contacts to part will vary over a
considerable range, because of variation in relay time and in circuit-
breaker operating speed. The fewer cycles required for the circuit-
breaker contacts to part, the greater will be the curreut to interrupt.
Therefore, the maximum interrupting duty is imposed upon the circuit
breaker when the tripping relays operate instantaneously. In all short-
circuit calculations, for the purpose of determining interrupting duties,
the relays are assumed to operate instantaneously. To account for
SEPES-DIVEN
SEN-RIO-EIELI', tCA
1
30 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

HIGH VOLTAGE
INCOMING LINE
2400
4160
4800 VOLT
INCOMING
L I N E FROM
UTILITY

\$ o,:4600
A6,0 V BUS

T O P L A N T LOAD TO P LANT L O AD
(0) NO GENERATION NO GENERATION (b)
IN THE P L A N T IN THE P L A N T

13.6 KV

U U
USE 1.6
MULTIPLYING
FACTOR

u.-L NO GENERATION
ON THIS BUS
NO GENERATION
2400, 4160 OR

FIG. 1.25 One-line diogrom of carer where the multiplying factor 1.5 may be used on
circuits rated less than 5 h.
c
.: .. . .. ,
,, ,.. . .
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 31

## variation in the circuit-breaker operating speed, power circuit breakers

have been grouped into classes, such as eight-cycle, five-cycle, three-cycle
circuit breakers, etc. It is assumed for short-circuit-calculation purposes
that circuit breakers of all manufacturers, in any one speed grouping,
operate substantially the same with regard to contact parting time.
Instead of specifying a time a t which the short-circuit current is to he
calculated, it is determined by the simpler approach of specifying the
generator and motor reactances and using multiplying factors. These
factors are listed in Table 1.2.
In industrial plants, eight-cycle circuit breakers are generally used.
Normally, the induction-motor contribution has disappeared, and that of
the synchronous motors has changed from the subtransient to the transient
condition before the contacts of these circuit breakers part. Therefore,
in calculating the interrupting duty on commonly used power circuit
breakers, generator subtransient reactance and synchronous-motor
transient reactance are used and induction motors are neglected. The
elapsed time is so long that usually all the d-c component has disappeared.
What d-c component is left is more than offset by the reduction in a-c
component due to the increase in reactance of the generators. Hence, a
multiplying factor of one (1) is used.
In very large power systems, when symmetrical short-circuit interrupt-
ing duty is 500 mva or greater, there is an exception to this rule. In such
large power systems, the ratio of reactance to resistance is usually so high
that there may be considerable d-c component left when the contacts of
the standard eight-cycle circuit breaker part. To account for this, the
multiplying factor of 1.1is used in determining the total rms short-circuit
mva that a circuit breaker may have to interrupt in these large systems.
The multiplying factor of 1.1 is not applied until the symmetrical short-
circuit value reaches 500 mva.
High-voltage Fuses. High-voltage fuses are either of the current-
limiting type, Fig. 1.26, which open the circuit before the first current
peak, or of the non-current-limiting type, which open the circuit within
one or two cycles after the inception of the short circuit. For the sake of
standardization, all fuse-interrupting ratings are on the basis of maximum
rms current that will flow in the first cycle after the short circuit occurs.
This is the current that will flow if the fuse did not open the circuit
previously, i.e., fuses are rated in terms of “available short-circuit
current.”
To determine the available short-circuit current a t the first cycle for
the application of high-voltage fuses, use the subtransient reactances of
all generators, induction motors, synchronous motors, and utility sources
and allow for the maximum d-c component. The multiplying factor for
allowing for d-c component is 1.6, the same as for allowing for d-c compo-
w
u
TABLE 1.2 Condensed Table of Multiplying Factors and Rotating-machine Reactances
To Be Used for CaLdatina Swt-dreuit Cunanh for Circuit-breaker, Fuse, and Motor.rtartor Applicdons

1 Generators. 1 I

I I 1 frequency
changers I 0
w
C
a
Interrupting duty 2
Eight cycle or slower (general case). .......... Above 600 wlh Any ploee where symmetricmi I .O Subtransient
Rva cycle.. .............................. Above 600 volt, short-circuit kva i s loss than 1.1 Subtransient
500 mva ii
Momentary duty s
s
z
Generol GOSO.. ........................... Above 600 volt) Near generoting station 1.6 Subtransient
Lar than 5 k.. .......................... 601 to 5000 volh Remote from generating do- 1.5 Subtransient
lion (X/R rotio l e u thon I01

High-voltaqe Fuses
5
Three-phose I n o interrupting duly

All typos, including dl wrront-limiting fuses. .... Above 600 wih Anywhere in system I .O Subhqndent 1 Transient 1 Neglect

## ... Above 600 volt' I

All types, including dl current-limiting fuses..
Non-current-limiting lypes only.. ............. 601 to 15,000 wlh
1
Anywhere in system
Remote from generoting %to.
tion ( X / R mtio leu lhm 41
1.6
1 .?
i i i
Subtronsient Svbtronrient Svbwmrient
Subwoniiont Subhmrient Subtransient
All h e p o w e r ratings.. .................... 2400 and 4i60Y Anywhere in system
Wlh 1.0

I .6
Yolh

## CIrmit breaker w conladm l y p e . . ........... 601 10 5000 volts

0
Cirwit b r w b r or contocto~lype. ............ 601 to MOO volts bywhere in system 1.6 Subtransient Subtrmdent Subtransient
Clrcvit b r e e b r or contartor type.. ........... 601 lo 5000 volts temote from gener.ting 11.- 1.5 Subtransient Subtrmdent Subtransient 8
lion lX/R ratio leis than 101 R
0
m
Apparatus. 600 Volts and Below z
Interrupting or momentary duty

## Air circuit breakers or breaker-contactor combino.

lion motor stoners.. .................... 600 volts and below Anywhere in system I .25 Subtransient Subtianrient Svbtronrienl
Low-voltacp furas or fused combination motor
Slarte" ............................... 600 volt* and below Anywhere in system 1 .25 Subtransient Subtransient Svbtraniient
34 SHORT-CIRCUIT.CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

## nent when determining the momentary duty on a power circuit breaker

(see Table 1.2).
The interrupting rating of fuses in amperes is exactly parallel, in so far
as short-circuit+urent calculations are concerned, to the momentary
rating of power circuit breakers.
The ampere interrupting rating of high-voltage fuses is the only rating
that has any physical significance. For the sake of simplicity of applica-
tion in systems with power circuit breakers, some fuses are given inter-
rupting ratings in three-phase mva. The three-phase mva interrupting
rating has no physical significance, because fuses are single-phase devices,
each fuse functioning only on the current which passes through it.

WAVE OF AVAILABLE

## THE FUSE ELEMENTS MELT

BEFORE PEAK VALUE OF
AVAILABLE SHORT CIRCUIT
CURRENT I S REACHED

1
FIG. 1.26 Grophic sxplonotion of the current-limiting action of current-limiting fuses.
See Fig. 1.27 for method of determining available short-circuit current.
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CAKULATING PROCEDURES 35

These three-phase mva ratings have been selected so they will line u p
with power-circuit-breaker ratings. For example, a high-voltage fuse
rated 150 mva and a power circuit breaker rated 150 mva can he applied
on the basis of the same short-circuit-current calculations. Of course, the
application voltage must he factored in each case.
High-voltoge M o t o r Starters. High-voltage motor starters generally
employ for short-circuit protection either current-limiting fuses or power
circuit breakers. The short-circuit-current calculations for applying
these motor starters are the same as those for high-voltage fuses and
power circuit breakers, respectively.

## low-voltage Air Circuit Breokers. The present designs of low-voltage

air circuit breakers differ from those of high-voltage power circuit break-
ers because they are substantially instantaneous in operation a t currents
near their interrupting rating. The contacts often begin to part during
the first cycle of current. Therefore, low-voltage air circuit breakers are
subject to interrupting the current a t the first cycle after short circuit and
withstanding the mechanical forces of that rurrent. It is necessary to
calculate the current a t only one time for the application of low-voltage air
circuit breakers. The current determined should be that of the first halt
cycle and should be determined on exactly the same hasis as for checking
the momentary duty of high-voltage power circuit breakers, except for a
change in the multiplying factor as discussed in the next paragraph. The
suhtransient reactances of generators, induction motors, and synrhronous
motors are used, and the d-c component is considered (see Table 1.2).
The multiplying factor for the d-c component is not so high in low-
voltage circuits as in some high-voltage circuits. This is due to the gener-
ally lower level of reactance-to-resistance ( X I R ) ratio in low-voltage
circLits, which causes the d-c component to decay faster than in some
high-voltage circuits.
In rating low-voltage air circuit breakers, the average d-c component of
the three phases is used, which is somewhat lower than that for the maxi-
mum phase.
The generally lower ( X / R ) ratio and the use of an average d-c compo-
nent for the three phases result in a considerably lower multiplying factor
in low-voltage circuits. The multiplying factor has been standardized
at 1.25 for the average for the three phases. This is equivalent t o a
multiplier of about 1.5 to account for the d-c component in the maximum
phase.
Application of High-voltage Oil Circuit Breokers to 600-volt Systems.
In the 192Os, 5-kv oil circuit breakers were used extensively on 600-volt
36 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULAnNG PROCEDURES

## systems. The procedure for determining short-circuit currents in sys-

tems of 600 volts and below is slightly modified for checking duty on oil
breakers of the 5-kv class as compared with low-voltage air circuit
breakers.
Both the momentary duty and interrupting duty must be checked for
the oil-circuit-breaker application. To check the momentary duty, use
the same procedure as for low-voltage air circuit breakers, i.e., generators,
utility sources, induction motors, and synchronous motors (subtransient
reactance). However, a multiplying factor of 1.5 is used instead of 1.25
as for low-voltage air circuit breakers. Oil-circuit-breaker momentary
ratings are based on the maximum current through any one pole, not on
the average current in the three phases which is employed in the rating of
low-voltage circuit breakers.
To determine the interrupting duty, use the generator subtransient
reactance and utility-source reactance plus the synchronous-motor
transient reactance and a multiplying factor of 1.0.
Low-voltage Fuses. Several low-voltage fuses with published a-c
interrupting ratings are appearing on the market. There are no industry
standards to follow, but most of these seem to be following air-circuit-
breaker standards, i.e., using the same rating base and same method of
determining short-circuit duty as is used for low-voltage air circuit
breakers. Hence, the procedure will not be repeated here except to
point out that the 1.25 multiplying factor is used (see Table 1.2).
So-called National Electrical Code (NEC) plug and cartridge fuses
have no established a-c interrupting ratings. Many tests have been made
to determine their a-c interrupting ability, but to date the industry has
not applied a-c interrupting ratings.
Low-voltage M o t o r Starters. Low-voltage motor starters are of two
types: those using fuses and those using air circuit breakers for short-
circuit protection. Those using air circuit breakers for short-circuit
protection are applied 04 exactly the same basis as low-voltage air circuit
breakers in so far as short-circuit currents are concerned.
Motor starters using fuses for short-circuit protection are applied on
exactly the same basisas fuses in so far as short-circuit current is concerned.

## In determining the short-circuit current, the impedance of the circuit

protective device connected in the faulty feeder is neglected. The short-
circuit current is determined by’ assuming that the protective device is
shorted out by a bar of zero impedance (Fig. 1.27). The short-circuit
/
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 37

## current which flows in such a circuit is commonly called available short-

circuit cumat. The procedure for determining the available short-circuit
current is based on setting up impedance or reactance diagrams. The
impedance of the short-circuit protective device that is nearest the short
circuit (electrically) is omitted from the impedance diagram.
Practically all protective devices are so rated and tested for short-
circuit interrupting ability; hence this procedure may be followed in
short-circuit calculations. This greatly simplifies the calculations and
removes the effect of impedance variations between different types and
makes of devices having the same interrupting rating. I t means that
one set of short-circuit-current calculations for a given set of conditions
is all that is needed for applying any type of protective device, regardless
of the impedance of the devices themselves.

0 GENERATOR

TRANSFORMER
MOTORS

CABLE

SHORT ClRCUlTED 8 1
J UMPER OF Z E R O CABLE
IMPEDANCE

SHORT
CIRCUIT

FIG. 1.27 Connections for determining available short-circuit current for testing rhort-
circuit protective devices.
38 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

## HOW TO MAKE A SHORT-CIRCUIT STUDY

FOR DETERMINING SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT

## 1. Changing ohms to per cent ohms, etc.:

(ohms reactance) (kva.base)
Per cent (%) ohms reactance = (1.1)
(kvt)*(lO)
(ohms reactance)(kva base)
Per-unit (90 ohms reactance = (kv)*(1000) (1.2)
[see Eq. (1.34)]
( % reactance)(kv)2(10)
Ohms reactance = (1.3)
kva base
per cent ohms reactance
Per-unit ohms reactance = (1.4)
100
2. Changing per cent or per-unit ohms reactance from one kva base to
another:
% ohms reactance on kva base 2
- kva base 2
kva base 1
X (% ohms reactance on base 1) (1.5)

## 9f reactance on kva base 2

- kva base 2 X (% ohms reactance on kva base 1) (1.36)
-
kva base 1
3. Converting utility-system reactance to per cent or per-unit ohms
reactance on kva base being used in study:
a. If given in per cent ohms reactance on a kva base different than that
used in the study, convert according to Eq. (1.5).
b. If given in short-circuit kva, convert to per-unit ohms thus:
kva base used in reactance diagram
9i reactance =
short-circuit kva of utility system (1.6)
c. If given in short-circuit amperes (rms symmetrical), convert t o per-
unit ohms thus:
kva base used in reactance diagram
Yi reactance = (1.7)
(short-circuit current) ( d \$ ) ( k v rating of system)
d. If only the kva interrupting rating of the incoming line breaker is
known,
* See pp. 54 to 57 for more prr-unit formulas
1 kv = line-to-line kilovolts.
SHORTT-CIRCUIT.CURRENTCALCULATING PROCEDURES 39
9f ohms reactance
-
kva base used in reactance diagram
kva interrupting rating of incoming line breaker (1.8)

## 4. Determining kva base of motors:

The exact kva base of a motor = EI 4
3 (1.9)
where E = name-plate voltage rating
I = name-plate full-load current rating
When motor full-load currents are not known, use the following kva bases:
Induction motors:
kva base = horsepower rating (1.10)
0.8-power factor synchronous motor:
kva base = 1.0 (horsepower rating) (1.11)
1.0-power factor synchronous motors:
kva base = 0.80 (horsepower rating) (1.12)
5. Changing voltage base when ohms are used:
Ohms on basis of voltage 1
- ')* X (ohms on basis of voltage 2) (1.13)
(voltage 2)2
In Eqs. (1.1) to (1.4), ohms impedance or ohms resistance may be sub-
stituted for ohms reactance. The final product is then per-unit or per
cent ohms impedance or resistance, respectively.
6 . Determining the symmetrical short-circuit kva:

## Symmetrical short-circuit kva = ~ (kva base) (1.14)

% X*
-~
- y? '&(kva base) (1.15)
(line-to-neutral voltage)2
= 3 (1.16)
ohms reactance X 1000
- kv2 X lo00
-
ohms reactance
7. Determining the symmetrical short-circuit current:
(1.16a)
.
(100) (kva base)
Symmetrical short-circuit current = (1.17)
(% X*)(v%(kvt)
-
-
kva base
(1.18)
(% X*)(&)(kvt)
-
- k v t X lo00
(1.19)
( d ) ( o h m s reactance)
* X = reactance or impedanoe.
t kv = line-&line kilovolts.
TABLE 1.3 Factor ( K ) to Convert Ohms to Per Cent or Per-unit Ohms for Three-phase Circuits* L
0

Base kvo

## loot 1 50 200 300 500

- __
Pr. c*nt Per-""it Per cent Per-""it Per cant Por-un1t Per cent Per-""it Per cent Per-""it v)
I

## 216Y/125 '14 2.14 321.5 3.215 128 4.28 t43 6.43

-0.712
240 73 1.73 260.4 2.604 147 3.47 a1 5.21
071
868 8.68 2
480 43.4 0.434 65.21 0.6521 86.8 0.868 30.2 1.302 217 2.17 KE
600
2,400
27.7
1.73
0.277
0.0173
4.166
2.604
0.4166
0.02604
55.5
3.47
0.555
0.0347
83.3
5.21
0.833
0.0511
I38
8.68
1.38
0.0868
2
4.1 60 0.56 0.00576 0.808 0.00808 1.15 0.0115 1.72 0.0172 2.88 0.0288
4,800 0.435 0.00435 0.651 0.00651 0.868 0.00868 1.302 0.01302 2.17 0.0217 B
-I
6.900 0.210 0.0021 0.315 0.0031 5 0.42 0.0042 0.63 0.0063 1.05 0.0105 n
7,200
l1,OOO
0.193
0.0825
0.001 93
0.000825
0.289
0.123
0.00289
0.00123
0.386
0.165
0.00386
0.00165
0.579
0.247
0.00579
0.00247
0.965
0.413
0.00965
0.00413
2
11.500 0.0755 0.000755 0.113 0.00113 0.151 0.00151 0.226 0.00226 0.377 0.00377 5
12,000 0.0695 0.000695 0.104 0.00104 0.138 0.00138 0.208 0.00208 0.347 0.00347 f
0
12,500 0.064 0.00064 0.096 0.00096 0.127 0.00127 0.192 0.001 92 0.32 0.0032
13.200 0.0574 0.000574 0.086 0.00086 0.114 0.00114 0.172 0,00172 0.286 0.00286
13,800 0.0525 0.000525 0.0787 0.000787 0.105 0.00105 0.157 0.001 57 0.262 0.00262
23,000 0.0187 0,000187 0.0283 0.000283 0.0378 0.000378 0.0567 0.000547 0.045 0.00045
6c
37.4M) 0.00711 0.000071 I 0.0107 0.000106 0.0142 0.000142 0.0213 0.00021 3 0.0355 0.000355 R
46,000 0.00471 0.0000471 0.00708 0.0000708 0.00945 0.0000945 0.0141 0.0001 41 0.0236 0.000236 v,
69,OCU 0.0021 2 0.0000212 0.0031 5 0.000031 5 0.0042 0.000042 0.0063 0.000063 0.0105 0.000105
- -
* For per-unit, K kva base , kva base
= For per cent, K = kv = line-to-line kilovolts
kv' X 1wO kv' X 10
t To determine multiplying factors far any other base use figures under 100-kvs base columns multiplied by new base in kva,
100
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 41

## 8. Determining the asymmetrical short-circuit current:

Asymmetrical short-circuit current
= (symmetrical current) (multiplying factor)
(1.20)
Asymmetrical short-circuit kva
= (symmetrical kva) (multiplying factor)

DIAGRAMS

## One-line Diagram. The first step in making a short-circuit study is to

prepare a one-line diagram showing all sources of short-circuit current,
i.e., utility ties, generators, synchronous motors, induction motors, syn-
chronous condensers, rotary converters, etc., and all significant circuit
elements, such as transformers, cables, circuit breakers, etc. (Fig. 1.28).
M a k e an Impedance or Reactance Diagram. The second step is to
make an impedance or reactance diagram showing all significant react-
ances and resistances (Pig. 1.29). In the following pages this will be

GENERATOR
C

I UTILITY SYSTEM

TRANS D GENERATOR

CABLE E
SHORT
CIRCUIT
LARGE CABLE J
MOTOR

480 VOLT
MOTORS

INFINITE
H BUSES

## FIG. 1.29 Reactonce diagram of system shown in Fig. 1.28.

42 SHORT-ClRCUIT.CURRENT CALCULAltNG PROCEDURES

## referred to as an impedance diagram, recognizing of course that only

reactances will be used in many diagrams. The circuit element,s and
machines considered in the impedance diagram depend upon many
factors, i.e., circuit voltage, whether momentary or interrupting duty are
to be checked, etc.
The foregoing discussion and Table 1.2 explain when motors are to be
considered and what motor reactances are to he used for checking
the dut,y on a given circuit breaker or fuses of a given voltage class.
There are other problems, i.e., (1) selecting the type and location of the
short circuit in the system, (2) determining the specific reactance of a
given circuit element or machine, and (3) deciding whether or not circuit
resistance should be convidered.

## Three-phase Short Circuits Generally Considered. I n most indus-

trial systems, the maximum short-circuit current is obtained when a
three-phase short circuit occurs. Short-rircuit-current magnitudes are
generally less for line-to-neutral or line-to-line short circuits than for the
three-phase short circuits. Thus, the simple three-phase short-circuit-
current calculations will suffice for application of short-circuit protective
devices in most industrial systems.
Unbalanced Short Circuits in Large Power Systems. In some very
large systems where the high-voltage-system neutral is solidly grounded,
maximum short-circuit current flows for a single phase-to-ground short
rircuit. Such a system might be served from a large delta-Y trans-
former bank or directly from the plant generators.
Hence the only time that single-phase short-circuit-current calculations
need be made is on large high-voltage systems (2400 volts and above)
with solidly grounded generator neutrals or where main transformers
that supply a plant from a utility are ronnected in delta on the high-
voltage side (incoming line) and in Y with solidly grounded neutrals
The calculations of unbalanced short-circuit currents in large power
systems can best be done by symmetrical components, see Chap. 2.
Normally, generator and large delta-Y transformer secondaries are
grounded through a reactor or resistor to limit the short-circuit current
for a single line-to-ground short circuit on the system to letis than the
value of short-circuit current for a three-phase short circuit.
Bolted Short Circuits Only Are Considered. Several tests have been
made to evaluate the effect of arc drop at the point of short circuit in
reducing the short-circuit-current magnitude. It was felt by some
engineers that the current-limiting effect of the arc was pronounced.
These tests showed, however, that for circuit voltages as low as 300 volts
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 43

## there may be no substantial difference in the current that flows for a

bolted short circuit and when there is an arc of several inches of length.
These test,s also confirmed modern calculating procedure as an accurate
method of estimating the short-circuit-current magnitude in systems
of 600 volts and less.
.4rcs cannot be counted on to limit the flow of short-circuit currents
even in louvoltage circuits; so short-circuit-current calculations for
all circuit voltages are made on the basis of zero impedance at the point
of short circuit, or, in other words, a bolted short circuit. This materially
simplifies calculation because all other circuit impedances are linear in
magnitude, whereas arcs have a nonlinear impedance characteristic.
At What Point in the System Should the Short Circuit Be Considered
to Occur? The maximum short-circuit current will flow through a cir-
cuit breaker, fuse, or motor starter when the short circuit occurs at the

4160V.
I I I

## \$- BREAKERS ON THIS BUS

\$EW:RS FOR SHORT CIRCUIT

1T ?;
A&??
Y T T - 3
& + * +
r y r-x
MAX. DUTY FOR
THESE BREAKERS
OCCURS FOR
SHORT CIRCUIT
HERE

FIG. 1.30 Location of faults for maximum Short-circuit duty on circuit breakers.
44 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

## terminals of the circuit breaker, etc. (Fig. 1.30). These devices, if

properly applied, should be capable of opening the maximum short-
circuit current that can flow through them. Therefore, only one short-
circuit location (at the terminal of the device) need be considered for
checking the duty on a given circuit breaker, fuse, or motor starter.

## Typical reactances of circuit elements and machines are given at the

end of this chapter. Resistances are included for certain items. These
tables may be used as a basis for assigning values to the various elements
of the impedance diagram. The reactances and resistances are all line-
to-neutral values for one phase of a three-phase circuit. Where the
reactances of a specific motor, generator, or transformer are known,
these values should he used in lieu of the typical reactances in this
chapter. The following is a guide to general practice in selecting and
representing reactances.
U s e R e a c t a n c e s of All S i g n i f i c a n t Circuit E l e m e n t s . Whether or not
the reactance of a certain circuit element of a system is significant
depends upon the voltage rating of the system where the short circuit
occurs. In all cases, generator, motor, and transformer reactances
are used. In systems rated above 600 volts, the reactances of short
bus runs, current transformers, disconnecting switches, circuit breakers,
and other circuit elements of only a few feet in length are so low that
they may be neglected without significant error.
In circuits rated 600 volts or less, the reactances of low-voltage current
transformers, air circuit breakers, disconnecting switches, low-voltage bus
runs, etc., may have a significant hearing on the magnitude of total short-
circuit current.
As a general guide, the reactance of the low-voltage secondary-switch-
gear section in load-center unit substations with closely coupled trans-
formers and secondary switchgear is not significant for all voltages of
600 volts and below. However, where there are several transformers or
generators paralleled on one bus, or connections several feet long between
a single transformer and its switchgear, reactances of the bus connections
will generally be significant and should be considered in short-circuit
calculations. I n systems of more than about 1000 kva on one bus a t
208Y/120 or 240 volts, reactance of all circuit components such as short
bus runs, current transformers, circuit breakers, etc., should be included
in the short-circuit study.
I n systems of more than about 3000 kva on one bus a t 480 volts or
600 volts, reactances of all components such as current transformers,
circuit breakers, short bus runs, etc., should be considered.
It should be remembered that the lower the voltage, the more effective
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENl CALCUUTING PROCEDURES 45

## a small impedance is in limiting the short-circuit-current magnitude.

That is why extreme care should he used to include all circuit elements
in the impedance diagram, particularly for large ZORY/lZO-volt or
240-volt systems. If care is not used, the calculations will result in a
value of current far higher than will actually be realized in practice.
See the example outlined in Figs. 1.46 and 1.47. This often results in the
adoption of low-voltage switchgear of higher interrupting rating and
higher cost than are actually required. If care is used in including all
reactances, the calculated reiults will be close to the short-circuit currents
obtained in practice. Short-circuit calculations are of most value if
When Is Resistance Considered? The resistance of all generators,
transformers, reactors, motors, and high-capacity buses (above about
1000-amp rating) is so low, compared with their reactance, that their
resistance is not considered, regardless of their voltage rating. The
resistance of all other circuit elements of the high-voltage system (above
600 volts) is usually neglected, because the resistance of these parts has
no significant bearing on the total magnitude of short-circuit currents.
In systems of 600 volts and less the error of omitting resistances of
all parts of the circuit except cables and small ampere rating buses is
usually less than 5 per cent. However, the resistance of cable circuits is
often the predominant part of the total impedance of a cable. When
appreciable lengths of cable are involved in the circuit through which
short-circuit current flows in a system of GOO volts or less, the resistance
as well as the reactance of the cable circuits should be included in the
GENERATOR

___ -. . . -.
1100 FT. 101

## IN GENERAL USF REACTANCE

AND RESISTANCE OF THESE
----
SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT CONSIDERING
REACTANCE ONLY :20800 AMPERES (20 FT

## SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT CONSIDERING

REACTANCE OF A LL PARTS PLUS
RESISTANCE OF COW VOLTAGE
CABLE = 11500 4MPERES.

## FIG. 1.31 One-line diagram showing effect of resistance in cable circuits.

46 SHORT-CIRCUIT.CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

impedance diagram. The example of Fig. 1.31 shows the error that
might result in neglecting cable resistance.
I n secondary network systems of 600 volts and less, the resistance as
well as the reactance of the tie-cable circuits between substation buses
should be included in the impedance diagram. The example of Fig. 1.32
shows the effect of cable resistance in reducing short-circuit current in a
typical industrial network.
n n
SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT USING
REACTANCE ONLY = 51000 AMPERES,

## SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT USING

REACTANCE PLUS RESISTANCE OF
T I E CIRCUIT= 41000 AMPERES.

T I E CIRCUITS
208 Y / l Z O V O L T S .

200 FT
2- 250 M,CM
3 CONO. CABLES ~~~~~T
I N PARALLEL

200 F T

FIG. 1.32 One-line diogrtlm of low-voltage secondary network system showing effect of
resistance of cable tie circuits.

## Where to Use Exact Multiplying Factors. I n low-voltage systems

having considerable lengths of cahle, the X / R ratio may be so low that
the 1.25 multiplying factor would be considerably in error. Hence in
these systems where resistance is considered, determine the correct
X / R ratio and then use minimum multiplying factor.

## A group of motors fed from one substation or from one generating

station bus may range in rating from fractional to several thousand horse-
power per motor. All motors that are running at the time a short circuit
occurs in the power system contribute short-circuit current and therefore
should be taken into consideration.
Motors Roted 600 Volts and Below. I n that portion of the power sys-
tem operating at 600 volts or less, there are generally numerous small
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES A?

## motors, i.e., under about 50 hp. I t becomes impractical to represent

each small motor in the impedance diagram. These motors are con-
stantly being turned off and on; so it is practically impossible to predict
which ones will be on the line when a short circuit occurs. Furthermore,
it would be impractical to obtain the characteristics of each small motor
and to account for the effect of the impedance of their leads.
Where more accurate data are not available, the following procedure
may be used with satisfactory results for representing the combined
reactance of a group of miscellaneous motors operating a t 600 volts or
less.
1. In systems rated 240, 480, or 600 volts a t each generator and/or
transformer bus, assume that the maximum horsepower of motors
runniug a t any one time is equal to the combined kva rating of the step-
down transformer and/or generators supplying that one bus (see Figs.
1.33 and 1.34).
2. 10 systems rated 208Y/120 volts, a substantial portion of the load
usually consists of lights and a lesser proportion of motor load than in
240-, 480-, or 000-volt systems. Hence in 208Y/120-volt systems where
more accurate data are not available, assume a t each generator and/or
transformer bus that the maximum horsepower of motors running a t

REbCTbNCE QOW,
TO UTILITY SYSTEM OF UTILITY OR5.,s 0.25% OR
SYSTEM 25 %
REbCTbNCE OF
REbCTbNCE EQUIVALENT
OF 7 5 0 K V b MOTOR
TRbNSF. 5.5%

IMPEObNCE O I b G R b M
750 K V b BASE
SHORT EQUIVALENT MOTOR
CIRCUIT 750 KVb

## 240, 480, 600 VOLT SYSTEMS

El
hKVA
SHORT
CIRCUIT
TO UTILITY SYSTEM

EQUIVILENT MOTOR
375 K V b
REbCTbNCE
OF UTILITY
SYSTEM

REbCTbNCE
OF 7 5 0 KVb
TRbNSF.

IMPEObNCE OIbGRbM

2 0 8 Y / 1 2 0 VOLT SYSTEMS
750 K V b BASE
0.50% OR
50 %
REACTbNCE OF
EQUIVALENT
MOTOR

FIG. 1.33 Oiagromr illustrating how to include motors in low-voltage radial systems.
40 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

any one time is equal t,o 50 per cent of the combined rating of all step-
down trausformers and/or generators supplying power to that one bus,
Fig. 1.33. For large commercial buildings the 50 per cent figure may
be too low. Check carefully the mot,or load on all large 208Y/120-volt
systems.
I n the generalized rases referred t o in paragraphs 1 and 2 , no specific
ratio of induction t o synchronous motors or no specific number of motors
which prcduce unusually high short-circuit current,s has been set fort,h.
T o account for these variables, a n average motor reitctance ihcluding
leads is assumed t o be 25 per cent for the purpose of preparing application
tables like Table 1.5 and in making short-circuit st,udies where no more
accurat,e data are available. It will he noted that the average motor
reactance of 25 per cent is based on the transformer or supply-generator
kva rating. This figure is between the values of 28 per cent for induc-
tion mot,ors and 21 per cent for synchronous motors given in Table 1.14.
Where the division between synchronous and iuduction motors is known,
then more accurate calculations can be made by using the assumed motor
reactances of Table 1.14. T h e reactances given in Table 1.14 are based
on motor kva ratings and not supply transformer or generator ratings.

750 KVA
T
A 500 KVA 750 KVA

-480 VOLTS
500 KVA
v

## EQUIVALENT MOTORS WOULD BE 250 KVA AND 375 K VA

FOR 280Y/120 VOLT SECONDARY SYSTEM

FIG. 1.34 Diagram illustrating how lo include motors in lowvoltage secondary network
rvrternr.
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 49

## Although a portion of the load connected to a bus rated GOO voks or

less may be heaters, lights, a-c welders, solderitig irons, appliances, arid
other devices which produce no short-circuit curreiit, the total installed
horsepower of motors connected t,o such a bus is geiierally much greater
than the kva rating of the supply transformers and generators. Hov-
ever, allowing for diversity, generally the total comhitied horsepower
rat,ing of all mot,ors running a t one time ix-ould trot produce short-cir-
cuit currents in excess of the values obtained when using the ahore
assumptions.
I n systems of 000 volts or Icss, the large motors (i,e., mot,ors 011 t,he
order of several hundred horsepomerj are usually few i n number and
represent only a small portion of the tot,al connected horsepower; there-
fore, these larger motors are generally lumped in with the smaller motors
and the complete group is represented as one equivalent motor i t i the
impedance diagram.
Synchrouous and induction motors need not be segregated when com-
bining the motors in these low-voltage systems, because lorn-voltage air
circuit breakers operr so fast that only the current flow duritig the first half
cycle is considered; i.e., only suhtraiisient reactances ( X y ) of marhiiies
are considered.
Motors Rated above 600 Volts. High-voltage motors (rated 2200
volts and ahove) are generally larger in horsepower rating thau motors
on systems operating under 600 volts. These largcr motors may have
a much more significant hearing on short-circuit-current magnitudes
than smaller motors, and, therefore, more exact determinatiou of the
reactances of the larger motors is in order. Therefore, it is often foutid
convetiient t o represent each large high-voltage motor individually in
the impedance diagram.
However, in large plants like steel mills, paper mills, etc., where there
are numerous motors of several huridred horsepower each, it is often found
desirable t o group these larger motors iii one group arid represent them
by one reartaiire in the impedance diagram. Individual motors of
several thousand horsepoitrer should be coiisidered individually and
their reactances accurately determined hefore starting the short-circuit
study.
Whether considering motors individually or in groups, regardless of
voltage rating of the motors, it is necessary t o obtain an equivalent kva
rating of the individual or group of motors. This can be done precisely
for large motors by Eq. (1.9) or can be approximated hy Eq. (l.lO),
( l , l l ) , or (1.12), when the full-load current is not known. The latter
equations are used when considering a single reactance t o represent a
group of miscellaneous motors.
50 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

## I n high-voltage systems, complete motor data may not be available.

Lacking these data, the connected horsepower is assumed to he equal
t o the generator and/or transformer capacity supplying a given high-
voltage bus.
If the reactance of the leads between the transformer and/or gen-
erator bus and the motors is significant, the reactanre of these leads
should be included.

## MAKING THE IMPEDANCE DIAGRAM

After it has been decided what elements of the one-line diagram are
to be considered in the impedance diagram, the mechanirs of making
the impedance diagram and of determining the short-circuit-current
magnitude are as follows.
Treatment of Sources of Short-circuit

7
GENERATOR OR MOTOR OF Current. The generators and motors
ZERO IMPEDANCE are treated as if they comprised a gen-
erator of zero reactance plus an external
reactor to represent the reactance of the
EXTERNAL TO machine windings, Fig. 1.35. The first
REPRESENT IMPEDANCE OF step in making an impedance diagram
GENERATOR OR MOTOR. is torepresent every generator and motor
or groups of motors and utility supply
FIG. 1.35 One-line representation by a reactance connected to a zero im-
of generator or motor in impedance pedance bus or so-called “infinite bus,”
diogmm. Fig. 1.36. This bus represents the in-
ternal voltage of the generators and motors.
Completing the Impedance Diagram. The second step is to add the
reactance of cables, buses, transformers, current transformers, circuit

## flG. 1.36 Representation of reactances of generators, motors, and utility supply of

system shown in one-line diagram form in Fig. 1.28.
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 51

## breakers, switches, etc., in their proper location to complete the imped-

ance diagram, top of Fig. 1.37.
Choice of Ohms, Per Cent Ohms, or Per-unit Ohms Method. The
next step is to decide whether to use ohms, per cent ohms, or per-unit
ohms to represent the various circuit impedances in the impedance
diagram.

INFINITE BUS

SHORT 6.04V
INFINITE BUS CIRCUIT

## STEP NO i COMBINE SERIES REACTANCES

C+D=0.04+0.15~0.19%
H +1+J = 2 . O t ~0.0+0.10~
12.10%

## STEP NO.:! COMBINE PARALLEL REACTANCES

F,G AND I H + I J) +
'
- = _' + L +
XI F G
I
H + I + J
I I
- _ 3 + p-j=j 2 . 5 + 0 . 2 + 0 . 0 8 3
-o,'40t
I
-= 2.783 X =0.3698
XI

## STEP N 0 . 3 COMBINE SERIES REACTANCES

X,,AND E
X t = XI + E = 0.36+0.04'0.40%
STEP NO. 4 COMBINE PARALLEL REACTANCES
X o , A . B . AND IC+D)
I - 1 + 1 + L+- 1 -l +-i +-
I I+ -
XR XI A B C+D '0.40 0 2 5 2.0 0.19
2 . 5 + 4 + 0 . 5 +5.3=12.3
X,

## RESULTANT SINGLE REACTANCE

I 0.0805 %
X ~ O ~ z

FIG. 1.37 Complete reaclomce diagram for system shown in Fig. 1.28. Steps for com-
bining reactances into o single resultant value.
52 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

## Ohms are generally not used because of the difficulty of converting

ohms from one voltage base to another without error and because of
the very small numbers, which make accurate and easy calculation more
difficult than the per cent or per-unit system.
In many of the examples in this book, the assumed or given impedance
or reactance data are listed in per cent, hut in the reactance dia,-rams
these are converted to per-unit. N o notation will he made when that is
done as it will be obvious.
Equations (1.1) to (1.4) show how to convert ohms to per cent ohms,
ohms to per-unit ohms.
The Per-unit System for Electrical Calculations.* A per-unit system
is a means of expressing numbers for ease in comparing them. A per-unit
value is a ratio:
a number
Per-unit = (1.21)
base number
~~

The base number is also called unit value since in the per-unit system
it has a value of 1, or unity. Thus, base voltage is also called unit
voltage.
Any convenient number may be selected for the base number. For
example, for the columns below, a base of 560 is used:
Per-unit Volue
Number with 560 as a Base
93 0.17
125 0.22
560 1 .oo
2053 3.65

## Each number in the second column is a per-unit part of the base

number. In the first column, to compare the numbers, first mentally
determine the ratio of one to the other. In the second column this is
The comparison can be aided by selection of the base number which
will illustrate the comparison best. In the foregoing example, if it is
desired to show how much larger each uumber is when compared with
the smallest number, the number 93 might have been selected as the
base. This would then be obtained as follows:
Per-""it Valve
Number with 93 (
I, (I Base
93 I .oo
125 I.35
560 6.00
2053 22.20

## The value of a per-unit system is particularly useful when comparing

* From material originally prepared by H. J. Finison. iormrrly of General Ekctrir
Company.
SHORT-CIRCUIT.CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 53

numbers that are similarly related to two different base numbers. For
example :
Core A Cole B
Norm01 "0th 2300 460
Volts during motor starting 2020 420

The above figures in themselves have little significance until they are
compared each with its normal condition as follows:
Vollr during starting per-unit of normal 0.88 0.91

Per Cent. Obviously per cent and per-unit systems are similar. The
per cent system is obtained by multiplying the per-unit value arbitrarily
by 100 to keep many frequently used per-unit values expressed as whole
integers. By definition,
a number
Per cent =
base number
x 100 (1.22)

## Thus to change per cent to per-unit, divide by 100. For example, a

transformer which has an impedance of 6 per cent has an impedance of
0.06 per-unit.
The per cent system is somewhat more difficult to work with and more
subject to possible error since it must always be remembered that the
numbers have been arbitrarily multiplied by 100. For a simple example,
money may draw interest a t the rate of 4 per cent per year. Early in
arithmetic one learns to determine the interest by multiplying the princi-
pal by 0.04. It is thus necessary to remember to convert to the per-unit
value before using the figure. In a complex calculation, this repeated
conversion may invite errors. In effect it is safer and more convenient
to say that interest is a t the rate of 0.04 per-unit.
Impedances of electric apparatus are usually given in per cent. I t is
usually convenient to convert these figures immediately to per-unit by
dividing by 100 and thereafter do all calculating in terms of per-unit
rather than attempt to remember always during the calculations whether
a number should or should not be multiplied or divided by 100 to obtain
the true value.
Symbol. Just as the per cent system has a symbol (%) to desig-
nate that a given number is expressed in terms of per cent (as 6%) so also
does the per-unit system have a symbol. The symbol for per-unit is
(%). Thus 0.06 per-unit is written as 0.06 91.
Selection of Base Number. In a per-unit system as used for expressing
electrical quantities of voltage, current, and impedance, it is necessary to
select numbers arbitrarily for the following:
Base volts
Base amperes
54 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

Do not then in addition arbitrarily select base ohms since it has already
been fixed by the first two selections because of Ohm’s law.
z = -E
I
base volts
Base ohms = (1.23)
base a m p z s
Using the selected base values, all parts of an electric circuit or system
may be expressed in per-unit terms as follows:
volts
Per-unit volts = (1.24)
base volts
amperes
Per-unit amperes = (1.25)
base amperes
ohms
Per-unit ohms = (1.26)
base ohms
In practice it is more convenient to select:
Base volts
Base kva
The base values of other quant.ities are thus automatically fixed. Hence,
for a single-phase system,
base kva X 1000
Base amperes = (1.27)
base volts
base kva
Base amperes = (1.28)
base kv
base volts
Base ohms = (1.23)
base amperes
where base kva is single-phase kva and base volts is single-phase volts.
For a three-phase system:
base kva X 1000
Bme amperes = (1.29)
X base voks
base kva
Base amperes = (1.30)
4 X base kv
hase volts
Base ohms = (1.31)
4 X base amperes
where base kva is three-phase kva, base volts is line-to-line, and hase ohms
is per phase.
Per-unit Ohms. In practice i t is desirable to convert directly from
ohms to per-unit ohms, without first determining base ohms. By Ohm’s
law,
base volts
Base ohms = (1.23)
base amperes
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 55

Substitute Eq. (1.27) (which gives the base amperes) into Eq. (1.23), to
obtain
base volts
Base ohms =
(base kva X 1000)/base volts
(base volts)P
Base ohms = bsse kva x 1000
(1.32)
By definition:
ohms
Per-unit ohms = (1.26)
base ohms
Substitute Eq. (1.32) into Eq. (1.26) to obtain
ohms
Per-unit ohms =
(base volts)e/(base kva X 1000)
ohms X base kva X 1000
Per-unit ohms = (1.33)
(base voltd2
ohms X base kva
Per-unit ohms = (1.34)
(base kv)2 X 1000
where base kva is single-phase kva and base kv is single-phase kv.
When dealing with a three-phase system, i t is usual to select three-phase
kva and line-to-line volts for the base values. Convert the above expres-
sions to these bases to obtain
ohms X base kva X 1000 X 3
Per-unit ohms =
(base volts X d .3 ,)z
ohms'X base kva X 1000
Per-unit ohms =
(base volts)2
ohms X base kva
Per-unit ohms = (1.35)
(base kv)* X 1000
where ohms are per phase, kva is three-phase kva, and kv is line-to-line
voltage.
Usual Base Numbers for System Studies. If per cent or per-unit ohms
reactance is used, the next step is to choose a kva base.
In system studies it is usually desirable to select as the base voltage the
nominal-system voltage or the voltage rating of the generators and supply
transformers. Base kva will usually be selected as the kva rating of one
of the machines or transformers in the system, or a convenient round
number such as 1000, 10,000, or 100,OOO kva. After choosing the kva
base, convert ohmic reactance of cables, wires, current transformers,
etc., to per cent or per-unit ohms reactance on the chosen base, using
Eq. (1.1) or (1.2) or Table 1.3.
If ohms reactance is used, convert all per cent reactances to ohms by
Eq. (1.3).
Where two systems of differing voltage are interconnected through a
56 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

transformer, select a common kva base for both systems and the rated
voltage of each system as its own base voltage. (These base voltages
must have the same ratio t o each other as the turn ratio of the transformer
connecting the two systems.) Base ohms and base amperes for the two
systems will thus he correspondingly different. Figure 1.38 shows a
typical example.
Once the system values are expressed as per-unit values, the two inter-
connected systems may be treated as a single system and any calculations
necessary carried out. Only in reconverting the per-unit values of the
results to actual voltage and current values is i t necessary t o remember
t h a t two different voltages actually existed in the system.
Change of Base Number. Frequently the impedance of a circuit ele-
ment may be expressed in terms of a particuiar base kva, and it may be
desirable t o express it in terms of a different base kva. For example, the
reactance of devices like transformers, generators, and motors is given in
per cent on their own kva rating, and their reactances must be converted
to the common base, chosen for the study by means of Eq. (1.5) or (1.36).
Per-unit ohms on kva base 2
- base kva
x (per-unit ohms on kva base 1) (1.36)
base kva 1
Similarly, a machine rated a t one voltage may actually be used i n a
circuit a t a different voltage. Its per-unit impedance must thus be
changed to a new base voltage.

GENERATOR MOTOR
1000 KVA I0;YKVA o(lOOO KVA)

13800 2300
VOLTS VOLTS
PRIMARY SECONDARY
RATING RATING
13200 2400
VOLTS VOLTS

## TRANSFORMER RATIO= 13 200/2400=5.5

(A1
(A)HIGH VOLTAGE SYSTEM ( 8 )LOW VOLTAGE SYSTEM RATIO -
(El
13 800 BASE VOLTS 2500 5.5

## 41.6 EASE AMPS 233 115 5

190 BASE OHMS 6.2 5 (5.5?

FIG. 1.38 Method of converting bore volts, kva, amperes, and ohms from one value to
onother.
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES n
Reference to Eq. (1.35) shows that per-unit ohms is inversely propor-
tional to the square of base volts. Thus:
Per-unit ohms on new base volts - - (old base volt.s)* (1.37)
Per-unit ohms on old base volts (new base volts)*
and
Per-unit ohms on new base volts = per-unit ohms on old base volts
(old base volts)2
(1.38)
(new base volts)2
Equations (1.37) and (1.38) may be used for per cent ohms as well as per-
unit ohms.
Converting Ohms to a Common Voltage Base. When using ohms
instead of per cent or per-unit in the impedance diagram, it is important
to convert the ohmic values to a common voltage base by Eq. (1.13).
For example, if the short-circuit current is being calculated in a 480-volt
system (supplied by transformers rated 480-volt secondary) fed through a
cable and a transformer from a 2400-volt system, the ohms impedance of
the cable in the 2400-volt circuit must be multiplied by 48O2/24OO2to
convert it to ohms on a 480-volt base. The transformer ratings, i.e., 480,
240, etc., and not system ratings, if different from transformer rating, are
used as the voltage base for short-circuit-current calculations.
Representing the Utility Supply System. The utility system must be
represented by a reactance in the impedance diagram. Sometimes this
utility-system reactance is available in per cent on a certain base. If so,
it is merely necessary to convert this value to the common base used in
the impedance diagram. To do this, use Eq. (1.5). In some cases the
utility engineers will give the short-circuit kva or current that the utility
system will deliver a t the plant site. In otker cases, only the interrupting
capacity of the incoming-line circuit breaker is known. In these cases to
convert short-circuit kva, current, or incoming-line breaker interrupting
rating to per cent reactance on the kva base used in the reactance diagram,
proceed as follows:
If given short-circuit kva, convert to per cent by using Eq. (1.6).
If per-unit is desired, use also Eq. (1.4).
If given short-circuit amperes (rms symmetrical), convert to per cent
by Eq. (1.7) and to per-unit by Eqs. (1.7) and (1.4).
If only the kva interrupting rating of the incoming line circuit breaker
is known, convert to per cent by Eq. (1.8) and to per-unit by Eqs. (1.8)
and (1.4).

## After completing the impedance diagram and inserting the values of

reactance or impedance for each part of the diagram, it is necessary to
reduce this network to one equivalent value. This can be done either by
58 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

## longhand calculation or with the aid of a calculating board. Since so few

ods, this method will be covered in sufficient detail to enable solving the
short-circuit problems commonly encountered.
Use of Calculating Boards. A d-c calculating board will permit
accurate solution of all short-circuit problems where reactance only is
considered. In most cases where resistance is a significant factor and
must be considered, the d-c calculating board cannot be used readily.
However, in some problems involving resistance, certain approximations
boards. For exact calculating-board solutions of problems factoring
resistance and reactance, the a-c calculating board may he employed.
A-c calculating boards have boxes to represent both the resistance and
reactance of a circuit. The procedure for using calculating boards is
beyond the scope of this book.
Longhand Method of Combining Reactances. Longhand methods of
combining reactances vary in some respects. To illustrate the principles
involved, refer to Figs. 1.37 and 1.39.
Arbitrary values of reactance have been assigned to the various
branches. Combining the various branches of the diagram is merely a
question of reducing two or more series reactances to one value and
reducing two or more parallel reactances to one value until one single
equivalent value is obtained.
The following shows how to combine reactances and resistances.
1. Combining reactance and resistance to determine impedance,
z = m
z=r+jz (1.39)
wherej = 47
reactances arithmetically, i.e.,
x, + x2 + xa = x. = equivalent reactance
z,,z2, and x 3 = reactances of circuit components
zs= equivalent reactance
3. Combining parallel reactances,
zo = equivalent reactance
For two reactances only x, and z2

XI = -
(d(z2)
21 +
22
(1.40)
For combining several parallel reactances
1 1 1 1 1 1
-=_
2. 2,
+ - + - +X -I + E
2 2 2,
(1.41)
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 59

INFINITE

c.

## REACTANCE DIAGRAM OF CIRCUIT

SHOWN IN ONE LINE DIAGRAM TO
ONE-LINE DIAGRAW THE LEFT.

P~T& T( \$*,
* T . Pm EQUIVALENT Y

e c , TO
CONVERT P I T I , PITI
c. EQUIVALENT Y.
STEP x z
STEP# I
COMBINE SERIES REACTANCES
PI~TI,RBT~,ETC.

I
&Pa.
--&-
Ct

cs
a"3+c*

L c4 +
COMBINE 2 C t , 3 + C+ AND
THEN REPEAT STEPS 2.3 e 4
UNTIL ONE EOUIVALENT
DRAW NEW DIAGRAM REACTANCE IS OBTAINED.
STEP-* 3 STEP t t 4

## FIG. 1.39 Example of the method of combining remtmces of a network-type system

into a single resultant value.
MI SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

Some systems are such that they cannot he reduced by merely com-
bining series and parallel rgactances. For example, take the one-line
diagram of a circuit as show in upper left-hand corner of Fig. 1.39. The
\
reactance diagram is shown the ypper righehand corner of Fig. 1.39.
In addition to combining serieszind parallel reactances, it is necessary to
convert a triangle of reactances such as PI,
TI,PzrT , and C1to an equiva-
lent Y of reactances by the formulas of Fig. 1.40. By these conversions,
I

B=
ob + a c + be a=-
0c
b A+B+C

a b + a c + bc "
c= b:
A+B+C

A = ob+oc+bc A8
C:
a A+B+C
FIG. 1.40 Formula for converting a triangle or delta of three impedances to a Y of three
equivalent impedances, and vice verso.

## any commonly encountered system reactance diagram can be reduced to

one equivalent reactance.
Combining Impedances. Sometimes i t is desirable to consider the
resistance and reactance of a circuit. This involves combining imped-
ances. The procedure for combining impedances is outlined here. The
combining of parallel impedances necessitates multiplication and division
of impedances (complex quantities) and is outlined here.
Adding Series Impedances. When two or more impedances are in
series, the resistance and reactance components are added separately to
combine the series into one equivalent value.
Refer to Fig. 1.41. The three series impedances are
+
z1 = TI jzl
za = 72 i-
jxa
zz = Tp + ja
SHORT-ClRCUIT+CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 61

3 SERIES EQUIVALENT
IMPEDANCES IMPEDANCE
FIG. 1.41 Example illustrating the combining of series impedances.
The equivalent impedance
rl
2 %= VZ + + +
73 j(z1 + zz+ 4 (1.42)
Using the numerical values of Fig. 1.41,
2, = 1+ j 2
22 = 2 +j3
= 0.5 + j l
21 = (1 + 2 + 0.5) + j ( 2 + 3 + 1) = 3.5 + j G
The above is applicable when impedances are expressed in ohms, per-
unit or per cent.
Combining Parallel Impedances. Parallel impedances may be
reduced to one equivalent impedance as follows (see Fig. 1.42):

## TWO PARALLEL IMPEDANCES EQUIVALENT IMPEDANCE

FIG. 1.42 Example illustrating L e combining of parallel impedances.
61 WORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

(1) Reduce the per cent values of resistance and reactance in each of
the given parallel circuits to a per-unit basis by dividing per cent figures
by 100 or convert the per cent values to ohms. Per cent values can be
used in the following if the multiplier 100 is applied properly, e.g.,
T X
(Branch 1) 0.05 0.15
(Branch 2) 0.008 0.108
(2) Calculate the impedance squared z2 of each circuit
2% = r' + 2
'
1
(Branch 1) rlz + = ZI', e.g., 0 .052+ 0.1547-0>25
21'
(Branch 2) r 2 + zz2= zz2, e.g., 0.008z+ 0.108* = 0.0117
(3) Obtain the ratios of r/z' of each circuit
Tl 0.05
(Branch 1) -', e.g., -= 2.0
21 0.025
rz
(Branch 2) -, e.g., 0.0°8 - 0.683
z'2 0.0117
~

r / z z = Ga = 2.683
(5) Obtain the ratios of x/z* for each circuit
21 0.15
(Branch 1) -2 e.g., -= 6
21 0.025
XP 0.108
(Branch 2) e.g., -= 9.2
7 j
22 0.0117
X/L' = Ba = 15.2
(7) Ya2 = 02 + Ba2,e.g., = 2.683' + 15.24 = 238.2
(8) ra = Ga e.g.,
-9
Y3'
=;2 ~ - 0.0112
(9) xa =
BJ e.g.,
-2 __
15" = 0.0642
=
Ya2 238.2
The foregoing may be tabulated for convenience in solving a number of
parallel pairs of circuits:
r z z4 = r' z2 r/z' 2/22 +
(Branch 1) 00 0 0 0
(Branch 2) 00 0 0 0
(Branch 3, etc.) ( ) ( ) ( ) ()()
The combination of the circuits results in
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 63

1
Any number of parallel circuits may be accommodated by additional
horizontal columns as fo branch 1 and branch 2, etc., their resultant
(r/z2)’s and (x/z2)’s heling added to obtain G O and Bo.
Multiplying and Dividing Impedances. Two impedmces may be
multiplied as per the following equations:
(21) (22) = 23
21 = TI +jXl
ZP = T S +j x ,
23 = r8 +
jxa
2 3 = (TI +
jXl)(Tt + jZ2)
= (TIT2 - 2 1 2 2 ) + j(TIX2 + TBZL)
13 = (nrz - XIXZ)

j a = j(r1zz +
rczJ 1
Two impedances may be divided according to the following equations:
(1.44)

TI +j x , - jxt
=-x- TZ
r2 +j x 2 TZ - jxt

(1.45)

## DETERMINING THE SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT MAGNITUDE

After the reactance diagram has been reduced to a single value, the
value of symmetrical short-circuit kva can be determined by Eq. (1.14),
(1.15), or (1.16). To determine the symmetrical short-circuit current, use
Eq. (1.17), ( l . l S ) , or (1.19).
Equations (1.14) to (1.19) do not allow for any d-c component. Table
1.4 gives figures for converting kva to amperes.
Apply Proper Multiplying Factor. The final step is to apply the
proper multiplying factor from Table 1.2. To determine the total rms
short-circuit current or kva, use Eq. (1.20).
64 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

## Three phore Amperes Amperes "0 wire Amperes

line-to-line, ier phase rer phase V d h er kro or
volh per kva per kvo c or d-l d-c kw

## 110 5.25 13.200 0.0437 24 41.7

115 5.02 13,800 0.0419 48 20.8
120 4.81 14,400 0.0401 110 9.10

## 180 3.21 22,000 0.0263 115 8.70

I99 2.90 23,000 0.0251 120 8.33
208 2.78 24,000 0.0241 125 8.00

## 220 2.63 33,000 0.0175 220 4.55

230 2.51 34,500 0.0167 230 4.35
240 2.41 36,000 0.0160 240 4.17

## 440 1.31 44,000 0.0131 250 4.00

460 I .25 46,000 0.0125 275 3.64
480 1.20 48,000 0.0120 300 3.33

## 550 1.05 66,000 0.00875 440 2.27

575 1 .oo 69,000 0.00838 460 2.17
600 0.962 72,000 0.00803 480 2.08

## 1,100 0.525 I I0.000 0.00525 550 I .82

1,150 0.502 1 I5.000 0.00502 575 I .74
1,200 0.481 120,000 0.00481 600 1.67

## 2,200 0.263 132,000 0.00437 650 1.54

2,300 0.251 138,000 0.0041 9 750 1.33
2,400 0.241 144,000 0.00401 1,200 0.833

## 3.300 0.175 154,000 0.00375 1,500 0.666

3.450 0.167 161,000 0.00359 2,200 0.455
3,600 0.160 168,000 0.00344 2,300 0.435

## 3,800 0.152 220,000 0.00263 2,400 0.417

4,000 0.144 230,000 0.00251 3,000 0.333
4.160 0.138 240,000 0.00241

## 6,600 0.0875 330,000 0.00175

6.900 0.0838 345,000 0.00167
7.200 0.0803 360,000 0.00160

11,000 0.0525
11,500 0.0502
12,000 0.0481
-
~
/
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 65

EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS

## The redurtion of impedance diagrams to a single value of impedance

can he greatly simplified by using equivalent circuits for duplex reactors
and three-winding transformers.
Equivalent Circuit for Duplex Reactors. The duplex reactor consists
of two sections of winding per phase on the same core, with a t a p brought
out from the junction point. The current ratings and reactances of the
two sections arc generally equal.
Aside from the midtap connections, whirh necessitate a total of nine
leads, the construction is similar to that of the series reactor.
If 1, and l2 are the self-inductances ( X , and X , are the corresponding
reactances) of the individual sections, and f c is the “coupling factor” of
the mutual inductance betmeen sections, then the simplified equivalent

LEX REACTOR

O N E LINE DlAGRPlM

I
J

k GENERATOR

-XI fc

FIG. 1.43 One-line diagram and equivalent circuit for duplex reactor.
66 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCUUllNG PROCEDURES

circuit for the duplex reactor is as shown in Fig. 1.43. For preliminary
calculations, an average figure off. = 0.5 should give results of sufficient
accuracy.
Equivalent Circuit of Three-winding Transformer. When making
short-circuit calculations of power systems which include three-winding
transformers, there is a question on how to use the designer's reactance
values. Designers give reactance values between pairs of windings.
Figure 1.44A shows a three-winding transformer, and Fig. 1.44B shows
its equivalent circuit. The following equations are easily derived and are
the proper ones to use in short-circuit studies:

xs = + X2e c -
XIB XAC
(1.46)

2
XdB

## All reactance6 must be on same kva base.

NOTE:The equivalent circuit and equations for a four-winding trans-
former are more complicated and will not he evident by simple analogy
from Eq. (1.46).
, A

(A1 mi
FIG. 1.44 (A1 One-line diagram and (61 equivalent circuit diagram of three-winding
transformer.

## The following examples are indicative of methods of applying the short-

circuit-current calculating procedures outlined in the foregoing.
Systems 600 Volts and Below. The system shown in Fig. 1.45
involves one source of supply through a transformer from a primary sys-
tem. The kva base for the short-circuit calculations is taken as the kva
*NOTE:Numbers in parentheses in Figs. 1.45 and 1.47 to 1.50 refer to numbers
of formulas used.
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCUVITING PROCEDURES 67

INCOMING LINE
A
A

SOURCE 0.25 Yt
MOTORS

I
TRANSFORMER

750 KVA
5.5 x x
(0.055%)

REACTANCE DIAGRAM
480 VOLTS

FOR CALCULATIONS

M\$ (0)

## SOURCE REACTANCE ON 750 KVA BASE : loo,ooo

750 - 0.0075% (1.61

0.0625 1 2 5 v 1x=--XIXI%
+x2-0.0625t025
0.0625XC125-0,05% T 5 %

- yj;xo,4&
750
I
o,050
X 18,000 AMPERES SYMMETRICAL [ 1.18)
(d)

## 18,000 X 1.25"22.500 AMPERES ASYMMETRICAL (1.201

(el
FIG.1.45 Illustration of procedure for calculation of short-circuit currents in radial load-
center system.
68 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURREHI CALCULATING PROCEDURES

## rating of the transformer. The kva of the connected motors is assumed

to be 750 with an equivalent reactance of 25 per cent. Only reactances
are used in these calculations. This problem is the type on which
Table 1.5 is based.
Large 208Y/120-volt Systems. Problems, particularly those involving
secondary-network systems in the downtown area of the large cities or in
large buildings, require the determination of the short-circuit current on a
208Y/120-volt basis. In these systems it is particularly important that
the reactance of all circuit elements, however small, be taken into account,
as they have a much more significant effect in reducing the short-circuit
current a t 208Y/120 volts than a t 480 or 600 volts.

FEEDERS
BREAKERS

- PLAN

CHANNEL B U \$ - 4 0 0 0 A
150'

n
I w nus o'

II
NETWORK TRANSFORMER
NETWORK
PROTECTOR
1 3 2 0 0 - 2 1 6 ~ / I 2 5 VOLTS Z500 A
KvA

y Z
INCOMING LINE
5 O YVA SC L-
rnY"l

ELEVATION
.""...
CD"Yl
CIRCUIT
BREAKER
4000

FIG. 1.46 Arrmgement of equipment for large 208Y/120-volt spot network system.
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 69

The equipment for this example is arrauged as shoirn iir Fig. 1.46. The
one-line diagram is shown in Fig. 1.47.4 which iurludes the hayir reartanre
data on the circuit elemenk. The impedauce diagram is shown i n Fig.
1.47B. Figure 1.47C shows the condensed diagram to illustrate t,he rela-
tive distribution of reactance in the system. It will be noted t,hat the
overhead bus R has 70 per cent as much impedance as the romhinatiotr of
all the transformers an8,huses ahead of it,. Elimiiiatiug this item would

J
cause a serious error in t h magnitude of short-circuit, curretit.
The intermediate steps etween Figs. 1.47H and 1.47C can be worked
out by followiug t h e fa oing text.
The short circuit is located just ahead of the maiii 4000-amp circuit
breaker as this determiires the available short-circuit, curreut, which this
circuit breaker must interrupt. As pointed out previously, air circuit
breakers are applied 011 the basis of availahle rurreiit, and therefore \\.heir
calculat,ing the short,-rirruit duty oil them, t,he impedalire of t,he rirciiit
breaker is not included.
Large High-voltage Power System. T h e examplc shown in Fig. 1.48
is typical of what might, be eucouritered i n a steel mill. The kva base
chosen is 100,000 kva. Precise data are available 011 large motors and are
used in the short,-circuit, st,udy. Since the large mot,ors roiistitute only
part of the motor load, the remaining motor load is estimated. For short
circuits on the 22-kv system t,he motor load is assumed to be equal to the
capacity supplying each 22-kv bus, or 62,500 k r a aiid 20,000 kva.
Should more precise data be available regarding ronnevted mot,or load,
these data should be used for simulating motor ront,ribution for faults on
the 22-kv system. In t,his example, the connected horsepower 011 the
6.0-kv bus mas known t,o be as shown in t,he diagram.
To check the momentary dut,y at F , 011the KY-kv bus, the primary sys-
tem should be represented by its equivalrut, subt,raiisieiit reartaure nf
12.2 per cent. For interrupting d u t y on the 6.9-kv bus, t,he primary
syst,em should be represented by a reartanre equivalent t o the iirterrupt-
irig duty on t,he 22-kv system, or 17.5 per cent.
These large complicated syst,ems should he set up 011 a calculating
board to enable accurate ausivers t,o he obtained easily.

## SHORT CIRCUITS IN SINGLE-PHASE LIGHTING A N D

WELDING POWER SYSTEMS (600 VOLTS A N D LESS)

## A common p r a h c e is t o use single-phase trausformers roiiuected to

three-phase primary systems t,o supply single-phase loiv-voltage power for
welders and for lightirrg rircuits in some of the older syst,ems.
When determining the short-circuit current a t the serondaries of these
transformers, it, is necessary t o use the proper impedance t o represerrt the
primary system. I n three-phase short-circuit calculations, the reactance
70 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCUATING PROCEDURES

## FIG. 1.47 One-line diogram, reactance diagram,

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURREM CALCULATING PROCEDURES 71

and short-circuit-current calculation procedure for spot network system show in Fig. 1.46.
72 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES
c:
74 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

## of a conductor is the reactance from the center of the condurtor to the

theoretical neutral. Assume that for eaeh phase the rurrent leaves on the
phase conductor and returus through the neutral. In a three-phase short
circuit, the three currents balance; so there is no rurrent flowing in the
neutral. With single-phase line-to-line short cirruits, the eurreut leaves
on one phase conductor and returns ou the other. Therefore this rurrent
sees the reactance of two condurtors as beiug in series. Heure, for siugle-
phase tramformers conuected line-to-hie on the primary, twire the
primary system impedance must be used to represent it in a true relation
to the rest of the circuit. The remaining calculatious are essentially the
same as for three-phase circuits using the transformer and loiv-voltage-
circuit reactances.
Single-phase tramformers used for supplying 120/240-volt single-phase
lighting circuits usually have the midtap available for ronnerting to three-
mire neutral and ground by the user and are usually relatively low iu kva.
These small transformers have a relatively high resistatire-t~reactance
ratio compared with three-phase trausformers of a higher seroridary-
voltage rating and of larger kva rating.

## -7 100,000 KVA 3 PHASE

SHORT CIRCUIT OUTY

## BASE 500 KVA

4tL
PRIMARY SYSTEM REACTANCE ON 3-PHASE BASIS.

## PRIMARY SYSTEM REACTANCE ON SINGLE PWSE

BASIS = 0.005X 2 * 0.01Va

## i PRIMARY SYSTEM X :0.01%

TRANSFORMER X =O.O3Ym

TOTAL X ~ 0 . 0 4 %

0.0192
11.18 MODIFIED)

## FIG. 1.49 Short-circuit-current calculating procedure for single-phase two-wire 480-volt

system.
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 75
.

## The most severe short-circuit condition in this case is a line-to-neutral

short circuit because it involves a much higher primary-to-secondary turn
ratio than does a line-to-line short circuit. Hence, this is the basis on
which protective equipment should be selected.
Since the reactance and resistance of the transformers are given on the
basis of a full winding, it is necessary to convert to the proper values when
only one-half the secondary winding is involved as is the case when a
line-to-line neutral short circuit occurs. The reactance is increased by a
factor of 1.2 and the resistance by a factor of 1.41. Therefore, the pub-
lished reactances and resistances of these transformers are multiplied by
those figures.
Figure 1.49 shows a typical example where reactance only is used, as
would be the case for a relatively large 480-volt transformer supplying a
welder circuit. I n these calculations it is necessary to use twire the line-
to-neutral reactance of the primary system. In the example of Fig. 1.50
use twice the line-to-neutral reactance of the primary. Use the proper

1
F+ 100 000 KV4 3 PH4SE
SH& ClRCUlT DUTY

## 120,240-V )IR X =:3

1.2% ,. FULL
X ON ,. WINDING 84SIs

B4SE 5 0 KV4

0.00198
PRlM4R"X

TR4NS X
0036%
-
PRIM4RY SYSTEM RE4CT4NCE ON 3 P H 4 K 84%

:0 0005~~

## PRIM4RI SYSTEM RE4Cl4NGE ON 4 SINGLE PH45E

II 61

B451S~00a)5X2iOO019~
H4LF WlNDlNG RE4CT4NCE OF TRMIYORMER42 XO0310036X
TWW R
00172%
'I RESIST4NCE " .' ~144X0012~001720/1

## FIG. 1 .SO Short-circuit-current colculating procedure for single-phase three-wire

120/24Q.volt system.
76 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

## reactance and resistance for line-to-neutral short circuit a t the secondary

of the transformer. In both cases there is assumed to be no motor
feedback.

## TABLES AND CURVES FOR ESTIMATING

SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS
To make short-circuit protective equipment application easier, par-

:o.
ticularly in circuits of 60 volts or less, many charts, tables, and curves
have been prepared to eliminate the necessity for detailed calculations.
Some of the more usef 1 ones are presented here.

UNIT SUBSTATIONS

## Standard low-voltage unit substations so widely used have standard

transformer section impedance and voltage ratings. Hence, the second-
ary short-circuit currents available can be easily tabulated, as shown in
Tables 1.5 and 1.6. The available short-circuit duty may be read directly
from the table as a function of transformer kva, secondary voltage, and
available primary short-circuit kva.
Example of Use of Table 1.5. Assume a lonn-kva unit substation for
480-volt power service having an available

%
?]-'"
"2 x,
SHORT CIRCUIT primary short-circuit capacity of 150,000
kva.
See 480-volt application table. Follow
FIG. 1.51 0 n e - k diagram the vertical column under the 1000-kva suh-
showing location of short circuit
station rating down to the 150,000-kvaavail-
for determinotion of short-circuit
currents shown in Table 1.5. able primary three-phase short-circuit kva
line in thetable. The availableshort-circuit
current a t the 480-volt bus is indicated as 30,400 amp.

## REDUCTION OF SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT DUE TO FEEDER IMPEDANCE

The unit substation application Tables 1.5 and 1.6 make it easy to
determine the short-circuit current a t the main unit substation bus. By
the use of the simple estimating curves the short-circuit, current at the end
of the secondary feeders can he easily determined too. Henre these tables
and the curves shown in Figs. 1.52 and 1.53 make it easy quickly to esti-
mate the short-circuit current a t any point in a secondary system 600
volts and less fed by standard load-center unit substations.
The curves are for 60-cycle operation. Figure 1.52 is for cable cirruits
and Fig. 1.53 for bus feeders.
The results are in terms of the three-phase average asymmetrical rm
value during the first cycle corresponding with the basis of rating for low-
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 77

## voltage air circuit breakers. The effect of circuit resistance both in

increasing the impedanre and speeding the decay of the d-c component
'has been included.
The range of operat,ing conditions encompassed is as follows:
System operating voltage (nominal) :
ZOSY/lZO volts, three phase, four wire; or 208 volts, three phase,
three wire
480 volts, three phase, three wire; or 480Y/27' volts, three phase,
four wire
600 volts, three phase, three wire
Short-circuit-current magnitudes:
10,000 t o 100,000 amp
Feeder-circuit construction :
Three-conductor cable, No. 4 Awg to 500 MCM
Busway, plug-in bus of representative designs in current ratings from
225 to 800 amp.
Interlared loiv-reactance feeder bus (LVD) rated 2,000 amp, t,hrec
phase (four bars per phase).
y/
3

## .CABLE FLLOER LENCTM- FEET

FIG. 1.52 Chart for determining short-circuit current a t end of cable circuit consisting of
three-conductor cable in conduit or interlocked-armor cable (60cycler).
2
TABLE 1.5 Available Short- circuit C u r r e n t f r o m ' t o n d a r d T h r e e - p h a s e Unit S u b s t o t i o n s
SECONDARY RATING: 2 0 8 Y / l 2 0 VOLTS, THREE PHASE SECONDARY RATING: 240 VOLTS, THREE PHASE
Substation kva rating Substotion kra rclting
Available
Primary 112.5 150 225
1 1 I I I 1 1 300 500 750 1000 I500
three-
phase
short- Normol current, amp rmal current, en
-
Fi.C"it
kw 313 417 625
1 1 1 1 1 1 834 1388 2080 2780 4170 270 361 1 542 722 1 1203 1804
-
Total low-voltoge short-circuit Curlenh, thousands of amperes
. ~ ~
-
50.000 10.0 11.9 15.9 20.7 32.4 42.3 53.3 48.7 9.4 11.2 15.1 19.7 31.1 41.3 52.2 71.2
100.000 10.3 12.2 16.5 21.7 35.0 46.8 60.4 61.3 9.6 11.5 15,6 20.6 33.3 45.1 58.3 82.5
'\$
150.000 10.4 12.3 16.7 22.1 36.0 48.5 63.3 74.5 9.7 11.6 15.8 21.0 34.2 46.6 60.8 87.5 2
250,000 10.4 12.4 16.9 22.4 36.8 50.0 65.9 80.0 9.7 11.7 16.0 21.2 I 34.9 48.0 63.0 92.0 5
500.000 10.5 12.5 17.1 22.6 37.5 51.3 67.9 85.5 9.8 11.8 16.1 21.5 35.5 49.0 64.8 95.9 2
Unlimited 10.5 12.6 17.2 22.9 38.1 52.5 70.2 90.0 9.8 11.8 16.2 21.7 I 36.1 50. I 66.7 100.0 \$
~
-
NOTE: or different voltoge bare, multiply short-circuit current values in table by NOTE: 3. For differed wltmge hose. I tipiy 9
208 240
the ratio values in toble by the ralio
naw voltoge n o r *olt.*e
NOTE: 2. Motor short-circuit current contribution is 2.5 times the transformer normal NOTE: 4. Motor short-circuit current-contribution is 5.0 t i m n lhe t m n r
I a
current for 50% connected motors. former norm01 current for 100% connected moton.

former
4.0 4.5 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.5 5.5 5.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.5 5.5 5.5
impedance,
%
80 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

FIG. 1.53 Chart for determining short-circuit current (it end of feeder bur. The type
designations refer to General Electric Company bus I60 cycles).

Required Data. The basic data needed to enable the use of Figs. 1.52
and 1.53 are the following:
1. System operating voltage
2. Available short-circuit current at the source bus (average asym-
metrical)
3. Length and construction of the feeder circuit
4. Connected motor load at the feeder terminal
Procedure for Use of Figs. 1.52 and 1.53. The evaluation of feeder
terminal short-circuit current involves only four simple steps (see Fig.
1.54):
1. Locate the magnitude of source-end short-circuit current on the
proper left-hand operating voltage scale.
2. From this starting point move along to the right following along a
curve or an interpolation between adjacent curves until the desired length
of specific feeder construction (horizontal scales) is reached.
3. Project the latter point horizontally to the left and read the short-
circuit current contributed by the feeder on the same scale as used in 1.
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 81

## 4. Add the feeder terminal connected motor-current contribution (five

times the sum total of the motor full-load current).

## Parallel Circuit Feeders. A feeder circuit composed of two or more

identical circuits in parallel can be readily treated by making a correction
in the apparent length. The impedance presented by a feeder consisting
of two circuits in parallel will be identical to that of a sing16 circuit of half
the length; that of three circuits in parallel will be identical to that of a
single circuit of one-third the length; etc.
In the case of parallel circuit feeders, divide the true feeder length by
the number of circuits in parallel and proceed on the basis of single-circuit
data.
.
I

t
k--
H I
.
1
i
I
,/CP)OICI I I l l I
I_ 850

FEEDER L m m " I

FIG. 1.54 Example rhowing how to use the charts of Fig. 1.52 and 1.53.
Available primary
25 137.5 I I 1
50 75 100 150 1 1 I 1
200 250 333 500

## lhree-phose Normal eurrenl. ornperes a1 240 volts

hoil-circull kro
104 I 1 I 1 I 1
156 208 313 417 625 833 1042 I 1388 12083

## Tolo1 lox-vollage shw-circuil c ~ ~ r e nlhousandr

l, of rms omperes for m e 120-volt winding
short-circuited, lhe olhei opon-circuiled
- -
I I I I I
25,000 6.5 9.6 12.6 15.9 20.4 28.4 35.2 32.3 37.348.9
50,000 6.7 10.0 13.3 16.9 22.1 31.8 40.8 36.9 43.5 60.2
100,000 6.8 10.2 13.6 17.5 25.1 33.9 44.2 39.7 47.4 68.1
150.000 6.8 10.2 13.7 17.8 23.5 34.7 45.5 41.0 49.0 71.1
250,000 6.9 10.3 13.8 17.9 23.7 35.3 46.6 41.7 50.1 73.9
500,000 6.9 10.3 13.9 18.0 24.0 1 3 5 . 8 1 4 7 . 5 1 4 2 . 3 1 5 1 . 2 176.0
Unlimited 6.9
- - 10.4 __
14.0 18.1
Transformei
full-winding
Per cent R . . ... 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.21 1.21 1.21 1.0
Per cent 2.. .... 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 5.0 5.5 5.5
- -

## A short circuit invalving one of the secondrtry half windings (terminals Xi to X 2 ai

terminals X, to X , ) , Fig. 1.51, allows eansiderahly more short-çireuit current to flow
than a short circuit involving the full seeondary minding (terminals X i to X d . Con-
sequently, the circuit-hreaker seleetions are based on the half-winding value of short-
circuit current.
The eonditions on whieh the tables are hased are summsrizcd below:
1. A salid half-winding short cireuit at the tcrminals (scc Fig. 1.51).
2. Primary three-phase short-eircuit capacities vsrying from 25,000 kva to unlimited
kva. For the worst case, the single-phasr short-cireuit capaeity is me-half the three-
phase primsry short-circuit capacity, and this value has bem used in thc celculations.
This worst csse involves the assumption t h a t the primary of the transformer is con-
nected line-to-line on the high-voltage system, not line-to-neutral.
3. The full-winding per cent impedance and per cent resistances m e given in
Table 1.6.
4. The half-winding reactance was taken as 1.2 times the full-winding reactance,
while the half-winding resistance was taken as 1.44 times the full-winding resistance,
on full kva base.
5. The d-e offset multiplier for the first half eycle was taken as 1.25.
6. It is sssumed that the 120/240-volt units will supply lighting loads only, i.e., no
motor feedbaek.
7. The only source of power connected to the secondary bus is one transformer of the
capaeity indicated.
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 83

## Feeders Consisting of Different Circuit Construction in Series. Make

an independent evaluation of each common circuit construction starting
at the source end.
1. Evaluate the short-circuit current a t the end of the first section of
common feeder construction in the standard manner.
2. Using the answer derived from 1 as the source short-circuit-current
value for section 2, proceed in the standard manner t o evaluate the short-
circuit current a t the end of the second section.
3. Using the answer derived from 2 as the source short-circuit-current
value for the third section, proceed in the standard manner to evaluate
the short-circuit current a t the end of the third section.
Results obtained for sections beyond the first will be somewhat on the
conservative side (higher than the true short-circuit-current value). This
follows from the fact that the basic analysis assumes an X / R ratio of 12
a t the source end of the feeder. The true X / R ratio at the source termi-
nals of any feeder section beyond the first will necessarily be less than 12
since no feeder construction exhibits an X / R ratio as high as 12.
Interpolation for Intermediate Cable Conductor Sizes. Specific cable
feeder length scales have been inscribed for conductor sizes of 500 MCM,
250 MCM, No. 2/0 Awg and No. 4 Awg. For intermediate valuesof cable
size locate the horizontal scale points for the desired length of adjacent
cable sizes which are charted, and interpolate between these values. For
example, a No. 3/O-Awg conductor is about midway between a No. 2/0-
Awg and a 250-MCM. To evaluate the effect of a 100- f t run of No. 3/0-
Awg cable based on Fig. 1.52, locate the 100-ft point on the No. 2/0-scale
and on the 250-MCM scale. A point midway between these two points
will closely represent 100 ft of No. 3/O-Awg conductor.
Three Single-conductor Cables in Conduit. Results obtained from the
estimating curves without correction can be safely used to select protec-
tive interrupters.
If desired, a closer approximation of the actual value can be obtained
by increasing the apparent feeder length to account for the higher imped-
ance of single-conductor feeder circuits.

## Conductor Sirs Use an Appored Lenglh of

500 M C M . . ........ 130% of lhe acluol feeder Imglh
250 M C M . . ........ 120% of the o c h d feeder lenglh
..... 110% of lhe amal feeder lmglh
No. 2 / 0 A r g . .
No. 4 Awg ......... No correction
Both the 60-cycle resistance and reactance of a three-single-conductor
cable feeder in conduit are greater than those of a three-conductor cable
feeder in conduit or steel armor in the ratios reflected in the accompanying
table:
84 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

## Conductor sire Residence, 7% Reactance. Yo

I I
500MCM ..............
No. 2/0 A w g . .
No.4Awg
.........
............. I i 25
106
102 I 1-50
150
150

## N OTE: Spaced open-wire circuits should be treated by conventional

calculation procedures; a suitable one is given under Circuit Analysis-
General Case.
Single-phase Circuits. Results obtained from the curves, Figs. 1.52
and 1.53, may be used with safety for the selection of protective inter-
rupters.
The true short-circuit-current value for a two-wire single-phase circuit
operating at line-to-line voltage will be about 87 per cent of the t h r e e
phase evaluation.
Frequency. The curves, Figs. 1.52 and 1.53, are restricted t o 60-cycle
operation. For operating frequencies other than 60 cycles, conventional
calculations should be used, such as outlined under Circuit Analysis-
General Case. Note that feeder circuit resistance is not appreciably
affected by frequency, while reactance varies directly with frequency.

## UhIN SOURCE BUS 48O"OLTS ,.P"**E

6 0 C I C L E S SHORT CIRCUIT C W l R E N T i
4CCOOAYP

## 2 5 0 YCY 3IC INTERLOCKED ARMOR

CABLES IN PARALLEL

## FIG. 1.55 System diagram used as on

example to illustrate the determination
of short-circuit currenk a t the end of
feeder circuits.
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 85

## Example of Application-Fig. 1.55. Short-circuit current at bus A ?

Source short-cirruit current = 40,000 amp
Equivalent single cable feeder length = 1595 = 75 ft
From curve Fig. 1.52 (4GO-volt short-circuit current scale; 250-MCM
feeder Irngt,h scale) :
Contribut,ion via feeder cable = 23,000 amp
Motor contribution, bus A = 5 X 310 = 1,550 ~

24,550 amp
Motor contribution, bus R = 5 X 03 = 315~

## Short-circuit current a t bus B?

Source short-circuit current for section 2 = 24,550 amp (say 25,000)
Feeder lengt,h = 75 f t
From curve (4GO-volt short-circuit current scale) interpolate between the
7 5 f t point on ;To. 210 and KO.4 feeder length scales-Ko. 2 about one-
third of the way from Xo. 4 to No. 2/0.
Contribution via feeder cable = 11,000 amp
Motor ront,ribution, bus R = 5 X G3 = ~
315
Short-circuit current bus R = 11,315 amp

## The circuit, problem involved in resolving short-circuit-current magni-

tudes in low-voltage feeder systems is outlined in Fig. 1.56.
I n general, low-voltage short-circuit current,s are expressed in terms of
three-phase average asymmetrical rms amperes during the first cycle of
currcnt flwv. Since main low-voltage source systems exhibit a n X / R
rat,io of about, 10, it, is standard convention t o multiply the symmet,rical
short,-rirruit, current, by 1.25 t o obtain the short-circuit current a t the
main buses (this corresponds with a n X / R ratio of 12) (see Table 1.2).
Therefore, at the main bus
Short-circuit current = 1.25 X I symm = - X -
1.25 E
v5 z*
E
z , = 1.25
-&x short-circuit current

## Considering the source system X / R ratio = 12

1.25
z . = -4
x
E
short-circuit current (A + jl) = R. +jX.
86 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

## 2, (obtained from reference tables) = R, j X , +

2, (impedance to end of feeder) = R, R, j ( X . + + +XI)
X , / R , ratio a t end of feeder = x. XI - x, +
R. Izi Rt + _-

## M is the factor to account for d-c offset and is a direct function of

the X , / R , ratio

K
.........
XdRt ratio..
................... I 1 I I I 1
1;;s I:* s1: !l Ii6
2
1.02

## I, is the local motor contribution, and the three-phase average assym-

metrical rms value may be taken as five times the motor full-load rated
amperes.
Available short-circuit current at X = I, (three-phase avg assym-
metrical rms) I, +

## 61 2 -SOURCE SVSTEY IMPEDANCE

'1 Rg+ j X s OHMS/PHASE

## I MAIN LOW-VOLTaGE BUS

4
FEE0ER:Zf:Rf tjxf OHMSIPHASE
IFROH TABLES)

:'I
\J VAIL4ELE
SHORT ClRCUlT CURRENT DESIRED HERE
IS'CURRENT CONTRIBUTION FROM FIG. 1.56 One-line diagram for rhort-
SOURCE *"STEM circuit-current calculation ot the end of
ly*CURRENT CONTRlBUTlON FROM
LOAD LCCAL YOTORS feeder circuits-genernl core.
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 07

## Another useful way of showing the effect of length of cable in reducing

short-circuit currents is given in the Tables 1.7 to 1.10. These show how
much cable length is required to reduce the short-circuit current from one
protective-device rating level to another for circuits GOO volts and less.
Standard protective-device rating levels are:
100,000 amp rms asymmetrical
75,000 amp rms asymmetrical
50,000 amp rms asymmetrical
25,000 amp rms asymmetrical
15,000 amp rms asymmetrical
5000 amp rms asymmetrical
The tables show how long a cable with a given con<w%orsize is required
to reduce the short-circuit current from 25,000, 50,000, or 100,000 amp t o
5000, 15,000, 25,000, and 50,000 amp.
The tables give the length L of cable a t various voltages which would
change the available short-circuit current from I , to I , where I . is the
available short circuit a t the source end of the cable and I , the short-
circuit current a t the end of the cable of length L.
These calculations were based on the assumptions that the impedance
hack of the beginning of the cable is primarily reactive and that the fault
i s symmetrical for all three phases.

I 4 R X
I
I CABLE

FIG. 1.57 Equivalent circuit for determining cable lengths given in Tables 1.6 lo 1.9.

From the equivalent circuit per phase shown in Fig. 1.57 and using the
nomenclature of Fig. 1.57, a general expression for the length of cable t o
limit the short-circuit current can be derived. The equation is

L 2 R2 - X
~ Z 2 1 , 2 / I ,-
E= 221,
Where I J I , is large or R is small, the equation reduces to
88 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

## In these equations R is the resistance, X is the reactance, and Z is the

impedance of the cable per unit length.
For any voltage not given, the length a t the new voltage is t o the length
a t a given voltage as the new voltage is to the given voltage, i.e., the length
is directly proportional to the voltage

## where L, = length a t voltage E,

Lo = length a t voltage Eo
The lengths L for all conductor sizes from No. 1 Awg to 250 MCM were
put in the table for comparative purposes. There are certain minimum
sizes of conductors and hence certain minimum lengths of cable necessary
a t various values of I, to keep the cable from being damaged before the
protective circuit breaker operates. Referring to Chap. 3, i t will be
noted, for example, that a t 50,000 amp (I,, Tables 1.7 to 1.10) the mini-
mum size cable which a 50,000-amp interrupting rating low-voltage air
circuit breaker will protect is No. 4/0 Awg. Hence, the only values in
the right-hand column of Tables 1.7 to 1.10 that have any practical signifi-
cance are the two at the bottom of the column. The values above that

## TABLE 1.7 Lirnitina Effect of Cable on Short-circuit Currents at 400 Volts.

Conductor
Coble length 1, ft
size
__

I
- -
No. 14 A x g
No. 12 Awg
..
..
No. 10 A w g . .
26.9
42.6
67.5
7.3
11.4
17.9
::::
69.0
1:;
21.8
4.7
7.4
11.7
27.5
43.6
69.5
9.1
14.4
22.8
5.3
8.5
13.4
2.4
3.8
5.9
No. 8 Awg ... 106.5 28.0 109.4 34.2 18.3 110.0 36.0 21.1 9.3
No. 6 Awg ... 165.0 42.6 170.3 53.0 28.0 171.5 56.1 32.7 14.2
N e . 4 A w g ... 254.0 63.7 263.0 81.0 42.6 265.5 86.3 43.8 21.4
No. 2 A w g . . . 384.5 91 .O 402.0 122.1 63.0 407.0 131 .O 75.8 31.8
No. I Awg , , . 468.0 111.0 488.0 146.8 75.2 497.0 159.1 91 .4 38. I
No. 110 Awg . 564.0 126.8 592.0 175.0 87.2 606.0 192.8 110.7 44.0
No. 2 '0 A x g . 664.0 144.8 706.0 206.0 100.8 723.0 228.5 128.8 50.9
No. 3/0 Awg . 775.0 162.0 827.0 237.5 114.2 852.0 267.0 149.1 55.4
No. 4/0 Awg . 890.0 180.0 960.0 271.0 127.8 990.0 308.0 171.2 64.7
250MCM.. . . 962.0 190.5 038.0 290.5 135.5 1072.0 333.0 184.1 69.0
- - -
I , = avail le short-circu: urrent in kiloamperes a t source end of cable
I f = short-circuit current kiloamperes ior short circuit a t end of cable of length L
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 89

## TABLE 1.8 limiting Effect of Cable on Short-circuit Currents at 480 Volts.

Three Phase
Three Single-conductor Cables in a Mmnetic Dud

I. 50 1005~ 100
I5
I, 25
5 / 1 25
5 / 50
5 i l 50 5 ~ 2 5 /

Conductor
Cable length 1, fl
sire
- ~ ~

No. I 4 Awg. , ... 21.5 5.8 21.9 7.0 3.8 22.0 7.3 4.3 1.9
No. 12 Awg.. , .. 34.1 9.2 34.6 11.0 6.0 34.9 11.5 6.8 3.0
No.lOAwg ..... 54.1 14.3 55.2 17.4 9.3 55.7 18.3 10.7 4.7
No. 8 A x g . . , ... 85.4 22.4 87.6 27.4 14.6 88.1 28.8 16.9 7.4
No. 6 Axg.. . ... 132.5 34.1 136.5 42.4 22.4 44.8 26.2 11.4
No. 4 Axg.. .... 203.3 51.0 210.5 64.8 34.1 69.0 39.9 17.2
No. 2 Axg.. , ... 308.0 73.0 321.5 97.8 50.4 105.0 60.7 25.5
No. I A x g ...... 374.0 89.0 391.0 117.5 60.2 127.4 73.2 30.5
No. 1/0 Awg .... 452.0 101.5 474.0 140.1 69.8 485.0 154.2 88.7 35.2
No. 210 Awg .. . . 532.0 115.8 566.0 164.8 80.6 579.0 183.1 03.0 40.7
No. 3/0 Awg . ... 621.0 29.6 663.0 190.0 91.4 682.0 214.0 19.3 44.4
No. 4/0 Awg , .. . 713.0 144.1 768.0 216.8 102.2 793.0 246.5 37.0 51.8
250 M C M . . ..... 771 . O 52.5 832.0 232.8 108.6 860.0 266.8 47.7 55.2
~ - - - - -
I. = availab short rcuit current kiloampcrcs i S O I I I ~ Pcnd of
I1 = short-c uit current in kiloarnperPs for short circuit at m i l of c
TABLE 1.9 limiting Effect of Cable on Short-circuit Currents a t 240 Volts,
Three Phase
Three Single-conductor Cables in a Mmgnetic Duct
- -
100 100
25 50
-

I
~

Conduclor
Cable length 1, ft
*i*e
- __ - - __ - ~ __
No. 1 4 A x g ....__..10.8 2.9 11.0 3.5 1.9 11.0 3.7 2.2 I .o
No.12Axg ........ 17.1 4.6 17.3 5.5 3.0 17.5 5.8 3.4 I .5
No. 1 0 A w g ........ 27.0 7.2 27.6 8.7 4.7 27.9 9.2 5.4 2.4
No. 8 Awg ......... 42.7 11.2 43.8 13.7 7.3 44. I 14.4 8.5 3.7
No.6 A x g ....__.._ 66.3 17.1 68.3 21.2 11.2 68.7 22.4 3.1 5.7
No. 4 A x g ......... 101.5 25.5 105.3 32.4 17.1 106.4 34.5 '0.0 8.6
No. 2 A w g . . ....... 153.8 36.5 160.8 48.9 25.2 163.0 52.5 0.4 2.8
No. 1 Awg ........_ 187.0 44.5 195.5 58.8 30.1 199.3 63.7 6.6 5.3
No. 110 A x g ....... 226.0 50.8 237.0 70. I 34.9 242.5 77. I 4.4 7.6
No. 2/0 A w g . . ..... 266.0 57.9 283.0 82.4 40.3 289.5 91.6 I .5 0.4
No. 3/0 A x g .._....310.0 64.8 331.5 85.0 45.7 341 .o 107.0 9.7 2.2
No. 4/0 Axg.. .. ... 356.0 72.1 384.0 108.4 51.1 396.5 123.3 8.5 5.9
250MCM ........_.385.0 76.3 416.0 116.4 54.3 430.0 !33.4 3.9 7.6
-- --- - - -
I. available short-circuit currcnt in kiloampercs at source end of eahle
=
I , = short-circuit current in kiloamperrs for short circuit a t end of cahlc of length L
PO SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

## TABLE 1.10 Limiting Effect of Cable an Short-circuit Currents ot 208 Volts,

Three Phase
Three Single-condudor Cables in a Magnetic Duct

Conductor
25
5 25
50 I I
lo:

Cable length 1, h
lG
100
25
100
50

sire
-- - - -
No. 14 Awg....... 9.3 2.5 9.5 3.0 I.6 9.5 3.1 1.9 0.8
No. 12 Awg....... 14.8 3.9 15.0 4.8 2.6 15.1 5.0 2.9 1.3
No. 10 Awg...... . 23.4 6.2 23.9 7.5 4.1 24.2 7.9 4.6 2.0
No. 8 Awg........ , 37.0 9.7 38.0 11.9 6.3 38.2 12.5 7.3 3.2
No. 6 Awg........ 57.4 14.8 59.2 18.4 9.7 59.6 19.5 11.3 4.9
No. 4 Awg........ 88.0 22.1 91.3 28.1 14.8 92.2 29.9 17.3 7.5
No. 2 Awg........ 133.4 31.6 139.4 42.4 21 .9 141.4 45.5 26.3 11.0
No. 1 Awg........ 162.1 38.6 169.3 50.9 26.1 172.5 55.3 31.7 13.2
No. 110 Awg...... 196.0 44.0 205.3 60.7 10.3 210.0 67.0 38.4 15.3
No. 2/0 Awg...... , 230.5 50.2 245.0 71.5 14.9 L51.0 79.4 44.7 17.7
No. 310 Awg...... , 269.0 56.2 287.0 82.4 19.6 295.5 92.7 51.8 19.2
No. 4/0 Awg...... 308.5 62.4 132.5 94.0 i4.3 143.5 106.8 59.5 22.4
.......
,

250 MCM.. , 334.0 66.0 160.0 100.8 17. I 172.0 115.5 64.0 23.9
-

## REACTANCE AND RESISTANCE DATA

FOR MACHINES AND CIRCUITS
When making short-circuit calculations, the most accurate reactance
data available should always be used. In particular, reactauce of specific
generators, larger motors, and transformers should be obtained from the
manufacturer.
Many short-circuit studies must he made without such specific data
available, as for a proposed plant or in many older plants where the time
and work required to obtain such data from the manufacturers make it
impractical to do so. Since a great many short-circuit calculations fall in
this category, it is desirable to use approximate reactance data. Such
approximate data as are commonly used are given in Tables 1.11 to 1.31.
The most applicable reactances should be selected from these tables.
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 91

## Large Induction Motors. The approximate short-circuit reactance of

an induction motor (or induction generator) in per cent on its own kva
base may be taken as

100
Per cent X : =
times normal stalled rotor current*

## The reactance of such a machine will generally be approximately as

given in Table 1.11 (in per cent on own kva base).

TABLE 1.1 1
Range M-t Common
15-25 20

## TABLE 1.12 Approximate Reactances of 60-cycle Synchronous Machines

Per Cent Vdues on Moshino Kva Roting
I I

## Salient-polo cpnerotors (without amortirre,url:

12 poles 0, leu. ..................... 15-35 25
14polnoimne ..................... 25-45 35
Salient-pole ganomton~(with amortiiseur):
12 pole* or In.. ..................... 10-25 18
14 poles or more.. ................... 10-35 14
Synchmnoui condenrers. ................. 18-35 27
Synchronwi converterd
600 v d h dc.. ....................... 17-22 10
250 d t s dc.. ....................... 28-38 33
Synchronous motor^'
6 pole.............................. 10-20 15 15-30 23
8-14 pole........................... 15-25 20 20-40 30
I 6 pole or more........................ 25-45 30 25-60 40

a Nearly all salient-pole generators built by General Electric Company since 1935 have
amortisseur windings.
For compound-wound converters add 12 per cent.
For shunt-wound converters add 7 per cent.
These data are useful for estimating reactances of individual large motors of
several hundred or several thoumnd horsepower.
* With rated voltage and frequency applied.
92 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

## TABLE 1.13 Approximate Reactance of General Electric Company

Turbine Generators, 625 to 18,750 Kva

K w ..ling
w rating Volt.g* rating
__
0.8 power facer
1200 3600
rpm rpm
~

480 14.5 9.0
600 14.5 9.0
2,400 14.5 9.0
4,160 14.0 9.5
6,900 .... 6.5

480 .... 8.5
600 .... 7.5
2,400 .... 9.0
4.160 .... 9.5
6,900 .... 5.5

480 .... 7.5
600 .... 7.0
2,400 .... 7.5
4,160 .... 7.0
6.900 .... 9.0

480 15.5 10.0
600 15.5 10.0
2,400 15.5 9.0
4,160 15.5 10.0
6,900 .... 8.5

480 .... 8.5
600 .... 8.5
2,400 .... 9.5
4,160 .... 9.0
6.900 .... 8.0

## 1,857 1,500 240 .... 10.5

480 16.0 9.0
600 16.0 8.5
2,400 16.0 8.5
4.1 60 16.0 9.5
6,900 16.0 7.5
13.800 16.0
-
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 93

## rABLE 1.13 Approximate Reactance of General Electric Company

Turhine Generators, 625 to 18,750 Kva. (Continued)

## Kvn rating X&‘

:w ‘atin( Vdtoge ‘ding
0.8 power facto, 3600 rpm

## 2,500 2,000 480 P.5

600 10.5
2,400 10.0
4,160 10.0
6,900 10.0
l1.500-13.800 8.0

600 8.5
2,400 9.5
2.400/4.160 8.5
6.900 9.0
I 1,500 10.0
13,800 10.5

600 10.5
2,400 9.5
2,400/4,160 10.0
6.900 9.5
11,500 10.5
13,800 10.5

600 9.0
2,400 9.0
2,400/4,160 9.0
6,900 9.0
11,500 10.0
13,800 10.0

600 7.5
2.400 7.0
2,400/4.160 8.5
6,900 9.0
1 1,500 9.5
13,800 9.5

## 6,250 5,000 600 12.0

2,400 7.5
2.400/4,160 7.5
6,900 8.0
I 1,500 8.5
13,800 8.5
94 SHORT.CIRCUIT~CURRENTCALCULATING PROCEDURES

## TABLE 1.13 Approximate Reactance of General Electric Company

Turbine Generators. 625 to 18.750 Kva. (Continued)
-
Kvo rotinp X;
w rating Voltage rating
0.8 power f.Ct0. 3600 rpm
-
7,500 6,000 2,400 9.0
2,400/4,160 10.5
6.900 9.0
1 1,500 9.5
13.800 9.5

2.400/4,160 10.5
6,900 9.0
11.500 9.5
13,800 9.5

6,900 8.0
11.500 9.0
13.800 8.0

## i 8750 15,000 6,900 11.0'

11,500 11.0'
13.800 11.0'
-
* 0.5 psig hydrogen pressure.

## TABLE 1.14 Reactances Based on Kvo of Connected Motors

I 1
Tranrient
reactance
Itern Motor rotings ond connections

I per rent
Xi.
per cent
-I 1
600 "0th or less-induction 28'
600 volts or lewynchronous l i t e m 1 end 2 indude motor leads1 21 29
600 volh or l e u i n d u c t i o n 34'
600 volts or les-ynchronour litems 3 and 4 indude motor leads 27* 35
and step-down bansformen1
Motors above 600 volt-induction 20
Motors above 600 volt-ynchronwr 15 25
Motors above 600 volh-indudon 26
Motors o b w e 600 voltriynchromur litems 7 and 8 include step- 21 31
down transformers1
I
* Based on AIEE Standard No. 20.
1 -
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 95

## Assumed Motor Reactances- Group of Small Motors. In many

short-circuit studies, the number and size of motors, either induction or
synchronous, are not known precisely. However, the short-circuit contri-
bution from these motors must be estimated. In such cases Table 1.14 is
used to account for a large number of small induction and synchronous
motors.
The proportions of synchronous and induction motors (at all voltages)
should be known for short-circuit investigations. Some typical ratios of
total plant motor load which are usable in preliminary work are given in
Table 1.15.
The kva of the motors which are energized at one time varies also with
the type of plant and should be investigated for the more complete
studies. Approximate relations of energized to installed motors and of
energized motors to source (transformer and/or generator) capacity are
given in Table 1.16.

## Motor mio, par cent

Plant

Induction Sydrnnom

Cement .............................. 40 60
Machine shops ond IexHIe.. ............. 85 15
Rubber and rolling mills................. 50 50
Paper (excluding grinder mobs). ........ 67 33
Commercial ond offiso.. ................ 50 50

## TABLE 1.16 Rotio of Energized and Instolled Motors

Installed
Energized
motor k w to
motor kva source kva
PI.3 to insbled (excluding
motor k w ,
SPW").
per cent por cent

## Continuous PIOLOS .............

(cement. textile). 100 110 110
Semicontinuous (paper, reflnerier, rubberl.. ....... 90 1 67
Rolling mills................................. 80 215
Intermittent operotiom. ....................... 75 400
96 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

## The impedance of transformers ronsidered in a short-circuit study

should be obtained from the name platc or the manufacturer. However,
where such data cannot be obtained, the values given in Tables 1.17 to
1.19 may be used in short-rircuit studies for estimating the short-circuit
currents in the usual case.
I n the usual short-circuit study, the transformer reactance and imped-
ance may be assumed t o be the same without causing significant error for
transformer banks above 300 kva. This assumption is useful because
transformer name-plate data include impedance and not reactance.
TABLE 1.17 Approximate Resistance, Reactance, and Impedance of
Single-phase Distribution Transformers

## High voltage: 2400/416OY volts and

High voltage; 7200/12,47OY v01b
2400/4800/8320Y "Olt.
ow voltage: 120/240. 240/480,600 volts-
ow voltage; 120/240,240/480.600 volts-
60 cycles
60 yclos

Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent Per. cent Per cent
R X z R X z
~-
3 1.7 I .5 2.3 2.2 1.7 2.8
5

10
15 1.5 1.7 2.3 I.6 I .6 2.3
25

## 37> I. 3 2.2 2.6 1.3 2.0 2.4

50

75
100 I .2 2.3 2.6 1.2 3.5 3.7

333
500

## The reactance of a cable circuit is, generally speaking, a function of the

spacing between conductor centers and the conductor diameter. Know-
ing the conductor spacing and diameter, the reactance of three-conductor
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 97

IAbovs 500 Kva)

## Impedance at kvo bole

Inwlotion doss, k r equal lo 55 C rating of
largest Capacity winding for

Self-cooled or Forced-oil
High voltage Low voltage woter-cooled cooled
rating, per cent rating, per Cenl

## I 5 or lower. ..... 15 or lower 5%

25.. ........... 15 or lower 5%
3 4 . 5 . . ......... I5 or lower 6
4 6 . 0 . . ......... I 5 or lower 6%
6 9 . 0 . . . ........ I 5 o r lower 7
9 2 . 0 . . ......... I 5 or lower 7%
I 15.0. .......... I 5 or lower 8
138.0 ........... 15orlower 856

For high-voltagr insulation elassrs intermediatr of those given, use the imppdancr
of thc next higher listpd insulation class.
For transforrncrs with a load-ratio control add 0.5 prr ccnt to the vaIu?s IistFd
abovc crcrpt in those eases in which a IOWPY impedaner has heen sprrifirtl.
Thc p ~ cr m t resistance on the hase given above rangrs from 1.0 down to 0.06.

## TABLE 1.19 Approximate Reactance o f Load-center-type Transformers,

60 Cycles
(Three-phase)
15-kv Maximum Primary Voltage
600-volt Maximum Secondarr Voltaoe -
Kro Range Per cent Reactance on O w n K r o Bore*
Il256-l50 3.0
225-500 5.0
750-2000 5.5
* Per cent resistance on own kva base is apptoiirnatcly 1.5 p ~ ccnt
r for 150 kva
snd b&w and varips from approxirnatdy 1 down to 0.8 p ~ cr m t on ratings above
150 kva

## cables in nonmagnetir ducts and without maglietic binders can be deter-

mined by the formula

X =
(
0.023 log, D
2s
+ K)
X = reactance, ohms per 1000 ft at 60 ryrlrs; S = spacing of couduc-
tors (center t o center), in.
D = diameter of ronductors, in.; K = a rocffirient dependent upon ratio
of iriside diameter of a ronductor to outside diameter of condurtors. For
standard strand construction K = 0.25
98 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

This formula does not take into account any increase of reactance due
t o the spiraling of the strands. Such increase is usually negligible in
three-conductor cables and in large single-conductor cables, but it may
amount to 1 to 2 per cent in small single-conductor cables.
The effect of irregular spacing of the conductors and of magnetic
binder causes an increase of reactance of single-conductor cables, com-
pared with otherwise equivalent three-conductor cables. Cable insula-
tion thickness varies with different types of insulation for a cable of a
given voltage class. The approximate reactances of cables taking into
account these variables are shown in Tables 1.20 t o 1.22.

## TABLE 1.20 Approximate Resistance, Reactance, and Impedance of

600-volt Cables in Magnetic Ducts per 100 Ft

## Three single-conductor cables per dud. Three-conductor cable including inter-

ohms per 100 fi locked armor cablo, ohms per 100 fi
Coble size

R' X R' X Z

## No. 14 Awg. 0.3135 0.00765 0.3135 0.3135 0.00468 0.3 1352

No. 12 Awg . 0.1972 0.0071 0 0.1972 0.1972 0.00456 0.19720
No. 10 Awg. 0.1240 0.00687 0.1240 0.1240 0.00448 0.12410

## No. 8 Awg .. 0.0779 0.00638 0.0782 0.0779 0.00427 0.07460

No. 6 Awg .. 0.0498 0.00598 0.0500 0.0493 0.00391 0.04899
No. 4 Awg .. 0.0318 0.00551 0.0322 0.0312 0.00362 0.03140

N . 2 Awg . .
O 0.0203 0.00513 0.0209 0.0197 0.00344 0.02000
No. I Awg.. 0.0163 0.00500 0.0171 0.0157 0.00342 0.01606
No.l/OAwg. 0.0131 0.00495 0.0140 0.0125 0.00340 0.01296

No. 3/0 Awg
No.d/OAwg
. 0.00860
0.00700
0.00486
0,00482
0.00986
0.00850
0.00800
0.00640
0.00333
0.00327
0.00866
0.00721

## 25OMCM... 0.00608 0.00480 0,00778 0.00547 0.00322 0.00632

300 M C M . . . 0.00520 0.00474 0.00704 0.00460 0.00316 0.00557
350 M C M . . . 0.00461 0.00469 0.00658 0.00400 0.0031 0 0.00510

## 400MCM... 0.00419 0.00462 0.00625 0.00354 0.00304 0.00469

500MCM... 0.00359 0.00450 0.00575 0.00292 0.00295 0.00412
750 MCM.. . 0.00280 0.00438 0.00520 0.00208 0.00284 0.00346
-- --
* Based on 75 C.
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 99

## TABLE 1.21 Approrimote Resistance. Reactance, and Impedance of

5000-volt Cables in Magnetic Ducts per 100 Ft

## Three dngle.condudor cobler per duct, Three.conductor cable including inter-

ohms per 100 ft locked armor cable, ohms per 100 ft
Cable size ___.

R* X z R' X z

No. 14 Awg
No. 10 Awwg.
. 0.3135
0.1240
0.00969
O.OO8M
0.3135
0.1240
0.3135
0.1240
0.006664
0.005745
0.3291
0.1241
No. 8 Awg .. 0.0779 0.00788 0.0781 0.0779 0.005308 0.07808

## No. 6 A w g . . 0.0498 0.00748 0.0503 0.0493 0.004941 0.04944

No.4Arg.. 0.0318 0.00681 0.0325 0.0312 0.004619 0.03154
No. 2 A x g . . 0.0203 0.00623 0.0212 0.0197 0.004366 0.02017

## No. 1 Awg.. 0.0163 0.00588 0.0173 0.0157 0.003964 0.01619

No. 110 Awg 0.0131 0.00567 0.0143 0.0125 0.003792 0.01304
No. 2/0 Awg . 0.0106 0.00545 0.0119 0.0100 0.003677 0.01061

## No.3/0 A x @ . 0.00860 0.00535 0.0101 0.00800 0.00363 1 0.008785

No.4/0 Awg. 0.00700 0.00529 0.00877 0.00640 0.003585 0.007535
250 MCM.. . 0.00609 0.00525 0.00802 0.00547 0.003562 0.006527

## 300 MCM.. . 0.00520 0.00519 0.00735 0.00460 0.00351 8 0.005791

350MCM... 0.00461 0.00514 0.00690 0.00400 0.003477 0.005299
400 MCM.. . 0.00419 0.00506 0.00657 0.00354 0.003436 0.004923

## 500 MCM.. . 0.00359 0.00495 0.00611 0.00292 0.003344 0.004439

750 MCM. .. 0.00280 0.00474 0.00551 0.00208 0.003088 0.003723

Based (1 75 c.
-- ---
TABLE 1.22 Correction Factors for Nonmagnetic Ducts
Single-condudor a b l e ,

## Focton for correcting redrlmces

Fo&r for conesting
reactancn, dl rizor
of cable No. l 4 t o
No. 8 A x g
I No.610
No. 0 Awg
1 No.00to
250 MCM
1 30010
500 MCM
11 750 MCM

## 0.8 I 1.0 I 0.96 I 0.93 0.83 0.72

100 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

## TABLE 1.22 Correction Factors for Nonmagnetic Ducts. (Continued)

Three-conductor Cables
Determine correct Z from corrected d ~ eofi X and R. N o ~orreclioni s required for interlocked
armor.

## Factors for correcting resistances

Factor for correcting
reoctancer. di sizes
of coble
No. 14 to No. 00 Awg No. 0000 Awg to 750 MCM

## TABLE 1.23 Per Cent Reactance of Typical Three-phase Cable Circuits

Per Cent Reactance of 1000 Circuit Feet on o 1000-kva nose

## System roltoge 1 ! 1230 460 575 ~ 2,400

I
j
I
4,160 ~ 6.900 1 13,800

## Three single-condudor cables in

iron conduit.. ..............
Three-conductor coble in iron con-
duit or interlocked armored I
98.3 24.6 15.74 1.075 0.358 ~l I

## cable ..................... 71.8 18 11.5 0.669 0.222 0.11 0.0276

Three-conductor cable in nonmag-
netic duct.. ................ 58.5 14.7 9.4 0.581 0.194 0.0955 0.024

## Three single-conductor coblei in

iron conduit. ...............
Three-conductor cable in iron con-
duit or interlocked armored
I
92.5
I
23.2
I
14.85 0.955 0.318 1 !
cable. .................... 68 17.1 10.9 0.6 0.2 0.0943 0.0237
Three-conductor cable in nonmog-
netic duct.. ................ 54.8 13.72 8.8 0.52 0.173 0.0818 0.0205

~

## Three ringlo-conductor cables in

ironconduit. .............. 85 11.3 13.63
Three-conductor cable in iron con-
duit or interlocked armored
coble ..................... 61.4 15.4 9.85 0.538 0.179 0.0796 0.02
Three-conductor cobie in nonmog-
netic duct.. ................ 51 12.8 8.19 0.477 0.159 0.07 0.0176
- __
1
y 2.
SHORT.CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 101

Where more precise data are not available, the values given in Tables
1.20 t o 1.23 may be used in short-circuit-current calculations without
significant error.

## Unlike cable circuits the resistance of bus-bar circuits is so low com-

pared with the reactance that the resistances of bus bars may he neglected
in all a-c short-circuit calculations without significant error. There haye
been many papers written on the subject of bus-bar reactance calcula-
tions, and a complete bibliography is included in t,hc 1945 A I E E Tran-
sactions, Vol. 64, page 385, The Design of Bus-bar Indust,rial Distribution
System: An Epitomization of Available Data, by T . .J. Higgins. For
practical short-circuit calculations, the reactance of bus bars may be
taken from Figs. 1.58 to 1.G2 or Tables 1.24 and 1.25.
TABLE 1.24 Reactance of Typical Three-phase Low-voltage Copper
Busway Circuits
Per cent reoctonce of 1000 circuit feet on D 1000-kva base

System voltage

## 240 1 I 480 600

Plvg-in type:
Upto600 ............. 98.8 24.7 15.8
60110 1000 ........... 62.4 15.6 10.0
Lox-impedance type:
Upto600 ............. 45.2 11.4 7.3
60110 1000 ........... 17.2 4.3 2.7
135010 1600 .......... 10.8 2.7 1.7
2000 ................. 7.6 1.9 1.2

## Although not gcnerally used in short-circuit calculations the resistance

of typical copper busway circuits is giveu in Table 1.25.
TABLE 1.25 Resistance of Typical Copper Busway Circuits
Current Capacity Resistance.
of Bvsroy, Amp Ohms p e l 1000 Ft
250 0.114
400 0.033
600 0.023
800 0.016
1000 0.012
I350 0.0096
1600 0.0073
2000 0.0055
102 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

FIG. 1.58 Chart showing reactance VI. spacing of rectangular bus bars 160 cycler).

FIG. 1.59 Chart showing reactance VI. spacing of rectangular bur bars I60 cycler).
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

FIG. 1.60 Chart showing reactance YI. spacing of rectangular bus bars (60cycled.
104 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

FIG. 1.62 Chart showing reactance VI. spacing of channel bus bars I60 cycler).

## To assist in obtaining the conductor spacings, two typical crossarm

arrangements are shown in Fig. 1.63. The arrangements used in practice
will vary from system t o system, but hecause of space limitations only
these two are shown.
For ordinary single-phase circuits, the equivalent spacing is the dis-
tance between conduct,ors. For ordinary t,hree-phase circuits, the equiva-
lent spacing is exprcssed by the formula + A X t( X C where A , B , and
C are the distances, center t o center, of the conductors as follows:

-
~ - B - I -A- I ~

## The resistance of overhead lines may not always he neglected without

significant error. In general, long runs of overhead lines (several miles)
at 2.4 t o 13.8 k v with small conductors 250 MCM or less have significant
resistance compared to reactance; therefore resistance should be con-
sidered in short-circuit calculations for short circuits a t the ends of such
long overhead lines. Resistance should he considered in all low-voltage
(600 volts or less) overhead lines.
Reactances and resistances may be taken from Table 1.26 for small
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 105

spacings (up t o 8 ft) and from Figs. 1.64 and 1.65 for spacings up t o
20 ft.
Under usual application conditions, transmissiodine reactance
varies over quite a narrow range. Table 1.27 includes the usual varia-
tions as well as “average ohms per mile” which are normally satis-
factory for quick estimating work. Very large conductors, used to
carry unusually large amounts of power for short distances, have abnor-
mally low reactance so that this tahlr is not applicable.
L--- 67“

4 - P I N CROSSARM
AND SPOOL- TYPE
SECONDARY RACK

6 - P I N CROSSA-M

FIG, 1.63 Spocing of pins on four- and six-pin crossarms for vie in calculating line reoc-
tance on 2400/4160-Y or 48OO-volt circuits.
106 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

## FIG. 1.64 Chart showing poritive-phaie-sequence reactonce of transmission lines using

hard-drown stranded copper conducton (60cycle).
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCUUTING PROCEDURfS 107

## FIG. 1.65 Chart ahowing poritive-pha**.requence reactance of trammission liner uting

ACSR conductors (60cycler).
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCUUTING PROCEDURES I09

## TABLE 1.27 Approximate Equivalent Delta Spacing and Average

Reactance r M i l e of Three-phase 60-cycle Transmission Lines

Normal tronrmiirion
Approximate
Line in.ul.tion equi*o1ent
class, kv dell. spocing of Reoctonce,
conductors. ft ohms per mile
size
lslrmded ~ o p p e i l

## 5 2.5 40. 4 1 0 Awg 0.61 0.65

No. 6 Awg 0.74
~- __
15 3.5 250 MCM 0.64
No. 4 Awg 0.75
23 4 250 MCM 0.65
No. 4 Awg 0.77 0.70
34.5 4.5 400 MCM 0.64
No. 2 Awg 0.75
46 5.5 500 MCM 0.65
No. 1 Awg 0.77

69 8
14
115
138 16 0.70-0.80
161 20 411 UIUDI sizes both copper 0.75
220 20 and oluminum
287 40

## TABLE 1.28 Reactance of Typical Three-phase Medium- and

Low-voltage Distribution Circuits*

## I". . . .... .... . ..... 6 / 11 28 1 ~1 8 1 d / I 2 / 1 8 1 3 0 1

Equivalent delta spacing, ~ 6 ~ 1 2 ~ 301 3 6 1 42

## Wire sire Per cent reoctance of I000 c i r ~ u i feet

l on D 1000-kvo bore

## N0.4loN0.1Awg __... 180208~22345.052.156.028.833.335.8 2.19 0.7620.286 0.073

No. I i O A w g t a 2 5 0 M C M 155 i8520238.846.550.724.8 29.732.4 2.06 0.6880.258 0.067
300 lo 750 MCM.. ..... 134 1631180 33.6 40.8 45.0 21.5 26.1 28.8 1.87 0.625 0.235 0.061
I
110 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

## Volts Equivalent dslto spacing, Kv line- Equirdent delta rpmcing,

(line-to-lid in. to.li". ft

* 115 12 44 5.5
230 12 66 8.0
460 I8 I10 14.0
575 I8 112 16.5
2,300 30 I54 20.0
4,160 30 220 29.0
6,900 36
13.800 42
22,000 48
33,000 54

## APPROXIMATE REACTANCE O F LOW-VOLTAGE ClRCUll

BREAKERS A N D DISCONNECTING SWITCHES

## In some low-voltage circuit calculations, the reactance of such switch-

ing equipment may be significant. The reactance of circuit breakers
varies greatly, depending upon the rating and design. For approxima-
tion, however, the reactance in ohms of a circuit breaker may be taken as
0.2
continuous rating of circuit breaker in amperes
The reactance of lever switches and disconnecting switches for low-vol-
t,age circuits (600 volts and below) is of the order of magnitude ranging
from 0.000050 to 0.000080ohm per pole at fiO rycles,for sizes ranging from
4000 to 400 amp, respectively, depending on the ampere rating, design,
and phase spacing of the switches.

## These data are useful o~ilyfor calculation of short-circuit currents ill

circuits rat,ed 600 volts and below.
The reactance of current transformers depends 011 their current rating
and design arid varies over a wide range. Therefore, a sirigle value of
reactance applicable to a variety of current transformers cannot be
given.
Current Transformers with Primary Circuits of t h e Wound Type.
Approximate data on renctarice a t 60 cycles for current transformers of
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES Ill

type W, covering current ratings from 100 t o 800 amp based on tests
at short-circuit currents, are given in Table 1.30. The values in Table
1.30 apply t o t,ransformers with a serondary burden of I volt-amp or
less at 5 amp or a t normal i:urrent. For higher burdens, the impedance
referred t o the primary side will be somewhat increased, but the increase
is far less than that occurring a t normal currents, berause of the reduced
mutual inductance between primary and secondary windings. The
reactance values based on low burden are conservative fur calculations
of maximum short-circuit current.
TABLE 1.30 Over-all Reactance of Type W Current Transformers,
Referred to Primary Winding
Approximate Values at Short-circuit Cvrrenh with D-C Component, Rms Symmetrical Component
Ronging from 15,000 to 55.000 Amp
Current Rating of Reactance (11
Primary Winding, 60 Cycles,
Amp Ohms
100 0.0035
I50 0.0017
200 0.0010
250 0.00066
300 0.00050
400 0.00032
500 0.00022
600 0.00019
800 0.00012
These values are also representative of t,he order of magnitude of the
reactance for current transformers of the following types, rated a t 5000
volts: JW1, JW4, JW6, JW14, WC12, WFI, WF6, and WF12.
Reactances for other designs of current transformers of the wound
primary type may be estimated by applying the folloming approximate
factors t o the values of Table 1.30.
Type of Current Foctor to Be Applied to
Transformer Reactance Vduer in Table 1.30
KF85-7,500 volt 1.8
JSI-15,000 volt 0.4
Current Transformers Having a Bar-type Primary Conductor. For
bar-type current transformers with currerit rat,ings from 1000 t o 4000
amp, such as t,ypes bS2-GO0 volts, WC15-5000 volts, KC60 7500 volts,
the react,arice has an approximate order of magnit,ude of 0.000070 ohm
a t currents within the range from 10,000 t o over 80,000 rms symmct,rical
amperes, with or ait,hout d-c component,.
T h e reactauce depends on the spacing bctweeu phases, since a COIL-
siderable amount of air flux links the primary bar conductor. The
value given is t,hat for !&in. phase spacirig wit,h the t,ransformers side by
side, reprcserit,ing an average value for the three phascs for t,hree-phase
short circuits. Strictly speaking, the reactance in the three phascs will
I12 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES

## he unequal i n a side-by-side assembly of current transformers, but for

short-circuit-current calculations an average value can ordinarily be
used without serious error.
To say that the reactance for bar-type transformers is equal to the
air reactance of the primary conductor, considering its length, size, and
shape, and the spacing between phases, is a fair approximation.

## The reactance is proportional t o the rating.

The voltage drop through the reactor at rated current and frequency
divided hy the line-to-neutral voltage of the circuit gives the per-unit
reactance on the current rating of the reactor. (This will also he the
per-nnit reactance on the kva rating of the circuit if the rated reactor
current is the same as the rated current of the circuit.)
The reactanre of a given step regulator is modified by the position
of the tap changer and becomes a maximum a t maximum voltage boost.
It is minimum at neutral position, while at maximum buck, the impedance
is higher than at neutral.

## TABLE 1.31 Short-circuit ImDedance of Feeder Reaulators of

I
Per cent ,O(lCt(l"L*
Ion base of C ~ C .k rd
No. of No. of Circ. Kva of
Type phoier core, "Oil, r.g"l.tol

!-
Min Avg Max
~ _ _ -~~
Indue.. ......... I or 3 .. 2400 I?
I n d w . . ......... Ior3 .. to I0 0.65 0.85 1.00
4800 96
_____ _ _
Amp
rO~Y1.101
~ _ _ _ _
Step ............ 1 1 2400 Allrolings O.O+ .... 0.6
Step. ........... 3 I lo to160omp O.O+ .... 0.7
Step. ........... 3 3 13,800 Over 160arnp 0.15 .... 1.0
SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 113

REFERENCES
1. A I E C Committee Rrport. Simplified Calculation of Fault Currents, E k e . E’ng.,
Octobrr, 1912.pp. 509-511.
2. A I I * X Committee Ilrport. Simplifird Calmlation ai Fault Currmts. Trans.
AlEE’. 1942, Vol. G I . pp. 113:3-11:35.
3. Revision Made to AIICI: Report, Simplified Calculation of Fault Currents, Efec.
Emf,.. February, 194d. p. 65.
4. Darling. A. G., 4-C Short Cirrriit Caleiilating Procdure for Lon--roltage Systems,
‘I‘mns. A I E E . l!)41, Vol. GO, pp. 1121-1136.
5. Srhurig, 0. It.. Fault Voltngr Drop and ImpPdanre a t Short-circuit Ciirrmts in
Low Voltngr Circuits. Trans. A I E E , 1941, Vol. 60, pp. 479-486.
6. AIEE Committw Rrport. Simplifird Calculation of Fault Currents, Trans. A I E E ,
1948, Vol, 67, p. 1433.
Chapter 2 by R, H. Kaufmann

## Symmetrical Components as Applied

to Short-circuit-current Calculation
on Three-phase Systems

## The unhalanred circuit problems eucountered in short-circuit analysis

can be resolved by using symmetrical-component analysis. This
analysis technique is used extensively by power-system invest,igators
and authors. Developed in this chapter are concepts and procedures
for the application of symmetrical-romponent aualysis t,o the deter-
mination of short-circuit currents. While this procedure is built up
from base fundamentals, it is aimed expressly a t the solutiori of electrical-
systcm short-circuit problems. For other possihlc applications of sym-
metrical-component analysis such as the determination of unbalanced
currents in certain circuits or machines, it is suggested that reference be
made t o a more elaborate texthook* which explores the full field of appli-
cation more completely.

## The separation of an electrical vector quantity into components t o

simplify computation procedure is familiar t o all. It has been common
practire t o consider an alternating voltage or alternating current to he
composed of two components a t right angles t,o each other. It should he
evident that the process is not limited to two quantities, nor is it necessary
t h a t the components be 90" apart.
*Edith Clark?. "Cirruit Analysis of A. C. POIVPISystrrns." vol. 1, John W i k y &
Sons, Inc., NPWYork, 1943.
I14
SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 115

## For example, take the expression

E = IZ
It is entirely valid t o express this as
E = (I, + I,)Z = IIZ + I,%
provided that
I, +I, = I
or as
E = (I1 + +IJZ
1 2 = I1Z + I2Z + IaZ
provided that
I, + I2 + I3 = I
Thus there is 110 mystery about the use of components. It is applicable
so long as the equations are linear (as they will be in electrical-cirruit
work).
E = IZ I = EY I, = ZJ, etc.

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

## If the Z per phase as illustrated in Fig. 2.1 could he represented as a

firm fixed value, the circuit analysis would be-simple. Since the con-
ductors of the three phases are magneti- z
cally coupled, the voltage drop in the A I A -b
JWVL Nl
phase depends not only on the current in
the A phase but on the current in the
other two phases as well.
Consider the induction-motor imped-
ance diagram of Fig. 2.2. Assume the
FIG. 2.1 A simple i y m m e t r i c d
rotor t o be turning a t normal speed in
ryrtem,
the direction produced by an impressed
voltage of sequence ARC. What I Z drop will be produced in the -1phase
because of a current I , alone? That is a tough one; although there are
some relationships of which we are sure.
Under the conditions of balanced currents of sequence ARC there
will be balanred terminal voltages of sequence ABC. With normal
rated voltage and light load the current will he of the order of one-fourth
or one-third rated value. Under this condition all three phases appear
t o have identical impedances of 1/0.25 or 1/0.333 or three or four per-unit
(300 or 400 per cent).
On the other hand, had the impressed voltage been applied with
opposite sequence (.4CB), i t is evident that this would he equivalent t o
116 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

plugging. There mould he a balanced set of currents, but this time the
application of rated voltage would cause currents of about six times
rated value. In other words, the impedance appears to be the same in
all three phases, but its value is now \$6 = 0.16 per-

kJ!
unit, or 16 per cent. The effect of mutual winding
coupling alone may make the effective impedance
per phase as low as 16 per cent or as high as 300
or 400 per cent.
There is one significant observation. So long as
the three currents are equal and separated by the
same angular displacement, the effect of currents I s
and I , on the voltage drop in phase A will be iden-

## 'IG, '.' Induction-

motor impedance dio-
tical with the effect of currents I , and I , on the
voltage drop in phase B and also with the effect
grcm.
of currents I , and I , on the voltage drop in phase
C . Thus the effective impedance will appear to be
identical i n all three phases; that is, the impedance voltage drop in the A
phase will bear the same relationship to the current in the A phase as the
impedance drop in phase B bears to the current in phase B and as the
impedance drop in phase C hears to the current in phase C . Or expressing
this symbolically,
InZn
_ = BZB -
_ I_ _ ICZC
I, IS I C

Thus Z , = Z B = Z c .
This also identities the fact that the impedance voltage drops I a Z A ,
I,Z,, and I c Z c are separated by the same angles as I,, I , , and I c .
These are two very important facts which emphasize the value of
symmetrical components.

## There are but three possible symmetrical combinations in a three-phase

system in which the three phase quantities are equal and separated by the
same angle. The displacement angle must be a multiple of 120" since
the three phases of a three-phase system are separated by 120". This
is shown in the following three cases using currents for illustration.

## Case 1. I , is 120' behind I , and Ic is 120° behind I,.

Case 2 . I , is 240" behind I d and I , is 240' behind I,.
Case 3. I , is 360" behind I , and Ic is 360" behind I,.
SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 117

## The vector relationships represented by these three cases of sym-

metrical displarement are shown in Fig. 2.3. Henceforth reference will
he made to case 1 as the positive-sequence component denoted by a suh-
script 1 characterized by three equal vectors 120' apart in the normal
sequenre A R C ; to rase 2 as the negative-sequence component denoted by
a subscript 2 charact,eriaed by three equal vectors 120" apart hut with a
sequence A C B opposite normal; and to rase 3 as the zero-sequence com-
ponent denoted by a subscript 0 chararterized by three equal vectors
with zero angular separation (in phase with each other).
Even a t the risk of unnecessary repetition, the two important properties
of these three symmetrical components are repeated.
The circulation of any one of the three symmktrical three-phase current
patterns in a symmetrical three-phase circuit, even though the phase
windings are mutually coupled, yields a balanced three-phase impedance
voltage drop whose sequence pattern is identical with that of the current
pattern. Likewise, the application of any one of t,he three symmetrical
three-phase voltage patterns on the circuit will give rise to a balanced
three-phase current whose sequence patterti is ideutical with that of the
voltage.

## 1. Current flow of one sequence pattern produces voltage drops of the

same sequence pattern only.
2. Applied voltage of one sequence pattern produces currents of the
same sequence pat,tern only.
3. For each sequence pattern, the impedance can he regarded as a
definite fixed quantity identical in all three phases.
This then is the significance and identity of the symmetrical compo-
nents (of which there are three types in t,hree-phase systems) and may be
applied to voltages as well as currents.

Ic
CASE I CASE 2 CASE 3
lPOSlTlVE SEOUENCEl (NEGATIVE SEWENCE) (ZERO SEOUENCE)

## FIG. 2.3 Symmetrical patterns of current.

118 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

THE OPERATOR 0

## I n the application of symmetrical-component analysis there will be

repeated need t o shift a particular vector by multiples of 120". Particu-
larly in analytical studies it will be advisable merely to indicate the
desired operation, leaving the actual resolution until the final solution is
approached. Invariably it will be found that combinations of operations
appear modifying a particular vector which can be directly reduced t o
much simpler form, or often simply vanish.
The small letter a is used to indicate an angular advance of 120' in the
vector t o which it is appended. Its use parallels the use of j as a 90"
advance operator, i.e., aIb would mean a vector of the same magnitude as
labut advanced 120'; while azZbwould mean a vector of the same magiii-
tude as Ib but advanced 240'.
0-12
O+j1.732

-02
0.5tj0.866
f /71:a2
/ ,
,1.5tJO.866
/ /

\+
/
I /
/
I/ /
//
//' a3

\
Ir-0.-50.866
0.5 1.5-~0.866
:I a

## FIG, 2.4 Functions of the 120' operator 0.

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 119

## The significance of commonly encountered combinations of a operators

is indicated in Fig. 2.4. For instance (az-a)Iswould indicate a vector fl
times as large as laand advanced 270' in angle.
Comparing the operators j and a in more detail to explain Fig. 2.4, a
vector 1 t o the right on the horizontal, Fig. 2.4, when multiplied hy .i
+
would be 0 jl. That same vector multiplied by a becomes (in terms
+
of j ) - 0.5 j0.866; multiplied by u2 it hecomes - 0.5 - j0.866. 1-a
+
then becomes 1 - ( - 0.5 jO.866) = 1.5 - j0.866 or an advance of
270" and 4 times as large.

RESOLUTION OF SEQUENCE C O M P O N E N T S

## It develops that any possible patt,erri of three-phase currents or three-

phase voltages can be resolved exactly into rombinatioris of the three
types of symmetrical components. Some properties of the three sym-
metrical-sequence components will he of interest in showing the nature of
their independence and the manner in mhirh they may he separated.
Referring to Fig. 2.5 it will he seen that, if the vertor sum of the three
vectors of each component is made, the answer will be zero for the posi-
tive-sequence and negative-scquence systems and 3 for the zero-sequence
system. If first the B-phase quantity is advanced 120' and the C phase
advanced 240" and the vector sum then evaluated, the answers will he 3
for the positive-sequence system and zero for the negative- and zero-
sequence systems. But if first the B-phase quantity is advanced 240" and
the C-phase quantity advanced 120", the vector s u m will then be zero for

,I C240* c 1200

## FIG. 2.5 Properties of rymmetriccll-component quantitiei.

I20 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

## the positive-sequence system, three for the negative-sequence system,

and zero for the zero-sequence system.
This suggests that the three sequence components have independent
degrees of freedom.
Suppose that the three actual line currents I,, I,, and I , are to he
resolved into three balanced-sequence components of types positive,
negative, and zero. If I,, I,, and l c are added vectorially, it may be
expected that whatever positive-sequence and negative-sequence com-
ponent were contained therein would add u p to zero, and the answer
should he three times the value of the zero-sequence component.
IA + I B + I c 31.0 =
Pi + I s + I c
I.0 =
3
If the B-phase currerit is first advanced 120' and the C-phase current
2.40' and then added, it can be expected that whatever negative-sequence
and zero-sequence component were coutained therein would add u p to
zero, and the sum should thus he three times the positive-sequence
component.
1, + a l , + a Z I c 3I., =
11 + a l a + a21c
I., =
3
In similar fashion hy first advancing the B-phase current 240' and the
C-phase rurrent 120' the sum should then he three times the negative-
sequeuce component in the A phase.
I, + a z I B+ a I c = 3I,,
1-2 =
11 + a2Ia+ aIc
3
Sinre each of thc sequence systems is symmetrical, one can immediately
identify the corresponding comporierits in the other phases. Refer to
Fig. 2.3 to cherk the angular positiou of phase components.
Zero sequence:

Id = Ih0 = 1.0 =
I, + I, + I,
3
Positive sequenre:

I,, =
1, + a l e + a21c-
2
-

IS,= all., =
a21A I S+ + alc
3
I C 1= aI., =
aIA + + Ic
a21a
3
SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 121

Srgativc sequence:

I,, =
I, + a2IB+ a l e
3

.\I1 three i.urrctits whii.11 romprise each of the three component systems
now have been dekiiicd. The sum of all t,hree compotrcnt currents of
each phase should equal the original actual phase current.
Phase il :

Phase 13 :
I B + la? f
= Ib, IbO

-
- a?IA + I I I+ a l c + aIr -t I , + azIc + I , + I , + I c
3 3 3
= >SIA(aP + a + 1) + I a ( l + 1 + 1) + I c ( a + a2 + 1)
= !5(0 + 31, + 0) = I B
Phase C:
Ic = + I,, + I d
I,,
- + a21e + IC a'IA + a l a + IC + I., + 1, + I c
+

3 3 3
= 4\$IA(a + az + , I ) + IB(a* + a + 1) + I c ( 1 + 1 + 1)
= >\$(O + 0 + 3Ic) = Ic
? >
1 hus a means now has been devised of separat,ing the three actual line
currents (or voltages) into t,hree systems of symmetrical components, and
further it, has bee11shown that the sum of the three component quantities
of earh phase does exactly equal the original true line current (or voltage).
Several fuiidamental equatioiis and commonly used relationships are
listed i n Tahle 2.1.

## INDEPENDENCE OF SEQUENCE SYSTEMS

The fact has been developed that, in symmetrical circuits, currents of
one sequence produce voltages of the same sequence only and likewise
122 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

## impressed voltages of one sequence produce currents of like sequence only.

I n other words, there is no mutual coupling between scquence systems.
Thus the voltage drops in impedances can be separately evaluated for earh
sequence componerit of current and the resulting volt,agc drops added t o
get the total voltage drop. Thus in Fig. 2.1 the t,otal impedance drop
across the impedance Z in the direction of current flow is
Phase A :
(IZ). = IdZI + I,,Z, + I,OZ,
Similar expressions could he written for the other two phases, hut a
simpler attack is possible from concepts already acquired. The positive-
sequence drops will all be of equal magnitude and of positive sequence,
the negative-sequence drops will all be of equal magnitude and of ncgative
sequence, and the zero-sequence drops will he of cqual magnitude and of
zero sequence. Therefore,
Phase B :
(IZ), = a21.,Z, + aIa2Zr+ I,,Zn
Phase C:
(IZ), = a,I.,Z, + aZIa2Zz+ I,oZO
Here for the first time the advantage of the symmetrical-component
approach can be appraised. For each symmetrical-compoiierit system,
impedances can he regarded as having a definite fixed value identical in
all three phases. The impedauce values in the three component systems
may he widely different, howcver. That is, Z, may he altogether differ-
ent from Z2 or Zo. Unt,il the actual currents were resolved into sym-
metrical componcnt,s, there seemed no alternate t o thc use of self atid
mutual impedances in each phase.
At this point note that under balanced-load (wnditioiis the current is
entirely of positive sequence. Thus t,he usual solution of balanced
operation is really a special case iiivolving only the positive-sequence
system, i.e., positive-sequence voltages, poshive-sequence currents, and
positive-sequence impedances.
The application of these principles t o the solution of unbalanced-load
problems now may he studied. It seems appropriate at this point to
review some physical concepts of the three compi~neutsystems.
All source machines generate only positive-sequence vokage. The
winding pattern in the A phase will he repeated in the B phasc 120 elec-
trical degrees later and i n the C phase 240 electrical degrees later. Thus
identical voltages will be generated in each phase minding except that the
B phase mill be 120' behind the A phase arid the C phase will he 120"
behind the B phase.
SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 123

## With line currents I A , I*, I c known, sequence currents are

1.0 =
In + Is + I c = I,, = I d
3

## NOTE:Voltages E., Eb, and E. generated vithin halaneed-winding rotating machines

are entirely positive sequence.
Commonly Used Relationships:

## Negative- and zero-sequence voltages result from the impedance drop

produced by the flow of negative- a n d zero-sequence components of cur-
rent. Generally, positive-sequence voltages will he greatest at the source
machines and diminish as one moves toward the short circuit. On the
other hand, negative- and zero-sequence voltages will he greatest a t the
124 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENT5 FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

## short-circuit point and diminish as one approaches the source machines,

Positive-sequence voltages and currents produce (and are associated
with) magnetic fields within rotating machines which rotate in the same
direction as normal rotational dirertion.
Negative-sequence voltages and currents produce (and are associated
with) magnetic fields in rotating machines which rotate in a direction
opposite to normal rotation. The latter thus produce machine torques
tending to slow down a motor rotor, and the positive-sequence electrical
quantities must produce a torque equal to the load torque plus that
resulting from the negative-sequence current if normal running speed is
to be maintained.
Zero-sequence currents are in phase in all three conductors. For such
currents to flow a t all it is evident that the electrical neutral must be con-
nected to a fourth conductor or ground. Being in phase, the currents add
up numerically at the neutral ronnection and become 31.0 in the neutral
circuit, Zero-sequence currents produce a stationary pulsating magnetic
field in the rotating machine stator winding which is predominantly of
stator-leakage character, very little of which crosses the air gap to enter
the rotor. Zero-sequence current will rarely be found in motors since the
motor neutral is almost never grounded.

PER-UNIT SYSTEM'

## While symmetrical-component analysis is valid regardless of the system

of units used, it will be found desirable to adopt the per-unit system.
In the per-unit system, potentials are expressed as a fraction of an
arbitrarily assigned line-to-neutral voltage (usually the normal operating
voltage). Currents are expressed as a fraction of an arbitrarily assigned
circuit current. This base current is usually selected to correspond with
a convenient round-number kva such as 1000, 10,000, etc.
Only two quantities can be arbitrarily assigned, i.e., base voltage and
base kva or base voltage and base current. Unit values of all other
quantities become fixed as soon as the first two are assigned.
Unit base voltage and current are arbitrarily assigned a t some one part
of the system. The values of unit voltage and current at other partsof the
system become those which would result from the turn ratio of intercon-
necting transformers.
The per-unit impedances define the fraction of base voltage which will
be produced by the flow of unit base current.
The value of the per-unit system is a t once apparent. The impedances
of generators, motors, and transformers when expressed in per-unit on
their own rating as a reference base assume almost a constant numerical
* S e e Chap. 1, p. 52.
SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 125

value throughout a wide range of physical size and voltage rating. For
example, the impedance of a transformer mill be about 0.05 per-unit (6 per
cent) on its own rat,ing as a base quite independent of size or voltage
rating. If expressed in ohms, the numerical value of Z would vary
widely wit,h 110 sigu of any common denominator. Also, in the per-unit
system a particular per-unit value of current flowing into one side of a
transformer comes out the other side as the same per-unit value.
Refer to Chap. 1, page 54, for a complete list of equations relating
~ e r - u n i tvalues.

SYSTEM APPLICATION

## The approarh to circuit problems consists of writing the relations

existing between geuerated voltages and impedance drops in the usual
conventional manner except that three sequelice systems may he involved.
In t,he simple cirruit arrangement shoivu in Fig. 2.0 it cau he seen that
oue can directly evaluate (in terms of the A phase)
Positive sequence:
E. = r.,(zol +
zLl zr,) + + v.,
Val = 8. - Z,I(ZC, ZL, + + ZTd

Segative sequence:
0 = I.dZm + + +
ZL2 ZTJ Tio*
v., = + +
-ra2(zGs zL2 zr2)
Zero sequence:
0 = I.o(Zo0 + + Zro) +
ZLO v.0
vm0= -r,,(zoot z t o+ zTd
Combined :
Ti" = v.1 + ve/02+ v.,o
= E, - Iai(Zoi + Z L I+ Z T -~ Za,(Zci + Zr.2 + Z T ~
- I~O(200 + ZLO + ZTO)
It will be useful to draw the individual sequence circuits such as indi-
cated on Fig. 2.7. Xote that the circuit for the positive sequence is

"WY
ZG ZL
.".. 1A-h
vb

Ec/
".,. ..."
E+T I6 -w
V0

. .....
FIG. 2.6
.,.A
tc * vc
Typical symmetrical three-phase circuit.
126 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

## 262 z L2 zT2 102-

I Vaz I- SEQUENCE1
N

E a = 101 ( Z G I + Z ~ I + Z T ~ I ~ V O I
0 = 102 ( Z G Z t Z L 2 1 Z T Z 1 t VO2
0 - 100 (ZGO+ Z L O t Z T O I t YO0
VA = v o l t v02+v00
= E o - I o l ( Z G l t Z L l tZT11-102 (ZGZ+ZLZ+ZTZI
-1w ~~tz,~+z,l
FIG. 2.7 Equivalenl sequence circuits of Fig. 2.6 (in terms of the A phase)

## identically that which mould be used alone for balanced-load prohlems.

(negative and zero sequence) which appear about the same evcept that
there are no generated voltages therein and the respective sequence
impedances are used.

TYPE OF APPROACH

## Through experience in the application of symmet,rical-component

analysis, partirular types of approach, appropriate selection of reference
phase, and useful equivalent circuits have been discovered vhich lead to
a solution in the simplest manner.
Generalized solutions of problems presented in short-circuit studies of
three-phase systems (circuit-breaker selection or relay appliration)
include the following forms of short circuits:
1. Three-phase
2. Line-to-line
3. Line-to-ground
4. Double line-to-ground

## The three-phase short-circuit condition represents a balanced three-

phase short circuit on the system. Only positive-sequenre quantities are
involved; hence only the positive-sequence impedance system will be
needed. The solution thus simplifies to an analysis of a single-rircuit
SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 127

## network involving only positive-sequence impedances and is done in the

familiar conventional mariner as follows, using Figs. 2.8 and 2.9:

## Balanced operation [ ( l ) (2) (3) tied together]

For balanced load Z, per phase, make Z, = Z,
For thrce-phase short circuit, make Zx = 0
Reference phase: L4
E.
I , = I., =
z,+ z x
I, = a21A
Ic = all
The solution becomes simply
I, = I,, = ~ E.
total Z I
I s = a21A
I , = aIn

## FIG. 2.8 Actual three-phore circuit pattern.

_ _ _ _~_ _ - _ - - 1 Ib=lol EO

POSITIVE
I 2, +ZX
SEQUENCE I IS= 0216

N+ v,; zx
- -v/JI.- - -2
I IC = o h
_c
1.3

## The generalized solution works out in the simplest manner by consider-

ing the short circuit t o exist between the B and C phases, using phase A
as the reference, as illustrated in Fig. 2.10.
I28 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

E2F
The boundary coiiditioris a t the short-circuit point are

I, =0
I, = -Ic
v, = vc
LINE-TO- LINE SHORT CIRCUIT (SOLID1

vc

II' - 0
Ig =-Ic
vg =vc
SHORT CIRCUIT

## (b) LINE-TO-LINE SHORT CIRCUIT (SHORT CIRCUIT IMPEDANCE ZF)

EcE5 :.
v b<' VB vc

SHORT CIRCUIT
EOUIVALENT SEQUENCE CIRCUITS (A PHASE REFERENCE )
PER PHASE

## FIG. 2.10 Circuits involved in line-to-line short-circuit bnolyrir,

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 129

## So zer(i-sequenre rurrent is involved since

Ian =
I* + I , + 5 -- o + I* - I ,
=o
3 3
The positive- and negative-sequence currents in the A phase will he
diametrirally opposite sinre

Id =
+ aIll + a l l , -- 0 + a I s - a l l , --~
I, (a-aa)IB
3 3 3
I,, + d l , + a I c - - 0 + a l l a -_
a I= s _ (az-a)Is
_ - - _- _ (a-a’) I ,
I,? =
3 3 3 3
I., = -Id
The solution now hinges 011 the equality of voltage on the B- and
(‘-phase ronductors at the short rircuit.
V B = a2E. - a21.1Z1 - aI.*ZZ
V , = aE,, - aI.lZ1 - azI.zZz
To make V” = ITc

## a2E, - a21.,Z1 - aIo2Zz = aE. - aI,,Z, - a21.,Z,

Substituting - I., for I a 2 and collecting terms
(a2-a)E. = (a2-a)I,,,ZI - ( a Z - a ) ( - I . , ) Z 2
E. = 1.1z1 IdZ9 +
= IG1(Z, ZJ +

aE.
al., = - aIa1 - -
z , + z,
la, = ~

## I, = la, + l a z = (a‘-a) z , E.+ z* 6

~ =
-
B.
- -Ic
mz
The portion of the solution which contains the circuit parameters
E./(Z, +
Z , ) suggests an equivalent circuit in whichthe positive-sequence
system Z (containing the driving voltage E . and impedance Z , ) is in series
with the negative-sequence impedance system Z,. Also i t is noted that
in the reference phase A the negative-sequence current is the negative of
the positive-sequenre rurrent. This leads t o an equivalent circuit con-
nertion shown in Fig. 2.11.
The magnitude of total rurrent in the B- or C-phase conductor is 6
times as much as either of the components. I n most applications, only
130 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSlEMS

the magiiit,ude is of interest,, in which case 110 attentioil need bc given the
relative phase angle between this current and the refereure voltage.
The same generalized siilution ran bc applied to a rase in vhich the
short circuit contains impedanre. Suppose the linc-to-line impedance t o
be Z F . This can be simulated by i.onsidering the systcm to he extended
through an additional symmetriral branch containing an impedance
ZF/" per phase. 4 solid line-to-line fault at, the end of this branch pro-
dures the efleot nf an impedance Z P ronnerted line-to-line on the basic
system.
The solution is as follows, using Figs. 2.8 and 2.11:
Line-to-line connect,ion (line B to line C )
( 2 ) connected to (3); (I) open
For a line-to-line impcdance Z F , make ZX = Z F / ~
For a line-to-line short rircuit, make ZX = 0
Reference phase: A
(Bourrdary conditions: I , = 0, I , = - I c , V ( , ) = V ( , ) ]

. .
- EG
- -j
+ z,+ z,
Resolving further, the solution hecomes simply
E,
Is = v3 z, + ( Z F / 2 ) + z*+ ( Z P / 2 ) = - I,
En
= 41P.F z1+ z, + z,

POSITIVE
SEQUENCE
I
I
I
I
Iai -
~

- Val
-"W&
zF/2

NEGATIVE
II
SEQUENCE I

N 22 va 2 zF/2
* - +v'AVP
1a2-
FIG. 2.1 1 Equivalent circuit for line-to-line short-circuit analysis.
SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 131

## Refer to Fig. 2.12 for circuit conditions.

SOTE: Circuit is symmctrical except for short-rircuit connect,ions.
The simplest solution is arrived at by sclecting as the reference phase
t,hat phase on which the short circuit, exist,s.
IMPOHTANT SOTF:: Zero-sequence current flows through the neutral
impedance Z,, but in Z , the magnitude is 31a0. Thus thc voltage drop
will be three timcs as much as would be produred by Z , inserted in each
phase. Since Z,is defined as the impedance per phase, the corrert value
of Zo t o represent the neutral impedance Z, mill be 3 2 , . This mill he
true of all circuit impedances appearing in the neutral conductor. Thrir

{+:%:
equivalent Zomill be three times the value of Z,.

## L-0 SHORT CIRCUIT ON PHASE A

Zn
BOUNDARY
vc CONDITIONS
vp. = o
ID+ IB+ IC+ Ig = o
- Ic = o

..
EOUIVALENT SEQUENCE
CIRCUITS I N TERMS OF
T H E A PHASE
3Zn

## Solution.The three sequence circuits are defined in Fig. 2.12.

The boundary conditions whirh must be satisficd at, the short circuit, are
v, = 0
I, = 0
I, = 0
The relat,ionships which prevail in the symmetrical part of the system
are
E. = I J i V-1 +
0 = I O Z Z l v.2 +
0 = I.oZ0 v0
. +
132 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

## Equating these to satisfy boundary conditions,

V , = V-1 + V,, + Van E, - l o i Z i - Io2Zs - I,oZo
= =0
I, = IS, + I,, + Ian a21.1 + al,, + I.u 0
= =
I C = I,, + Ic2 + I,n al., + a21a2+ 1.0 0
= =

## Subtracting IC from l e gives

l a- I , = (az-a)lal + (a-a2)ia2+ 0 = 0
(a2-a)I., = (a2-a)I,z
I., = 1-2

## Substituting t,his result into I , gives

+
IB= a21a1 al,, 4 I.u = 0
= a21,1+ +aI,l I,, - I., I,, = 0 +
(a' + +
a 1)1., - 1-1 I,o = 0 +
I,, = I d
Thus:
I., = id = I,,
This fact might have been evident by the geometry of line currents at
the short circuit. The sum of the three component currents in the B and
i n the C phase must be zero. Only if the individual component currents
are equal and 120' apart in both the B and C phases could this be possible.
But this would mean that in the A phase the component currents would
be equal and in phase.
Substituting = I,, and IaO = I., into the V Aequation gives
v, = E. - I,,,Z, - I*,Z%- I.,ZO = 0
Ea = I , I ( Z I + Z , + Zu)
E.
I
- z , + z*+ z,
-

## This suggests that the solution can he made in terms of an equivalent

circuit in whirh the generated voltage E. is impressed on the three imped-
anre networks Z,, Z 2 , and Z o in series. It is more accurate to think of
this to he in the form
Ea = I,IZI + I d 2 + 1,oZo
This still suggests the series ronnection of the three networks hut
in Z 2 is lo2,
recognizes that the current in Z , is Ia1, and in Zois Io0. Since
1-1= i 0 2 = Ia0 there is no conflict with Kirchhoff's law at the junction
between the individual sequence networks.
The important result is the equivalent-circuit concept by which the
sequence networks ran he interconnected to yield an answer for the value
of I., = I,, = 1,". The equivalent-circuit concept is helpful even when
SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 133

## the solution is to be obtained by numerical computation, hut it is of

partirular importance if use is to he made of a d-e or an a-e network
analyzer (calcuiating hoard).
Knowing the value of I.,, the value of current in the fault (I,,) is
10 = I A = 1.1 + 2.1 + I,, = 31.1
whirh is t,hree times the current found directly from t,he equivalent
circuit.
Where t,here is impedance in the short circuit or in the neutral path,
the procedure outliiied above is modified as shown in Fig. 2.13.
z
..

I L-G CONNECTION

:- I THROUGH IMPEDANCE ZF

M 4 G h E TnE SYSTEM S
EXTEhDED THRObGh Q
BALAhCED C.RCJlT OF ZF
PER PhASE LZFI’ZF~=ZFO=ZFI

## A SOLID SHORT CIRCUIT TO GRD

NOTE: SINCE I B = I c = O ,THE BEYOND THIS IMPEDANCE
INCLUSION OF ZF IN THESE RESULTS IN ZFCONNECTED
PHASES PRODUCES NO ERROR, LINE-TO-GROUND.
THbT I + : LUSETHESAME PROCEDURE

## FIG. 2.1 3 External impedance in the line-to-ground connection.

ZERO
N _---__-__- -1
I
I
SEQUENCE zo ZF I
VVAv “20 .,,* +*., -1
Iao --t

## FIG. 2.14 Equivalent circuit for line-to-ground short-circuit analysis.

134 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

## Summarizing, the solution becomes (see Figs. 2.14 and 2.8)

Line-to-neutral connection (line A to ground)
(1) zonnected to ground; (2) open; (3) open
For a line-to-ground impedance Z,, make Zx = Z ,
For a line-to-ground short-circuit, make Z , = 0
Referenee phase: A
[Boundary conditions: I , = 0, ZC = 0, V ( , ) = 01
E.
I., = I., = I,o
+ z*+ zo + 32" + 3 2 ,
=
ZI
I d f Id + Id
3E.
I A =
z,+ Z? + zo + 3z,2+ 32,
=

## Other Cases. The equivalent circuits by which other common cir-

cuit conditions can be evaluated are worked out in a similar manner as,
for example, a double line-to-ground fault would he solved as follows
using Figs. 2.8 and 2.15:
Double line-to-ground solid fault (line B t o C to ground)
(2) and (3) connected to ground; ( 1 ) open; Zx = 0
Reference phase: A
[Boundary conditions: I , = 0, V(,) = V(,) = 01
ZZO
v,, = v,, = Vao = E, - I,,Z,= I,,
z,+ Z"
~

## Rotating-machine Characteristics. Positive-sequence currents are

associated with mmf patt,erns which rotat,e at synchrouous speed in the
normal rotational dirertion. The effective pi)sitive-sr(ioetice reactance
is consequently influenced by time. For the first cyrle of short-circuit
current, the subtransient rcact,ance of synchronous machines and the
standstill reactance of induction machines apply. Within a few cycles
the subt,ransient effects have decreased t o negligible proportions and the
transient reactance of synrhronons marhines is i t i control while the effec-
tive impedance of induction marhines has inrreased to a value close to t,he
normal running impedanre ( i t 1 the order of 100 per cent, 011 its o\vn base).
During t,he next, serond or t,wo, t,wo artions are taking place in the
synchronous machine. Induced field currents are decaying, and t,he
- -
SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

FI
I35

POSITIVE
SEOUENCE
'
I

I \$+EO

Iai+
&
z vl:
- - -1
I I

I
ZERO
SEOVENCE VOO I
+--A
100-
FIG. 2.1 5 Equivalent circuit for double line-to-ground short-circuit analysis.

## effective machirie reactance is approaching the synohrooous reactance.

The effective voltage ahead of synchronous reactance is approaching the
value established by the steady-state field current and may he influenced
by the operat,ion of a n automatic voltage regulator.
Rarely nil1 it be neressary to evaluate short-circuit-current magnitudes
for prolonged time intervals, but it will he well t o recognize that special
treatment will be needed t o obtain correct results in such cases.
Negative- and zero-sequence impedances of rotating machines car1 he
considered as remaining constant regardless of the duration of short-
circuit-current flow.

TRANSFORMER CHARACTERISTICS

## The zero-sequence circuit produced by various transformer connections

is often a source of trouble; so a considerable number of typical comhi-
nations are defined in Fig. 2.16.
The positive- and negative-sequence impedauces are equal as are those
of all stationary winding circuits.
There is one tricky aspect associated with Y-delta or delta-Y trans-
formers. There is an inevitahle phase displacement hetween the high-
and low-tension line circuits. Standard convention has agreed that the
terminals designated H , and X I shall be those which are only 30" apart.
Present st,andards also st,ate that when operated with electrical sequence
A B C ou t,erminals HI, H,, H 3 the high-tension system will lead the low-
tension system by 30'.
This displacement is the result of winding geometry and is not of the
136 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

CONNECTION
ZERO SEQUENCE CIRCUIl

-(
ZT
4-- --
x x
F 3 2
131 ( - P H
-
Y

-7:
SPECIAL CASE- 3 - P H CORE TVPE

---(
N

131 I-pn
P
N

## * CLOSED IF THE CORRESPONDLNG TRANSFORMER NEUTRAL

I S GROUNDED. LT IS THE NORMAL TRANSFORMER Z (SAME
AS POSITIVE SEQUENCE 2 1

## FIG. 2.16 Zero-sequence circuits clrrocioted with common three-phase transformer

connections.
SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 137

## nature of an impedanre voltage displacement angle. Thus if the standard

transformer is operated with reversed sequence, i.e., electrical sequence
.,IN' assuriated with terminals H,, H , , HI, the high-tension system will
lag t,he low-tension system by 30".
l3y reason of these fa&, in a Y-delta or delta-Y transformer with
standard ronnertions operating with normal sequence, the positive-
sequenre rurrerit and voltage iii the high-tension circuit will be advanced
30" with respect to that i n the low-tension circuit, while the negative-
sequenre mrrent i n the high-tension -cirruit will be retarded 30", as is
defined in Table 2.2.
Tronsformer Zero-sequence Circuits. The zero-sequence circuit pro-
duced by various transformer couiiectious is ofben a source of trouhle;
so a considerable number of typical combinations are defined in Fig. 2.1G.
By first examining the zero-sequence properties of simple winding
patterns, it ivill then be possible t o identify understandably the sero-
sequetirc circuits of more complicated practical transformer connections.
Delto Winding Connection. Zero-sequence current cannot flow in the
circuit t o a deltt-connected 11-inding (see Fig. 2.17) sinre there is no elee-
trical conuection t o ground by which it could return, even though zero-
sequenre current can flow within the closed delta circuit. Thus the zero-
sequence circuit is always interrupted at a juiirt,ion with a delta-connected
minding.
Y Winding Connections. Zero-sequence current cannot flow in a cir-
ruit ronnerted to a Y-connected winding if the neutral is not grounded

-
(see Fig. 2.18). Thus the zero-sequence circuit will be interrupted at the
jurirtion with a Y-connected winding if the neutral is.uugrounded.
Iao

## FIG. 2.18 A circuit connecting with an ungrounded Y-connected transformer winding.

138 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

## TABLE 2.2 Transformer Phase Shift

With standard d-lta-Y or Y-delta transformms, H I (high voltage) will hc 30" shcad
of X I (law voltage) for normal phase sequence. H I will hc 30" behind X , with oppo-
site phase sequence.

## Standard, H , 30" ahead of X I

Many investigators pwfer to exprrss the relationship hetween high- and low-ten-
sion line currents in B slightly different manner so as to simplify the associated phase
shift opcration, for example,

## Standard, H I 30" ahead of X I

I:, = -jr o, = +jZO
ZC = -jZo1 1;. = +jI-*
I., = -jib, = +j1bx
H I 30" behind X ,
I:, = i i I b , 1:, = -j1tIs
z;, = +I,, z: = +I<>
I:, = + j ~ * , Z'r2 = -jIa9

NOTE: If currents w e not in per-unit, the transformation ratio must also he fac-
tared in.
SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS I39
Zero-sequence current, in a circuit connect,ed t o a grounded-neutral
Y-connected winding can flow if zero-sequence rurrent, in t,he secondary
windings can he caused t o flow in the direct,iori iiidicat,ed by the secoridary
arrows, (see~Fig.2.19).

## FIG. 2.19 A circuit connecting with 0 grounded Y-connected tronrformer winding.

If the secondary currents in Fig. 2.19 cannot flow, the primary zero-
sequence current is limited t o the magnetizing current of the core (in t,he
order of 5 per cent of rated current for 100 per cent impressed voltage).
This represents a Z O of ahout, 2000 per cent on the transformer rating,
which for practical purposes may he regarded as infinite.
A n exception to this rulc is presented hy the thrce-phase core-type
design whose construction is as indicated in Fig. 2.20. The flow of zero-
sequence current, in the primary windirig produces magnetic flux whii,h
is in phase in the same direction in all three core legs. Since there are no
external core legs between upper and lower core yokes (as would exist in a
shell type of three-phase design),
the zero-sequenre flux must re-
turn largely through the air.
The steel tank walls provide a
fairly low reluctance path forpart
ofthereturn circuit, but thecross-
over to t,he core yoke at both the
topand bottom isdirectly through
air. The magnetizing reactance
represented by this flux path c
FIG. 2.20 The three-phase c k - t y p e tronr-
usually he in the order of 30 to ,-, ..
50 per cent on the t,ransformer
rating, which is low enough to have practical significance.
Zero-sequence current in a circuit connected to a grounded-neutral
Y-connected winding can flow if another set of transformer wiridiiigs is
connected in delta as in Fig. 2.21. The closed delta provides a circuit for
t h e flow of zero-sequence current. The impedance presented to the flow
of current is the interminding impedance Z, (the same as the normal
positive sequence ZT), Kote, however, that the zero-sequence currents
are not repeated in the outgoing line circuit but are short-circuited within
the delta winding.
140 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

## 111 a Y-Y-connected transformer& b&L neut,rals grounded, as in

Fig. 2.22, zero-sequence current can flow if the 'reflected zero-sequence
current in the other winding finds a closed circuit at some point along the
connected circuit. I n this case the tramformer t,ransfers zero-sequence
current from primary circuit t o a serondary circuit in the same manner
that it transfers positive- or negative-sequence current. The transformer
simply inbroduces a series impedance in t,he zero-sequence circuit which in
magnitude is identiral with the normal positive-sequence impedance Zr.
With this understanding of elemental behavior, the equivalent zero-
sequence circuits for the usual transformer connections can he directly
resolved. Some of the more rommon ones are identified in Fig. 2.16.
When drawing zero-sequence circuits for extensive systems, it is a good
plan t,o designate transformers in the manner shown in Fig. 2.16, showing
an interruption of the zero-sequence circuit by an open gap. By this
method one ran be constantly aware that a break in the cirruit was inten-
tional and not the result of an oversight.
Circuit Resolution Example. I n Fig. 2.23 is illustrated a particular
typical syst,em. The resuking composition of the positive-, negative-,
and zero-sequenre circuits is also portrayed. Suppose that the immediate
problem concerns the evaluation of various performance qualities on the
2.4-kv system radiating from bus L1.
The first step involves a resolution of equivalent impedances by which
the entire hulk system t o the left of hus L4 is expressed as a single equiva-
lent impedanre. This would be accomplished by successively paralleling,
etc., until firially a single equivalent impedance value connecting with
bus L , is obtained which would then look like Fig. 2.24. In many cases

FIG. 2.21 A circuit connecting with a grounded Y-connected transformer winding with a
delta winding on the same core structure.

FIG. 2.22 A circuit connecting with a grounded Y-connected transformer winding with
another grounded Y winding on t h e same core structure.
SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 141

## i t vill he at onre apparent that the impedanre of transformer T swill he

the major rontrolling impedance in the circuit from Ai',. I n this case it
may be entirely reasonable t o consider that rated voltage is sustained on
the high-tension side; or consider the short-circuit rapacity at the high-
tension terminals to be about equal t o the interrupting rating of the

MOT MOT

## .S. 2.23 Typical system example.

142 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS

## switching equipment on the bus M,. Obviously, some such approxi-

mation will be required in practically every problem since the actual line
interconnections will otherwise extend over the entire electrical distribu-
tion system of several states.
It will be of interest t o note that the zero-sequence system is quite
discontinuous, which is typical of practical systems. In the present
illustrative problem the zero-sequence system associated with bus L 4 is
independent of that on bus M2.
For comprehensive studies of extensive system networks, the equiva-
lent sequence circuits shown in Fig. 2.23 might he set up on the d-a or a-c
network analyzer. T o examine an operating characteristic at the point
P I , each individual sequence circuit would be tapped at the point PI.
For each sequence system the correct impedance network is that
obtained from the tap lead P I and it,s own neutral bus N . The intercon-
nections between sequence networks will he governed by the type of
unbalance (see Figs. 2.8, 2.9, 2.11, 2.14, 2.15). Provision is made in the
network analyzer directly to measure current in or voltage across indi-
vidual branches of all three networks.
Measurement of Individual Components. Useful measurement con-
nections by which a particular sequence quantity may be independently
resolved, or a particular sequence quantity excluded, are identified 011
Fig. 2.25.
The circuits for obtaining 10 or Eo alone are frequent,ly used. (In
applying potential transformers for measuring EO on an urigrounded
resistors should he used t o avoid overvoltage hazards.)
The delt,a-connected current transformer circuit (which excludes l o
in the output) is useful in providing internal-short-circuit protection for
grounding transformers.
The circuits for individually segregating the sequence quantities I , and
E', are only rarely used. Possible applications would be (1) making a
single-roil voltage regulator responsive t o positive-sequence voltage of

## F I G . 2.24 Simplification of Fig. 2.23 for study of performance on bur 14.

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 143

## the three-phase system, ( 2 ) providiug a protective relay which will trip

if the sustained negative-sequence voltage exceeds a preassigned value.
It is of interest t o note that the usual open-delta line-to-line connected
potential transformer application excludes goin the secondary.

C U RR E N T IK=CTR.VIOI

## ZERO SEQUENCE NEG4TIVE SEQUENCE

VOLTAGE l i = mR A T I O I
ZERO SEO'lENCE POS!TIVE SEQUENCE

JO 8661

-
NOTE - 8"
INTERCWNGING LINES B B C

## FIG. 2.25 Measuring circuits for segregating specific components.

Chapter 3 by Donald Beernan and R. H. Kaufrnann

## Selection of A-C Short-circuit

Protective Devices and Circuit
Equipment

## HOW TO BE SURE OF ADEQUATE

SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTION
To design an industrial power distribution system adequate from a
short-cirruit st,andpoiiit, the maximum short-circuit current at any point
should he less than the short-circuit rating of the equipment applied at
that piiint. When systems are so designed, it is common t o speak of them
as having adequate short-circuit protert,ion. I n other cases, they are
said t o have adequate int,errupting capacity (IC). Horn can one be sure
that, a plant, dist,ribution system is adequate for all short-circuit eondi-
tions? Mere are the steps t,o follow:
1. First accurately determine the available short-circuit currents a t all
sigriificant poir1t.s in t,he system, using the methods outlined in Chaps. 1
atid 2. These rdrulat,ing procedures have been verified by many tests on
actual systems and in short-cirruit testing lahoratories. Nariy former
fallarious ideas w1iir.h led to the installation of inadequate short-circuit
prot,ectire devires arid circuit elemerit,s hare beerr dispellcd. For exam-
ple, the idea that, ouly about 20,000 amp maximum short-circuit rurreiit
could he obtairied at -180 rolt,s has heen dispelled by actual measurements
of short-circuit currents of over 100,000 amp a t this voltage.
L'iitil t,he magnitude of short-cirruit currcnt is known, one cannot be
sure thitt adequate short-rircuit protcrtion is provided.
2 . Iiistall only short-circuit protect,ive devires such as circuit breakers,
s\ritvhes aiid fuses, and r~ombinat,ioumotor starters of known adequate
I44
A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 145

## interrupting sating. Use circuit elements of known adequate short-

circuit-current rating. Equipment of adequate short-circuit rating can
be obtained t o meet the requirements of all industries when proper con-
sideration is given t o system design from a short-circuit-protectiorr
standpoint.
3. Prepare for load growth. If the system is installed with circuit
breakers that are large enough only for present requirements, the cirruit
breakers will become too small from ail interrupting standpoint when
capacity is added. The system should be designed and the circuit
breakers should be selected on a hasis that will enable expaiisioii without
exceeding the circuit-breaker interrupting ratings. Short-circuit stresses
must be checked too, as the stresses increase as the square of the short-
circuit-magnitudes. Future expansion can be accomplished at prac-
tically no added expense in the initial installation by employing a modern
poiver-distribution-system layout (see Chaps. 11 t o 15).
Main and auxiliary switchboards in hundreds of plants in operation
today were installed years ago when the plants were small. The power
demand was limited then, and only small transformers were required t o
supply the plant. At t h a t time the switchboards may possibly have been
adeqnat,e. However, as the plants grew, more power was needed. Xew
feeders were added t o carry the new load, arid new transformers were
was given t o t,he circuit, breakers because t,hey carried their load currents
satisfactorily. Hovever, when new transformers were added, the capac-
it,y of the power supply inrreased. Consequently, the available short-
circuit current also iiirreased. This higher short-circuit current imposed
added interrupting duty on the old circuit breakers when they were
required t o clear a faulty feeder cable. Often this added short-circuit
current was sufficient t o bring the total short-circuit current beyond the
rating of those existing circuit breakers. However, through oversight
nothing was done about it, leaving the plant vulnerable t o a major shut-
down if a fault occurred which one of these old circuit breakers failed t o
clear.
Failure t,o consider the effect of increased short-circuit currents has
heeti one of the most common causes of many of the older installations
being unsafe.
4. Do not he complacent, Many systems which have been operating
for years have never had a major short circuit. Operators of these sys-
tems have come to believe t,hat short circuits never occur; so they do not
bother about interrupting rating of rircuit breakers. This belief com-
pares with the assumption that fire insurance is not necessary because the
factory has never burned down. The older the system grows, the weaker
the insulat,ion becomes and the greater the possibility of major short cir-
146 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

cuits. The circuit breakers too are often inadequate in these old syst,ems.
Thus, when a short circuit does occur it is almost cert,ain to cause a major
shutdown with possible damage t o other propert,y as well as loss of
production.
5. Use an engineering approach. If the short-circuit,-protection proh-
lem is approached on an engineering basis instead of depending on good
luck, the plant investment can be more adequately protected and undue
risks eliminated. Good luck over a period of years may give a false
assurance that failures are never going t,o occur, but, good luck eventually
runs out as it has in so many cases. The cost of a loss due t o a failure
then is far more than it would have been to modernize the switchgear oil
a planned step-by-step basis.
In the engineering approach a study is made to determine t,he weak
spots in t,he electric system and remedy them hefore a major shutdown
occurs, with attendant financial and production loss. The engineering
approach is of a prevent,ive nature, i.e., finding the weak spots and correct-
ing them before a failure does occur.
No one would t,hink of running a boiler indefinitely just hecause “ i t
had never failed.” Preventive maint,enance involves continually repair-
ing and replacing weak parts hefore they fail. The results of the failure
of an inadequate circuit breaker can he as serious as a boiler failure; so the
same intelligent engineering approach should be used in providing safe,
adeyuat,e circuit breakers as is used with other machinery even thongh
one has heen lucky enough over a period of years t o avoid the failure of an
inadequate circuit breaker. Luck might change for the worse tomorrow;
so it may pay real dividends not t o be complacent ahout short-circuit
conditions.
To have a safe power system with low maintenance cost and high
service continuity, adequate circuit prot,ertive equipment is necessary
throughout the ent,ire system from the place where the power system
enters the plant down t o t,he smallest motor or light.
An Example of W h a t Can Happen When Available Short-circuit Cur-
rents Exceed the Interrupting Rating of Short-circuit Protective Devices.
An inadequate circuit breaker mas mounted in a svit,ch riiiim which was
part of the distribution system. A short circuit occurred in the outgoing
rable. The short-circuit duty was well above the interrupt,ing rating of
the circuit breaker i n the switch house. As a result, the circuit breaker
attempted to open the circuit hut did not havetheability todoso. There-
fore, the circuit breaker failed, blew up, and when it did two things hap-
pened. First, the circuit breaker at the source had t o clear the fault in
t,he failed circuit hreaker and thus drop all the load instead of just the one
load on the fauky hranch. This meant unnecessary loss of prodwt‘ * ion.
Second, a fire resulted and completely destroyed the switch house.
A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 147

FIG. 3.1 Rerull of foilure of inodequote oil circuit breaker on heovy short circuit.

Fortunately the switrh house was isolated from nl.her I~uildit~gs, and orily
the switrh house burned dn\vn. llad this fsilurc ocwrrcd i n a fiict,ory
tiuilding, the damage could have been much more cxLensive.
r.
Ihe picture, Fig. 3.1, tells the st,nry of what happened hotter thaii ii
book of mords could.
The irony of this fiiilurc was that, the plant, erigineer had ri~cogriizetlt h e
inadequacy of the circuit hrcakers in this swit,ch house aiid was replacing
t,hem with adequat,e ones. The ot,her circuit breakers in this switi.h
destroyed too.
One can never tell how long hia luck will last wii.h inat1t.quat.e circuit
breakers or fuses. It, may rim out sooner tliaii one thinks.

## SELECTION OF THE TYPE OF

SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICE
r l
1 here are marly features t o he cnnsitlered in t,he sr?lcvtioii of short-
circuit protective devices t,n provide adequate short-circuit prntertinn for
an industrial power syst,em. One of the most import,ant,is that t h e short-
circuit breakers, fuses, or motor st.art,ers can be determined from t h e pro-
cedures outlined in Chaps. I and 2. Ariother important function of mnst
short-circuit, prot ive devices is that t,hey also provide a means of
switehi!ig circuits nder normal operat,irig conditions. T o m(
requirements fully and eomplctcly for both circuit switching and short-
148 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

## circuit protection, a protective and switching device should fulfill the

following basic specifications:
1. It should be capable of being safely closed in on any load current or
short-circuit current within the momentary rating of the device.
2. It should safely open any current that may flow through i t up t o the
interrupting rating of the device.
3. It should automatically interrupt the flow of abnormal currents u p
t o the interrupting rating of the device.
There are two fundamental devices that are commonly used for or have
as one of their functions short-circuit protection. These are:
1. Circuit breakers
2. Fuses
Some motor starters are used for short-circuit protection, hut in general
these have either circuit hreakers or fuses as the short-circuit protective
element.
A basic comparison of fuses and circuit breakers will be made and their
area of application outlined. More detailed comparisons are made on
the basis of syst,ems voltage classes, i.e., (1) 600 volts and below and (2)
above 600 volts.

CIRCUIT BREAKERS-GENERAL

## M e e t s All Requirements. A modern circuit breaker meets all the basic

requirements listed above. It is designed and rated to be capable of
heirig safely closed in on any current within its momentary rating (some
oil circuit breakers do not fully meet this requirement). It can safely
open any current within its interrupting rating. When proper relays or
tripping devices are applied, i t is capable of automatically opening any
current which is above the pick-up setting of the tripping device and
below its interrupting rating. It combines in one unit a device for safely
switching the circuit under normal as well as abnormal load conditions
and t o automatically open abnormal rurrents up t o its interrupting rating.
Eliminates Single Phasing. Circuit breakers, in all except a few special
cases where single-phase switching is used in transmission-line circuits,
open all ungrounded conductors of a circuit. Therefore, the probability
of single phasing of three-phase circuits is eliminated from a practical
standpoint in so far as the circuit protective equipment is concerned.
Adjustable Tripping Time and Pickup. The total time t o operate
under various overcurrent conditions is adjustable for practically all cir-
cuit breakers. The adjustment is either in the built-in tripping devices or
in the relays associated with the circuit breakers. The adjustability of
time of operation makes the circuit breaker ideally suited t o selective
operation as is required for circuit protective service in a system.
Electrical Operation. Circuit breakers in general are suitable for elec-
A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT I49
trical operation, which means they can be used for automatic control,
remote operation, etc. Furthermore, auxiliary circuits are available on
practically all electrically operated circuit breakers for the control of
external auxiliary or process circuits.
Wide Selection of Time-current Characteristics. Various types of
relays with special characteristics to meet particular service requirements
can be used with circuit breakers to broaden their scope of application.
For example, time-delay overcurrent relays which match motor-heating
curves can be used to enable the circuit breaker to be used for motor start-
ing and running and short-circuit protection. Or the relays may he
specially designed to protect transformers or any ot,her piece of equipment
or circuit. This makes the circuit breaker and its associated relays
almost universally applicable as a short-circuit protective and switching
device .
Repeated Operations. Circuit breakers can repeatedly open abnor-
mal currents without destroying t,he interrupting element, Of course,
inspection and some maintenance may be required after each duty cycle
at or near their interrupting rating. When the circuit, openings are
repeated a few cycles or seconds apart, derating factors must be applied.
But fundamentally the circuit breaker does permit repeated operations
without destroying itself or affecting the accuracy of operatirlg time.
Same Degree of Protection after Operation. Since when a circuit
breaker operates it does not destroy itself, there is little likelihood of
affecting calibration of time and pickup settings; hence the same protec-
tion is afforded all the time.
Minimum Temperature Effect. Most circuit-breaker time overcurrent
tripping devices and relays are not appreciably affected by temperature.
Hence, greater accuracy as a function of ambient t,emperature can be
maintained than by devices that depend upon t,hermal conditions to
activate them.
Moderate Operating Speed. Circuit breakers in general are not so
fast in operation a t high overcurrents as are most fuses.
Wide Choice of Current Ratings. Circuit breakers are available up to
4000 amp cont,inuous current rating at GOO volts and less and up to 1200
to 5000 amp a t higher voltages. Trip-coil ratings run from 15 amp up.
Interrupting levels are available from 5000 to 100,000 amp a t GOO volts or
less and from 15 mva to 25,000 mva at higher voltages.
Rigid Industry Standards. Circuit breakers are made under rigid
industry standards which prescribe complete interrupting ratings for
them and methods of test for establishing interrupting ratings. These
permit the application engineer to apply them on a sound safe basis and
within their rating. Proper derating factors must be applied for repeti-
tive-duty cycles and high-altitude applications. *
* Refer to applicable NEMA standards.
150 A-C SHORT.CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND ClRClllT EQUIPMENT

FUSES-GENERAL

Fuses are often considered for circuit protection because of their low
first cost. Before selecting fuses in place of circuit breakers, there are
certain general characteristics and limitations which must be recognized
and considered as well as cost.
While fuses have their proper applications, one must look rarefully a t
the fuse picture in general and then more closely a t specific fuses to see
how many of the hasic requirements are met.
Generally Do Not M e e t All Requiremsnts. One of the first and fore-
most considerations is that fuses in themselves do not meet the basic
requirements for a complete short-circuit protective device. Fuses alone
(except t,he oil-fuse cutouts) do not incorporate any switching means to
permit closing in on high currents or to switch load currents. T o meet
the basic requirements it is necessary that a fuse other than a n oil-fuse
cutout be used in conjunct,ion with a properly rated interrupter or safety
switch. In this combination the fuse provides the ability to open ahnor-
ma1 currents automatically. The switch should provide the ability to
open load currents and moderate overcurrents which are below the blow-
ing point of the fuse and should provide the ability t,o safely close in on
short-circuit currents up to the interrupt,ing rating of the fuse. When
the switch is in the closed position, it should be able to carry safely what-
ever current the fuse will pass.
The operation of fuses in combination with interrupter switches at
moderate overcurrents imposes problems not easily overcome. The
fundamentals of the problem can be seen by referring to Fig. 3.2. To
illustrat,e one phase of the problem, let us assume that it takes \$6 see only
to close and open a switch manually. Should there be a moderate over-
load when the switch is opened and closed rapidly, as there may well be
because of connected motors, etc., the switch would have to open perhaps
several times its rating because the operation took place so quickly that
the fuse did not have time to melt. This area is represented by the
crosshatched section of Fig. 3.2. For example, an interrupter switch
might he rated to make 20,000 amp, carry 20,000 amp momentarily, and
to open 100 amp. This switch, when used with a 100-amp E-rated fuse*
or even a much smaller rated fuse, may not be adequate on moderate
values of current,. At 1000 amp, for example, the blowing time of the
fuse may be 3 see. An operator may close the switch and open it within
36 see. The fuse would not have had time to melt, and the switch vould
be required to open 1000 amp, or ten times its rating. Whenever
the circuit interruption takes place in two separate devices which are
* E-rated fuses will carry their rated eurrmt eontinuouslv and blow in 5 to 10 min
at 200 to 264 per cent of rated current.
A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 151

## interdependent on each other for complete functioning over a wide range

of currents, there is always this problem of operation on moderate over-
loads which is much more difficult t o overcome than operation a t very
high short circuits where the time for the fuse to clear is very short.
As a precautionary measure for increased safety, the switch element of
fused switches should be closed with a fast positive action and not opened
immediately. This will give the fuse a chance to melt on moderate over-
currents before the switch is again opened.

## Possible Single Phasing. Fuses are single-phase devices; therefore,

one fuse may blow, leaving a multiphase circuit supplied with only single-
phase power. It may not completely isolate a faulty circuit.
Nonadjustable Tripping Time or Pickup. When fuses are used, their
pickup setting and time-current setting are changed by changing the size
or type of fuse.

AMPERES
FIG. 3.2 Interrupter-switch rating and fuse time-current characteristics showing per-
formonce on moderate overcurrent..
152 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

## Limited Choice of Characteristics. Because fuses are thermal devices,

the choice of shape of time-current characteristics is very limited for
coordination purposes.
Nonrepetitive Operation. Fuses, once they have operated, must be
replaced. Certain types of fuses have removable links which permit
salvaging part of the fuse after it has blown. Replacement cost of fuses
varies widely, depending on type and size of fuse.
Protection M a y Be Reduced or Lost after Operation. Because the
interrupter destroys itself, care must be taken to replace a blown fuse
with one of the same rating and characteristics. Otherwise, protection
may he lost. There is always the danger that if no fuses are available
short bars or wires may be inserted to keep power on. When this is done,
all protection may be lost.
Affected by Ambient Temperature. Fuses are thermal devices; there-
fore, their operation is subject t o variation due t o ambient temperature
changes. This effect in fuses is much greater than in relays or cir-
cuit-breaker tripping elements. It is less important in high-voltage
circuits.
Fast Operating Speed. Fuses are generally divided into two classes:
(1) non-current-limiting and (2) current-limiting. The current-limiting
fuses possess two important advantages, particularly for branch-circuit
protection: ( 1 ) Berause of extremely fast operation, they limit the damage
due to the flow of short-circuit current. (2) They actually limit the short-
circuit-current magnitude to far less than the available short-circuit cur-
rent, thereby allowing the use of smaller conductors and equipment in
branch circuits.
This current-limiting ability is one of the most useful characteristics of
the fuses in branch-circuit protection.
Non-current-limiting fuses also operate faster than circuit breakers at
currents near their interrupting rating.
The fast operat,ion of most types of fuses, however, makes it difficult
and often impossible to coordinate them with other short-circuit protec-
tive devices located beyond the fuse in the circuit. Therefore, fuses in
general are best suited for branch-circuit protection where they need not
operate selectively with other protective devices between the fuse and the
Choice of Current Ratings. Fuses are now available for low voltages
(600 volts and less) up to 4000 amp. For circuits above 600 volts, the
upper limit of fuse ratings is in t,he range of 100 to 400 amp.
Fuses are generally limited in size hecause of thermal considerations.
Large fuses may produce so much heat that ventilation and mounting
become severe problems. Also, as current-limiting fuses become larger
A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DNICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT I53

and larger, they lose more and more of their current-limiting ability.
Sinre the current-limiting ability of fuses is most useful in branch-circuit
protection, the handirap of having to use small ratings to get effective
rurreut-limiting artion is not so pronounred, as most branch circuits are
of small rurrent rating anyway.
Industry Standards. Fuses above 600 volts are made according to
indnstry st,andardsesrept, that standardized levels of interrupting ratings
are not set up. Low-voltage fuses have no a-c interrupting standards,
although surh st,andards may be available in the future. See further
disrussion nuder voltage classification.
Mechanical Simplicity a t Low Current Ratings. Fuses and their asso-
ciated switches for low-current circuits, i.e., about 200 amp or less, are
simpler mechanically than circuit breakers. For higher current circuits
t,he switrh, if built, t o have the necessary momentary and interrupting
abilit,y, loses its advantage of mechanical simplicity.

## CIRCUIT BREAKERS VS. FUSES-GENERAL

I11 selecting circuit breakers YS. fuses, the techniral ronsideratious cer-
tainly favor the rirruit breakers in most rases. Because of this, circuit
breakers are generally considered the only acceptable protective devices
by most engineers for all'lorations in industrial plants where switching
and short-rirruit protectioii is required except for some hranch circuits
and control circuits and motor starters. Fuses and switches are pre-
ferred for some hranch rircuits because of the fast operation of the fuse.
Besides the technical roiisiderations, economirs is a factor. While cost
is very important, it is secondary to the technical considerations noted
above and secondary to select,ing the devire that has an adequate inter-
rupting rating for t,he servire. Berause there may he in some cases a
wide difference in rost between circuit hreakers and fuses, there is a tend-
ency to get so involved in economic issues in the selection of circuit
breakers vs. fuses that technical ronsiderations are lost sight of. AS a
result many hazardous syst,ems are installed to save a few dollars in first
cost, a saving that may soon be lost because of the poor performance and
higher maintenanre of inadequate equipment, particularly in low-voltage
circuits. It is for that reason and because the technical cansiderations
vary somewhat with voltage that the technical considerations are reviewed
in further detail as a function of voltage class.
There are other factors in the selection of fuses for overcurrent protec-
tion. These factors involve mainly coordination with relay time-current
characteristics or the time-current characteristics of built-in devices on
circuit breakers (see Chap. 9).
I54 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES A N D CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

## SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

FOR SYSTEMS 600 VOLTS AND LESS
For low-voltage systems rated 600 volts or less, there are three com-
monly used types of short-circuit protective devices for protecting main
power circuits, secondary feeders, and branch circuits. These devices are
1. Large air circuit breakers (sometimes referred to as magnetic circuit
breakers) of which the one shown in Fig. 3.3 is typical.
2. Molded-case circuit breakers of which those shown in Fig. 3.9 are
typical.
3. Fused safety switches of which the one shown in Fig. 3.11 is an
example of a high-quality safety switch and fuse.
There are panel boards which are used for protection of small branch
circuits. These are used mainly in lighting and in small power systems
and employ either small molded-case-type circuit breakers or fuses as
their overcurrent protective means.

## Description. The large air circuit breaker, Fig. 3.3, consists of a n

operating mechanism, contacts, an arc interrupter, and usually a built-in
overrurrent tripping device. These circuit breakers are characterized by
their sturdy construction, ample electrical clearances, availability in high-
current-carrying and interrupting and momentary ratings. The tripping
devices are adjustable as to their pickup setting and operating time, and
various shapes of time-current characteristics are available. The ratings
available are listed in Table 3.1.
TABLE 3.1 Ratings of Low-voltage Large Air Circuit Breakers for A-C Service

_____ ~

## 240 volts 240 voitl

241-480 volts 600 volts and below 241-480 volts 600 volts
and below
__. ~ ~ _____

## 30,000 25,000 15,000 30-225 25-225 15-225

50,000 35,000 25,000 150-600 100-600 35-600
75,000 60,000 50,000 60+1,600 400-1.600 200-1,600
l00,000 75,000 75,000 2,000-3,000 2,000-3,000 2,000-3.000
150,000 100,000 I00,000 4,000 4,000 4,000

* Standai rating8 are 15, 20, 25,35, 50,70,90, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250,275,
.> - - ., .__.)-__., ....

## Application. These circuit breakers are intended primarily for appli-

cation in main switchboards where pou'er may be generated a t low voltage
A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES A N D CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 155

## FIG. 3.3 Large air circuil

breakers mounted in drawout
metal-enclosed low-voltoge
rwifchgear.

or where it may he received from the utility at low voltage and for the
secondary svitchgear of load-center unit substations or in main subdis-
tribution centers, Fig. 3.4. They are also applicable for individual
branch-circuit prokction where t,he highest qualit,y device is required and
where special time-current characteristics are necessary for coordination.
They are particularly applicable for braneh-circuit protection for larger
loads over 200 amp or for smaller loads where, as stated above, highest
quality protection is desired or electrical operation is required. These
circuit breakers have longer life built into them than do other types of
low-voltage circuit breakers and are, therefore, suitable for many more
operations, particularly where there is moderately repetitive duty imposed.
Selective Tripping vs. Cascading. Large air circuit breakers may
be used either in selective tripping systems or in cascade systems. Selec-
tive tripping systems, Fig. 3.5, are those in which the circuit breakers are
set to trip selectively so that the one nearest the fault operates first so
that only the faulty portion of the circuit is deenergized. I n this case all
circuit breakers should have adequate interrupting ratings, that is, their
rating should be equal to or greater than the short-circuit duty a t the
156 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND ClRCUlT EQUIPMENT

## point of application. There are additional problems of selecting the

time-current settings which are discussed more fully in Chap. 9.
I n cascaded operation, Figs. 3.6 and 3.7, circuit breakers may he used
under certain circumstances beyond their interrupting rating. This
applies where the main circuit breaker (commonly referred to in applica-
tion tables as the A' circuit breaker) has adequate interrupting rating,
that is, its rating is equal to or greater than the short-circuit duty imposed
a t the point of application. The feeder circuit breakers (commonly
referred to in application tables as the B circuit breaker) in this case,
Fig. 3.6, may be used to twice their interrupting rating provided that the
following conditions are met. The total kva of connected synchronous
motors should not exceed 25 per cent of the supply transformer or
I
A /
GENERATOR
A
nlnUNIT
SUBSTATION
- A
3
Y
MAIN SECONDARY
BREAKER

ELECTRICALLY
OPERATED
SU0 - DISTRI0UTlON
CENTER

200 HP
FIG. 3.4 One-line diogrom showing typical applications of large air circuit breakers.
A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECnVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT I57

## generator rating. In addition t o the main circuit breakers having ade-

quate interrupting ratings, their instantaneous tripping attachment must
be set t o operate when the current through the backed-up or B circuit
breakers is not more than 80 per cent of the interrupting rating of the
backed-up or B circuit breakers. This ensures that the main circuit
breakers will operate whenever the short-circuit duty exceeds the inter-
rupting rating of the B circuit breakers.

-
A
UNIT SUESTDTION

## MDIN CIRCUIT BREAKER

RATE0 DT LEAST 50.000
DMP INTERRUPTING

## FEEDER CIRCUIT EREDKERS

RDTED 50,000AMP INTERRUPTING

## SHORT CIRCUIT DUTY DT THIS POINT

50.000 DMP RMS ASYMMETRICDL
WOOD DMP FROM THE TRANSFORMER
DND 9000 DMP FROM THE MOTORS

ERANCH FEEDER
CIRCUIT BREDK-

+FEEDER CABLE
/
SHORT CIRCUIT DUTY
DT THIS POINT 32.000 ~UE-BU~
DMP RMS DSYMMETRICDL 7
A

*
/I' ERDNCH FEEDER CIRCUIT
)BREDKERS RATED 25000
DMP INTERRUPTING
V
SHORT CIRCUIT DUTY
DT THIS POINT 22000
DMP RMS DSYMMETRICDL

## NOTE: SHORT CIRCUIT LEVELS

DT SUB E u s s E s n am
REDUCED DUE FEEDER
CAELE IMPEDDNCE
FIG. 3.5 One-line diagram showing large air circuit breakers applied in selective
tripping system. Time settings of overcurrent trip elements must be properly set to ob-
tain selectivity.
158 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

-
I

&I500
UNIT SUBSTATION

MAGNETIC TYPE

I I '
MOTOR
I SHORT CIRCUIT DUTY
AT THIS POINT 50.000AMP
CONTRIBUTION RMS ASYMMETRICAL
9000AMP

## NOTE: INSTANTANEOUS TRIP ELEMENT ON MPIN

BREAKER A MUST BE SET TO TRIP AT
16400 AMP THIS IS 0.8 OF 2 0 5 0 0 AMP
20500 AMP IS THE CURRENT FLOWING
FROM THE MAIN TRANSFORMER THRU
BREAKER A WHEN CURRENT FLOWING
THRU FEEDER BREAKER 0 I S 25.000 AMP
THE R A y i N G O F B R E A K E d B

FIG. 3.6 One-line diagram showing large oir circuit breakers applied in cascade with
only one source of low-voltage power.

## Motor contribution must be considered. The duty including motor

contribution should not exceed twice the interrupting rating of the
backed-up circuit breaker. However, the motor contribution may not
come through the main circuit breaker. Therefore, the main A' circuit-
breaker instantaneous trip setting may be less than 80 per cent of the
backed-up circuit-breaker interrupting rating because the main A' circuit
breaker must trip instantaneously when the total rms asymmetrical short-
circuit current through the backed-up circuit breaker is 80 per cent or
more of the interrupting rating of the backed-up B circuit breaker. For
example, in Fig. 3.6 if the backed-up or B circuit breakers are rated
25,000 amp interrupting rating, the short-circuit duty a t the point of
application of the B circuit breaker should not exceed 50,000 amp rms
asymmetrical. This may he made up of 41,000 amp from the main
source and 9000 amp from the motors. The main-source circuit breaker
must trip instantaneously a t 0.8 X 20,500 or 16,400 amp rms asym-
metrical. It makes no difference whether the circuit breaker is applied
a t the bus or a t some point remote from the bus. When the backed-up
circuit breakers are applied a t points remote from the bus, such as circuit
breakers B' in Fig. 3.7, the interrupting duty a t the circuit breaker ahead,
A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 159

## B in Fig. 3.7, may be in excess of twice the interrupting rating of the

backed-up B' circuit breaker, but because of cable impedance the short-
circuit current a t the point of application of the backed-up circuit breaker
B' must be limited to twice its interrupting rating. Circuit breakers
operating a t beyond their interrupting rating in cascade mustbe inspected
after each operation and may require more than normal maintenance
after interrupting currents beyond their rating even though the main
circuit breaker does open.
Another qnalification is that the circuit breakers must be of the same
manufacture and of similar characteristics. Feeder circuit breakersshould
be electrically operated because the forces incident to closing against
short circuits in excess of the circuit-breaker rating may preclude success-
ful manual closing. Circuit breakers of two widely different interrupting

I
f
&I000 KVA LObD CENTER
-UNIT SUBSTATION

I I I -knunar

I
NOTE! INSTbNTANEWS snom CIRCUIT DUTY
T R I P E L E M E N T ON HERE 26000 AMP RMS
FEEDER B R E I K E R B ISYMUETRICbL
MUST BE SET bT
12000 bMP(OQ X I 5 0 0 0 1

FIG. 3.7 One-line diagram showing large air circuit breakers in cascade applied
remote from the main source of power.
160 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTEtTlVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

## ratings cannot be cascaded. As a guide to this, refer to Table 3.2 which

shows the maximum interrupting rating circuit breaker which can he
used to back up any given interrupting rating feeder circuit breaker.
The ratio of the columns may be more than 2 : 1. The higher interrupt-
ing duty in the main circuit breaker often comes about because of having
t o select it for continuous current-carrying rating rather than inter-
rupting rating. Regardless of the interrupting rating of the main cir-
cuit breaker, the duty cannot exceed twice the interrupting rating of the
TABLE 3.2 Range of Large Air Circuit Breakers Which Can Be Cascaded with
Each Other
Main Circuit Breaker A' Minimum Interrupting Rating of
Interrupting Rating, Coscaded Feeder Circuit Breaker B,
Amp Rmr Amp Rmr
25,000 15.000
30,000 15,000
50.000 15.000
60,000 25,000
75,000 25,000
100,000 50.000
120,000 75,000
150.000 100.000

Where there are two or more sources of current to a bus with cascaded
feeder rircuit breakers, the following rule applies, Fig. 3.8. All main A'
circuit breakers (i.e., A : , A : , A : ) must be tripped instantaneously when
the total short-circuit current through the hacked-up B circuit breaker
exceeds 80 per cent of its interrupting ratings.
The example in Fig. 3.8 shows what the various instantaneous over-
current trip settings of the main circuit breakers should be for a given
case. The rule is that the instantaneous setting must be proportioned t o
the short-circuit current delivered through the main circuit breaker in
question. The interrupting rating of the B circuit breakers is 50,000
amp. When the total current reaches 40,000 amp, the current delivered
by these various sources is 6000 amp, 8000 amp, and 18,800 amp. The
motor contribution is 7200 amp. All currents are rms asymmetrical.
Cascaded operation is a means of lowering the cost of short-circuit pro-
tection in secondary systems. In the cascaded system, smaller feeder
circuit breakers are used than in the selective system; therefore this
differential favors the cascaded system from an economic standpoint.
I t must be recognized, however, that the service reliability of a cascaded
system is poorer than that of a selective system because in a cascaded
system, whenever a feeder short circuit draws a current in excess of 80
per cent of the interrupting rating of the feeder circuit breaker, the main
circuit breaker is tripped out and service on all feeders served by that
main circuit breaker or breakers is lost until the service is restored by
reclosing the main circuit breaker. This application has proved satis-
factory from a service-reliability standpoint for many industrial processes.
A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE OEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 161

## However, mhere critica1 processes are iiivolved, selective tripping is gen-

erally considered essential.
Selection of Large Air Circuit Breakers. As a guide t o selertion of
Iarge air circuit breakers for selective or cascade service, three-phase and
single-phase, see Tablc 3.3.

d:3J)
7 4 7 , 0AMP
0 0

## TOTAL SHORT CIRCUIT

CURRENTAT THIS POINT
18,000AMP 100,000 AMP R M S
ASYMMETRICAL

## WHEN TOTAL CURRENT THRU BREAKER B IS 0.8

OF ITS RATING I.E. 40,000 AMP BREAKERS n'i,
"'2 8 d j MUST TRIP. THE CURRENT FLOWING
IN THIS CASE AND THE INSTANTANEOUS TRIP
ELEMENT SETTINGSX ON BREAKERS ~ ) . n ; . eA; A R E : -

rMOTOR
CONTR IBUTION
7200 AMP
THIS FAULT DRAWS
40.000 AMP R M S
ASYMMETRICAL
FIG. 3.8 One-line diogram showing lorge air circuil breakers in cascade wilh more
ihan m e source of power to ihe main low-volloge bur.
-
bJ
m
TABLE 3.3 Air-circuit-breaker Application Tables-Cascade System and Selective System
600 Volts ond Less
Ratings required for equipment for Ironsformer and feeder circ~itl,with selection of circuit breaker 8 on basis of cascade sydsm and selective trip system. Other
fadois than short-circuit duty ore important in the selection of circuit breakers for selective trionine. Refer to monvfocturer for other lirnitotions.

## 208Y/120 Volts. Three Phoie I 240 Volts, Three Phase 3rn

__ 2
Tmnsformer
Short-circuit current, Short-circuit current, 5
rating, Recommended interrupting rating Recommended interrupting rating
rrni amp rmr amp
three-phore Norm. of o i r c i r w i t breaker Norm0 of air circuit breaker
(overage three-phase (average three-phase (see flgures above)
z5
.Zmpe.& ompore.) A
Con-
ti""O"l
, >
:".,O"t Trans- 100% B 6
Imped. relec-
Kvo once, amp A" A' ca+
ti*= c?
! I
,
I
code
trip
;
c
I
____________ __
112.5 4 313 8.400 1,350' 9,750 50,000
150 1 4 417 11,200 1.800
13.550 50,000
225 5 625 13,400 2,700 16,100 50,000
300 5 834 17.900 3.600 21 500 7 5 0 0 0
500 1,388
750 ~ 5% 2,080
2,780
4,170 95,900 150000 I00000 50000 100.000
1 ' 1 'I,
A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT I63
I64 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

Standards. The XEMA Standards that, apply to all large air circuit
breakers are KO. SG3-1951.

## Malded-case circuit breakers, Fig. 3.9, are smaller in dimension, less

sturdily constructed, and do not have t,he electrical &ararrces t h a t large
air circuit breakers have. They are distinguished from large air cir-
cuit hrcakcrs primarily because of the fact that t,hey are mounted in a
molded plastic case. These circuit, breakers have built-in trip element,s,
and in some cases they are adjustable. Also marly functions cannot, be
huilt into these smaller molded-case circuit-breaker tripping elements that
can be huilt into the large air circuit-breaker tripping e1ement.s. It, is
not easy t o make t,hem electrically operated or t o provide large numbers
of auxiliary swit,ches.
Ratings Available. Ratings are available as given in Table 3.4.

## FIG. 3.9 Molded-care air circvit breakers mounted in a panel board.

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 165

I
&75D

A
1:
KVA MAX
CIRCUIT
CASE
MOLDED {1h
1 )

## LOAD CENTER BREAKERS I 1 I I

SUBSTATION
WITH
MAGNETIC
CIRCUIT
BREAKERS

)
+MOLDED CASE

BREAKERS
I N PLUG-IN
DEVICE
INDIVIDUAL
MOLDED CASE
BREAKERS

DISTRIBUTION CENTER
MOLDED CASE
BREAKERS
FIG. 3.10 One-line diagram showing where molded-core air circuit breakers can be ap-
plied in a low-voltage power distribution system.

Application. Because of their small size and lower cost, the molded-
case circuit breakers find application for branch-circuit, protection where
the interrupting duty is within their interrupting rating, Fig. 3.10. They
also find applicabion on the secondaries of some small light-duty Ioad-
center unit substations.
Not Suitable for Cascade Operation. These circuit breakers are not
suitable for cascade operation wit,h large air circuit breakers berause they
operate so fast that the large air circuit breakers are not able to protect
them (see iVEhlA Standards for Large Air Circuit Breakers, Section
SG3-3.43). Xeither are they suitable for cascading vith ot.her molded-
case circuit breakers. This conclusion mas reached after exhaustive tests.
166 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

## Selection of Interrupting Ratings. As a guide, the portion of Table 3.3

referring t o circuit hreakers for selective operation may be used mhere the
continuous current is less than 600 amp and iiiterrupting duty is within
the available ratings of molded-case circuit breakers.
Table 3.4 gives the interrupting ratings as defined by applicable
NEMA standards.
TABLE 3.4 Interrupting Rotings of Molded-cose Circuit Breakers for
A-C Service

## Interrupling iatingi, r m i amp orymmetrical

Range of trip-coil
240 ~ o l t s
and below i 241-480 volts

I
600 ~ 0 1 1 s
rrrtingr amp

~-

7,500 15-100
20,000 15,000 15.000 15-100
25,000 20,000 15.000 125-225
30,000 25,000 25,000 125-225
50,000 35,000 25.000 125-600

## Standards. At preseiit there are no applicable NEMA standards for

molded-case air circuit breakers.

FUSED SWITCHES

## Fused switches, Fig. 3.11, consist of an interrupter switch and a fuse

mouuted on a common base and usualiy in a metal enclosure. There are
many types and varieties available.
There are severa1 types of fuses available. The most common variety
is the standard N E C (Kational Electrical Code) cartridge fuses. These
fuses practically a11 corisist,of a fusible link enclosed in a cylindrical cart-
ridge with connectors a t each end t o slip into the fuse clips of the switch.
Xew and improved designs of fuses and switches for low-voltage service
have been developed recently. The fuses are mainly of the current-
limiting high interrupting capacity silver-sand type, typical of which is
the General Electric type EJ-6 fuse shomn in the smitch in Fig. 3.11.
Typical of the improved switches is t,he type HCI switc,h as manufac-
tured by the Trumhull Components Department of the General Electric
Company. To be specific in the follomiiig discussion of the improved
types of fuses and switches, the type HCI smitch and EJ-6fuseivill beused.
Ratings Availoble. There is a wide variety of lon-voltage fuses and
switches available. These ratings run from as low as a few amperes up t o
A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 167

FIG. 3.1 1 High-copocity interrupting (HCI) enclosed switch with high interrupting-rating
current-limiting silver-rand fuses (EJ-6).

## several hiindred amperes. Cnfortunately most, of them do not have

short-cirruit rat,ings assigned. Again, t,o be specifio, t,lie type IICI
switch and E.J-6 fuse will be used t,o illusirate a-c short-circuit abilities
which have hem established hy test,. The preserit availahle data are
listed in Table 3.5.

## TABLE 3.5 I n t e r r u p t i n g Ability of Type HCI Switches and EJ-6

C u r r e n t - l i m i t i n g Fuses (1954)

## Type HCI switch

II Type EJ-6 fuses lnterrvpling ability of
I combination HCI rwilch

Volts
! -I,
Amperes Volts 1
I
Amperes

15-20-30
and EJ-6 fuse. amp
byml

100.000
100.000
100,000
200 l00,000

## Application. All small hiRh-interrupting-ability loix~-voltagefuses are

current,-limit,ing in t,heir action, hence are very fast in their operation, and
from this staidpoint they are partieiilarly well suited t o branch-circuit
168 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMEW

UNIT SUBSTATION

## INDIVIDUAL WALL MOUNTED

H C I SWITCHES AND E J - 6 FUSES
FIG. 3.12 One-line diagram showing whsre safety switches m d fuses may be applied as
the lost protective device in low-voltage distribution circuits.
A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 169

## AVAILABLE SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT-

ASYMMETRICAL R M S AMPERES
1.25 I SYMMETRICAL (AVERAGE FOR THREE CONDUCTORS)

## AVAILABLE SHORT CIRCUIT

FIG. 3.1 3 Curves showing the current-limiting choracterirtics of type EJ-6 silver-sand
current-limiting fuses (60cycler).
I70 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

will withstand 9000 amp rms for 0.2 cycle. So, the 30-amp fuse vill pro-
tect a wire which will be required to carry 30-amp load current.
This current-limiting feature, in addition to protecting small wires in
systems of high short-circuit-current capacity, can protect small switching
devices. It is for this reason that the type HCI switch can he used with
type EJ-6 fuses 011 circuits where the available short-cirruit-current duty
is as high as 100,000 amp.
The t,ype HCI switch and EJ-G fuse combination has high interrupting
rating arid is current-limit,ing in its operation which enables it to beusedin
many places where molded-case circuit breakers would not have adequate
interrupting rating and where large air circuit breakers would be too ex-
pensive, too large, or not applicable from an engineeriug standpoint. For
example, a circuit breaker for a 30-amp circuit fed from a certain low-
voltage bus may require a circuit breaker with 100,000 amp interrupting
rating. The wire or cable mould have t o be of the order of 350 MCM t o
withstand the short-circuit current. I n the first place, a 100,000-amp
interrupting rating circuit breaker cannot be built with a 30-amp trip coil
that will withstand the short-circuit forces or heating. I n the second
place, any 30-amp load devire mould not have terminals that would
accommodat,e 350-MCM cable, the size required to withstand 100,000
amp. The use of an EJ-G current-limiting fuse and the HCI switch rated
30 amp would provide adequate short-circuit protection, and the current-
limiting effect of the fuse mould enable a wire of smaller size t o be used.
The switch and fuse comhinat,ion is not generally suitable for main feeder
circuit protection because of the fact that it is difficult to make the fast
current-limiting fuses operate selectively with other overcurrent protec-
tive devices that would be in the circuit between the fuse and the load.
Standards. Information for standards on fuses may be obtained from
the Underwriters Laboratories, Incorporated, bulletin, Standard for
Fuses.
Information on st,aridards for enclosed switches (safety switches) may
be obtained from IJnderwriters Laboratories, Incorporated, bulletin,
Standard for Enclosed Switches or NEMA Publication No. 42-78,
Enclosed Switch Standards.

## SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

FOR SYSTEMS ABOVE 600 VOLTS
There are in general two types of short-circuit protective equipment
available for systems above GO0 volts. These are:
1. Power circuit breakers
2. Power fuses
A-C SHORT.CIRCUlT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 171

## POWER CIRCUIT BREAKERS

There are many types of power circuit breakers availahle, but basically
they are divided into the oil t,ypc and the nillcss type. I n the field 2.4- t o
13.8-kv t,he oilless-type cirruit breaker, Fig. 3.14, has largely superseded
t h e oil-t,ype circuit breaker. In indoor metal-enclosed switehgear of the
st,ation t,ypc for circuits 13.8 Lo 34.5 kv, the air-type circuit breakers are
in general superseding the oil-type vircuit breakers. I n the field above
11.A kv for outdoor switchgear, oil circuit breakers are most commonly
used, Fig. 3.15. For the sake of the discussion here relative to d e c t i o n
of equipment>fiom a short,-rircuit standpoint, it makes no difference
whcthcr the rircirit breakers are of t,he nil or oilless type.
Ratings Available. High-voltage power circuit breakers are availahle
in ratings from 2.4 kv up to over 300 kv and in interruptirig ratings from
15 mva up to 25,000 mva. Complete listings of power circuit breakers
can he found iii the latest copy of S E R l A Standards SG&l954. T h e cir-
cuit, breakers most comtnonly used in industrial plants are the oilless or
air type, sho\rn i n Fig. 3.14. The available ratings of this type of cir-
cuit breaker are given in Table 1.1 (Chap. I).

FIG. 3.14 Typical ille err (air) power circuit breaker ar wed in metal-clad switchgear for
c i t w i t s rated 2.4 to 13.8 kv.
172 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

FIG. 3.15 Outdoor frome-type oil circuit breaker 01 used in circuits rated above 15 kv.
This circuit breoker i s rated 34.5 kv.

## Application. Power circuit breakers are applicable anywhere in the

syst,cms rated 2.4 kv up t,o the highest a-c voltages in use today. They
combine all the essential characteristics for circuit switching and protec-
t,ion and therefore may be used at main buses supplied by generators or
transformers or i n connection with unit substations. They are also
applirable at, loral switching points and for protection of primary branch
circuits (see Fig. 3.16).
Motor Starting or Other Repetitive Duty. Certain of the power circuit
breakers, particularly the oilless type, are suitable for motor-st,arting duty
within the limitations outlined by the manufacturer. It should be noted
that compared with contact,ors the principal limitation of power circuit
breakers for motor-starting duty is the degree of repetitive duty that can
be withstood. Contactors are designed for more operations and longer
life under severe operating duty cycles than are power circuit breakers.
A-C SHORT-CIPCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES ANO CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 173

## Selection of Interrupting Ratings. The selection of interrupting

ratings of power circuit breakers for industrial applications is out,lined in
Chap. 1. A detailed description of the various faetors to consider in
applying oilless eircuit breakers as used in metal-clad switchgear is given
there.
I I 69 KV

Q P OUTDOOR POWER
C I R C U I T BREAKERS

Q GENERATOR T TYWI

GENERATOR TRANSFORMER
CIRCUIT BREAKER SECONDARY
CIRCUIT BREAKER

!
' MAlN FEEDER
CIRCUIT BREAKER

A AHEAD O F L I N E
OF L I M I T A M P
MOTOR STARTERS

LARGE OU
HIGH VOLTAGE
MOTORS

FIG. 3.16 One-line diogrorn rhowing where oilless power circuit breakerr in metal-clad
rwitchgeclr and outdoor power cirwit brecikerr may be applied in industrial power dir-
tribution ryrtemr.
174 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

SG1-19%

## POWER FUSES A N D OIL-FUSE CUTOUTS

There are many types of power fuses available for circuits rated 2.4 kv
and above. These t,ypes of fuses, generally speaking, divide t,hemselves
into three categories. The first is the power fuse, typical examples of
which are shown in Fig. 3.17 which are for high-rapacity power circuits.
The second type that is slightly differeni, i n construct,ion i s the oil-fuse
cutout, which i s really a combination of a cntout and a fuse immersed
in a container of oil, Fig. 3.18. The third type of fuse is used mainly in
distribntion cutouts for overhead opcir-wire outdoor distriliutioii systems
of utilit.ics in urban and suburban areas, Fig. 3.119.

FIG. 3.17 Typical high-voltage (above 600 volts1 power furer: Ifeft) current-limiting non-
enpulrion silver-rand type, (right] "on-current-limiting expulsion outdoor type.
176 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DNICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

## The last type of fuse mentioned is applicable toindustrial power systems

for outdoor installations only where the interrupting rating is less than
the duty on the system. This fuse is not metal-enclosed and is not for
indoor installation.
I n general, power fuses divide thcmselves into two classes, i.e., current-
limiting and non-current-limiting. Typical of the current-limiting
category are the silver-sand fuses, Fig. 3.17(left). Typical of the non-cur-
rent-limiting type are the oil-fuse cutout, Fig. 3.18, the expulsion fuses,
Fig. 3.17(right), as well as the “boric acid” fuses and “liquid” power fuses.
A further classification is that some are expulsion type, i.e., expel hot
gases when they operate. These are not suitable for indoor application
because of the hazard of the expelled hot gases. Such fuses are the
expulsion fuse, Fig. 3.17(right), and the “boric acid” fuse without a con-
denser and the “liquid fuse”. Typical of the nonexpulsion type are the
silver-sand fuse, Fig. 3.17(left), and the “boric acid’’ fuse with condenser.
Application- General. All types of power fuses operate faster than
power circuit breakers a t or near their interrupting ratings. Because of
the fast operating time of the fuses, they are generally employed as the
last circuit protective device in each voltage level in a primary power sys-
tem, as shown in Fig. 3.20. Typical applications are in motor starters
and ahead of primaries of transformers stepping down to a lower volt-
age. The silver-sand fuse, Fig. 3.17(left), is often the preferred type of
fuse for power circuits because of its fast operating time and current-
limiting ability. However, in some cases where coordination is required,
it may be necessary to use non-current-limiting types of fuses which have
longer time delay. However, when the longer time delay is obtained,
the benefits of reduction of damage to the circuit through which short-
circuit current passes is lost to a large degree.
Interrupter Switches and Fuses. Nonexpulsiori-type power fuses suit-
able for indoor use are often applied in a metal enclosure with an inter-
rupter switch to form a switch-and-fuse cornbination for high-voltage
circuits. Interrupter switches are desirable for this application because
they have interrupting ratings usually in the range of 100 to 400 amp.
Plain disconnecting switches are generally not satisfactory for this service
because they have no interrupting ability, and therefore the combination
of the plain switch and fuse cannot be used as a load-switching device.
The oil-fused cutouts combine in one unit the fuse and the interrupter
switching element. Interrupter slyitches and fuses and oil-fused cutouts
find wide application in industrial plants as the primary swit,ching and
protecting section of a load-center unit substation (see Chap. 11).
Application of Fuses in O p e n Switching Structures. Open-structure
switches or disconnect,ing mountings without current-interrupting ability
are often used with power fuses. These can be considered for isolation
purposes only. Hazards in operations are materially increased in this
A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DNICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 177

## type of appliration. That is the reason that such applications should be

limited t o outdoor structures Ivhere the operator is a considerable distance
from the disconnecting switch when operating it. The use of such
isolatiug switches i n series with fuses in indoor metal-enclosed structures
is not coilsidered safe practice bemuse of thc proximity of the operator
to t,he sivitrh and the possibility of the operator inadvertently operating
the switch under roiiditions i u which the switch will hare to interrupt or
close in on currents ronsiderably beyond its ability. Failure may result
eveti though there is a fuse in series with such switches.
33 K V

## P UTDOOR TYPE FUSE

SMALL POWER
IyTy\ TRANSFORMER

I
LIMITING

USE INTERRUPTER SWITCH AND POWER FUSE OR
FUSED OIL CUTOUTS.

FIG. 3.20 One-line diagram rhowing where high-voltage (above 600 VOllS) Power
may be applied in industrial power distribution systems.
178 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

## Selecting Fuse-interrupting Rating. Fuses are generally rated in

amperes interrupting ahility. CMculate the short-circuit duty in rms
amperes asymmetrical at the first half cycle as outliiied in Chap. 1, and
select a fuse whose interrupting rating is greater than the duty imposed.
Equivalent three-phase iiiterrupt,ing ratings may also be considered.
Since the ratings of fuses are not too well st,andardized, refer t o t h e fuse
manufacturer for complete data before applying fuses.
Standards. Power fuses are covered by S E M A Standards, Cutouts,
I’orer Fuses, and Current-limit,ing Resistors, Publication S(2-1954,
and AIEE Standards S o . 25.

MOTOR STARTERS

## There are in general three kinds of motor starters:

1 . The contactor
2. The combination motor starter
3 . The circuit breaker
Contactors are in general of two types, the most common variety being
t,hose which have a n interrupting rating of only ten times normal rated
current. These are completely inadequate for short-circuit protection
and must have addit,ional short-circuit protection provided b y either
fuses or circuit breakers.
When a short,-circuit protective device such as a fuse or circuit breaker

## FIG. 3.21 Typical low-

voltage 1600 volts and
below) combination motor
starter with current-limit-
ing silver-rand furer for
short-circuit protection.
A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 179

## is used in comhinatiori with contactors, it forms what is commonly called

a combination motor starter.
Circuits 600 Volts and Less (Fig. 3.21). In systems 600 volts and less
there are t w i types of cornhination motor starters, both employing the
same type of cont,act,or. The first employs a fuse disconnecting sm.itch
alirad of t,he conta,ctor, and the other a circuit, breaker, usually a molded-
case-type circuit breaker, ahead of t,he cout,actor. The select,ion between
t,hese two is based mainly on the fuudamerital differelice betveen fuses
and circuit, breakers as short-circuit protective devices. The fused
combinatirin motor starters have an over-all inter-
rupting ahility so that the combination motorst,arter
can successfully irit,errupt an available short-circuit
current equal t,o 50,000 amp rms asymmetrical wheri
equipped wit,h high-interrupt,ing-capacity current-
limiting fiises. This is for a short circuit outside ”
the case of t,he mot,or starter and using type E.14
fuses.
The molded-case circuit-breaker comhiiiat,ion
mot,or starters are limited to a maximum duty of
15,000 or 25,000 amp rms asymmet,rical.
Circuits above 600 Volts (Fig. 3.22). For circuits
of 2.4 kv aud up t o 5 kv, the combination motor
starter commonly used consists of current-limiting
silver-sand fuses and contactors with the fuses
mount,ed in disconnecting-type supports and placed
in a metal enclosure s o interlocked that the fuses
cannot be disconneeted unless the coritactor is in the
open position. In this way the disconnecting fuse
mounting has no current to interrupt. Since the FIG.3.22 Typicalhigh-
fuses are for short-circuit protection only, suit,able (2,4to 4,8 kv)
running overload relays should he provided in the bin tio motor
motor st.art,er. These motor starters have inter- starter using current-lim-
rupting ratings of 150 mva at 2.4 kv and 250 mva iting rilver-rand power
a t 4.16 kv. From a short-circuit standpoint they furel for short-circuit
protection.
may be appIied up to their momentary and int,er-
rupting rat,iiig. Since these devices contain fuses as the short-circuit
protective element, they are naturally best suited t o application as the
last protective device in the circuit. When used as motor starters, they
are t,he last protective device, and therefore the fast operating time of
the fuse is a very dist,inct advantage in limiting damage in the motors
when a failure occurs. The fast operating time of the fuse also permits
low settings on other relays further back in t.he system.
180 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

## SELECTION OF CONDUCTORS AND OTHER CIRCUIT

COMPONENTS FROM A SHORT-CIRCUIT STANDPOINT
The floiv of short-circuit current in an electric system imposes mechani-
cal and thermal st,resses (heating) on all component,sof the system through
which such currents flow. This includes cables, bus bars, current trans-
formers, disconnecting switches, as \veil as circuit breakers, fuses, and
motor starters. The following is intended t,o aid in the selection of circuit
component,s, ot,her than circuit breakers, fuses, and motor starters, from
a short-circuit,-current standpoint.

## Multiple-conductor power cables possess high mechanical strength

because of the compact conductor lay and the continuous concentric bind-
ing arsist,ed many times by armor or lead sheath. KOlimit on mechanical
stresses in such cables has been assigned.
This is not true with regard to thermal effects. In common with ot,her
current-carrying parts of the electric system during short-circuit-rurrent
flow, the abrupt elevation in conductor temperature will be limited only
by the ability of the conductor metal to absorb the heat developed. The
magnitude of the temperature increase is greater (1) as the current magni-
tude becomes greater (as the square of the current), (2) as the conductor
cross section becomes smaller, and (3) as the duration of current flow
becomes greater.
Temperature limits. Power-system short-circuit-current magnitudes,
feeder-conductor cross section, and short-circuit protective device inter-
rupting time should be coordinated to avoid severe permanent damage to
cable insulation during an interval of short-circuit-current flow in the
system. The effect should be limited to a moderate reduction in useful
cable life (possibly 1 per cent of normal life).
Reasonable maximum-peak transient temperatures for various cable
insulations and operating potentials have been designated and in general
are approximately 150 C (see Table 3.6). At a slightly higher tempera-
ture (approximately 175 C), destructive disint,egration of organic mate-
rials may occur, accompanied by smoke and combustible vapors. At
somewhat higher temperatures large quantities of combustible vapors are
expelled which increases the risk of explosion and fire.
It is important to note that the abnormal temperature persists much
longer than t,he duration of short-circuit-current flow. For example, the
flow of 20,000 amp in a KO. 4/0-Awg copper conductor will elevate the
A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 181
copper temperature from an initial temperature of 75 C to 150 C i i i ahout
34 see. With the current then redured to zero, about 1000 see d l be
required for the copper temperature to return to 75 C in a 30 C ambient.

## TABLE 3.6 Conductor Rated Maximum Continuous Operating Temperature

and Peak Transient (Momentary) Temperature for Various Types
and Operating Voltages
-
MOX
lollogl lronrienl
Cable type d.**, copper
kv temp.
C
-
Vc type V or VL, single conductor or three conductor.. ....... I 85 I50
5 85 145
8 84 135
I5 77 120

5 85 I45
8 85 140
I5 81 135

5 85 135
8 85 I30
I5 81 125

## Type R*. ............................................ I 60 I40

5 60 135
8 60 130
15 60 125

T i p s RH ............................................ 1 75 I50
5 75 145
8 75 140

## Coronol ............................................. 1 80 I50

5 80 145
8 80 I40
15 80 I30
- -
* Applies to newtype R (1947 code specification).
t Actual operating temperature may be lompr because of consprvative application
or a favorable ambient temperature.

## Conductor H e a t i n g . On the basis that all heat produced by short-

circuit-current flow is initially absorbed by the rondurtor metal (wbirh
I82 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DNICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

## TABLE 3.7 Quick Estimating Table o f Minimum Conductor Sire'

A. Low-voltoge Air-circuit-breaker Protection

Short-circuit current.
~ ~~

omp
11.25 X rymmetricall 1.5 to 2 cycles
linrt. trip)
>g s*c

## 5,000 No. 8 Awg No. 4 Awg No. 2 Awg

I0,OOO No. 4 Awg No. 1 Awg No. 1/0 A w g
15,000 No. 2 Awg No. 2/0 Awg No. 3/0 Awg
25,000 No. I Awg No. 4/0 AWQ 300 M C M

## 35,000 No. 1/0 Awg 300 M C M 400 M C M

5o.m No. 3 / 0 A w g 400 M C M 600 MCM
75,000 300 M C M 600 M C M 800 M C M
100.000 350 M C M 800 M C M I000 M C M

current, amp
(1.0 x
symmetricoll

## 3,000-3.500 ...... 25mvo ....... 75 m w N o . 6 A w g No. 2 Awg No. 2 Awg

3,500-4.000 ........................... No. 4 Awg No. 2 Awg No. 1 Awg
4.000-4.500 ............. 50 mva ....... No. 4 Awg No. 2 Awg No. 1 Awg
4.500-5.000 ........................... No. 4 Awg No. 2 Awg No. 1/0 Awg

## 5,000-6.000 ........................... No. 2 A w g No. 1 Awg No. 2/0 Awg

6.000-7.000 25 mva 50 m w ....... I50 mva No. 2 Awg No. 1 Awg No. 2/0 Awg
7,000-8,000 ........................... No. 2 Awg No. I / O Awg No. 3 / 0 Awg
8,000-9.000 ............. 100 mva ....... No. 1 Awg No. 2/0 Awg No. 3/0 Awg

9,000-1 0,000 ........................... No. 1 Awg No. 2/0 Awg No. 4/0 Awg
10,000- 12.500 50 mvo .............. 250 mvo No. 1/0 Awg Na 3/0 Awg 250 M C M
12.500-15,000 ...... 100 mva 150 m w ....... No. 2/0 Awr No. 4/0 Awg 300 M C M
15.000-20.000 ........................... No. 3 / 0 A w r 300 MCM 400 M C M

20,000-25.000 00 m w 150 m w 250 m w 500 m w No. 4/0 AWI 350 MCM 500 M C M
25,000-30.000 ........................... 250 M C M 400 MCM 600 M C M
30.000-35.000 ...... 250 mva ....... 750 mvo 300 M C M 500 MCM 750 M C M
35.000-40.000 5 0 m r o ....... 500 mvm ....... 350MCM 600 MCM 750 M C M
A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQVIPMENT 183

has been proved to be valid for canductor sizes of No. 8 Awg or larger*),
the conductor heating is governed by the following:
For Copper:

## t = duration of current flow, see

I = rms amperes during entire interval of current flow
em = conductor cross sect,ion, cir mils
T I= initial copper temperature, C
T 2= final copper temperature, C
To simplify a n application, these relationships are presented graphically
in the large chart in Fig. 3.23. The permissible time for various ternpera-
ture ranges can be quickly evaluated with the aid of the auxiliary curve B ,
shown in Fig. 3.23. For quick estimating purposes, minimum safe con-
ductor size is given in Table 3.7, subject to application conditions as
shown.
For Aluminum. The problem of joining and terminating aluminum
conductors without creating local “hot spots” deserves very careful
attention. There are available, however, materials and methods which
laboratory tests and experience have proved to be satisfactory.
In the absence of abnormal local heating, a rough approximation of per-
missible current duration may he made on the basis of the same limiting
temperatures as for copper. (For a particular current and conductor
cross section, the permissible duration of short-circuit-current flow will
he 45 per cent of that for copper.) It may be more convenient to make
an artificial correction in current. Consider the current to be 150 per
cent of the actual value, and proceed on the chart (Fig. 3.23) as if the
conductor were copper.
Rms Current. Rms current as used here is defined as the root-rnean-
square value for the total interval of short-circuit-current flow. The
temporary d-c component encountered in a-c circuits increases the rms
current, but to a lesser extent as the interval of current flow becomes
longer. The appropriate factor K , by which the symmetrical current
value shall be multiplied to determine the true rms current is given in
chart A , Fig. 3.23, for several typical ratios of circuit 60-cycle reactance
* B. W.Jones and J. A. Seott, Short-time Current Ratings for Aircraft Wire and
Cable. AIEE Technical I’sper, 1946.
184 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT
A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 18.5

"I. -8.
FIG. 3.23 Short-time bhort-circuit) heating limits of copper cables and correlation of
current and time to elevate the copper temperature from 75 to 150 C (dlheat is oirumed
to be stored in the copped.

## to resistance (distribution circuits will generally fall in thc region of

X / R = 10 or less).
Circuit X / R ratio is generally not known and requires numerous circuit
constants for an evaluation. Conservative factors ( K , ) for the more
common application conditions are
Low-voltage circuit breakers tripped instantaneously K , = 1.25
Power circuit breakers, eight cycle, instantaneously tripped K I = 1 . 1
Any industrial power-distribution problem with current dura-
tion of 35 sec or more K , = 1.0
Short-circuit Protective-device Interrupting Time. Circuit Breakers.
The minimum time duration of short-circuit-current flow in a rircuit
protected by a circuit breaker tripped by an instantaneous element will
vary with the type of circuit breaker used. Typical values are shown in
the lower left-hand corner of the large chart in Fig. 3.23.
When interruption is purposely delayed by time-delay relays or time-
delay trip coils, the duration of current flow will be governed by the time-
delay relay or trip coil plus the inherent delay in the circuit breaker.
Fuses (Current-limiting) , Current-limiting fuses (silver-sand and
National Electrical Code low voltage) tend progressively to limit the
time interval of current flow to lesser values as the magnitude of current
increases. As the current magnitude increases toward the maximum
interrupting ability of the fuse, the magnitude of Z't approaches a fixed
value (approximately) for a particular fuse ampere rating. This is
equivalent to a fixed temperature rise in a particular size of conductor.
Data accumulated indicate that a fuse (of the types mentioned in this
paragraph) whose ampere rating is not greater than 1.5 times the conduc-
tor continuous-current rating will protect against dangerous conductor
106 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DNICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

## temperatures for severe overcurrents up to the maximum interrupting

rating of the fuse.
Table 3.8 shows the wire sizes which will have less than 75 C conductor

## TABLE 3.8 Silver-sand Fuse Protection at High Overcurrents Based

on Copper Conductor

Fuse S m a l l ~ twire
Sm.lle.t wire
roting, normally vied,
protected
amp RH insulation

## 30 No. 10 Awg No. 14 Awg

60 No. 6 Awg No. I2 Awg
I00 No. 3 Awg No. 10 Awg
IS0 No. 1/0 Awg No. 0 Awg
200 No. 3/0 Awg No. 6 Awg

## temperature rise because of the flow of short-circuit current when pro-

tected by silver-sand fuses.
Fuses (Nou-current-limiting). Non-current-limiting fuses accomplish
current interruption at a normal current zero, and thus the current con-
duction time cannot be reduced below that of the first current loop of
short-circuit-(.urrent flow which may be as much as about one cycle of
the power frequenry. Applications should thus recognize one cycle as
the minimum time of short-circuit-current flow.
Application Procedure. 1. Evaluate the symmetrical short-circuit
current or currents that may be critiral.
2. Define the short-circuit protertive device clearing time at this or
these current magnitudes.
3. Apply the rms correction factor to allom for the d-c component for
each time interval involved.
4. Make an initial check on the current-time chart for the smallest
conductor size being considered (permissible time should exceed short-
circuit protective-device interrupting time).
5 . If critical, it is advisable to rorreet for the exart temperature range
(see Table 3.6 and temperature-range correction curve).
F. If an oversize ronduetor is considered, but the continuous-load rur-
sent is to remain fixed, advantage can be taken of the lower initial ron-
ductor temperature.

EXAMPLES

## Example 1. A transformer feeder cable is being selected to accom-

modate a 1000-kva 2.4-kv transformer. The rated current of the t,rans-
former (240 amp) indirates a rahle conductor of 250 MCM. The trans-
A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT I87

former iri question is good for full short-circuit current (sixteen times
normal) for 5 sec. It is desired that the feeder cable have the same
ability.
Solution: Rms symmetrical amperes = rated current X 16 = 240 x
16 = 3900 amp. The duration of this current as defined by the condi-
tions of the problem is 5 sec.
Assume X / R ratio = 10 or less
From chart A of Fig. 3.23, K 1 = 1; ( X / R ratio of 10 and time of 5 sec)
Henre, the total rms amperes affecting cable heating = K , X 3900
= 1.0 X 3900 = 3900 amp
On the large rhart of Fig. 3.23, locate the intersection of the horizontal
3900-amp line and the 250-MCM conductor diagonal line. The per-
missible time (read on the bottom scale) is indicated to be 12 sec (75 to
150 C hasis).
The 250-MCM cable will adequately meet the 5-sec requirement.
Example 2. Feeder circuits are t o be run from a 480-volt 60-cycle
load-center unit substation at which point the short-circuit duty is
25,000 amp (20,000 symmetrical rms amperes). What is the smallest
reasonable feeder conductor size based on the use of a 25,000-amp inter-
rupting rating air circuit breaker which trips instantarieously (1.5 cycles)
a t currents in excess of fifteen times the normal rating?
solulion:
Symmetrical current = 20,000 amp
Time duration = 1.5 cycles
Rms amperes = 20,000 X 1.25 = 25,000
See preceding text for explanation of 1.25 factor K ,
On the large rhart of Fig. 3.23, locate the intersection of the horizontal
25,000-amp line and the vertical 1.5-cycle line. The minimum size con-
ductor (75 to 150 C basis) whose curve is above the intersection is a
KO.1 Awg.
Example 3. A 4-kv feeder is t o be run from a substation at which the
symmetrical short-circuit current is 25,000 amp. A continuous load
caparit,y of 1000 kva is desired (113 amp), and a KO.2/0-Awg coronol
cable run is being considered. Line relaying is to consist of standard
time-overcurrent relays on the &amp tap and S o . 5 time-lever setting
v i t h 250/5-amp rurrent transformers. Instantaneous attachments are
not planned, but could be used if set at 3000-amp line current.
Solution:
Symmetriral short-circuit current = 25,000 amp
Case 1. No instantaneous attachment on relay
Rms symmetrical short-circuit current = 25,000 amp
Relay operating time = 50 cycles; (From published time-current
curves)
Circuit-breaker operating time = 8 cycles
188 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

## Total time = 50 + 8 = 58 cycles

Assume X / R ratio = 15 or less
From chart A of Fig. 3.23, K 1 = 1
Hence, total rms amperes affecting cable heating = KI X 25,000
= 1.0 X 25,000 = 25,000 amp
On the large chart of Fig. 3.23, locate the intersection of the 25,000-amp
horizontal line and t,he 58-cycle vertical line. The smallest conductor
whose curve lies above this intersection is a 500 MCM. Therefore, a
Case 2. Instantaneous attachment, on relay set to operate at and above
3000 line amperes.
Two point,s must, he checked: (1) a current of 3000 amp and time delay
of overcurrent relay (just below the operating current of the instantaneous
element) and (2) the maximum current with instantaneous relay operation.
1. From published relay data, the relay time a t 3000 line amperes is 66
cycles, circuit-breaker time is 8 cycles, making a total time of 66 + 8 =
74 cycles.
From chart A of Fig. 3.23 for X / R ratio of 10 and time of 7 1 cycles,
K I = 1.
Total rms amperes affecting cable heating = KI X 3000 = 1.0 X 3000
= 3000 amp.
The intersection of 3000 amp and 71 cycles on the large chart of Fig.
3.23 s h o m that a Xo, 2/0-Awg conductor is amply large to carry the
3000 amp for 74 cycles.
2. At the maximum current, instantaneous relay operation will be
obtained.
The total current duration will be the relay time ?,g cycle plus circuit-
breaker time 8 cycles, or 836 cycles.
For 8>i-cycle time interval, K , = 1.1.
Total rms current affecting cable heating = K , X 25,000 = 1.1 X
25,000 = 27,500 amp.
The intersection of the 27,500-amp horizontal line and the 84g-cycle
vertical line on the large chart of Fig. 3.23 indicates a No. 4/0-Awg con-
ductor (75 to 150 C basis) and shows that point 2 cont,rols the cable size.
However, a No. 4/0-Awg conduct,or mould operate at less than rated
temperature. A specific check may show that a KO. 3/0-Awg conductor
Rated conductor temperature coronol cable = 80 C (see Table 3.6),
ambient temperature = 40 C. Xormal temperature rise produced by
rated current = 80 - 40 = 40 C.
Rated continuous current for No. 3/0-Awg coronol cable = 185 amp.
The temperature rise will be roughly proportional to the square of the
current.
A-C SHORTT-CIRCUITPROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

r
189

T i m e - seconds

I
190 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT

## Hence, the normal conductor temperature of a No. 3/0-Awg conductor

operating a t 143 amp would he expected to be

## (g)’ (full-load rise) + ambient =

= 63.8 C, or 64 C
The maximum momentary temperature for coronol at 5 kv is 145 C
(see Table 3.6).
From detail chart B , Fig. 3.23, the correction factor K for an initial
conductor temperature of 64 C and final of 145 C is K = 1.13.
From the large chart of Fig. 3.23, the permissible time for 27,500 amp
in No. 3/0-Awg conductor (75 to 150 C basis) is 6.7 cycles.
The permissible time corrected t o a 64 to 145 C basis is K X 6.7
= 1.13 X 6.7 = 7.6 cycles.
Therefore, a No. 4/O-Awg conductor is the correct selection since a
No. 3/O-Awg conductor would fail t o meet the 8.5-cycle requirement.

## FUSING CURRENT TIME FOR COPPER CONDUCTORS

The fusing current time curves for copper conductors are shown in
Fig. 3.21. The curves are based on the folloiving assumptions:
1. Radiatiou may be neglected because of the short time involved.
2. Resistance of 1 cu cm of copper at 0 C is 1.589 microhms.
3. Temperature-resistance coefficient of copper a t 0 C is 1/234.
4. Melting point of copper is 1083 C.
5. Ambient temperature is 40 C.
Data are an adaptation from the eight,h edition of “Standard Handbook
for Elect,rical Engineers.”*
* A . E. Knowlton (editor-in-chief), “Standard Handhook for Electrical Engineers,”
8th ed., Chap. 4, McGraw-Hill Book Company, h e . , S e w York, 1949.
Chapter 4 by W. R. Crites and Maynord N. Halberg*

## Voltage-Standard Ratings, A llowable

Variations, Reduction of Variations,
Calculation of Drops

## The purpose of any industrial power system is to maintain voltage a t

the terminals of power-using equipment. This voltage should be-
within acceptable limits-equal to the rated voltage of this equipment.
The standard voltage ratings for utilization equipment are discussed in
this chapter, along with the standard voltage ratings for power generation
and distribution equipment.
KOpractical power system can maintain voltage a t rated value a t the
utilization equipment a t all times. The voltage variations allowable and
the methods which can be used in the design of a power system to keep
the variations within acceptable limits are discussed. I t is necessary to
calculate the voltage drop in the power system for steady-state conditions
and during the starting of the larger motors to determine whether or not
the voltage mill remain within acceptable limits. Methods of calculating
these voltage drops are presented in this chapter.
* The following men, formerly in Industrial Pawcr Enginwring. General Electric
Company, made substantial contributions to the material in this chapter: W. K.
Boice, General Electric Company, l e w Haven. Conn.; D. F. Capehart. General
Electric Company, Cincinnati, Ohio; J. R. Eliason, General Electric Company,
191
192 V O L T A G F S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

VOLTAGE DESIGNATIONS *
It is necessary t o have a n understanding of the voltage names of sys-
tems and t,he voltage rat,ings of various pieces of apparatus used in the
system before start,ing a discussion on system-voltage problems so t h a t
the proper voltage identification can be used throughout. It is also
necessary t,o know v h y the voltage designat,ions are applied t o help in
understairding the system-voltage disussion in the following sections.
The volt,age-identification structure is summarized iu Table 4.1. For
each of the nominal syst,em voltages listed, t,he table gives voltage ratings
of generators, transformers, motors, and (in some cases) lamps. T o
illustrate the use of Table 4.1, consider a 13,800-volt system. The
generators would be rated 13,800 volts. Transformers stepping power
down from transmission voltage would have secondary windings (I?,
Fig. 4.1) rated 13,800 volts. Transformers steppiug power down t o
utilization vokage in load-center substations would have primary mind-
ings (C, Fig. 4.1) rated 13,800 volts. Motors connerted directly to the
13,800-volt bus would lie rated 13,200 volts.
From the foregoing summary and Table 4.1 it is evident that care must
tie exercised in using the proper voltage ident,ifiration for each piece of
equipmelit as well as for the system. Some fundamental rules are as
follo\vs :
1. When speaking of equipment, the rated voltage is used, aud it is the
voltage to which the operating characteristics are referred.
2. When speaking of systems, rat.ed voltage is not an applicable term
because various piwes of equipment in a given system often have different
voltage ratings. Therefore, t,he term n o m i n a l s y s t e m vollage is used for
convenient designation of systems and circuits t o define the voltage class.
The problem of proper identification would be easier if all apparatus
of a given voltage class had the same vokage rating. Then, of course,
tem voltage could have that same value. Possibly if the
industry were starting over again, vokage ident,iticatioii mould be made
that simple. But, as syst,ems grew, voltages were ini,hed up t o compen-
sate for t,he voltage drop between source arid load.
As a result, of t,hese changes that have taken pla(.e over a period of years,
transformer arid generator voltage rat,ings are generally higher than
utilization-eiiuipment vnltagc rat,ings. There is logic in this in that the
voltage rating of transformers, for example, is t,heir no-load rating.
Since most plants are supplied by transformers, the concept has beeri
acceptcd that, supply equipment will have a higher voltage rating than
utilization equipment,. This means that in a 480-volt system, for cxam-
* For a iiirthrr rrpansion of t h i s srihjpet F W l < I ~ ~ I - X 1 5 MKPport.,
A l’refrrrrd Volt-
age I h t i n g s of :\(: Systrrris and Equipmmt, N I X l’uhliration lo. R-6. S E M A
I’ulilirstion l o . 117, \lay, 1‘JIU.
VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 193.
ple, transforniers or geiierators supplying motors ivoiild have a ratiiig of
480 volts whereas t,he motors irould have a ratiiig of 440 volts. Part of
this ditrereiicc: is compeiisated for by voltage drop iii the traiisformer aiid
in the distributioii system betiveeii the traiisformers aiid the motors.
Therefore, in general, the voltage at the motors is reasoiiably iiear thc
iiame-platc ratiiig iii the average system.
I n older types of distrihiitioii systems it i m s commoii prartire to use
step-doivii trmçformers irith a Iower primary voltage ratiiig thaii thc
transformers which ivould siipply that systcm. For example, the ti'aiis-
former steppiiig dowi from the iitility voltage ofteii hnil a ratiiig of 2400
volts oii the secoiidary, aiid the traiisformer steppiiig doi\-ii to the utiliza-
tioii voltage of 480 or 240 volts had a ratiiig of 2300 volts oii tlie primar?..
Becausc of the desigii of preseiit-day systems n-itli smaller drgi'ers of
volt,age drop, aiid judirioiis m e of taps i i i traiisformers, the prartirc is, as

INCOMING

4\
1
MASTER U N I T
SUBSTATION
( P R I M A R Y SUBSTATIONI
( A I P R I M A R I WINDING
u (IF USEDI
ml SECONDARY WINDING

X
P L A N T P R I M A R Y D I S T R I B U T I D N VDLTAGE

LOAD C E N T E R U N I T
SUBSTATION
(SECONDARY SUBSTATION IN FACTORYI

PRIMARY WINDING

WINDING

## FIG. 4.1 Typicol industrial plont power ryrtern

194 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

evident from Table 4.1, t o use the same voltage rating for all traiis-
former windings connected t o a given system voltage. This is true
whether the transformers are stepping down to this system or steppiug
down from this system.
TABLE 4.1 Boric Pattern of Voltage Identification

## No min0 I Genordor Transformer Transformer Motor and L.mp

system rated secondory primary control rated rated
*olt.ge voltage rated voltage rated voltage rottoget YoltDge

## 120 or 120/240 I20 or 120/240 I20 or 120/240 120

240 or 120/240 240 or 120/240 240 or 120/240 240 230
208Y/120 208Y/120 208Y/120 I20 115 118or120

Three-phase Systems

208Y/120'
240
480*
600
20sY/l20
240
480
600
208Y/120
240
480
600
208 or 120
240
480
600
440
I
220 or 208 208.118. or 120
220 236
165

## 2,400' 2.400 2,400 2,400 2,300

4.160' 4,160 4,160 4,160 4,000
4,800 4,800 4.800 4.800 4,600
6,900* 6,900 6,900 6,900 6,600
12,000 12.500 12,000 12,000 11,000
13,200 13.800 13,200 13.200 13,200
13.800' 13.800 13,800 13.800 13.200
23,000 ........ ........ 22,900
34,500 ........ ........ 34,400
46,000 ........ .... .... 43,800
69,000 67,000
1 1 5,000 ....... I I0,OOO

* In ~ P I Vinstallations, or W ~ P ~ P Ya srlwtion
P ~ oi voltngr can l i p ~ n a d rthrsr
. i ~ r cprc-
ferrrd s y s t m valtagrs.
t Specifying t h e w valiirs for motor voltsgcs is itnportarrt: For instnnw. motors to
opprste on -IltiO-. GWC-, or 18,800-volt systrins should Iw rntcil 4000. (i(iO0. or 1:1,200
volts, resp2ctively.
The one-line diagram (Fig. 4.1) shows a t y p i i d method of distributing
power in industrial plants and will be used as referenre to identify some
portions of the systems and equipment referred to.

## RATED VOLTAGES OF TRANSFORMERS

Transformer voltage ratings are hased on the no-load values, and the
ratio of primary to secondary rated wltages is equal t o the turn ratio.
The transformers have a voltage rating for each xindiiig. These are
VOLTAGSSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 195

## the voltages a t which characteristics are measured. What then are

standard transformer voltage ratings for industrial plants?
First, consider primary or master unit substations and transformers
which step down from some voltage above 15 kv to plant primary dis-
tribution voltage, which is generally below 15 kv (see Fig. 4.1, top sub-
station). The standard primary-winding ( A , Fig. 4.1) voltage ratings of
this class of substation and transformers are 110, 67, 43.8, 34.4, and 22.9
kv.
These are the actual transformer-minding ratings. They are derived
from the old rating structure based on secondary ratings in multiples of
115 volts. When secondary ratings were boosted to multiples of 120
volts, the high side rating was raised to maintain the same turn ratio.
For instance, 33,000-2300 volts was once a standard rating. Thc corre-
sponding present-day transformer would be rated 34,400-2400. The
familiar designations 115, 69, 46, 34.5, and 23 kv refer to the classes of
insulation used with these transformers.
Secondary-winding ( B , Fig. 4.1) voltage ratings of this class of industrial
substat,ions and transformers are 13.8, 13.2, 12, 6.9, 4.8, 4.16, and 2.4 k v .
S e x t consider transformers in load-center unit substations (see Fig. 4.1,
bottom substation) used in t,he industrial plants for stepping down from
plant primary distribution voltage to utilization voltage. As stat,ed
above, the plant, primary voltage is usually less than 15 kv. Therefore,
the list belox includes only voltages below 15 kv.
The primary-winding (C, Fig. 4.1) voltage ratings of load-center unit
substations are 13.8, 13.2, 12, 6.9, 4.8, 4.16, and 2.4 kv. .
Note that the primary voltage rating of this class of transformers (bot-
tom, Fig. 4.1) i s the same as the secondary voltage rat,ing of the primary
substation transformers (top, Fig. 4.1).
The voltage ratings of secondary substations in the plant which supply
motors and other utilization equipment are divided into two classes-
those for serving utilization equipment above 600 volts and those for
serving utilization equipment below BOO volts. Standard rat,ings are
listed in Table 4.2.
TABLE 4.2 Transformer Secondary Voltage Ratings ( I ) , Fig. 4.1)
Supplying Utilizoti0n Supplying Utilization
Equipment Roted Equipment Roled 600
Above 600 Volts, Kv Volt, or 0e1ox. Volt.
6.9 600 IY or delta1
4.8 400 IY or delta1
4.16 240
2.4 208Y/l20

## All standard unit substation transformers have taps in the primery

winding to allow compensation for voltages that vary from the trans-
former rating. The most common are four 255 per cent taps, two above
196 VOLTAGkSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS. CALCULATION OF DROPS

aiid two below normal, giving a total adjustment of plus or minus 5 per
cent,. With these t,aps in the primary winding, a transformer actually
has five different ratios. I t vould he very cumbersome to refer to all five
of these ratios in all discussions; therefore, when in the following dis-
cussion a transformer is referred t o as having, for example, a rating of
2400-480 volt,s, the discussion will apply equally well whether the trans-
former is operated 00 the cenher t a p or other taps. Regardless of the tap
used, the t,raiisformerwill still be referred to as a 2100-480-volt transformer,
Comhined light arid power systems are frequently used where motors
are supplied a t 180 volts, for example, and lights are supplied at 120 volts
from the same 480-volt system, using dry-type transformers. The
standard primary volt,age ratings for t,hese light,ing transformers are 600
volts, 480 volts, arid 240 volts, aiid the standard secondary vohage ratings
are 208Y/120 volts and 120/240 volts. Two rated kva 5 per cent below
normal t,aps are provided in these transformers t,o allow for operation of
120-volt lamps near t,heir rated voltage when the voltage on the 480-volt
system is below 480 volts as it normally vill be.

## Transformer voltage designations become rather complex. For

illstance, windings may have series-parallel connections. Or they may
be designed for connection line-to-neutral on higher rated volt,age sys-
tems, such as 3400-volt transformers which are suitable for line-to-
neutral operation OIL 4160-volt systems. These and other complex
arrangements make exact identification desirable.
These variables in t,ratisformer voltage ratings have long been expressed
by various symbolic met,hods. Such methods are essential because t o
fully describe the \\-indings of transformers often would require a fairly
lengthy paragraph. However, t o bc of any value a transformer rating so
expressed should meao the same to everyone. To further a consistent
use of symbols, hot,h KERIA and ASh standards have been established
t,o rci~ommenda standard transformer “shorthand.”
Four symbols are used: the dash (-), t,he slant (/), the X, and the Y.
In general terms, their uses are as follows:
Dash (-). Used to separate the voltage ratings of separate windings in
a specific transformer.
Slant ( I ) . Used t o separate voltages t o be applied to or obtained from
the same windiug.
X. Used to designate separate vokagcs obtainable by reconnection of
the coils of a winding in series or multiple combinations.
Y. t!sed t o designat,e a winding t,hat is Y-connected. The absence of
VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS I97

## this symbol in a three-phase transformer rating indicates that the winding

is delta-connected.
The use of the dash, slant, and Y can he easily illustrated by the voltage
rating of the transformer for a typical load-center suhstation.
4160-480Y/277: Note that this meaus the 4160-volt high-voltage wind-
ing is delta-corinected while the 480-volt winding is Y-couiiected with t,he
neutral brought out. A three-winding t,ransformer might have this
voltage rating: 13,800-2400-480Y/277.
In three-phase transformers the slaut is ofteri used to indicate wiiidiiigs
connectable either in delta or Y. For iiistauce, a 2400/4lCiOY windiug
can be couiiected either for 2400 volts deka or 4160 volts Y. Xote that
the delta voltage is expressed first. When a Y-connected winding has the
neutral brought out it is siguified like this: 2OSY/lZO. Here the line
voltage is expressed first, fol1oir.d by the line-to-neutral voltage. If the
neutral is brought out with reduced insulation, that fact is shoivu by 208
Grd Y/120.
Another use of the slant is to indicate taps, especially 011 single-phase
transformers. For instance, a 240-volt wiuditig with a midtap is expressed
240/120. When a single-phase t,ransformer with a series-multiple wind-
ing is vound to be suitable for three-wire service on the series conoectioii,
it is designat,ed 120/240. When a winding has several taps close to the
rated volt,age, it is cust,omary to specify them as illustrated in t,his specific
case: four 255 per ceut rated kva taps, t x o above and tI5-o below rated
voltage.
The X symbol is used to separate t,he volt,ages obtainable in a series-
mukiple minding not, suitable for three-wire operation. For example, a
minding rated 120 X 240 can be connected with t,he coils in parallel to
obt,ain 120 volts or Tr.it,h the coils iu series for 240 rolt,s.

## Siiice the generator is a source of elect,ric poir-er aud is ofteu i u parallel

wit,h primary substation transformers (see Fig. 4,1), its voltage aud ('oii-
scquently its rat,itig is in practically all cases the same as the transformer
in a giveu voltage class. Listed in Table 4.3 are the three-phase generator
ratings that, are recommended by the latest EEI-SE5I.i report.
TABLE 4.3 Generator Voltage Ratings*
208Y/120 "Olt. 2,400 volts
240 volts 4,160 volts
480 volts 4.800 volts 13.800 "011.
600 volts 6,900 volts 14,400 volts
* Ratings of 11,500 and 12,500 volts are n s ~ dfor genrrators on smnr rstablislird
systems hut are, not rrrommmdrd for nmv systim~s. Thc corrcsponrling trnnsfornii,r
rating is 12,000 w i t s and transformcr taps sllon for paralirl oprration.
198 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

## The 14,400-volt rating has been adopted largely in large generating

stations where the input is transformed up to higher voltage in a unit
transformer generator arrangement (see Fig. 4.2).

2
mTwI
4I HIGH VOLTAGE BUS
FIG. 4.2
merit,
Unit transformer generator arronge-

## RATED VOLTAGES OF MOTORS

A t the other end of the system are the motors, and their rat,ings reflect
the fact that voltage at utilizatioii equipment is somewhat loirer t,haii a t
the sources of power because of voltage drop.
Single-phase motors are usually rated at 115 or 230 volts.
The standard voltage rat,ings of polyphase motors are given in Table
4.1.
TABLE 4.4 M o t o r Voltage Ratings
110 "0111 550 "011. 6,600 Volt.
208 volt. 2,300 ~011s I1.000 volt,
220 wit. 4,000 ~ o l t i 13,200 volts
440 rolls 4,600 volts

motor.

## Inrandescent lamps are standardized at 120 volts. Higher voltages

have not in general heeo found sat,isfactory.
Fluorescent lamps offer a wider range of operation and are commotily
rat,rd a t 118, 208, 230, and 265 volt,s (for line-t,o-neut,ral on 480-volt
systems).

OTHER APPARATUS

## Some other types of equipment such as capacitors and industrial heat-

ing equipment have compromised between the extremes of generator
VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS I99

rating and motor rating in a given voltage class. For instance, industrial
heating devices are rated at 115,230, 4G0, and 575 volts. Capacitors are
rated at 230, 460, 575, 2400, 4800, 7200, 12,470, and 13,800 volts.

## The choice of the numerical value t o represent nominal system voltage

is purely arhitrary and does not attempt to indicate an average system
voltage. It is merely a name. However, it is very desirable that a con-
sistent practire in designating nominal voltages be followed. When used
properly, the nominal voltage should give a good picture of the voltage
struct,ure of a system with a minimum of misunderstandings. The
standard values for nominal system voltage correspond t,o the ratings of
source equipment.
TABLE 4.5 Standard Nominal System Voltages

Singlo Phase

120
120/240
240

Three Phore

## 208Y/l20 4,800 34,500

240 6,900 46,COO
480 12,000 69.000
600 13,200 115,000
2,400 13,800
4,160 23,000

## Table 4.5 is not complete but is representative of industrial practice.

To repeat, it is extremely important to identify properly the voltage
rating of each piece of apparatus in a system as well as to identify the
nominal system voltage. The voltage ratings of the various pieces of
apparatus, as ran he seen from the foregoing, may be different even
though the apparatus is for use on the same given voltage class system.
Therefore, correct identification of each piece is of paramount importance.
For example, if one is buying equipment to supply a 180-volt system, the
secondaries of t,he transformers should he specified as -180-volt rating.
The motors and control should be specified as 440-volt rating. The sys-
tem nominal voltage is referred to as 480 volts. Other apparatus on this
system may have different voltage ratings. For example, capacitors
would be rated 460 volts; heating equipment would be rated 460 volts.
It is also important to remember that transformer and generator voltage
200 VOLTAGE- STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

## ratings are always higher than utilization-device ratings. This is logical

because the transformer voltage ratings are the no-load voltage ratings,
and as load is applied to the system the voltage drops to near the name-
plate rating of the lower rated utilization apparatus.

## VOLTAGE SPREAD AND FLICKER REQUIREMENTS*

An ideal electric power system is one which will supply constant fre-
quency and volt,age at rated name-plate value t o every piece of apparatus
in the system. I n modern power systems, frequency is a minor problem.
It is impractical, however, t o design a power system which will deliver
absolutely constant rated name-plate voltage to every piece of apparatus.
Since this cannot he attained, what are the proper limits of voltage varia-
tion in a n industrial plant? These should be determined by the charac-
teristics of the utilization apparatus. First, certain definitions are
essential to underst,arid clearly the discussion of this problem.
mum and minimum voltages which appear at any location in a system
under riormal operating conditions. Voltage spread is not intended to
cover momentary voltage changes uf a transitory nat,ure such as those
due t o switching surges, motor starting, welders, etc. The first part
of this discussion is primarily concerned with voltage spread a t utiliaatiori
equipment. This is the diKercnce between the maximum and minimum
voltages a t the terminals of the utilization equipment under normal
system operating conditions (Fig. 4.3). Maximum values usually appear
during light load and minimum values a t full load on the electric system.
Another important type of voltage spread is primary or supply voltage
spread which is the difference between the maximum and the niinimum
voltage a t the service entrance or plant primary bus of a particular plant
under normal operating conditions.
Voltage Zone. Voltage zone is the envelope of all voltage spreads for
a particular voltage class of system.
For any specific voltage class designated by a nominal system voltage
there inherently exists an appreciable range of operat,ing voltages between
the systems having the highest and lowest voltages for this class. Coun-
trywide, this zoue is larger thaii the voltage spread at, ariy one location
because of recognized differences in practices of different companies.
* The data in this sretion arc l a r ~ c l yadapted from an AIEE Industrial Power Sys-
tem Coinmittre 1Lpurt. Industrid Voltag- Ilrquirpmeats, Elec. Eng., vol. 6 i , 1948,
pp. 358-374.
3.3 7. z
PRIMARY 5 , LONGEST SECONDARY FEEDER
SYSTEM

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _NO_ LOAD
_ _ _VOLTAGE
_~ _ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 480

1
2500--

## PRIMARY VOLTAGE SPREAD. NO LOAD TO F U L L LOAO AT

:z: PLANT SERVICE ENTRANCE

s
2400- IN

-
0
Y Y
0 SECONDARY
2 SYSTEM
>
E 0
N
Y
v)
>
E
TRANSFORMER VOLTAGE DROP
k9 Q

2 2300-
(L
P
FEEDER VOLTAGE DROP
T.
Y
<
0

5
>
0
> 2200- PRIMARY VOLTAGE SPREIO, NO LOAD TO F U L L LOAD AT VOLTS

*
I PLANT SERVICE LNTRANCE
I I
E
L 0
MINIMUM FULL TRANSFORMER VOLTAEE DROP

## C U R V E A - T R A N S F O R M E R OPERATING ON HIGHEST TAP-

RATIO 2 5 2 0 - 4 8 0 VOLTS AT NO LOAD.
CURVE 8 TRANSFORMER OPERATING O N LOWEST TAP-
RATIO 2260-480 VOLTS AT NO LOAD.

## FIG. 4.3 Examples of voltage zone, spread, and drop.

202 VOLTAGFSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

## difference in voltage in various parts of the power system. The other

cause is primary voltage spread a t the service entrance of the plant.

## EFFECT O F VOLTAGE DROP

To show the effect of voltage drop in a plant it will be assumed that the
primary voltage is maintained a t a constant value regardless of plant load.
The simple circuit shown in Fig. 4.4 will be used as an illustration. The
primary voltage is assumed to be of such magnitude that the secondary
voltage on the transformer is 480 volts a t no load. Referring to Fig. 4.5,
a t extremely light load there is essentially no voltage drop through the
transformer or in any of the secondary circuits connected to the trans-
former. Consequently, the voltage is substantially the same throughout
the plant, and any lights or other incidental load connected a t this time
is subject to practically the no-load voltage. It is particularly significant
a t this point to recognize that transformer voltage ratings are the no-load

SECONDARY BUS

TRANSFORMER

CIRCUIT

## 480 .- 400 VOLTS ZERO VOLTAGE DROP

2 A

2 470-

:rp
4 6 0 ~

y)

3
9 460

450
_ _ _ _ _ ~.

----
TOTAL VOLTAGE
TRANS FA NO
VOLTAGE DROP
THRU
15 VOLTS

sE~!~48oro~?p~"2~Ts
G?!E?

]----____________________
TRANSFORMER-
l,z
VOLTAGE DROP IN

SECONDARV
FEEDER-IOVOLTS

_________________-__
--- -___
IN BRANCH
CIRCUIT-
5 VOLTS
_
A
DROP

FIG. 4.6 Full-load voltage conditions for circuit shown in Fig. 4.4. No primary voltage
VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 203
ratios. For example, a transformer rated 4160-450 volts will produce
480 volts a t no load with 4160 volts applied to the primary.
When load is connected to the transformer, current flows, and this
causes a voltage drop in the secondary circuits as shown in Fig. 4.6. At
t,he secondary bus the voltage drop caused by the current flowing through
the transformer is assumed to be 15 volts. With constant primary volt-
age the secondary bus voltage varies from 450 volts a t no load to 465
voks at full load--the voltage spread a t this point is 15 volts. There are
assumed additional drops of 10 volts in the secondary feeder and 5 volts
in the branch circuit, making a total drop to load A of 30 volts. If the
lowest voltage in the plant exists a t load A , then the maximum voltage
spread is 30 volts (450 a t no load to 450 volts a t full load, or 30 volts).
In designing an industrial power system the voltage spread should be
kept t o a minimum consistent with reasonable first cost. If the spread is
too great,, the voltage may be too high a t light load, causing equipment
operating during that period to burn out, or voltage may he too low a t full
load a t much of the utilization apparatus, impairing the performance and
reducing the production obtained from the equipment,
The second cause of voltage spread is the primary voltage spread a t the
plant service connection. This may be caused by voltage drop in the
primary system, or it may be due to regulation of the primary system by
voltage regulators. To show the effect of primary voltage variation,
assume that the primary voltage drops as load comes on in the plant.
The transformer taps have been selected so that the no-load voltage is
450 volts as in Fig. 4.5. When load comes on the power syst,em,the same
voltage drop occurs as in Fig. 4.6, but in addition, the primary system
voltage is assumed t,o drop sufficiently to cause an additional 10-volt drop
in the vokage at the secondary of the transformer. This primary voltage
480 to 440 volts or a total of 40 volts as is shown in Fig. 4.7 instead of only
30 volts as shown in Fig. 4.8 where there was no primary voltage variation.
The primary voltage spread may not always be in the direction shown
in Fig. 4.7. The primary voltage may rise when the load comes on
because of voltage regulators in the primary feeder circuit or because of
other voltage regulators in the primary power system. This voltage rise
of the primary reduces the voltage spread in the plant, as shown in Fig. 4.5.
Very weak primary systems with a high drop or regulated primary sys-
tems whose load cycle does not coincide with the load cycle of the plant
may cause excessive voltage spread in the plant-beyond the limits shown
in Table 4.9. This is illustrated in Fig. 4.9. Automatic voltage regula-
tion is required in such cases to bring the voltage spread within the limits
shown in Table 4.9. Changing transformer taps to increase the vo1t:ige
a t full load will not solve the problem because that will increase the
204 VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

-
480- ----

470-
VOLTAGE DROP THRU VOLTAGE DROP IN
y1
TRANSFORMER SEOWDARI FEEDER
9 15 VOLTS
VOLTAGE DROP IN
450 -

440 _________________________________
I
480 TO 440 VOLTS 140 VOLTS1 --- -______
FIG. 4.7 Full-load voltage conditions for circuit shown in Fig, 4.4 with 10 volts (on 480-
volt baris) primary voltage spread. Primary voltage varies from maximum at no load to

VOLTAGE DROP I N
SECONDARY FEEDER-
10 VOLTS

FIG. 4.8 Full-load voltoge condition3 for circuit shown in Fig. 4.4 with 10 volt. (on 480-
volt basis) primary voltage spread. Primory voltage varier from minimum at no load to

_____

;1
_________NO LOAD VOLTAGE - 480 VOLTS

470 ~

## 460; PRIMARY VOLTAGE SPREAD - 40 VOLTS

4SO

G 440 ___---
VOLTAGE DROP THRU
VOLTAGE DROP IN
SECONDARY FEEDER
430 TRANSFORMER lo VOLTAGE DROP
2s__vw3
420
4 8 0 TO 410 VOLTS 170 VOLTS)
410 .
.
J
V O L T A G b S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 205

## G e n e r a l Effects. Whenever the voltage a t the terminals of a utiliza-

tion device varies from name-plate rating of the de\.ice, something is
sacrificed either in life or performanre of t,he equipment. The effert,may
be minor or serious, depending upon the chararteristirs of the device,
how the device is applied, and the amount the voltage deviates from the
device rating. KESIA Standards provide for rert,ain tolerances whirh
may he taken advantage of without seriously affertiiig the performanre of
the apparatus. However, with usbge of electrir pover for precise opera-
tions, there is often a major sacrifire in produrtion for volt,age variations
of considerably less than given in t,he NERlA Standards.
So that the plant engineer can better judge the effect 11f vokage varia-
tion on t,he electric equipment in his plant, the rharacteristics of many
commonly used derires are given here. I t is these rhararteristirs rvhirh
have been used as a st,arting point for establishing the desired voltage
spread of Tables 4.8 and 4.9.
Effect on Induction Motors. Induction motors are the most rommoir
utilization derires in industrial plants. Thr variatioii i n rharactrristiw
as a function of voltage for the widely used inductiotr motors is shoivn i n
Table 4.G. The material in this section deals only n-ith the cffert 011
motor chararterist,ies of rhaiiges in voltage magnitude. The effect, of
unbalanced voltages is also very importatit and shonld he rotrsiderrd.
The rurrent may hecomc esressive for only a small voltage iuihalanre.
The XEBIA St,andards should be consulted for detailed information on
this subject,.
Principal Effects of l o w Voltage on Induction Motors. The most sig-
nificant effects of too lox voltage are reduction in starting torque a t i d
increased full-load t,emperature rise. The redurtion of st,arting torque
may be significant i n mot,or applications driving high-inertia rqnipmeirt.
The lower torqne i d 1 result, in longer armleration periods. Torque
mot,ors are also very materially affected hy redured voltage as thi. torque
decreases as the square of the voltage; thus a t 10 per reut helow normal
voltage, the torque is redured 19 per cent.
The increased heating at low voltage aiid full load rediirrs thr lifr of
the insulat,ion.
Principal Effects of High Voltage on Induction Motors. The most,
significant efferts of too high voltage are inrreased tnr(lue, inr,rrasrd
starting rurrent, and decreased p o r e r factor.
The increased torque may muse rouplings to shear off or damage t o
driven equipment. Increased starting curretit raiiscs greater voltage
drop in the power system, henre increases light, flirker. Uecreased p o ~ v z r
factor is particularly disadvantageous where power-fartor peualty rlanses
206 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATiNGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

## TABLE 4.6 General Effect of Voltage Variation on

Induction-motor Characteristics

I Voltage Variotion

## Starting and maximum running

torque... ................. Decrease 19% (Voltage)’ InCreOle 21
Synchronous speed.. .......... No change Cons1.nt N o change
Per cent d i p . . ............... Increase 23% 1 (voltagel~ Decrease 17%
Full-load speed. .............. Decreore 136% ISyn. speod--.llpl Increase 1 %
Efficiency:
Full load.. ................ Decrease 2 points .............. Small increo*e
9% load. .................. Proclicolly no change .............. Procticdiy no change
)i l o a d . . ................. Increase 1 to 2 point\$ .............. Decrease 1 to 2 points
Power faclor;
Full land.. ................ Increase 1 point .............. Decrease 3 points
I( load................... Increase 2 lo 3 point! .............. Decrease 4 points
36 load................... Incrcoie 4 lo 5 points .............. Decrease 5 lo 6 points
.............
Full-load ~ u r r e n t . Increase I1 Yo .............. Decrease7%
.............
Starting w r r e n l . . Decrease 10 to 12% Voitoge Inc,eo.e 10 to 12%
Temperature rise, full load...... Increose 6 to 7 C .............. Decrease I lo 2 C
Maximum torque capocity.. .... Decrease 19% IV0ltogeJ~ Increa3e 21 %
lor.. ..................... Decrease slightly .............. Increase slightly

This table s h o w gencral effcets, which will vary somewhat for specific ratings.

are applied by the utilities. The higher the motor voltage rises, the lower
the power fartor mill become. This may result in a greater penalty and
hence a higher power bill.
While the temperature rise at full load on standard motors decreases
slightly for moderate overvoltages, the temperature rise may increase on
certain types of sperial motors a t even very small overvoltages. Over-
voltages of 10 t o 1.5 per cent have caused numerous burnouts on special
four-speed grinder motors. Motors rated for intermittent load are also
materially affected by overvoltagcs.
While marry drive applications are not seriously affected by voltage
deviations as much as plus or minus 10 per cent from rated voltage, there
are import,ant applications that are.
Effect on Synchronous Motors. The effect of voltage variation on the
performance of synchronous motors is similar t o that on induction motors.
However, while t,he starting torque varies as the square of the voltage,
the maximum or pull-out torque varies directly with the voltage.
From the above discussions it will be noted that, in general, voltages
slightly in excess of motor name-plate rating have less detrimental effect
V O L T A G k S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 207

## on motor performance than voltage helow the name-plate rating. This

is one of the bases on which the voltage spreads in Table 4.9 mere deter-
mined. A s a n example, the figures show a recommended spread of 420
t o 180 volts for the 480-volt nominal system voltage, which is approxi-
mately 4 per cent below and 9 per cent above the 440-volt motor rating.
Effect on Incandescent lamps. The light output and life of incan-
descent filament lamps are critically affected by the impressed voltage.
I n Table 4.7 is shown the relationship of lamp life arid output t o voltage
for a vokage range from 80 t o 120 per cent of rated voltage.
I n general it may be said that for incandescent filament lamps a 1 per
cent deviation from rated voltage causes a change of 3 t o 335 per cent in
light output. It can be seen from Table 4.7 that a 10 per cent reduction
in lamp voltage results in a 30 per cent reduction in light output. In
other words, when the voltage is 10 per cent low, the investment in the
lighting system is working at only 70 per cent efficiency-thus, 30 per

!
3
i!
a
2

0
c PER CENT NORMAL VOLTS
3
9
a
FIG. 4.10 Characteristics of large gar-filled incandescent type C lampr. There are the
average of many lampr.
208 V O L T A G b S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

## cent of the investment is lost. With an overvoltage of 10 per cent the

lamp-life is reduced t o less than oue-third~-t,hus lamp-replacement costs
are three times as great as a t normal voltage. Other dat,a arc shown in
Fig. 4.10, from which it, should be noted that the lumens per watt., or lamp
efficieilcy, rises sharply at voltages above 100 per cent. I n some cases,
operating eronnmies result from hurriing lamps at higher efficiency and
short life, or vice versa.
TABLE 4.7 Effect of Voltage Variations on Gar-filled
Incandescent-lamp Choracteristics

## Per cent Per cent Per <en1

Socket
rated rated heoretical*
voltage
voltage lighl output life
~

96.0 80 47 1900
102.0 85 58 850
108.0 90 70 400
110.4 92 75 300
112.8 94 81 225

115.2 96 87 170
117.6 98 93 130
120.0 100 I00 100
122.4 102 105 75
124.8 104 115 60

## 127.2 106 I20 45

129.6 108 I30 35
132.0 110 I40 30
138.0 115 I60 15
144.0 I20 185 10
~-
* Throrrticnl lifv in thc nhsrrrcc of any mcrhanicnl hrcakagc.. In onlinary sprvire,
mcchanird hrrakage r c d n r r s t h p liip expectanrc a t tlrr lo\ver roltagrs.
Effect on Fluorescent l a m p s . The changes in lamp characteristics
iI-ith rariatioii in cirruit, voltage arc given in Fig. 4.1 1. IIIgeneral, 1 per
cent variatiim i n line voltage n-ill changc t,he lumeir oudput only about
1 per cent. Toltage is a factor in starting reliahility, and voltages l o w r
than recommeiided may result in unsatisfactory starting. It will be
noted that the ores-all efficiency (if the fluoresrerrt, lamp decreases if the
line volt,age is raised above normal. The increased line volt,age causes
the choke t,o pass more current to the lamp. This loivers the resistance
of the arc. column, rcsulting in a lower voltage drop i n the lamp itself.
The input, Ti-atts t o the lamp are slightly increased, and t,herefore the
lumen output increases over a cert,aiii range. In this condition, however,
the higher currcnt density priiduces the short ultraviolet radiation less
effirieutly; wilserpently t,he luminous efficiency of the lamp decreases.
VOLTAGGSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 209

## Fluorcsreiit lamps are f a r less af'ectrd hy circuit voltage variatioli tllan

filament lamps, from t,he standpoint of life.
The life of preheat-type lamps should he quite satisfartmy throrlghollt,
the range of published voltage fur the various Iiallasts; tlicsr volt:tg(.
ranges, iii general, are 110 ti] 125, 100 t o 2l(i, 220 to 250. :ind 240 t o 280.
There may be some derrease i n life performalire \\-3ir11 o p w i t c d a t maxi-
mum vokage as compared with that, at miiiimiim vdt:igr. I I ~ i ~ e v t ~ r
there are a numher of other fartors, SWIM: of whidi arc i ~ i r p r ~ ~ d i r ~tlr;lt,
tal~l~
affect life.
There is ?onsideral)le differenre i l l this rrsprct het ~ C ~ slimlillp
I I atill
regular preheat-type lamps. The iiistairt-start rathodr whivh is ~ l s r di l l
all slimline and instalit-start lamps van Iw o p e m t d ovrr ii ividr ~'angr,if
current, from 120 to 430 ma, with rrlatiwly littlr d f c r t 1111 life.
Ballasts also affert life. Even though they mtsrt sprvitivatioll r ~ y ~ i ~ i r c , .
meiits, they have maiiufactnriiig toleranre and t h i w a r c drsigit rliffwvnws
b e t w e n types.

## DECREASE0 LIGHT OUTPUT ANP INFERIOR LAMP PERFORYANCE

UNCERTAIN STARTING AND AN0 DANGER OF OVERHEATING
OPERATION MAY RESULT AT AUXILIARY MAY RESULT AT
EXCESSIVE UNDER VOLTAGE. EXCESSIVE OVER VOLTAGE.
/ \

i
x I RECOMMENDED OPERATING RANGE
BEST PERFORMANCE
I I

L I N E VOLTAGES

## FIG. 4.1 1 Characteristics of fluorescent lornpr OI function of voltage applied to bollort.

210 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS. CALCULATION OF DROPS

Fluorescent lamps also differ from filament lamps in that the frequency
of start,irig is a factor iii the life obt,ained. Rated life is usually based on
3 hr of operation per start,. For 10 hr operation per start, the lamp's life
is increased approximat,ely 35 per cent.
Therefore, ally data 011 life vs. circuit voltage for the normal range in
operat,iiig voltage ivould have little significaiice. At voltages below the
lower limit, insufficient preheat current for proper cathode emission prior
t o starting may result in short life. At voltages heyoiid the upper limit,
the overcurrent operat,ioii may rcsult in unsatisfartory lamp life.
Effect on Mercury Lamps. The effect of voltage variation on mercury
lamps is shown in Fig. 4.12.
Effect on Resistance Heating Devices. The energy input and there-
fore the heat output of resistaiice heaters varies in general with the square
of the impressed voltage. Thus a 10 per cent drop in voltage will cause
a drop of 19 per cent in heat, output. This, however, holds true only for
an operating range over which the resistance remains constant.
M a n y healing devices are conservat,ively designed arid if thermostati-
cally controlled may operate satisfactorily even if the voltage varies 10
per cent or more.
However, in many rases the designer must confine his heating units into
a miiiimum of space and must, therefore, operate them near maximum
rating. Also the temperature requirements for many heating applica-
tioiis IiecessiMe the operation of the heating units a t maximum tempera-
ture. h drop i n voltage meaiis a drop in heat input, varying with the
square of the voltage, and a loss in production. On the other hand,
excessive voltage will increase the temperature of the heating units and
therefore will reduce their life. This condition applies especially t o fur-
naces operating at high temperatures near the maximum permissible for

I I I I /I/ I I I

I I I I
I
I I
I

u OC

60

40

I
0
U
10
I
60
P R I M V0LTIT.F -I
70
I
rn
CCYI
I
90
1
wo
I
110
I
iao
I
130
0 s TIIANSFORMER TAP SETTING
I
140

## FIG. 4.12 Choracterirticr of mercury type H 400-watt lamps.

VOLTAG&STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATtON OF DROPS 211

the type of heating unit used. To assure uniform high production and the
best operating conditions, the voltage should be maintained mithiu a
spread of plus or minus 5 per cent of rated voltage.
Effect on Infrared Heating Processes. Although the filaments of the
lamps used in these installations are of the resistance type, the energy
output does not vary with the square of the voltage because the resistance
varies a t the same time. The radiated energy vs. voltage is shown in
Fig. 4.13 for the rating of 115 volts used on industrial infrared lamps.
The wattage input is nearly proportional t o the energy output for a volt-
age range of 50 t o 150 per cent of rated voltage. The change in wattage
and radiated energy is only 7 per cent for a 5 per cent change in voltage.
However, this might he more harmful thau a larger change in typical
resistance heaters employing thermostatic controls, if the product dryiiig
is very sensitive t o temperature differences. For the usual paint-drying
applications, no voltage coutrols are required with infrarcd lamps.
Uniformity of product speed in the oven is the usual objective for coii-
veyerized operations. Differences in heating requirements are rea,dily
accomplished by connecting the infrared lamps to a number of circuits,
so that some of the lamps can be switched on and off in accord with t,he
exact, heat,ing needs. I n t,he cases vhere lamp sivitching cannot rom-
pensat,e for the volt,age variat,ions, it may be necessary to use a voltage
regulator to maintain conveyer speed and product quality.
Effect on Electronic Equipment. The current-carrying ability or emis-
siou of all elect,ronic tubes is affect,ed seriously by voltage deviation from
rating. Figure 4.14 shows typical emission curves plotted agairist
cathode heater voltage. Curve 1, entitled Oxide Coated, applies t o most
of the thyratrons, pliotrons, and rereiving tubes. Curve 2 for thoriated
tungsten applies t o the small transmitter tubes and some of the hattery-

FIG. 4.13 Radiant-energy output of General Electric Company industrial infrared lamps
QI a function of impressed voltoge.
212 VOLTAGE- STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

## heated tubes. Curve 3, Pure Tungsten, applies t o the oscillator tube

such as used in high-frequeiicy induction and dielectric heaters.
The rathode-life curve f o r pure tungsten indicates that, the life is
redured by half for esrh 5 per rent iiiwease iii cathode volt,age. This
redured life is due t o the higher rate of evaporation of the rathode mate-
rial. At voltages below rating, the loss d emission has very serious sec-

40LL
20
0

30 40

## FIG. 4.14 Calculated values of electronic-tube emission and life

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 213

## ondary effects. In a vacuum tube surh as the pliotron and kenet,ron a

small loss of eniission below that needed means rednced ont,put and some-
times excessive tube heating which is reflerted in a shorter life. However,
for gas-filled tubes such as thyratrons and phanotrons i n ivhirh t,he rurrent,
is not limited by the tube spare rharge, if insuffirient emission is available
t o carry the load current, the gas molecules bombard the rathode surfare
and may destroy t,he tube in a matter of minnt,es. Therefore, it is
extremely important that the rathode voltage be kept up near rating on
these tubes for sat,isfactory service.
I n addition t o the above factors there are ot,her important things to be
taken into ronsiderat,ion. If the volt,sge is too high, the evaporated
material from the cathode may contaminate the grid or anode and cause
grid current and arc-back, making the tuhe iuoperativc.
If the rathode voltage is too low in the gas-filled tuhe, the snrfare call-
not be activated properly and loses its emitting effiiknry very quirkly.
This permits bombardment, as explained above, and destruct,ion of the
cathode.
T o permit the voltage t o fall helow rather than t o rise slightly above
rating i s serious. Standard industrial t,uhes are desigued t o operate \vith
a voltage tolerance of plus or minus 5 per cent. Iloivever, if a closer
tolerance than this can be maiutained, thc user will he amply repaid i n
increased tube life and reliable operatioil. If voltage sij-ings must he
tolerated, it is more desirable t,hat,t,he minimum s\ving be t o not less thau
95 per cent, of rating even hhuugh the average voltage may he slightly
above rating. While this prartice \\-ill, of course, give somewhat redured
tube life, it is preferablc t o low xwltage rr-hich rauees rapid tube drterio-
ration. While t,he effect of voltage change is most, important on the tube
cathode, it is also undesirable ill ot,her parts of the ririwit. Electrotiic
circuits, as all other electric cirruits, lost power mparity rapidly if the
voltage is decreased from rating. Although critiml circuits normally
contain voltage-regulator tubes and other mealis t o hold a constant
reference vokage in spit,e of line-voltage variat,ions, economic reasons pre-
vent voltage regulation on t,he majority of rirruits, and henre thcir funr-
tion will naturally be impaired by excessive voltage variation. This is
especially true when magnetic sat,uration is part of the roiitrol function.
Effect on Solenoid-operated Devices. I n this group fall solenoids,
brakes, valves, and rlutrhes. The pull of the a-c solenoid varies approxi-
mately as t,he square of the voltage. There is some deviation from this
law, depending upon which part of the brake-horsepower cnrve the sole-
noid is working. The temperature rise, too, varies approximately a s t h r
square of the vokage.
I n general, solenoids are liberally designed and standard rommerrial
solenoids are designed to operate satisfartorily on 10 per cent overvoltage
214 V O L T A G F S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

and 15 per cent undervoltage. Since an a-c solenoid has an inrush current
of approximately ten times the sustained value when sealed, the branch
circuit sJpplying it should be of ample capacity to prevent an excessive
voltage drop.
Effect on Capacitors. The corrective capacity of capacitors varies
with the square of the impressed voltage. A drop of 10 per cent in the
supply voltage, therefore, reduces the corrective capacity by almost 20
per cent, and where the user has made a sizable investment in capacitors
for power-factor correction, he loses the benefit of 20 per cent of this
investment.

## Rased on the foregoing effects of voltage variation on utilization equip-

ment and an extensive poll of industrial plant operating engineers, the
AIEE Committee on Industrial Power Applications established the
recommended voltage spreads at the terminals of devices in industrial
plants. These are shown in Tables 4.8 and 4.9.*
TABLE 4.8 Recommended Voltage Spread a t the Terminals of Utilization
Devices in Industrial Distribution Systems 600 Volts and Below

## Nominal Commonly "red Recommended limib

Iyllem ulilizolion-device of volloge at terminals
volt.ge "Oltage rating. of ulilizolion devices

480
A00 ! 440,* 460
550,* 575
! 420-480
525-600

Drsigriations for nominal system voltages are those commonly used in industrial
plants.
* ThPse are standard polyphase-motor voltage ratings.
t Polyphase power loads may not operate satisfactorily a t this l o m ~ rlimit
In designing industrial power distribution systems, the system design
engineer should design for voltage spreads not in excess of those mentioned
in Tables 4.8 and 4.9. If anything, it would be desirable to design for
closer limits to allow for critical utilization apparatus that may be devel-
oped and widely used in the future. The history of electricity in indus-
trial plants has been to extend its use to more and more functions. As
* Thcse rwommcndstions are in iuhstantial agreement with thP recommmdations
of the joint EM-SEMA Committce whirh puhlishrd their findings in a report, Prc-
ferrpd Voltage Ratings of AC Systems and Equipmcnt.
VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 21s

## TABLE 4.9 Recommended Voltoge Spreod a t the Terminols of Motors

Served ot Primory Voltoge

Recommended limits af
voltage at terminalr of
high-voltage moiors
Nominal syitem Motor-nome-plote
dtage *oltoge rating

2400
2400 ~ 2300" 1I 2160
2250
3920
2380
2480
4320

1
4160
4800 4600 4500 5000
6900 6600 6470 71 30
I
* I'rmrnt standard rnot,or voltagc rating.

well as driving the utilization equipment, it is alço used for a11 types of
rritical proccss control systems; therefore, its role is hecorniiig exceedingly
important, and t o fulFiI1 this role effectively, good voltage must he rnain-
taiiied iii industrial plants.

L I G H T FLICKER V O L T A G E REQUIREMENTS

## Relatively slom chaiiges in voltage are associated mith voltage spreads

as discussrd iii tlie foregoiiig. There are, however, maiiy types of voltage
changes 1rhii.h are of a traiisient nature aiid last only a feiv cycles. Thcse
are commiiiily referred to as voltage flicker, aiid its primary effect is to
cause flicker iii t h r light ciiitput of lamps. The arnount of voltage varia-
tioii as a fiiiirtioii of frequency of variation which can be xvithstood on
iiicaiidesrent larnps aiid not cause ohjei:tionahle psychological effects is
shown iii Fig. 4.15. These curves were preseiited in the General Electric
Review, hugust, 1925.
Fluoresceiit lamps are less suhject t o flicker over a range of voltage that
is beloiv that whirh mil1 piit them out. Iii industrial plants, voltage
flicker i s caiised primarily hy the followiiig types of load: repetitive motor
starting, large rei,iprocatiiig cornpressors, punch presses, etc., which dram
a fluctiiating load; resistarice wcldcrs; aiid arc furnaces.
T o elimiiiatc objcctionable light flicker, the design of the systcm should
be siich that the lirnits of Fig. 4.15 are adhered to. Wider lirnits may be
iiscd uiider certaiii coiiditioiis without cornplaiiit from the personnel
orrupyiiig tlie affei,tcd arca. Ho!rcv&, this subject is so cornplicated
aiid involved t h a t general guides other than Fig. 4.15 would probably not
be of much use.
216 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. VARIATIONS. CALCULATION OF DROPS

## FLICKER OF INCANDESCENT LAMPS

CAUSED 81 RECURRENT VOLTAGE DIPS

5
0
Y
w 3
5
0
' t
t-
z
Y
0
,'w
a
0
DllO PL" "0"I DlPI PLI1 SECOND

10 82 6 J 2 I 30 12 L
YlUUlLI IFCOYDL
TIME BETWEEN DIPS

FIG, 4.15 Relation of magnitude of voltage dips to frequency of dips for incandescent
IWlPS.

## \Vitlr recommended values of voltage spread established by the N E E

Industrial Power Systems Committee a i d EEI-SEA\Z.%, it is possible to
study specitiv syst,ems to see hon. they romparc with these rcquiremerits.
Where voltage spreads arc found t,o be heyorid t,hose limits, there are four
1 . Carry the power further a t a higher voltage and a t a lesser dist,aim
at 1o\vcr voltage, i.e., use the load-center power system.
2. 1tediii.p the impedance of the systrm.
3. Use regiilat,iiig equipment t o rompelisate for volt,age drop.
4. Use s\~iti~Iied capacitors.
llaintaiiiiiig the volt,age at an average desirable I e i d also requires the
judicious use of traiisformer ratios and taps. Traiisformer taps (for
changing a t no load oilly) do trot, reduce the spread but affect only t,he
general voltage level arid particularly the light load voltage in the plallt.
VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 217

tem is 11011- almost uiriversally used i n industry for, among othcr reasons,
it provides Ion- voltage drop, henre small voltage spread, berausc the
power is carried right t o the load i.etiter at high Iwltage. Refer to Chap.
11 for a one-liiie diagram of a typical load-retiter system.
Table 4.10 illustrates the advantage of higher voltage distribution. I t
is obvious from this table that the tiig gaiii is made by going from voltages
iii the (i00-volt class to voltages i l l the 2.4- to 13.8-kv class for rarryitig
poll-er from the source to the load ceuter. T o illust,rate furthcr, supposc
that the voltage drop i n a 480-volt system Tx-ith long serondary feeders is
20 per relit total in the secondary feeders oiily. Should this power he
carried a t 4160 iiistead of 480 volts, the percentage voltage drop x~ould
have been only slightly ovcr one-quarter of 1 prr rrnt. Siirrc the load-
center system minimizes the length of low-\.oltage feeders, it minimizes
one of the chief causes of voltage drop atid herive redures voltage spread.
TABLE 4.10 Per Cent Voltoge Drop as a Function of Circuit Voltage for a
Feeder of a Given Cross Section
circcuit Relative Per Cent
V0ltoge Voltage Drop
240 400
480 100
2,400 4
4,160 I .33
13.800 0.12

Some examples will serve t,o illustrate the better voltage conditions in
rated 750 h a . With ail average load density of 10 va per sq ft, this sub-
statioir will servc a i l arca of 73,000 s q ft,. Ideally, the load area would be
a square, with the substatioii esartly i i i the renter; then the longest feeder
length ivould tie about l(i5.ft. Rut it i d 1 he assumed t,hat t,he area is
somewhat rcctaiigular atid that the suhstatioii rannot he lorated exactly
at the center. The artual length of the longest feeder might then he
ahout 200 ft.
Figure 4.16 rontains charts showing the voltage profiles for this 480-volt
suhstatioii. The trairsformcr taps should lie set for 480 secondary volts
when the primary voltage is at its maximum atid with no load on the sub-
station. The highest, voltage that is eticoi~titered by ally equipment
served hy this substatioii is 480 volts. At maximum load, voltage drop
has its maximum effect. A 4 pcr rcnt voltage reduction i u the primary
system is assumed, to illustrate the Ion--voltage rondition. This could
he due to a dcrreasc i n the power-vompauy supply voltage with inrreased
load on its system. h drop of 15 volts due t,o traiisformer react,ancc can
he experted. Assuming the 200-ft feeder t o ronsist of a 250-MCM cahle
per phase and to he fully loaded a t 80 per rent power factor, i t mill~iutro-
218 V O L T A G b S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS
duce about another 7 volts drop. h final 5 volts may be lost in the branch
circuit. The result is a minimum voltage at the end of the branch circuit
of 433 volts. In this system, voltage varies between the limit,s of 433 volts
and 480 volts---a voltage spread that should, in general, be satisfactory.
The old-type system often uses a suhstatioii as large as 3000 kva at 480
volts. And not heing of unit substation construction, it has to be located
at one edge of the load area-probably with the t,rausformers outdoors.
With the same load density as before, 10 va per sq f t , the 3000-kva snb-
station must supply an area'of 300,000 sq ft,. I n this substation the
longest feeder will probably be ahout 900 ft. The corresponding feeder
voltage drop will be 29 volts. Here the voltage spread is from 411 to 480
volts. Such a spread is well heyond the recommeuded limits. A full
load voltage of 411 i s too low t o be coiisidered good practice; 420 i s the
recommended minimum voltage for 440-volt motors.
7 5 0 KVA
SU0STATlDN

460

2440
420

400
NO LOAD VOLTAGE CONDITIONS WITH PRIMARY
VOLTAGE a T M A X I M U M

2 440-- --
> SECONDARY FEEDER/
420 -- VOLTAGE DROP- 7 VOLTS
VOLTAGE DROP-
VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. VARIATIONS. CALCULATION O F DROPS 219

60

48
w
0
a
3
0
> ABLE FULL LOAL
k 51ZE AMP
3
U U0.4 90
n
U vo. I I40
w 000 210
z 500 MCM 4 0
7 24l -
201 -
W
z
J

( -
5
SECONOARY FEEDER LENGTH(FEET1
FIG. 4.17 Chart showing length of three-conductor 600-volt cable in iron conduit to
produce 2 3 per cent voltage drop a t the most unfavorable power factor and full load
on the cable.

## Tolerable Secondary-feeder Voltage Drop. Figure 4.17 offers a

guide as to about how far fully loaded cables for circuits 600 volts and less
can be run and not encounter voltage-drop troubles in a n average indus-
trial plant. Thcrc are many variables which can alter the maximum
feeder length materially, such as power factor of load, primary voltage
drop, load per feeder, etc. The chart of Fig. 4.17 is based on representa-
tive conditions, i.e., primary voltage drop 5 per cent, transformer drop
355 per cent, branch-circuit feeder drop 156 per cent. The remainder is
the secondary-feeder drop of 2>5 per cent, the basis of Fig. 4.17. The
allowable spread a t 480 volts is 480 t,o \$20, or 60 volts or 1255 per c e n -
the sum of the percentages just ment,ioned. Secondary-feeder drops
greater than 235 per cent should be cherked under conditions expected at
the plant, t,o see if t,hey can be tolerated without c-using undesirably wide
Looking at this another way, 480-volt secondary feeders longer than
250 f t for small cable sizes and 400 f t for larger cable sizes should be
220 V O L T A G G S T A N D A R D RATINGS. VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

## avoided from a voltage-drop st,andpoint. If longer feeders must he used,

check the voltage drop. The tolerable secondary feeder lengths are some-
what longer for 600-volt cirruits, i.e., abont 300 and 500 ft, respectively,
aud considerably shorter a t 240 and 208 volts, i.e., about 125 arid 200
f t , respectively, a t 240 volts and 100 and 175 ft,, respectively, a t 208
volts.
Reducing Impedance. Sirirc volt,age drop is a product of current
t,imes impedance, anything t,hat, is done t,o reduce the impedance of a
circuit will reduce its voltage drop. The following are some suggestions:
1. t-se closely spaced cotidurtors, i.e., use cable instead (if open wire
with widely spaced (.onductors.
2. I'se interleaved huses, that is, bnses wit,h several cotiduvtors per
phase arratiged 8 , B , C; -4. B , C ; -4, R, C , etr., instead of liuses with all
conductors of one phase widely separated from the other phases.
3 . Use t x o smaller vahles in parallel instead of one larger cahle.
4. Use standard-rea(.tattce instead of high-rea(.tanre transformers.
€Iigh-reart,ance transformers reduce short-circuit rurrciits but increase
voltage drop, particularly lrith poor power-factor loads. A compromise
is necessary hecause a lover t,hari standard-reactanre transformer, n-hilc
reducing voltage drop, may invreasc short-circuit, rurrents so high as t o
require unreasonable switchgear for protection of the circuits fed by the
transformer.
5 . Keep feeders-particularly low-voltage feeders- as short as possible.
6. Use series caparitors t o neutralize the i n d u h v e reactance of a rir-
wit. There are few if any general applira.tions of the series capacitors
for this purpose in indust,rial plants except in coiiriect,ion wit,h resistanre
welders as n o k d later in this chapter. In a few rases they have heen used
in connection with motors t o maintain sufficient vokage a t the motor
terminals when starting a large motor oii a soft, system or t o neutralize
system impedance t,o maintain good voltage on lights, etc.
U s e Regulating Equipment. Even where the plaiit power system
uses a load-center system t o rarry t.he power the great,est practical dis-
tance at high voltage, where impedances have been kept, t o a minimum
and lorn-voltage feeder lengths as short as possible, it, may not be able to
meet the required voltage spreads because of too much voltage variation
in the primary supply system or because of a process requiring unusually
close voltage spread. In some old plants, low-voltage feeders may he
large and long, giving excessive voleage drop i n the secoiidary system.
Marry plants operate at 240 or 208Y/120 volts and have excessive voltage
spread that would be reduced t o tolerable limits if 480 volts were used
instead. However, the change may not he practical or ecoriomical a t t,he
moment. I n such cases voltage-regulating equipment provides the
VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 221

## Voltage Regulation of M a i n Power Source. Where a transmission or

disl,ribution h i e supplies a plant with power whioh has a voltage spryad
greater than a’.iout 5 per rent,, it may tie difficult t o mairrtairi the desired
voltage spread even wiLh the best designed plant power system. In these
cases sonic form of voltage regulatioii is often required. If the supply is
at, high v d t a g e arid must, he stepped down t,o below 15 kv (commonly
-Ll(i0 or 13,800 volts) for distritiut,ion, regulation rain tie built int,o the
transformer. This regulation is accomplished by automatic t a p changing
(76 per cent) steps to enable close volt,age control over a range of plus or
minus 10 per cent..
1,oad-ratio control for plus or niiriirs 10 per cent range is a very low cost
iii the over-a11 plant costs, arid yet because the load-ratio corit,rol provides
good voltage, it will improve prodii(tiiin and quality of maliufartured
goods. Iienc,e, the dividend from t,his small investment \rill often repay
the investmerit many t,imes over earh year. It is strongly rei~ommcrided
tha.t load-ratio control tie cmsidered itt every transformix stepping down
from voltages ahorc 15 k r to plant primary voltage iii the raiige of 2:I to
13.8 ku. The systems aliove 1.5 kv arc not dn-ays regulated to suit, t,he
industrial plant but for most, r f i r i i ~ n ot x r - a l l opcratioli of t,lie poiver sys-

FIG. 4.18 A typical outdoor packoged substation in which bod-ratio control con be
incorporated.
222 VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS, 'VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

tem. When load-ratio control is installed, both the utility and industrial
plant can operate their systems independently and to their own best
Figure 4.18 illustrates an outdoor substation, typical of those whose
Voltage Regulators. If power is supplied by the utility at below
15 kv, the only transformation required is at the individual load-center
station is uneconomical and even may he impractical. Hence, where the
primary-voltage spread is wide enough to require voltage regulation,
separate voltage regulators should be installed in the primary supply,
Fig. 4.19. For this service either three-phase step voltage regulators
(Fig. 4.20) or induction voltage regulators (Fig. 4.21) can be used. Their
standard range of voltage regulation is plus or minus 10 per cent. The
question is sometimes raised as to whether two induction regulators
should be connected in open delta. This is slightly less expensive than
three regulators to regulate three-phase circuits. However, the open-
delta connection creates an unbalanced voltage condition that should be
avoided. The voltage unbalance is small but may be enough to increase

STEP OR
INDUCTION
VOLTAGE
REGULATOR

REGULATOR HOLDS
CONSTANT VOLTAGE
HERE
\ v v
t
Y

## NOTE : THE BY-PASS PERMITS MAINTENANCE O F SERVICE

TO PLANT WHERE REGULATOR IS BEING MAINTAINED
- -
FIG. 4.19 One-line dioorom rhowino the a d , .i c o t i o n of steD or induction voltom r e d o -
tori for holding constant voltage on the plant primary bur for plants served at primary
voltage.
VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 223

FIG. 4.20 Typicol three-phore step voltage regulator roted 13,200 volts, 208 kvo, plus
or minus 10 per cent voltage regulotion.

FIG. 4.21 Typicol induction voltage regulator rated 225 kvo, 4330 volts, plus or minus 10
per cent voltoge regulation.
224 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

the heating appreciahly in fully loaded polyphase motors. For this rea-
son, best prartice avoids the open-delta conneition in favor of three-phase
regulation.
It is rerommended that serious consideration be given the addition of
t,hese regulat,ors i n the plant supply lines whenever the expected voltage
spread in the primary supply lines exceeds ahout 5 per cent.
Regulators may he hypassed for maintenance and a t the same time
maint,ain unregulat,ed service t o the plant. Itegulat,ors, like any other
piece of apparatus, must be given consideration from a short-circuit,
standpoint.
Feeder Voltage Regulation. trt,ilit,iesoften regulate individual feeders
at distribution voltage (2100 or 416F volts, for example) t o compensate

480 VOLTS

SECONDARY FEEDER
INDUCTION VOLTAGE
REGULATOR
FEEDERS TO
MOTORS, ETC
LIGHTING FEEDER

120 VOLTS
FIG. 4.22 One-line diagram showing the opplication of air-cooled induction voltage
regulators for secondary feeder regulation.
VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 225

for the voltage drop i n that, feeder. The itidustrial plaut does iiot often
ry, since \.oltage drops in individual primary ferde
usually small, less illan 1 or 2 per cent. Thus, regulation of voltage a t
the main h s is more rwmmotily used.
While there seems t o he little, jirstifiratioii for irrdividuul primary-feeder
regulation, there may be many appliratioris for individual seroiidary-
feeder reeulation.
._ . ,tlie voltage spread may I)<> satisfartory
For examuk,
for t,he majorit,y of utilization e q u i p
ment, such asmotors, welders, etr., but
not, considered good cliough for lights.
I n such cases, t,he lighting feeder may
be regirlat,ed and the rest irnregulated,
Fig. .4.2%. For such applications, air-
~ooledregirlalorslikethat shown in Fig.
4.23 may be used.
I n other cases, individual loads a t
GOO volts or less may require voltage
regulation t,o obtain the desired per-
formance from the equipment,. Rirh
loads might he heating unit,s, process
cont,rol, infrared ovens, hluepririt ma-
transmitt,ers, brooders, etc. Where
these loads are served at, utilizat,ion
voltage, aii iridrictimi regulator like
that, of Fig. 4.23 may be used.
lnductrol P o w e r Pock. A iie\\- dc-
velopment is a regulating loi\~-voltage
subst,atioII known as the Inductrol
Power Pack. It, is a itiiit made up
primarilyof an indurtioii voltage regu-
lator arid a dry-t,ype transformer.
The transformer is rat,ed 480 or 600
volts on t,he primary aiid %08Y/lZOor FIG, 4.23 A modern induction voltage
120/240 volts on the secondary. A regulator for circuitr 600 volts and leis.
Typical of either single 01 three phase.
primary switching- arid protective de-
vice arid secondary terminals complete the package. This unit may
be used for supplying regulat,ed lighting power from general-purpose 480-
or 600-volt feeders or for supplying any other loads with regulated 120-
volt power from 480- or 600-volt power systems.
Shunt C a p a c i t o r s . Refer t o Chap. 8 for a comp1et.e discussion of the
application of shunt capacitors t o improve voltage conditions.
Autotransformers. I n some cases where the general voltage level is
226 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

lorn and transformt?r taps cannot he used t,o correct for it, autotrans-
formers may he used t o provide a permanent boost i n voltage. T h e
autotrausformer does riot reduce t,he spread.
A t,ypiral appliration xvouid lie in the case of a, 208Y/120-voll system
supplying 220-nolt, mot,ors. The volt,ege may be proper lor the lights
hut not high eiiimgh for t,he 220-volt motors. An autolrmisformer could
he used l o step 208 volt,s up t o 220 volts for the motors only.
Generator Voltage Regulators. Where power is generated by t h e
plant,’s oxvti geiir.ralors, the voltage on t,he powerhouse bns can be held
constant or exwi varied with load to compensate for voltage drop as load
comPs on. Problems of voltage rcgulat,ion where industrial generators
are operalnd iri parallel with utility systems are referred to in Chap. 15.

## Reduction of flicker is often a much more difficult prohlem than the

reduction of voltage spread previously referred to.
Flicker due t o reciprocating motor-driven loads such as compressors,
purich presses, et,c., can often be reduced by increasing the inertia of the
met:lranical system to smooth out the pulsations. Where this is not
ive, t,wo t,liings may be done. One is to separate flicker-producing
load from the lights or critical load, i.e., use separate supply circuits. The
nther is to use a voltage stabilizer, Fig. 4.24, to feed the critical load.
Sometimes the critical load is fed through a motor-generator set t o pro-
vide good voltage for tliet load. This, lioxvevrr, is more expensive over
all thaii voltage stabilizers and in gcmral offers no advantage in this

## FIG. 4.24 Typicol voltage stabilizer.

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 227

## application. Voltage regulators previously discussed are not fast enough

to correct flicker, but for single-phase circuits, and in small sizes, auto-
matic voltage stabilizers are available to hold voltage mit,hin very close
limits. A typical model is designed to maintain an output voltage of
115 volts with maximum variation of plus or minus 1 per cent, even
though the supply volt,age may vary between 95 and 130 volts. The
volt,age stabilizer has no moving parts and no electronic tubes; its opera-
tion is obt,ained from the properly coordinated characteristics of reactors
and caparitors.
Series Capacitors. Series capacitors can be of value in reducing volt-
age flicker. C:hapt,er 8 contains a complete discussion of the application
of series capacitors.

## SELECTION OF TRANSFORMER TAPS

All modern transformers in ratings above 100 kva and most or those
helow that kva rating have taps in the windings to change the turn ratio.
The taps do not materially affect the voltage drop through the trans-
former; they merely change the turn ratio, hence the no-load voltage
ratio. For example, a standard transformer rated 2400-480 volts may
have four 2>5 per cent taps in the 2400-volt winding. The standard for
these taps in transformers used in industrial systems is to have two 256
pcr cent, taps above 2400 volts and two 24i per cent taps below 2400volts.
The no-load ratios of such a transformer would be as given in Table 4.11.
TABLE 4.11 No-load Voltoge Ratios of Standard Transformer Rated
2400-480 Volts
2520-480 “0th 5% obove tap
2460-480 volts 236% obove top
2400-480 volts Norrnol rating top
2340- 480 volts 2>P% below top
2280-480 volts 5% below tap

These taps do not improve voltage regulation but are only for changing
the general vokage level iq the plant. If a 2400-480-volt transformer is
connected to a system whose maximum voltage is 2520 volts, then the
2520-480-volt tap could be used which would provide a maximum of 480
volts no load on the system, as shown by curve A , Fig. 4.25. If, for
then the 240&480-volt t a p could be used to provide 480 volts no load in
the plant. This would be as shown in curve B , Fig. 4.25. Similarly if a
plant had a maximum voltage of 2280 vo!ts, then the 2280-480-volt tap
could be used to provide a maximum of 480 volts no load in the plant, as
shown in curve C , Fig. 4.25. It will be noted that in all cases the second-
ary no-load voltage is 480 volts; so the secondary system does not know
2600-
-
-
-
- 4 8 0 VOLTS MAX

U - 440 V
c 480 -
2 2400 ---- ---- _ _ _MAX
VOLTS ____-- MIN
> - -?
>
(r
- B 40
VOLTS
I
(L
-
a 440V
2300-
- --------- ________
480 VOLTS MAX MIN
VOLTAGkSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 229

no-load voltage. By using the next tap u p on the transformer, that is,
the one rated 2460-480 volts, the turn ratio of the transformer has now
been changed so that the no-load voltage is 472 volts, as shown in curve
B , Fig. 4.26. The voltage spread will be substant,ially the same, i.e.,
40 volts, so that the minimum voltage is now 432 volts, which is well
above the recommended minimum for plant distribution systems.
By judicious selection of the transformer t a p t,he voltage within the
plant can he kept Tyithin acceptable 1imit.s provided that the primary
voltage does not vary more than about 5 per cent and that the plant dis-
tribution system is designed along modern lines with the load-center sys-
tem using short secondary feeders and transformers not larger than about
1500 kva a t 480 volts or proportional sizes a t other secondary volt,ages.
Changing taps cannot, correct conditions where voltage spread is t,oo
great. For example, suppose a plant suffered from low voltage at remote
was 80 volts and the minimum voltage at the remote end was 400 volts,
then the maximum voltage would be 480 volts. If taps are changed to
raise the general voltaga level, the spread will not change but the 400-volt

I
- -- --4-
8 5-VOLTS - --- -_-
---MAX
g 2400 40
a VOLTS
J
0
5
> 440 V MIN
a
a
I
-
LL
P

FIG. 4.26 Voltage profile showing that rotisfactory voltages con be obtained without
excessive no-load voltage by proper election of taps on transformer.
230 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

## Volloqe Correction For

TypicoI Feeder Circuits

## FIG. 4.27 Summary of methods of improving

VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 231

Feeder
VOltoge Ci.<"iI iee

(81
ICI

drop ID1
ICI

## 3. High feeder Normal (El

drop. I81
drop. IF1

-

I . Normal
drop.

i I Volt.ge r e g d o t o r
Tronlformer ,ap setting

Voltage 'egulalor
IBI
1A1

101
drop. Tranrformer top 'elting (A1

## 3. vo1t.g. "No b o d " Leoding Aulornotic switching o f capoci- IGI

rile Except shunt ot no lood tors
<apa<itorl Voltage regu1otor lif no peno1ty
o r e on1 CIQYX for leoding power factor1 IF1

LIGHTING FLICKER

Flicker

## I . Rerirtan<e welders Series r a p o d o r with welder to reduce dernond

>POI or seom. by power.farlor correction
Series c"Po<itor in line to ne",r.lize ,y,,em
.eO<ta"Ce
Separote welder supply r i r 4 l
Volloge stabilizer l o r lighting circuit
2. Flmh. rssislmnre Separate welder supply c i r w i t
welders.
Voltoge Ifobiliier for lighting circuil
3. Motor loads. such Series coparilor in line to "e",,.lize 'y'lem
01: sow mill^, Rubber re.artance
milli. Grinders. Sep..ate motor '"pply Ci.CYil
Voltage slmbilirer for lighting circuit
4. Arc furnorer. Sante 0 s for lmotonl

## voltoge conditions in an indurlriol p l a n t

232 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

minimum may he raised t o 420 volts. At the same time the maximum is
raised to 500 volts, too high for generally sat,isfactory performance.
Conversely if the maximum voltage is too high and a wide spread exists,
the chatrgiug of taps, to reduce t,he maximum voltage, reduces the mini-
mum vokagc still further.

## Steady-state voltage drops are duc t,o current flowing through a n

impedauce. T o calwlate the steady-state voltage drop, the circuit
impedance, circuit current, and power factor of that curreut relative t o
some voltage must he known. I n this discussiou the power factor will be
Rigorous methods of calculating voltage drop can he very involved and
complicated, particularly in cases \\.here the sending-end voltage only is
kiron-u and t,he current and poiver factor of the load vary with variation
of receiver-end voltage. For the purpose of ordinary use in industrial-
plant problems, approximate methods are generally satisfartory.
Two methods of determining voltage drops are described. The first is
hy calculation using either the sending- or receiving-end voltage, the
magnitude and power factor of the load current, and the total impcdance
of the rircuit. The second method involves using charts of voltage drop
vs. load for the various circuit, components.
Voltage Drop by Formula. Thc voltage drop in a power system may
he calculated by selecting the formula which is most snitahle as t o accu-
racy desired and the voltage n-hieh is known, such as the receiver- or
seuding-end voltage of the circuit.
111all the following formulas except Eq. (4.8) the voltages are line-to-
ueutral voltage drops. T o obtain t,he liue-to-line voltage drop in a three-
phase system, multiply the line-to-neutral voltage drop by 4.For
single-phase syst,ems t,he line-to-line voltage drop is obtaiued by multiply-
ing the line-to-neutral voltage drop by 2.
I t is possible under some (~ouditionsto oht,aiu an answer with a negative
sign from t,he folLo\yiiig formulas. I n such ('ases t h e auswer should he
interpreted as showiug that the receiver voltage is higher thao the send-
ing-end voltage. These cases will be rare, however, since the great
majorky of systems will have receiver or load voltages which are lo\\-er
than the source or sendiug-end voltage.
Nomenclature for Formulas
e = line-to-ucutral voltage drop
es = line-to-neutral voltage at source end
en = line-to-neutral voltagc at load end
VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 233

## 8 angle whose cosine is the load power factor

=
I line current
=
R = resistance of the circuit, ohms
X = reactance of the circuit, ohms
(By convent,ion, inductive reactance is positive and capacitive
reactance is negative.)
cos 8 = load power fact,or in decimals
sin 8 = load reactive factor i n decimals
(By convention, sin B is positive for lagging power-factor loads
Approximate data on circuit and transformer impedances may be
obtained from Chap. 1 and trigonometric functions from the Appendix.
Exact Formulas. If eR is known,

## Line-to-neutral voltage drop

= d ( e B cos 8 + I E ) ? + (ee sin 8 + I X ) p- eR (4.1)
If es is known, -
Line-to-neutral voltage drop
= es + +
I R cos 8 I X sin B - .\/es* - ( I X cos 8 - I t l sin 8)' (4.2)
The voltage drop can also he obtained hy a proportional method.
Both the voltage drop and phase shift due t o voltage drop can be obtained
by

## where all quantities are expressed vertorially and Z, is the equivalent

load impedance and Zsis the system impedance including ZL.
Voltage drop = es - eR (numerically) (4.4)
I n Using Eq. (4.3) it should he noted that the load impedance is assumed
to he constant, whereas all other formulas are based on the load current
remaining constant.
A p p r o x i m a t e Formulas. I n practical cases, the results of these
approximate formulas are suffiriently accurate where a slide rule is used.
If e R is knomn,
Line-to-neutral voltaee droD Y

-
- I ( R cos '+ sin
( I X cos 8 - I R sin S ) l
+
+ 2(en I R cos 8 + I X sin 8 )
If es is known,
Line-to-neutral voltage drop
= I R cos 8
- I R sin 8)*
+ I X sin 8 + ( I X cos 8 2e.
234 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

## Most Commonly Used Approximate Formula. Where either e R or es

is known, then
Line-to-neutral voltage drop = I ( R cos 0 +X sin 0 ) (4.7)
Equation (2.7) can he converted as follows to calculate the per cent
voltage drop :

## Per cent voltage drop =

kva (R cos 0 + X sin 0 )
(4.8)
10 (kv)*
where kva is three-phase kva and kv is line-to-line kilovolts. For single-
phase circuits the per cent drop is twice this value.
From the vector diagram in Fig. 4.28 it can he seen that, whilc Eqs.
(4.7) and (4.8) are approximate, they are close enough for practical pur-
poses. In practical cases the angle between e,; and ey will he small. In
these formulas the error diminishes as the angle between e R and es
approaches zero and is exact if that angle is zero. The latter condition
will exist when the power factor of an inductive load is the same as the
power factor of the inductive circuit through which load current is caus-
ing the voltage drop. In Fig. 4.28, 0 is the power factor of the load.
Effect of Nonlinear Loads. The error caused by variation of load cur-'-_
rent and power factor with voltage applied to the load is not taken into
consideration in any of the foregoing formulas. If this error is significant,
it may he compensated for by using the cut-and-try method; that is,
first assume a given load or receiver-end voltage eR in the formulas. Then
if the value obtained by subtracting the calculated voltage drop from the
sending-end voltage is considerably different from the assumed receiving-
end voltage, make another try. Generally such refinement is not neces-
sary when the total plant voltage drops are less than 10 per cent.

SENDING END
OR BUS VOLTAGE

\
R E C E I V E R OR

CALCULATED
VOLTAGE DROP

F ACTUAL
VOLTAGE DROP
ERROR

FIG. 4.28 Diagram indicating magnitude of error when using Eqr. (4.7) and (4.8).
VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 235

## Voltage Drop in Transformers. Figures 4.29 and 4.30 may be used to

determine the approximate voltage drop in single-phase and three-phase
60-cycle liquid-filled self-cooled transformers. The charts are applicable
for single-phase transformers by entering the chart a t three times the
single-phase kva rating.
Figure 4.29 covers transformers in the following ranges:
Single-phase :
250-500 kva, 8.6-15-kv insulation classes
833-1250 kva, 2.5-25-kv insulation classes
Three-phase :
225-750 kva, 8.6-15-h insulation classes
1000-10,000 kva, 2.5-25-kv insulation classes
An example of the use of the chart is given below.
Example. Find the voltage drop in a 2000-kva three-phase KO cycle
236 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

transformer rated 4160-480 volts. The load is 1500 kva at, 0.85 power
fact,or.
Solution: Enter the chart on the horizontal scale a t 2000 kva. Extend
a vertical line t o its interpeetion with the 0.85-power faetoP t u n e .
Extend a line from this point horizontally to the left t o its intersection
with the vertical scale of per cent voltage drop for rated load. Multiply
Per cent drop at rated load = 3.67
Per cent drop at 1500 kva l5Oo X 3.67 = 2.75
= ~

2000
Actual voltage drop = 2.75 per cent X 480 = 13.2 volts
Figure 4.30 applies to the 34.5-kv insulation class transformers in
ratings from 1500 to 10,000 kva. These curves can be used t o determine
the voltage drop for transformers in the 46- and 69-kv insulation classes
by using appropriate multipliers a t all power factors except unity. To
correct for 46 kv, multiply the per cent vokage drop obtained from the
chart by 1.065, and for 69 kv multiply by 1.15.
Example. Find the per cent voltage drop in a 5000-kva 69,000-
13,800-volt three-phase 60-cycle liquid-filled transformer carrying 3500
kw a t 0.8 power factor.
Solution: Enter chart Fig. 4.30 a t 5000 kva and read per cent voltage
drop where this transformer size intersects the 0.8-power factor curve.
Per cent voltage = 4.25 for 5000 kva

6
NOTE: CURVES ARE BASED ON 6 PERCENT
Q IMPEDANCE FOR 34.5 KV CLASS
5 I I I I I I I
05
w
I
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&

54
a
0
U
0
u
0
3
4
5
8
I-
,
z
Y
Y
U
Y I
a

## TRANSFORMER RATING-THREE PHDSE KVA

FIG. 4.30 Tronrformer voltage-drop curves for three-phase transformers, 34%-kv volt-
age class.
VOLTAGbSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 237

= -
0.8
- 4380 kva
Multiplier for 69-kv insulation class = 1.15
4380
Actual per cent voltage drop = 4.25 X 1.15 X - = 4.28 per cent
5000
Voltage Drop in Cable. Voltage-drop curves, Figs. 4.31 to 4.34, may
be applied with reasonable accuracy to all types of paper-insulated,
rubber-insulated, and varnished-cambric-irisulated cable insulated for 600
or for 5000 volts. Two charts were prepared for each of these two voltage
classes of cable to cover the different t.ypes of installat,ions for cable sizes
No. 14 to X o . 4/0 Amg and 250 to 750 MCM. Voltage drop for loads
between 0.7 power factor lagging and unity is shown for t,his range of
cable sizes for three-conductor and three single-conductor cables in mag-
netic conduit.
The resistance and reactance used in preparing these charts are taken
from Chap. I. They are calculated values based on 75 C copper tempera-
ture and scattered tests. In determining reactances, it was assumed that
for three conductors in conduit the cables d l lie a t random in the hot-
tom of the conduit. If the cables are twisted together so that they oper-
ate in contact with each other, they should be regarded as a three-conduc-
tor cable.
The chart,s are prepared for three-phase voltages. For single-phase
circuits consisting of a two-conductor or two single cables in a conduit,
the. voltage drop measured line-to-line will be 16 per cent higher than
indicated in the charts.
Use of Voltage-drop Charts for Cable. First, select the chart apply-
ing to t,he problem with regard to voltage and type of installation.
Enter the chart a t the abscissa with the power factor of the load. Extend
a line vertically from this point to the correct size cable. On the ordinate
read the volts drop per 100 amp per 100 ft or per 10,000 amp-ft. Multi-
ply this value by the multiple of 10,000 amp-ft, for the problem under
consideration to get line-to-line voltage drop in a t,hree-phase system.
For a single-phase system multiply the three-phase drop by 1.IG.
Example. Assume that a 500-ft three-conductor rubber-insulated size
KO. l/O-hwg cable in magnetic conduit is the feeder for a three-phase
440-volt 60-cycle 150-amp 0.8-power factor inductive load. Find the
voltage drop.
Solution: Enter chart, Fig. 4.31, at 0.8 power factor and move upward
to the KO.l/O-Awg cable curve. From the point of intersection move
to the left and read thc voltage drop as 2.08 volts per 10,000 amp-ft.
Ampere-feet in cable = 500 X I50 = 75,000
Actual voltage drop = E 0
10,000
X 2.08 = 15.6 volts
238 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

W
LL
w
n
I
4

8
0
0
LL
w
0
u)

3
0
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z
-
&
z
n
W
c
3
4
50
>
VOLTAGGSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 239

## FIG. 4.32 Voltage-drop curves for three single-conductor 600-volt a b l e r in magnettc

conduit.
240 VOLTAGbSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

FIG. 4.33 Voltage-drop curves for three-conductor 5000-volt cable in magnetic conduit
or interlocked-ormor cable.
242 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

Voltoge Drop in Busway. Figures 4.35 and 4.36 may be used to deter-
mine the approximate voltage drop in a busway. Figure 4.35 applies to
a busway that is designed specifically for low-voltage drop. Figure 4.3F
applies t o a typical feeder busway of the type used with plug-in switches.
Figure 4.35 gives the line-to-line voltage drop in volts for GOO-, 800-,
1000-, and 1350-amp low-voltage-drop busway. These curves apply
of 70 C.
The voltage drops for other than rated load may be obtained by multi-
plying the voltage drop for rated load by the ratio of actual load to rated
load, Similarly, the voltage drop for lengths other than 100 ft may he

M 40 60 BO W O 20 40 60 80 100

W A D POWER FACTOR
FIG. 4.35 Voltage-drop curves for low-voltage-drop burwoy ot rated load. 70 c
operating temperature assumed.
VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 243

obtained hy multiplying the voltage drop for 100 f t by the ratio of actual
length to 100 ft.
These corrections are expressed in the following formula:
Actual line-to-:ine voltage drop
= voltage drop for 100 feet at rated load X
Example. Find the voltage drop on a 200-ft run of 800-amp husway
carrying a 600-amp load a t a 90 per cent power factor.
Solution: Enter Fig. 4.35 for au 800-amp husway at 90 per cent power
factor on the horizontal scale. Follow a vertical line to its intersection

4 . 5 X 3 = 13.5 V O L T S
FIG. 4.36 Voltoge-drop curves for typical plug-in bvrwcly carrying rated load.
244 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

## 0 0 the curve and proceed horizontally to the left. The intersection of

this line with the vertical scale is the voltage drop per 100 ft for an
800-amp busmay, 2.4 volts.
600 200
Line-to-line voltage drop = 2.4 X X - = 3.6 volts
800 100
~

## Single-phase voltage drops may he obtained by multiplying the three-

phase voltage drop times 1.16.
Figure 4.36 gives the line-to-line voltage drop in volts for a plug-in
type busmay. An example is given with the curves to illustrate their use.
Example of System Voltage-drop Calculation. The power system
shown in Fig. 4.37 is used t o illustrate the use of the foregoing charts and
formulas. Using the most critical feeders from the standpoint of voltage
33.5 KV TRANSMISSION L I N E
60 CYCLES

## 10,000 KVA PERCENT 2 =

I.OPERCENTti6.0 PERCENT
34.400 -4160 VOLTS
9000 KVA 0.8 PF LAGGING
4160 VOLTS

## 1500 KVA, 4160-480

PERCENT t = I . O PERCENT
T t j 5 . 5 PERCENT
KV A 0.8 PF LAGGING *-480 VOLTS
480 VOLTS
I I I 3 - k S o O MCM V C L
I N CONDUIT

## OHMS ?=0.0072tj0.009200 FEE1

A
W
250 KVA
440 VOLTS
0.7 PF LAGGING
FIG. 4.37 System one-line diagrom used 01 a baris for examples of system voltage-drop
Calcdatio".
V O L T A G k S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 245

## drop, four solutions involving varying degrees of accuracy were made to

determine the operating voltage at the 4160- and 480-volt utilization
buses and at the load end of a 480-volt feeder.
In each solution except 4, it is assumed that the indicated load kva,
power factors, and efficiency remain constant for voltage variatious due
to regulation. I n other words, the load current varies with applied
voltage to keep the kva constant.
Table 5.12 lists the operating voltages obtained by the four methods of
solution used.

Solution
1
1
Equations'
used
I
I

Bur A I
i

Bur 8 I
I
Secondary

## 1 14.7) 3900 425 418

2 14.31 end 14.41 -~
3910/-2.2" 426/--4.40 419/~4~50
3 Charts 3925 429 422
4 Charts 3932 432 425

## * Sce Eqs. (4.3), (4.4), and (4.7)

Solution 2 was made by using the exact formulas Eqs. (4.3) and (4.4).
It shows that the phase angle of each successive voltage level is shifted to
lag slightly the no-load voltage. It should he recognized that the use of
this exact formula does not necessarily mean that the answer is exact,
because it is necessary to use a cut-and-try process in the solution. As
with any cut-and-try process, a point is reached where the added accuracy
to be obtained does not justify another trial, and therefore the answer is
not absolutely exact.
In solution 3, voltage-drop charts were used to determine voltage drop.
The error involved in this method results from the greater margin of
error in reading charts and in the arithmetical additiou of voltage drops
slightly out of phase.
Solution 4 involved the use of charts but neglected t,he cut-and-try
procedure necessarily employed in the other solutions. The cut-and-try
procedure was used in the other solutious because the load kva x a s
assumed to be constant as the voltage changed and therefore t,he load
currents changed. In this solution the current x a s assumed to remain
constant as the load voltage varied.
Solutioii 1 is given helow as an example.
Solution 1: Calculatiou by approximate Eq. (4.7).
246 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

## where v = line-to-line voltage drop

I = line current, amp
R = circuit resistance, ohms
X = circuit reactance, ohms

## Bus A Voltage. From Fig. 4.37,

Overhead line resistance = 1.97 ohms
Overhead line reactance = 1.52 ohms
Converting transformer per rent resistanre and reactance t o ohms by
the formula
%ohms X (kv)' X 10
Ohms =
kva
and using the principle that transformer impedance varies approximately
as the square of the per cent voltage tap used,
X (0.975)' 1,12 ohms
K,. = 1.0 X (34.4)*
10,000
X 10 =

6.73 ohms
x, = 6.0 X (34.4)'10,000
X (0.975)' X 10 =

## Total ohms resistanre = 1.97 + 1.12 = 3.09

Total ohms reactance = 1.52 + 6.73 = 8.25
Assuming 4lFO volts at bus A and considering constant load,
9000 kva = 1250
Bus A amperes =
4X 4.160
1250 X 4.16 = 155
34.4 x ,975
Suhstitutingin the voltage-drop formula with cos 0 = 0.8 andsin 0 = 0.6,

v = 4X 155(3.09 X 0.8 +
8.25 X 0.6)
= 4X +
155(2.48 4.95)
= 4 X 155 X 7.43
= 1990 volts
Bus A volts
= (source voltage - voltage drop) X (power transformer ratio)
4.160
= (33,500 - 1990) 34,4
o,975
VOLTAGE- STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 247

## Recalculating the voltage drop assuming 3910 volts on Bus A ,

= 4160 155 = 165
3910
Y = 4X 165 X 7.43 = 2120 volts
4.160
Bus A voltage = (33,500 - 2120)
34.4 x 0.9%

## This value is assumed t o he close enough for practical purposes.

Bus B Voltage. From Fig. 4.37,
5-kv cable resistance = 0.1094 ohm
5-kv cable reactance = 0.0712 ohm
Transformer resistance = 1.0% on its own base

## Transformer reactance = 5.5% on its own base

-
-
5.5.X (4.16)'X 10
1500
~~

= 0.634 ohm

## Total ohms resistance = 0.109 + 0.115 = 0.224 ohm

Total ohms reactance = 0.071 + 0.634 = 0.705 ohm
Assuming 450 volts on bus B ,
1300 kva
Bus B amperes = = 1670
&X
0.450
480
5-kv cable amperes = 1670 X -- = 193
4160
v = 4 I ( R cos 0 +
X sin 8 )
cos 0 = 0.8, sir1 0 = 0.6
v = 4X193(0.224 X 0.8 0.705 X 0.6)+
= 43 X 193(0.179 0.423) +
= fi X 193 X 0.602 = 201 volts

## Bus B voltage = (bus A voltage - v) (transformer ratio)

480
= (3900 - 201) -
4160
248 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

## I{rcali~ulatrngI> a\suming 4"(i volts on bus H with same load,

450
5-kv cahlr amperes = 193 X - = 204
4%
v = 4 3 X 204 X O.GO2 212 volts
=
480
Hns B voltage = (3900 - 212) -
4160

=
= 344
0.420 X 4
Cable resistance = 0.0072
('able reactance = 0.0090
v = 4x r ( x cos B + X sin 8 )
ros B = 0.7, sill B = 0.714
c = 4
3 x 344(0.007" x 0.7 + O . O O ~ Ox 0.714)
= 4X 344(0.00504 + 0.00643)
= 43 X 344 X 0.01147
= G.9 volts
Load voltage = 425 - G.9 = 418.1 volts
Since the most i.ritii.al feeders n-ith respect, t o voltage drop have been
selerkd, the ralrulated load voltages a t hus A , bus B , arid at the sec-
ondary-load trrminals provide sufkieirt information t o analyze the sys-
tem from the standpoint of voltage drop. Xct,ually, the 480-418 voltage
the horder line and should he stiffened, possibly'hy using a larger 5-kv
feeder cable. Howevw, this is beyond the scope of this problem, which i s
mcrcly iriteiidcd to out,liiic t h e method of det,ermitriiig voltage drop.

## CALCULATION OF VOLTAGE DROPS DUE TO MOTOR STARTING

INTRODUCTION

I t is rharactrristic of most a-c motors that the riirrent, which they draw
oii startiirg is mu(.h higher t,han t,heir rrormal running ( w r e n t . Syn-
i~hronousand sqnirrel-rape iudi~rtionmotors started 011 full voltage may
draw a c u r ~ w i tas high as sevt!ii or eight t,imes their fnll-load running
rurrcnt. This sriddeir increase in the (.usrent, drawn from the power
system may r c s i i l t iii csressive drop i n volt,age unless it is considered in
VOLTAGbSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 249

the design of the system. Folloii-ing are methods for ralculatiug the
voltage drop which results from startiug of three-phase induction aud
synrhronous motors.

M O T O R - S T A R T I N G METHODS

## The motor-startiug kra, imposed on the power-supply system, and t,he

available motor torque are greatly aKected by the method of starting
used. l'ahlc 4.13 gives a conlparisoii of several common methods.
Full-voltage Starting. This method usually provides the most torque
hut muses the greatest load t o be applied to the system. The load
applied equals (at motor rated voltage) the full-voltage starting kva of
hhe mot,or. Frill xwlt,age is the least espeosive method of startiug.
The full-voltage starting kva of syurhroiious and squirrel-cage indur-
tion motors ruuges from 230 to 800 per cent of their full-load h a input.
The latter is approsimately cqual to t,hc horsepower rating of induction
and 0.8-pomr-factor syirrhrorious motors and is approximately 80 per
eelit of the horsepower rating of 1.0-poiver-factor syrichronous motors.
If the starting curreut in ampercs is kno\vu, the startiug kva (of three-
phase motors) may he ralrulated from the formula
line-to-line volts
Kva = 1.73 X amperes X
looo
Reactor Starting. With t,his method, a reactor is connect,ed in series
with the motor aud is shorted out when the motor approaches full speed.
4 reactor starter redures the line current in proportion t o the tap used.
For example, with a 50 per cent tap, the current is cut in half. The
torque is reduced hy the square of the tap used. Hence, the torque is
reduced more rapidly than the line current. Reactor st,arting is com-
mouly used for large motor-generator sets.
Resistor Starting. Resistor starting is similar t o reactor starting
except that a resistor is used in series with the motor, instead of a reactor.
The torque available for a given reductioti in startiug current is the same
as with a reactor. The hie-voltage drop may be somewhat less because
of the better power factor of a resistance-st,arting load.
Resistor starting seldom offers a cost advantage, except wheu several
steps are required, t o meet limitations established for the maximum kva
applied at any oue step. Power companies sometimes establish such
limitations.
Use of several steps may permit a generat,or voltage regulator to restore
voltage between steps. It also tends to make light flicker less noticeahle,
even if most of the drop is in the distribution system and cannot be
reduced by regulators.
250 VOLTAGE- STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

## Autotransformer Starting. If an autotransformer starter is used, the

line current is reduced approximately as the square of the tap setting.
For example, if an autotransformer at a 50 per cent tap is used, a motor
starting load of 100 per cent of the rating of a generator will be redured
to about 25 per cent. Table 4.13 shows 30 per cent because it allows for
autotransformer magnetizing current. Autotransformer starting may
cost more than reactor starting, but may be needed to provide adequate
torque.
The tap selected should always be high enough to accelerate the motor
to a speed a t which the current will not be excessive after transfer t o the
running connection. If the load torque is high a t the time of transfer to
the line, a high transient inrush for a few cycles may occur at this time
even if the speed is high. This is seldom sustained long enough to cause
troublesome voltage dip, but may cause tripping of instantaneous over-
current protection for the motor circuit.
TABLE 4.13 Comparison of Motor-starting Methods

## Line voltage = motor-rated voltage

-
Type of starter* t.rting tolqY*
Motor voltage
f"ll-"oltoge
line voltage
tarting torque

........................
Full.roltage stmrter. 1 .O 1 .O 1 .O
Autotransformer:
........................
80 Per Cent t o p . . 0.80 0.64 0.68
65 per cent tap.. ........................ 0.65 0.42 0.46
50 per cent tap.. ........................ 0 .so 0.25 0.30
Resistor storm, single step [adjusted for motor
voltage to be 80 per cent of line voltogel 0.80 0.64 0.80
Reoctor;
50 per cent tap..
45 per <*"I top..
.......................
........................
.I 0.50
0.45
0.25
0.20
0.50
0.45
......................
37.5 per Cent t o p . . 0.375 0.14 0.375
Part-winding starter [low-speed m o l ~ r sonlyl:
75 per cent winding. ..................... 1 .O 0.75 0.75
50 per cent winding. ..................... 1 .O 0.50 0.50

## * The settings given %rethe more common for each type.

Part-winding Starting. Some motors can be provided with taps for
part-winding starting. In such cases, power is first applied to a portion
of the winding and later the entire winding is connected to the line. This
is sometimes done in several steps, using increasing proportions of the
winding.
When only part of the winding is energized, the current and torque are
VOLTAGbSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 251

less than for full-voltage starting. They are both changed approximately
in proportion t o the amount of winding connected. That is, for a typical
low-speed motor, at the half-winding connection, the current and torque
are approximately equal t o one-half their full winding values. This
method is comparable in cost with autotransformer starting, and also
provides a smoother transfer to the running connection. However, this
method is seldom advantageous for motors above 514 rpm (fourteen
poles), because it provides relatively less torque for such motors.
Starting of Wound-rotor Motors. Wound-rotor motors are invariably
started on full voltage, but control is provided which inserts a high
resistance in the secondary winding on starting and short circuits this
resistance in one or more steps as the motor comes up to speed. This
serves to limit the starting current drawn by the motor-usually to
have a high power factor. Consequently, the voltage drop caused by
starting this type of motor is comparatively small. On the other hand,
wound-rotor motors and their control have a relatively high cost.

## Generator Voltage. Figure 4.38 shows the behavior of the voltage of

a generator when an induction motor is started. Starting a synchronous

100

90
80
\$ 70
2
d"
>
5 50
Y
u 40
IL
f 30
20

ov
10

0 2 3 4 5 6

TIME- SECONDS

## A - NO INITIAL LOeiD ON GENERATOR

B - 5 0 PER CENT INITIAL LOAD ON GENERATOR
N - NO REGULATOR
FIG. 4.38 Typical generator voltage behavior.
151 V O L T A G S S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

motor is essentially similar, up to the time of pull in. I n the case illus-
trated, a full-voltage starter is used, and the full-voltage starting kva is
ahout 100 per rent of t,he generator rating. I t is assumed that the gen-
erator is provided with an automatic voltage regulator.
Curves .A and R show the performance, with the regulator operating,
for init,ial loads on the generator of zero and 50 per cent, respectively.
The minimum voltage is about 75 per cent and is not affected much by the
iriitial load. This is typical with most initial loads which consist of a
The voltage regulator restores the voltage ton-ard normal in about 2
see. At, this time the motor is usually st,ill at low speed and drawing a
high current.
The initial load on the generator has an important effect on the value t o
which the voltage is restored by regulator action. This is illustrated by
curve B , for whirh the voltage is restored by the regulator to only about
85 per cent of normal. This restored voltage is the voltage available for
breaking away and accelerating the motor. When the motor comes up
to speed, its current becomes much less, so that t,he regulator then restores
the generator voltage to 100 per rent. The reason the regulator usually
cannot restore the voltage to 100 per cent when a large motor is started
on a heavily loaded generator is that the exciter maximum (ceiling)
voltage limits the available generator excitation.
Sometimes it is only necessary to calculate the minimum voltage. In
other cases it is also necessary to calculate the restored voltage available
for break away and accelerations. Methods of estimating each of these
voltages are included.
Minimum voltage is needed to determine whether undervoltage devices
and contactors connected to the system mill drop out, or running motors
stall, during the disturbance. The minimum voltage is also a determin-
ing factor in light flicker. The restored voltage is necessary to estimate
the torque available for starting the motor.
Usually it is sufficient to determine the minimum voltage and the
restored voltage based upon the current drawn by the motor at standstill,
i.e., upon the locked-rotor current. It is sometimes necessary, however,
to determine the restored voltage throughout the acceleration of the
motor. Although the current drawn by a motor decreases as it comes u p
to speed, resulting in an increasing generator voltage, the load torque
may also increase with speed so that a higher voltage is necessary to
ensure acceleration.
In the case of a synchronous motor i t may be necessary to check the
restored voltage at the speed at which field excitation is applied (95 per
cent of synchronous speed or higher) to make sure that the motor will
pull into step. The pull-in torque of a synchronous motor varies approxi-
VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 253

mately as the square of the voltage at the motor terminals just before
application of field.
Distribution-system Voltage. Frequently there are transformers,
lines, or cables between the motor starter and the generator or generators
supplying the power for starting. The drop in the transformers, lines, or
cables will be additional to the generator drop. Often practically all the
drop is in this distribution equipment. The drop in this equipment is
not reduced by the action of voltage regulators. Consequently, when
practically all the drop is in transformers, lines, and cables, the voltage
falls immediately and docs not rerover till the motor approaches full
speed.

## ESTIMATING GENERATOR VOLTAGE DROP

Minimum Voltage. The curves of Fig. 4.39 may he used for estimating
the minimum voltage occurring at the terminals of a generator supplying
power to a synchronous or squirrel-cage induction motor which is being
254 VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

## started. The initial load on the generator, if any, is assumed to be of

the constant-current type.
The three sets of curves shown are for three ranges of generator speed.
The generator reactances assumed to apply for each speed group are also
given in Fig. 4.39.
The curves show the minimum voltage, in per cent of the initial gen-
erator voltage, plotted against the "motor-starting kva" in per cent of
generator rated kva. The "motor-starting kva" is the kva which would
be drawn by the motor being started if the generator voltage were main-
tained at rated value. Since there is a drop in generator voltage, the
actual kva drawn by the motor will generally be less than the value
defined above, but the effect of this is taken into account by the curves.
The several curves in each speed group-except those marked N a n d E-
apply for various values of a factor K. This factor is the exciter response
in volts per second divided by the exciter voltage for rat,ed generator
voltage at rated load and multiplied hy the generator open circuit field
time constant in seconds. Approximate values of K are given in Fig. 4.40.
The values of Ii in Fig. 4.40 are based on the use of a self-excited excit,er
controlled by a direct-acting rheostatic voltage reguhtor (such as the

GENEIIbTOR e I T E O K"&

~ W T DIRECT-CONNECTED
" EXCITER * HULTlPLlERS TO *ILLOW FOR "IMIAITION OF EXClTER
.....~ WIT"
~ BELTED
.. EXCITER RESPONSE WlT" GENERATOR IN1TIAL L o l o
NUMBERS ON CURYES ARE R P N lNlTlbL LOAD (PER C E N T , UULTlPL" I( B"
NUMBERS I" BRACKETS &RE EXClTER R P H (00 ,70
75 I55
50 I"5
25 I25
0 ,oo
FIG. 4.40 Typical valuer of performance factor K for (I-c generators.
VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 255

A-C
GENERATOR

EXCITER
FIELD 1 u
GENERATOR
VOLTAGE
REGULATOR ''lL

## General Electric Company Type GDA) as shown in Fig. 4.41. In this

system the response of the exciter depends not only upon its design hut
also on the setting of the exciter field rheostat. The latter is determined
by regulator requirements. The rurves of Fig. 4.40 are based on a setting
of the exciter field rheostat which makes available a maximum generator
field current of 120per cent of its rated value. The K fartors given by the
curves are typical only, and in an individual case K may vary considera-
bly from the value shown.
The curves of Figs. 4.39 and 4.40 allow an estimate to be made of the
generator miuimum voltage directly from the generator kva rating, the
generator speed, the exciter speed, and the motor starting kva. If
guarantees of performance are required, a study based on romplete data
erator, exciter, regulator, exciter rheostat, initial load, and the motor
being started.
Restored Voltage. The curves of Fig. 4.42 may be used for estimating
the restored voltage of a generator, that is, the voltage attained after the
regulator has acted to apply maximum excitation current to the generator
(or has restored the voltage to its initial value) following the starting of a
squirrel-cage induction or synchronous motor.
The curves show the restored voltage in per cent of rated generator
voltage plotted against the kva which would be drawn by the motor being
started if rated generator voltage were maintained. The several curves
apply for various values of initial load which is assumed to be a constant-
current load of 0.8 lagging power factor.
The excitation system is assumed to be such that a maximum excita-
tion current of 120 per cent of rated generator field current can he
obtained.
If guarantees of performance are required, a study based on complete
generator, exciter regulator, exciter rheostat, initial load, and the motor
being started.
156 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

## MOTOR S T I R T l N G I("& I N P E R C E N T O F G E N E R l T O R K Y A A T R A T E O O E N E R ~ T O AVOLThQE

( B A S E D O N Y l x l Y u Y EXCITATION-IZOPER C E N T O F R A T E D G E N E R A T O R F l E L O C U R R E N T I

## NOTE: RESTORED VOLTAGE E W I L S VALUE READ FROM CURVE OR THE

INITIaL YOLTlGL (REGULATOR SETTING1 WHICHEVER I S LOWER

## Advontages of Voltage Regulators. Figures 4.38, 4.39, and 4.42

show dashed curves, marked N , which indicate the results t o be expected
if no regulator is used. It is apparent that regulators are very beneficial.
They practically always justify their cost whenever the starting of large
motors is involved. For example, consider a 480-volt 125-kva 1200-rpm
generator. From Fig. 4.40 this may have a performanre factor K of
about 1.7 with a regulator. From Fig. 2.39, 110 per cent motor-starting
load or 138 kva will cause a 28 per cent voltage dip.
This load would correspond t o starting a 25-hp motor at full voltage.
T o obtain the same motor-starting performance without a regulator
would require a 438-kva generator, because the curve N shows that about
32 per cent motor-starting load will cause a 28 per cent voltage drop if no
regulator is used. (138 kva is about 32 per cent of 438 kva.) The
438-kva generator would cost over twice as much as a 125-kva machine.
The best and least expensive arrangement mould be t o provide a regulator
adding less than 15 per cent to the cost of the 125-kva generator. This
mould permit successful starting of the 25-hp motor even against full-load
torque and would improve normal generator performance.
I n Fig. 4.39 are curves, marked E , which show the performance avail-
able when using an electronic exciter or some other very high-response
excitation system. It shows there is a definite limit to the improvement
VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS. CALCUUTION OF DROPS 157

which can be obtained by greatly inrreasing response; that is, the genera-
tor voltage will dip a t least a certain amount before the excitation system
Effect of Initial Voltage. Often the voltage rating of the generator
supplying a motor is higher than that of the motor. A 440-volt motor
might he supplied by R 480-volt generator and a 2200-volt motor by a
2400-volt generator.
In such cases, the motor-start,ing kva should be adjusted t o take this
into account,. The kva drawn hy a motor increases as the square of the
line voltage. If t,hr startiiig inrush of a 410-volt motor is 1000 kva a t
440 volts, it will be 1190 kva at 480 volts because (480/440)* = 1.19.
This is the value which should be used to determine the generator mini-
mum voltage (from Fig. 4.39) regardless of the actual initial voltage.
For example, assume that, with an initial voltage of 480 volts, the starting
of the 440-volt motor (drawing 1190 kva at 480 volts) causes the voltage
t o drop t o 75 per rent of the initial value, or 3G0 volts. If the voltage
regulator is set t o hold a voltage of 440 volts, starting of the same motor
will produre approximately the same voltage drop in per cent of the
initial voltage, i.e., the voltage will drop t o approximately 75 per cent of
440 volts, or 330 volts. This shows that, from the standpoint of the
minimum voltage, the regulator should be set t o maintain rated voltage
on the generator even though the motor voltage is lower.
As far as the restored voltage is concerned (Fig. 4.42), this is not
affected by the initial voltage except that the voltage mill not recover t o
a value higher than the initial voltage since this represents the setting of
the voltage regulator. For example, if the initial voltage (setting of volt-
age regulator) is 90 per cent of rated generator voltage, the recovery
voltage in per cent of rated generator voltage will be as shown by the
curves of Fig. 4.42, except that all curves will become horizontal lines at
90 per cent voltage.
Effect of Initial load. The voltage curves of Figs. 4.39 and 4.42 were
prepared on the basis that the initial load on the generator draws con-
stant current duririg the voltage disturbance. This sort of load charac-
teristic is representative of many systems and results from the use of
induction motors, all of which are not fully loaded.
An induction motor at no load will draw a current approximately
proportional t o the applied voltage, because the current is principally
magnetizing current. A fully loaded induction motor will tend t o have
constant kva input since its speed and power factor do not change much
with variations in line voltage. Consequently, a fully loaded induction
motor will draw more current if the voltage is lower, t o maintain the
258 VOLTAGbSTANDARD RATINGS. VARIATIONS, UL6UUTION OF DROPS

lightly loaded motors will therefore tend to draw nearly constant current
since a lowering of the voltage causes a reduction in the current to some
motors and an increase in the current to others.
A constant-current type of load will have very little influence on the
minimum voltage during motor starting. It will, however, have an
important effect on the value of the restored voltage of generators, as
previously described.
Lighting loads usually have little effect upon voltage disturbances due
to motor starting. This is true because lighting loads usually constitute
a small proportion of the total load on a generator, and also because of
their high power factor.
the per cent minimum voltage and recovered voltage will both tend to be
higher than indicated by the curves.
the voltage disturbance from motor starting will be more severe than
indicated by these figures.
Initially connected synchronous motors are beneficial in reducing the
disturbance due to motor starting. They are most beneficial when
in a plant so that they will be on the line to help in the starting of large
induction motors later. Synchronous motors will not be helpful, how-
ever, if the voltage disturbance is so great as to cause them to pull out of
step.
Although the curves in this section are based on initial loads of the
constant-current type, they may be used for cases involving other types.
This is done by adjusting the motor-starting kva by an amount corre-
sponding to the change in current to the initial load, caused by the drop
in voltage. The increase or decrease in motor-starting kva is such as to
change the motor-starting current, a t the minimum voltage, by the same
amount as the change in the lagging wattless component of the initial
load. That is, the effect of the initial load is primarily due to a change
in the wattless component, and this can be simulated by a change in the
motor-starting kva. Since the change in current and the minimum volt-
age are dependent upon each other, a trial-and-error procedure is involved.
The first trial is often sufficient,if the change in current is determined a t
the voltage corresponding to the case of a constant-current initial load.
For example, consider a generator whose voltage would dip to 75 per
cent if a 100 per cent motor-starting load were applied when a 50 per cent
consisted of fully loaded induction motors a t 0.8 power factor, the dip
would be more severe, because a t 75 per cent voltage the lagging wattless
current to the running motors would be increased from 30 per cent of the
VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 259

## generator rating t o about 40 per cent. This increase could be approxi-

mately simulated by an increase of the motor-starting kva from 100 per
cent to 113 per cent. This is true because a motor-starting load which
would draw 13 per cent of generator rated kva a t full voltage will draw
10 per cent current a t 75 per cent voltage.
Figure 4.43 shows the amount by which motor-starting kva should be
increased to allow for the effect of an initial load consisting of fully loaded
induction motors.
Effect of Starting Power Factor. The power factor of most motor-
starting loads lies between 10 and 40 per cent. Variations within this
range do not materially influence voltage drop of generators.
Wound-rotor motors have a starting power factor of about 80 per cent
lagging. At this power factor the resulting voltage drop (initial voltage
minus the minimum voltage) will not generally exceed 75 per cent of the
drop caused by the same kva a t low power factor. Resistor starters

PF __
-R C F N T
VOLTAGE
DROP
18
17 30
16
U 25
> 15
Y
14
20
z0 13
12 15
2 I ! 10
10 5
09
g 08

'
07
LL 06
05
a 04
w
2 03
F 02
1
3 01
= o
0 0'2 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 20
I N I T I A L LOAD KVA
RATIO OF
MOTOR STARTING KVA

## INCREASE MOTOR STARTING KVA BY MULTIPLIER SHOWN

BEFORE USING CURVES OF FIG.4.39AND FIG.4.42 ( ! N I T I A L LOAD MAY
THEN BE CONSIDERED AS CONSTANT CURRENT T Y P E )
FIG. 4.43 Approximate effect of initial lood consisting of fully loaded induction motors.
260 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

seldom cause the starting power factor to he high enough to reduce volt-
age drop greatly, except for the first steps when several are used.
Effect of Drop in Generator Speed. Since the power factor of motor-
starting kva is low, the amount of kw load applied to a generator is seldom
large. Furthermore, the voltage drop, by reducing the electrical output,
of 100 per cent of generator-rated kva at 0.3 power factor will involve a
suddenly applied km load less than 30 per cent of rated kva, or 37.5 per
cent of rated kw for an 0.8 power-fartor generator. The speed drop is
not likely to be excessive if good governing means are employed. For
most motor-starting problems, it may safely be neglected.
As speed dips, a corresponding dip appears in the voltage, which is in
addition t o the voltage drops considered in this section. For cases where
speed dip may be sufficiently great to be important, this should be con-
sidered, but calculation of speed drop is beyond the scope of this book.

## ESTIMATING DISTRIBUTION-SYSTEM VOLTAGE DROP

The voltage drops in lines, cables, and transformers are often as impor-
tant as generator voltage drop. In fact, they are frequently more impor-
tant. For example, if the total kva of connected generators in the power
system is more than 100 times the horsepower rating of the motor being
started, then the generator voltage dip will be less than 1 per cent, and it
will be quickly eliminated by regulators. In such a case, however, the
motor will probably be supplied through a transformer bank. If the
transformer-bank kva rating is only slightly larger than the motor rating,
the voltage drop may be quite severe.
Voltage Drop of Transformers. The curves of Fig. 4.44 may he used
for estimating the voltage drop through typical transformers when start-
ing a synchronous or squirrel-cage induction motor connected to the
secondary of the transformer. The secondary voltage on starting of the
motor, in per cent of the initial secondary voltage, is plotted against the
motor starting kva. The latter is expressed in per cent of the trans-
former-hank kva rating and is the kva which wouldhedrawnhythemotor
being started if rated transformer secondary voltage were maintained.
The curves of Fig. 4.41 neglect the effect of primary-voltage drops
caused by motor starting. Methods of taking these into account will he
explained later.
Note that the secondary voltage is plotted in per cent of its initial
value. This initial secondary voltage is determined by the initial pri-
mary voltage, the t a p setting, and the initial load. It may he deter-
mined by measurement or by suitable calculations. It is usually slightly
less than the rated secondary voltage.
VOLTACbSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 261

## MOTOR STARTING KVA

1% OF B & N I K V A aiT RATED TRANSFORMER SECoNOAR” VOLTAGE1

## FIG. 4 44 Transformer secondary voltage

The curves of Fig. 4.44 were prepared on the basis that the initial load,
if any, draws constant current during the voltage disturbance. This is
typical of a system consist,ing of both lightly loaded and heavily loaded
induction motors, the curves of Fig. 4.44 may still be used provided that
the motor-starting kva is first multiplied by the fartor shown in Fig. 4.43.
The curves of Fig. 4.44 apply for motor-starting power factors in the
usual range of 10 t,o 40 per cent. For wound-rotor motors which have a
starting power factor of about 80 per cent, the drop in voltage will be
about 70 per cent of that shown.
Voltage Drop of Cables and Overhead Lines. The curves of Figs.
-1.45 and 4.4G may be used for estimating the voltage drop through cables
and overhead lilies n-hcn start,iiig synchronous and squirrel-cage induction
motors supplied through these circuits.
I n using these figures, it is first necessary t o determine the length of the
circuit in feet, the initial voltage at the load end of the circuit, and the
motor-starting kva a t the iuitial voltage. These quantities are combined

motor-starting kva
M =
at the initial voltage x (% )
ci:ri ne):,t
(initial voltage)2
262 VOLTAGkSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

For example, if the motor-starting load were 1000 kva, the circuit 1000
ft long, and the initial voltage 2400 volts, the loading factor M would be
1000 x 1000 = o,1,3
(2400)'
Figure 4.45 shows that for this case the voltage drop at the load end of
a typical three-conductor cable is 1.5 per cent.
This illustration gives data for three circuits: a three-conductor cable,
a single-conductor cable, and an overhead line. It will be noted that the
voltage drop in an overhead line is greater than that for a cable.
If two circuits are in parallel, the drop is equal to that for a single cir-
cuit of one-half the actual length of each circuit.
The voltage drop in a line or cable depends upon the conductor size and
spacing. Consequently, for different cases than those illustrated in Fig.
4.45, the voltage drop may be somewhat different. This is illustrated by
Fig. 4.46 showing the voltage drop for a range of circuit configurations.
The points corresponding to the circled cases in Fig. 4.45 are circled in
Fig. 4.46.
Figure 4.46 applies for the condition hf = 1.0. It may be noted,
however, that the curves of Fig. 4.45 are nearly straight lines. Hence,
the voltage drop for other values of M may be estimated by multiplying
the values of Fig. 4.46 by M . This provides a simple method of esti-
mating the voltage drop for motor-starting loads.
The power factor of the motor-starting load is assumed to be 0.3 power
factor. For conductor sizes above No. 0 Awg, variations over the usual
range from 0.2 to 0.4 power factor will not have an important effect on
voltage drop.
Figures 4.45 and 4.46 are based on a frequency of 60 cycles per sec.
Lines and cables for systems operating a t lower frequencies mill have less
voltage drop. The voltage drop will be reduced approximately in pro-
portion to the frequency for all couductor sizes above KO. 0 Awg. For
smaller sizes, the reduction will he less.
Voltage Drop of Reactors. The voltage drop in a current-limiting
reactor on starting a squirrel-cage induction or synchronous motor may
be estimated from the transformer curves of Fig. 4.44.
Current-limiting reactors are usually described as having a certain
per cent reactance on a specified system-kva and syst,em-voltage base.
The motor-starting kva of Fig. 4.44 should be that drawti at the specified
system voltage expressed in per cent of the specified system kva.
If the per cent reactauce of a reactor does not lie between 5 and 8 per
cent, multiply the motor-starting kva by the ratio X / 5 , where X is the
actual per cent reactance of the reactor, and read the voltage correspond-
ing to this equivalent motor-starting kva on the 5 per cent reactance
curve.
V O L T A G E - S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 263
100 0

"
Y
Q
90 10

80 20

70 30

0
0 0.1 02 0.3 0.4 05 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
LOADING FACTOR, M = ~ ~ ( L E N G T H IN FT.) ~
(A) 3- CONDUCTOR C A B L E - (NO. 4 / 0 - A W G - I 5 K V )
(6) I - CONDUCTOR C A B L E - ( N O . 4 / O - A W G - 6 IN. SPACING)
(C) O V E R H E A D L I N E - N 0 . 4 / 0 - A W G - 1 5 K V
CIRCLED P O I N T S APPEAR O N FIG. N O 4 46
FIG. 4.45 Variation of voltage drop with looding factor M for typical liner and cables.

c:

## FOR MOTOR-STARTING LOADS OF 0 3 POWER FACTOR

LO~DING FACTOR M: (MOTOR-STARTING KVAI (LENGTH IN FEET1 I0
(INITIAL VOLTAGE)^
*FOR FL4T SPACING, EQUIVALENT TRIANGULbR SPACING'; I 2 6 TIMES SPACING BETWEEN

FIG. 4.46 Voltage drop in lines and cables with loading factor M of unity.
264 V O L T A G b S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS
Effect of Series Capacitors. Sometimes it is advantageous t o include
series capacitors in the distrihut,ion system t o neutralize the reactance of
lines, cahles, or t,rausformers. Series capacitors redure voltage drop.
The amount of redurt,ion depends upon the raparitor rating. For further
informat,ion on series capacitors, refer to Chap. 8.
Voltage Drop of Power Systems. Motors are frequently supplied
from power systems cotisistirig of complicated uetworks of lines and
cables for which a calculation of the voltage drop ~vouldhe difficult.
The voltage drop may be est,imated, however, if t,he short-circuit current
is known at the point of power delivery.
The short-circuit rurrent is usually expressed in kva.
When motor-starting kva is drawl from a system, the voltage drop in
per cent of the initial voltage is approximately equal to 100 times the
motor-startiiig kva divided by the sum of this kva and the short-circuit
kva. The motor-starting kva used should be that drawn by the motor if
the initial system \&age were maintained. For example, if a 1000-hp
motor has a startirig kva of 5000 if initial system voltage were maintained
and the system short-cirruit kva is 50,000, the voltage drop will be
approximately
5000/(5000 + 50,000) X 100 = 9 per cent of the initial voltage
In many systems the short-circuit kva varies over a wide range, depend-
ing upon the number of parallel h e s that are in service, system inter-
connections, etc. In such cases the highest short-circuit kva is the one
usually determined since it must he the one used in selection of equipment
which is t o carry or iritcrrupt the short-circuit current. For calculating
voltage drop, oil the other hand, the minimum short-circuit kva should
be used since the corresponding operating condition will give the highest
voltage drop.
The short-circuit kva of power systems varies over a wide range, as
shown in Table 4.14. A corresponding variation occurs in the voltage
drop produced by a certaiu motor-starting kva.
TABLE 4.14 Power-system Short-circuit Kva
Usual Range of
System Voltage Short-circuit Kvo
2,400 15.000-1 50,000
4,160 25.000-250.000
6,900 50.000-500.000
13.800 100.000-1,000,000
23,000 I50.000-1,500,000
34,500 150.000-1,500,000
69,000 150,000-I,500,000
I 15.000 250.000-2.500.000

## The method of calrulating voltage drop given above is not applicable

at system locations where the short-circuit kva would be appreciably
VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION DF DROPS 265

## affected by reactance of generators. I t should be used only when the

impedances of transmission lines, transformers, reactors, and cables
largely determine the short-circuit current.

## Series Circuits. Often a motor is supplied through cables, trans-

formers, overhead lines, and generators, all in series. In such cases, the
total voltage drop may be roughly estimated as the sum of the voltage
drops given by the foregoing illustrations for each of the different parts
of the system. However, the simple addition of voltage drops is not
quite accurate because addition of impedance in series tends to diminish
the current supplied to the motor.
For more accurate work, the following procedure is suggested:
1. Determine the voltage drop in the circuit element nearest the motor,
neglecting the other elements. For example, for a motor supplied from
a generator, transformer, and cable in series, determine the drop in the
cable first.
2. Multiply the motor-starting kva by the ratio of the load-end voltage
to the initial voltage of the cable just determined.
3. Using this new value of motor-starting kva determine the voltage
drop in the next circuit element. In the example selected, this is the
transformer drop.
4. Now multiply the motor-starting kva by the product of the ratio
of the load-end voltage to the initial voltage of the cable and the ratio of
the secondary voltage to the initial secondary voltage of the transformer.
5. Using this new value of motor-starting kva determine the voltage
drop in the next circuit element. In the example selected this is the
generator voltage drop.
6. Continue the process until all elements in series have been considered.
7. Multiply the initial voltage a t the motor by the product of the final
to initial voltage ratios of all the circuit elements. This result is the final
An example a t the end of this chapter illustrates the procedure described.
Parallel Circuits. If several sources are in parallel, the voltage drop is
less than if the motor-starting load is supplied through any one of them.
To determine the combined voltage drop, it is suggested that groups of
similar generators may be treated as a single generator having the same
total kva rating and the same performance factor as the individual
machines. Transformer banks may also be grouped if they are supplied
from the same primary bus and have the same per cent reactance and the
same tap settings.
To find the combined voltage drop for several parallel sources of dif-
ferent characteristics, it is suggested that the motor-starting load first
266 VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS
be divided equally and the corresponding voltage drops determined.
Then a new trial division of load can be made so as to increase the pro-
portion of load carried by the sources with the least voltage drop. Usu-
ally oiily one or two trials are required to obtain a sufficiently accurate
result.
For example, consider the case of a motor which has a startiug kva of
1000 and is furnished with power by a 500-kva generator and a 300-kva
transformer bank. The first trial division of load will he 500 kva each.
Let us assume that this results in a minimum voltage of 75 per rent on
the generator and 90 per cent on the transformer secondary. This means
that the generator will actually accept less thari half the load. The drop
in the generator is 2.5 times as great as in the transformer. Then assume
that the transformer accepts 2.5 times as much load as the generator.
This results in 285 kva being accepted by the generator and the remainder,
715, being imposed on the transformer (715 is 2.5 X 285). The voltage
drop in the transformer for 715 motor-starting kva will be found to be
practically the same as for 285 motor-starting kva applied to the gen-
erator. The drop obtained is the combined voltage drop. For the case
illustrated, this voltage drop is about 14 per cent.
A final check of the amount of voltage drop through each source is
advisable, because the drop in a generator does not always vary directly
with the amount of motor-starting load applied to it. This is especially
true of the restored voltage obtained through the action of voltage
regulators.

## FORMULAS FOR CALCULATING VOLTAGE DROP

The various curves and other data that have been presented allow
estimates of the voltage drop due to motor starting to be made quirkly
with minimum iuformation on the motor and circuit elements involved.
For cases not adequately covered by these data, the formulas given below
may he used.
Static Circuit Elements Only. First assuming that all the voltage
drop occurs in static circuit elements such as transmission lines, cables,
transformers, and reactors, the voltage at the motor starter mill he
equal to
Z.W

## where Z, impedance of motor being started (ratio of applied voltage

=
to current drawn)
R, = z, cos a,
X , = Z, sin eM
VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 267

## cos B., =power factor of current drawn by motor being started

Rs =total resistance of circuit, between motor and point in sys-
tem where voltage remains constant, i.e., is not affected by
start.ing of motor
X s = hotal reartance of circuit between motor and point in system
where voltage remains constant
The impedance, resistances, and reactances in the above formula should
all he expressed in ohms or all in per rent (or per-unit) on any convenient
kva and voltage base. The mot,or impedance Z.,, expressed in ohms is
Voltage rating of motor in volts
(4.10)
4 X starting current in amperes a t rated motor voltage
If a reduced voltage type starter is used, the starting current is that drawn
from the line with rated motor voltage on the line side of the starter.
Similarly, cos Ox is the poiver factor of the current drawn from t,he line.
The voltage at the starter must, be multiplied by the motor voltage-line
voltage ratio of the starter (see Table 4.13) to obtain the voltage at the
motor t,erminals.
The resistance and reactance of a transformer hank ran he expressed
in ohms by multiplying its per cent resistance and per cent reactance,
respectively, by
(Secondary voltage rating in kv)2 X 10
(4.11)
Kva rating of bank
Circuit elements separated from the motor by a transformer should have
their actual resistance and reactance values in ohms multiplied hy the
square of the no-load voltage transformation ratio, that is, by

(4.12)

before adding to the ohmic resistances and reactances of the motor and
other circuit elements on the serondary of the transformer. If two or
more transformers are in series between the circuit element and the
motor, the actual resistance and reactance in ohms should be multiplied
by the square of the product of the various no-load voltage transforma-
tion ratios. For transformers equipped with taps 011 either primary or
secondary winding, the voltage ratings used in the above formulas should
correspond to the t a p setting.
Using the per-unit system, it is generally convenient to select as base
kva the kva drawn by the motor at rated motor voltage, which is
X starting current in amperes X rated motor volts (4.13)
1000
268 VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS
and select rated motor voltage as the base voltage. Iii this case Z , = 1.
The per cent resistanre and reactance of a transformer, with the motor
connected t o its secondary, should be multiplied by
f Motor-starting kva at \ Isecondary voltage ratiug\'
rated motor voltage
\ G t i n g of transformer ) \ of transformer
rated motor voltage
1

(4.14)
A second transformer in series would have its per cent resistance and
reactance multiplied b j the above expression and also bj' the square of
the no-load volhage transformation ratio (secondary voltage divided by
primary voltage) of t,he first transformer. The resistaiice and reactaiice
of circuit elements that are expressed iii ohms should be multiplied hy
Motor starting kva at rated motor voltage
."
(Rated "r )
volts ' x 1000
(4.15)

except where the circuit element is separated from the motor by a trans-
former, in vhich case the multiplier is
Motor-starting kva at rated mot,or voltage
(~~__
Prjmary voltage r a h g of transformer
-x
Secondary voltage rating of transformer
rated motor volts
1000
) x 1000
(4.16)
If t v o or more transformers are in series bet,ween the circuit element and
the motor, the transformer no-load voltage ratio which appears in the
above espression should be replaced by the product of the no-load vokage
transformation ratios of the various traiisformers. Where voltage taps
are provided on a t,ransformer, the voltage ratirigs used in the above for-
mulas should correspoiid t o the t a p sett,ing.
The resistance and reactance of circuit elements connected in series
can be added directly. For circuit elemeots connected in parallel, equiva-
lent wlnes of resistance and react,ance can be det,ermined hy the method
given in Chap. 1.
If current to other loads is flowing in one or more of the circuit elements
between the motor and the const,ant voltage point mhen the motor is
started, the above formula for voltage a t the motor mil1 still apply,
assuming that these other loads are of the constant-current type, i.e.,
the current drawn does not change ivhen the voltage drops. Such load
currents must, of course, be considered io determining the initial voltage
at the motor starter. A method for taking into account loads whose
current varies u i t h voltage will be given later.
Often it is desirable t o know the effect of motor starting on the voltage
V O L T A G b S T A N D A R D RATINGS, VARIATIONS. C A L C U U T I O N OF DROPS 269

## a t various points in the system as well as a t the motor. The voltage a t

the motor starter divided hy rated motor voltage and multiplied hy the
current drawn at rated motor voltage gives the actual current drawn
from the line. This current can be comhined with any load current
flowing through the various circuit elements and the voltage a t any point
calculated hy the methods given earlier in this chapter. For the case
where motor starting current only flows in the circuit elements between
the motor and a point in the system, the voltage a t this point will he
equal to

d(Rw
d(RX + Rs)*+ (x.w
(X, +
+ R i ) 2+ + x1)2
XS)2
X initial voltage a t motor starter (4.17)

## where R I = resistance of circuit betweeo motor starter and specified point

Xi = reactance of circuit between motor starter and specified point
R a , X,, Rs, and X s are as previously defined
If any load drawing current through the circuit elements in series with
the motor is not of the constant-current type, the voltage a t the motor
starter can still be calculated hy the formula given provided that the
initial voltage a t the motor starter is calculated using the current drawn
by the various loads aft,er the motor is started. Since these currents will
depend upon the voltage drop occurring when the motor is started, a
trial-and-error solution is necessary. Thns the voltage a t the various
loads eaii first be estimated from calculations based on ali loads drawing a
constant current. The current drawn by each load a t the estimated
voltage is used to calculate a new value of initial voltage a t the motor
starter from which the voltage a t the motor starter and a t the various
loads can be recalculated. If the load voltages do not agree closely with
those estimated, nem estimates can be made and the process repeated.
In many cases the voltage drop can he caleulated with little error,
considering only Lhe reactance of the circuit elements in series with the
motor and using the formula
zx
z.w + x s x
Voltage a t motor starter = initiai voltage a t motor starter
(4.18)
where X s = total reactance of circuit betmeen motor and point in system
where voltage remains constant
Z, = impedance of motor heing started
When the reactance-to-resistance ratio of the eircuit elements (X,/Rs) is
2 or greater, this formula gives a voltage drop which is generally within
10 per eent of the correct value. Transformers rated 100 kva or larger
usually have a reactince-to-resistance ratio greater than 2.
270 VOLTAGF-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS. CALCULATION OF DROPS

## Effect of Generators. h’ext consider the case ivhere generator voltage

drop as well as the voltage drop through static circuit elemeiits must be
considered. If there is no initial current flowing through the circuit
elemeiits mhen the motor is started, the voltage a t the gerierator termi-
nais may be determined from the curves of Figs. 4.39 aiid 4.42 using a
value of “motor-startiiig kva at rated geiierator voltage” equal t o
Starting kva drawn by motor
if voltage at motor starter mere
maintained at the initial value

X
+ n,)z +
d(fi,,
Z I,
(x,“+ xsjz
rated geiierator voltage
x(.initialgeiieratorvoltage
.. ) (4.19)

## where Z,,,, R , , and X , are as previously defined

Ra = resistance of circuit betweeii motor starter and geiierator
terminals
X, = reactaiice of circuit betmeeii motor starter aiid geiierator
termina Is
The pomer factor of the current drawn from the generator will equal

(4.20)

## Haviiig dctermiiied the voltage a t the generator termiiials, the voltage

at the motor starter cari be calculated as it xill equal
zw
+ K s ) ? + (XI, +
d(&, XS)*
voltage a t generator
_ terminals
_ X initial
~ motor voltage (4.21)
initiai generator voltage
If currents t o other loads (of constant-current type) are floniiig through
the circuit elements mhen the motor is started, the voltage drop may be
determined by trial aiid error. The formula gireri above, Eq. (4.19j, for
motor-starting kva a t rated generator voltage may be used for the first
estimate and the correspoiiding value of generator voltage determiiied.
From this the voltage at the motor starter may I i c calculated. It is
equal t o
/initial voltage at motor\
z >< starter which mould ap-
(4.22)
pear if generator voltage
Having the voltage a t the motor starter, the kva drawn by thc motor caii
be calculated. The equivalent motor-starting kra a t rated generator
voltage wili equal the actual kva drawn by the motor multiplied by
V O L T A G L S T A N D A R O RATINGS. VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 271

## (Rated generator voltage)z

(4.23)
Actual voltage at motor starter x actual voltage at, gcrterator
~~ ~ ~

If there is a transformer between the generator arid the motor, the vollagc
a t the mot,or starter should be multiplied by the no-load volt,agc traus-
formation ratio (primary voltage ratiiig divided by secondary voltage
rating) of the transformer before suhstitutiiig it in the above formula.
With t,wo or more transformers in series, use as a multiplier the product
of their no-load voltage transformation ratios. If the calculated mot,or-
st,arting kva a t rated generator vokage differs appreriably from the first
estimate, a serond estimate based on the calculated value can be made
and the calculatioiis repeated until a close rherk is obtained.
Motor-starting Power Foctor. Use of the preceding formulas requires
a knoivledge of the motor-start,ing power fartor ((WS 8.,,). The starting
power factor of squirrel-cage induction and synchronous motors var-
ies over a rather wide range, depending upon the rating and desigii
characteristics.
Approximat,e values of starting power factor for typiral squirrel-rage
induction motors are given in Fig. 4.47.
Low-speed (450 rpm aiid below) synchronous motors for reriprovatirrg
compressor drive usually have a start,itig p o m r fartor bet,ween 0.20 aiid
0.40. Synchronous motors for rrntrifugal pump drive, on the other
hand, have starting power fartors generally between 0.15 and 0.35.
Where motor-start,ing power factor must be kuo\vn more acrurately, a
value should be ohtailled from the motor manufacturer.
With reduced voltage starting, the p o m r factor of the rurreut drawl
from the line may be somewhat different from the motor-starting power
factor. An autotransformer starter has oiily a small effect on the porver
fact.or, but the magnetizing current of the autotransformer makes the
power factor of the current drawn from the line slightly less t,han the
motor-starting p o w r factor. With a reactor st,arter, the power factor

-"
50.60
0.70

-=
A
0.50

0.40

0.M

=w 0.20
B O.I0
0.001 I I I I l l I I 1 1 I I I I
5 K) I5 20 30 40 50 75 100 150 M o 300 500 700 1000
HORSEPOWER RATING

FIG. 4.47 Approximate 3tor:ing power factor of typical squirrel-cage induction motors.
272 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. VARIATIONS. CALCULATION OF DROPS

of thc. riirri.iit dmwi from t h r liiie \ri11 eqiial the motor-startiiig power
f w t o r miiltiplird Iiy thi: volt,age ratio (motor volt,age divided hy liiie
voltage) of t h r startcr. .i rc:sist,»r starter, oii the other haiid, results i i i a
power fartor for t h r riirreiit drawii from the liiie equal t o

## To illiistrate, assume t h a t a motor Iiaviiig a startiiig poirer factor of 0.30

is providrd with a resistor starter dcsigtied t o reduce the voltage applied
t o the mot,or t o íi3 pcr cciit of ratcd motor voltagr. Thc p o w r factor of
t h r (wrrriit drawii hy tliis motor-start,cr combiiiatioii \vil1 iie
~~

## -\/I- ~(0.íi5)2X [1--(0.30)*] = 0.785

REDUCED-FREQUENCY STARTING

## Ociasioiially i i i ordcr to start a largc motor, t,he system frequeiicy is

rcduccd to a Ioiv valiic i i i ordcr to iiirrcasc t,hc ratio of tlie motor torquc to
thc motix-startiiig ciirreiit. At rcduced frcqiiciicy the applied volt,age is
l o w r , liiit i i i thc iisual applicatioii of tlic schcmc, thc applied voltage is
rrdiii,rd oiily to t h r samr rxtriit as the frrqiieiivy; that is, t,hc geiicrator
exvitatioii is maiiitaiiied at tlie same valiie as heforr. Motor torqiie aiid
wrrriit varg irith rediiiiiig frequeiivy i i i t,he samp iray as t,hey do with
iiirrrasiiig spwd. sitiw i i i either rase t,he rotor frequeiicy is redured.
C:«iiseqiieiitly, at 10 pcr i c i i t frcqiiciicy, the torqiie delivered and the
wrreiii d r a w i \vil1 iic approsimatcly thc same as at 90 prr r r n t speed.
IItari: tlir torqiie is griierally highcr aiid the ciirreiit loi\-er thaii at stand-
still. h t ttirse lon- freqiiriiries the effertive liiir resistarire is grcatly
iiirrrast:d so that RII this iortliic is iiot rcalizcd. Severtheless, t,he scheme
will eITrctively iii(.rcase t,lic toripie a\-nilat>lefor startiiig aiid aweleratiiig
tlie motor. H o w v e r , thcre are scvcral disadvaiitages which usually
makr it impractical:
i . T o ohtaiii miich improvemriit thí! frequciicy must be redured t o a
\-cry Iow valiie, iisiially M o \ \ - 50 per w i i t frequeiii.y, ivhich is difficult for
some typcs of geiirrator ilrives.
2. i i i i iiidcpciideiit drive for the exeiter must he proridcd as direet-
coiiiiectcd (ir I>rltrd exriters uill iiot provide suficieiit excit,atioii at 1ow
geiicrator speeds.
3 . Loivcriiig tho system freqiieiiry may adversely affwt other equip-
meiit coiiiiected to tlie systrm.
Coriscquciitly, t h r svhrme is usually applicahle only for a generator
supplyiiig a siiiglr motor ivheir excitatioii is supplicd by ai1 excitcr driven
by a sepaiate steam tiirhiiic or aii eqiially iritiepeiidciit excitation source.
111 siicli cases, t h e schemc may be quite advaiitagrous.
V O L T A G ~ S T A N D A R DRATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 273

## Data (see Fig. 4.48)

Generators:
Two identical turbine-driven generators, 3600 rpm
Total output rating = 10,000 kva
Voltage rating = 6900 volts
Voltage-regulator setting = 6700 volts
3-ft equivalent delta spacing
Length = 5000 f t
Conductor size = KO, 4/0 Awg
Transformer hank:
Output rating = 2000 kva (three-phase)
Transformer voltage rating = 6600-2400 volts
Motor starter:
Autotransformer type
Tap = 65 per cent
Motor:
Synchronous motor
Output rating = 1000 hp
Full load input = 1000 kva, 0.8 power factor
Voltage rating = 2200 volts
Full-voltage starting kva = 500 per cent
Full-voltage starting torque = 65 per cent
Initial conditions:
Initial voltages
At generator bus = 6700 volts (regulator setting)

I LINE

TRANYORMER
rrT" BANK

## FIG. 4.48 Circuit diagrcm of power

supply to motor. MOTOR
274 VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS

## At transformer primary = 6700 volts

At transformer secondary = 2440 volts
At generator bus = 5000 kva (50 per cent of generator rating) of
constant-current type
Requirements :
Minimum allowable voltage a t generator bus = 90 per cent of initial
voltage
Motor starting torque must be at least 25 per cent
Voltage calculations:
Starting kva drawn with rated motor voltage a t autotransformer
starter
= full-voltage starting kva X multiplier from Table 4.13
= 5 X 1000 X 0.46 = 2300 kva
Kva applied to transformer a t rated secondary voltage

## rated secondary voltage

= starting kva a t 2200 volts X
2200
= 2300 X 2400
(2200)
= 2735 kva = 137 per cent of bank rating

## Transformer secondary voltage (neglecting primary voltage drop) is

obtained from Fig. 4.44. For banks rated 15 kv and below and a starting
kva of 137 per cent, it is 93 per cent of the initial secondary voltage.
Kva applied to transmission line a t initial voltage
secondary voltage of transformer
= starting kva a t initial voltage X
initial secondary voltage
= 2300 X (
. 4)'
~~,
X 0.93 = 2620 kva
length in feet
- = 2620 X 5000 -
(initial volts)* (6700)*
- 0.292
~

From Fig. 4.46, for M = 1, 4/0 line, 3-ft spacing, voltage drop is 11.5
per cent. Since M = 0.292, drop in line is 0.292 X 11.5 = 3.36 per
cent. Voltage a t end of line (neglecting generator voltage drop) is
100 - 3.36 = 96.64 per cent of initial voltage (6700 volts).
Kva applied to generator a t rated generator voltage
voltage a t end of line
= starting kva a t rated generator voltage X
initial line voltage
VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 275
i

( itransformer
n i t i a l secondary
X 0.9664 X 0.93 =
secondary
voltage
2690 kva
voltage ) = 2300 X (
6900 X mo
22002400)

## = 26.9 per cent of generator rating

From Fig. 4.40, performance factor K for a 5000-kva 3600-rpm gener-
ator a t 50 per cent initial load is 1.9.
From Fig. 4.39, minimum generator voltage, for 26.9 per cent starting
kva and K = 1.9, is 92.5 per cent of the initial voltage (6700 volts), or
6200 volts.
From Fig. 4.42, restored generator voltage for 26.9 per cent motor-
starting kva and 50 per cent initial load is equal to the initial voltage or
6700 volts.
The minimum voltage a t the motor starter is equal to the initial voltage
a t the motor starter multiplied by
Minimum generator volts secondary voltage of transformer
Initial generator volts ) ( initial secondary voltage
voltage a t end of transmission line
( initial voltage a t end of line
= 2440 X 0.925 X 0.93 X 0.966 = 2030 volts
The restored voltage a t the motor starter is equal t o the initial voltage
at the motor starter multiplied hy
Restored generator volts secondary voltage of transformer
Initial generator volts ) ( initial secondary voltage
voltage a t end of transmission line
( initial voltage a t end of line
= 2440 X 1.00 X 0.93 X 0.961 = 2200 volts
Since the restored voltage is equal to rated motor voltage, the starting
torque on the 65 per cent autotransformer tap = 65 X (0.65)' = 27.5
per cent
The minimum voltage a t the generator bus (92.5 per cent of initial
value) and the motor starting torque (27.5 per cent) both meet the
requirements.
Next the formulas for calculating voltage drop will be used to solve this
problem. I t will be assumed that
Motor-starting power factor = 30 per cent
Transformer resistance = 0.7 per cent
Transformer reactance = 5 per cent
Transmission-line resistance = 0.0573 ohm per 1000 f t
= 0.287 ohm total
276 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION O F DROPS

## Transmission-line reactance = 0.121 ohm per 1000 f t

= 0.605 ohm total

The per-unit system will be used n.ith base kva equal to the motor-
starting kva a t rated motor voltage (2300 kva) and base voltage equal to
rated motor voltage (2200 volts). On this basis, the motor constants are

z, = 1
cos On/ = 0.3 B M = 72.5'
R.u = Z . w cos BM = 0.3
X M = Z M sin Bar = 0.954

The resistance and reactance of the transformer vill equal the per cent
values multiplied by
Motor-st,arting kva a t secondary voltage rat-
rated motor voltage ing of transformer
Kva rating of transformer rated motor voltage

## Transformer resistance = 0.7 X 0.0137 = 0.0096

Transformer reactance = 5 X 0.0137 = 0.0685
The resist,ance and reactance of the transmission line will equal the
ohmic values multiplied by
Motor-starting kva a t rated motor voltage
Primary voltage rat- rated motor
ing of transformer volts
Secondary voltage 1000
x 1000
rating of transformer
-
-
2300
= 0.06275
(4.16)
1000
Line resistance = 0.287 X 0.06275 = 0.0180
= 0.605 X 0.06275 = 0.0380
The total resistance and reactance between the motor starter and the
generator will be
+
Rs = 0.0096 0.0180 = 0.0276
X s = 0.0685 +
0.0380 = 0.1065
The equivalent motor-starting kva at rated generator voltage = start-
ing kva drawn by motor if voltage at motor starter were maintained at
the initial value
VOLTAGE.-STANDARD RATINGS, VARIATIONS, CALCULATION OF DROPS 277

X
z Y (rated generator voltage
d ( R , ,+ &)2 + (X,, + Xs)*
~~

## initial generator voltage

= 2300 X (-)2440
2200
X
+
1
+
d ( 0 . 3 0.0276)* (0.954 0.1065)' +
x (o)* = 2700 kva (4.19)

## This is substantially the same as previously determined; so the gener-

ator voltage drop will h r essentially the same, that is, the minimum volt-
age will be 6200 volts a i d the restored voltage, 6700 volts. The voltage
at the motor starter will equal the voltage at the geuerator multiplied by
initial motor voltage
zw x ( .initial
. . generator voltage
+ n,)z + ( x ,+~xS)2
d(~,,
+ 0.276)' + (0.954 + 0.1065)* X '6700
zo0.328
- 1
~ = (4.21)
d(0.3
Thus t,he minimum voltage at the motor starter will he
6200 X 0:328 = 2030 volts
and t,he restored voltage i d he
F700 X 0.328 = 2200 volt,s
Chafiter 5 by R. H. Kaufmann and Maynord N. Halberg

## Sys tern Overvoltages-Causes and

Protective Measures

## Electric insulation in energized systems is continuously under stress.

To make the most economical use of insulation, operating overvoltages
should he curbed in so far as is reasonably possible. The application of
additional insulation to accept higher overvoltage levels entails several
rather obvious disadvantages: (1) increased cost, ( 2 ) increased size and
weight, (3) increased resistance to the flow of heat from the current-
carrying conductors.
In the case of a-c systems, the electric potential is varying substantially
as a sine wave. The crest potential will be 41 per cent greater than the
rms value.
Under ideal conditions the line-to-ground voltage stress mill he less
than the line-to-line operating voltage. In the case of direct current
or single-phase alternating current, this ideal line-to-ground voltage
would he E L L / 2 ,or 50 per cent of the line-to-line value. In the case of
three-phase a-c systems, this ideal line-to-ground voltage would be
E L L / f i , or 58 per cent of the line-to-line value. Throughout this
section, overvoltages will he expressed as multiples of the ideal balanced
voltage stress in three-phase systems.
Electric systems are subject to disturbances of many types which
unavoidably produce overvoltages. However, the application engineer
has at his command many system design principles which will greatly
curb the magnitude of overvoltages. It is important to note that a-c
systems are subject to many types of overvoltages not to be found in d-c
systems; hence a-c systems deserve more careful consideration of the
overvoltage problem.
Electric insulation exhibits the effect of fatigue. Insulation will fail
upon repeated or prolonged application of a given voltage stress which is
278
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 279

far below the single-impulse \vit,hstaiid abilit,y. One may conclude that
a reduct,ion in either the magnitude or duration of overvoltage stress will
in general result in longer useful life.

OVERVOLTAGE SOURCES
There are many varied sources of overvoltages of sufficient magnitude
to be damaging t o the insulation of a-c industrial power distributioii sys-
tems. 111t,liis chapter the mechanism by which the more prominent over-
volt,ages are created v i l l be described and preventative measures sug-
gested. ‘Treatment of t,he following will be included:
I . Static
2 . Physical contact nith a higher voltage system
3. I1esouani.e effects ill series inductive-capacitive circuits
4. Repetitive int,ermittent short circuits
5 . SIT-itrhing surges
(i. Forced-current zero-current interruptiou
7. Autotransformer connections
8. Lightiiitig
Of these, most are the result of effevtsdirectly within the electric system
itself. I n contrast, lightning (a vicious source of overvokage) is com-
municated to the electrical system from nature’s powerhouse in the
heavens above.

STATIC

Wind-blown sand or dust can become highly charged and impart rela-
tively high voltage to exposed overhead electric conductors. Moving
belts rutiiiing on iioiimet,allic pulleys can also develop high voltages by
st,at,icmeans which may in turn be communicated t o electric system con-
ductors if electric enclosing frames arc improperly grounded. The rate
a t wtrirh electric i,harge is communicated t o electric system conductors
by stat,ir means is extremely low. Even a rather high-resistance ground
i~iiincrtionon the electric system n d l discharge these stat,ic currents t o
ground as fast as they are rereived with negligible overvoltages. I n
addition to grounding the elect,ric service system, it is important that
electric machiue frames arid all metallic enclosures which contain electric
circuit conductors be effectively grounded (see Chap. 7).

## If the conductors of a high-voltage electrical circuit come in contact

with those of a lower voltage circuit, then the same potential will exist on
280 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES A N D PROTECTIVE MEASIJRES

both circuits at the point of contact. If Lhe low-voltage circuit does not
have its neutral grounded, its potential will be increased t o t h a t of the
high-voltage system or flashover mil1 occur. If Lhe low-voltage system is
anchored close t o ground potential as hy Lhe use of a solidly grounded
neutral, high values of current may flow from the high-voltage system,
b u t a much lower voltage will appear than with an isolated neutral system.
Accidental cootacts hetmeen primary and secondary voltages on indus-
trial systems are guarded against by the use of metal enelosures and metal
barriers which separate conductor systems of different operating poten-
tials. In some cases overhead circuits have both primary and secondary
on the same pole, but substantial clearances reduce Lhe danger of acci-
dental contact t o a minimum. Occasional cross-ups have occurred
between primary and secondary on overhead circuits, and a few cases are
known where failure has occurred between primary and secondary inside
a transformcr.
UNINTENTIONAL
CONNECTION

PHYSICbL CONNECTIONS
7
'..
N O R M b L POSITION O F
P, / 4 8 0 V VOLTAGE TRIbNGLE C xq
I \:ol,
I I \,\
I
I 1
I 3-
L-
2 Eb= 2 4 0 0 V

b
L,--'
I
e0

## RESULTING VECTOR VOLTbGE DIbGRbM

FIG. 5.1 Overvollage on 480-volt ungrounded ryrtem rerulting from contcxt with a higher
roltoge ryrtem.

## Figure 5.1 illustrates this type of fault connection. It can be responsi-

ble for dangerous overvoltages on ungrounded low-voltage systems. The
most effective protection against that type of overvoltage is grounding
of Lhe lowvoltage system mith the grounding impedance made low enough
t o accept Lhe maxirnum line-to-ground fault current of the high-voltage
system without biasing the neutral of the low-voltage system by a danger-
ous amount.
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 281

## RESONANT EFFECTS I N SERIES INDUCTIVE-CAPACITIVE CIRCUITS

(LIMITED TO A-C SYSTEMS)

## Ungrounded-neutral a-o systems are most commonly subject t o over-

voltages originatiiig from this cause. It is import,aot t o recognize that
ungrouiided-iieutral systems are actually capavitively roupled t o ground
rather than truly divorred from ground. They are ungrounded in the
sense that no int,er(.oiinection with ground has purposely been made, but
every element of the electric system incorporates some capacit,aiice t o
ground which constitutes an inherent caparitive impedance interconnec-
tion tietween the elertrir system conductors and ground.
Every ungrounded elertric system contains the essential elements
presented i n the upper diagram of Fig. 5.2. The electrical behavior of
any one phase conductor relative t o ground rail be determined by a much
simpler equivalent rirruit, as indicated in the lower sketrh of Fig. 5 . 2 .
A . 'S A PHASE
I

GENERATOR OR
TRANSFORMER

xs A PHASE
"A"*"

Eg -E'.c
%

## In terms of this simpler equivalent circuit it will be possible t o understand

readily the effect of connecting different types of impedance hetween line
and ground as shown in Fig. 5.3. I t becomes evident that the connection
of any value of either resistance or raparitanrc tietween one line and
ground produres no dairgerous overvoltages. The potential on the phase
to which the impedance is connected progressively diminishes from nor-
mal value t o zero. The potential t o ground on the remaining two phase
conductors will be increased t o full line-to-line value at the time the first
282 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES
6

5
I
I
.

" 4
Y
J

z
LL
4 3
"Y
7

Ec
' 2
.i

## FIG. 5.3 Overvoltages on

I
ungrounded systems result
from a high-inductive-reac-
tonce connection between line
0
0 2 3 4 S 6 and ground.
R4TlO OF ZF TO X C O , ~

## phase conductor has been reduced to zero potential. This represents an

overvoltage of only 73 per cent, which is not dangerously high and will
normally produce no ill effect unless continued for a long time.
The connection of an inductive reactance between line and ground, on
the other band, can be responsible for the production of serious over-
voltages to ground. It is the ratio of the inductive reactance of the line-
to-ground circuit to the total capacitive reactance of the system to ground
which controls the degree of overvoltage. The highest overvoltage will
occur when these two reactances are equal, and a t this point they may be
as much as ten times normal. It is significant to note, however, that over
a two-to-one range of reactance, overvoltages of three times normal or
more would be produced.
The unintentional connection of an inductive reactance between a
phase conductor and ground can occur in a number of ways, some of
which are illustrated in Fig. 5.4. The operating magnetic coil of a motor-
starter contactor may be inadvertently connected between phase and
ground by a ground short circuit in the control wire to the push-hutton
station or the slip of a maintenance man's screwdriver. Any time that
the inductive-reactance value, which becomes connected from phase to
ground, falls in the danger region indicated on Fig. 5.3, dangerous over-
voltages to ground will be produced which are communirated over the
entire metallic conductor system of that operating voltage.
Overvoltages originating from this canse can be completely suppressed
by a relatively light-resistance ground on the electric system neutral. A
grounding resistor of about the same ohmic value as the total charging
"--
II _
I
B

-
f
BROKEN L I N E
GROUNDED

## C4SE I CbSE 2 CbSE 3

AN INDUCTIVE WINDING :CIDENTbLLY b GROUNO FAULT bT A F U S E PROTECTED ONE BROKEN OVERHEbO LINEGROUNDED
CONNECTED BETWEEN 01 PHASE h N D T R I N S F O R H E R C I N BLOW ONE FUSE ON T H E L O A D SIDE OF T H E B R E A K
GROUND LEbVING THE REACTbNCE OF TRANSFORMERS CONNECTS T H E REACTANCE OF TRANSFORMERS
12 4 N D T 3 I N P b R A L L E L B E T W E E N L I N E AND 12 AND 13 I N PARbLLEL B E T W E E N L I N E
GROUND 1 NOTE I I b N D GROUND [NOTE II

NOTE I
Y U N G R O U N D E D T R I N S F O R M E R CONNECTIONS
WOULD PRODUCE T H E SAME EFFECT

FIG. 5.4 Examples of unintentional high-reactance connections between line and ground.
284 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

## capacitive reactance t o ground is sufficient t o eliminate overvoltages

almost completely. It will be evident t,hat there is good reason t o adopt
electric system neutral grounding with a much lower value of grounding
resistance for ot,hcr reasons (see Chap. 6).
Figure 5.3 has been computed on the basis t,hat the inductive reactance
is linear. If this reartance incorporates a n iron core which during the
mode of operation being considered should encounter magnetic saturation,
the performance will be somewhat different. Under such conditions the
effective reactance of t,he inductive circuit can become much lower than
the unsaturated reactance, and the voltage will tend t o oscillate auto-
matically betveen vokage limits which cause the effective inductive
reactance to match the capacitive-reactance value. This character of
operation has been named ferroresonance. The maximum voltage so
developed may not be so high as would be produced by a linear reactor
but, may still be in excess of two or three times normal. Substantial
overvoltages may result by ferroresonance when the unsaturated reactance
is many t,imes the capacitive reactance to ground.
The application of grounded-Y potential transformers on ungrounded
systems with a Y or broken-delta secondary connection can be responsible
for damaging overvoltages as a result of resonant or ferroresonant action
since the magnetizing reartance of the pot,ential transformers becomes
GROUNDED WYE- BROKEN DELTA connected from phase con-
POTENTIAL TRANSFORMEIS FOR GROUND
INDICATOR OR ZERO SEQUENCE VOLTAGE
ductors t o ground. A com-
plete descriptionof thisphe-
nomenon need not be taken

## r UNGROUNDED NEUTRAL SYSTEM

u p here as it has been ade-
quately treated in an AIEE
technical paper (see refer-
ence3). Thesesystemvolt-
age oscillations will not oc-
U cur if the electric system
neutral is grounded. Free-
dom from this particular
TO INSTRUMENTS type of voltage oscillation
can be obtained even with
R
ungrounded-neutral opera-
tion byusingpotential trans-
TO INSURE FREEDOM FROM UNWANTED LINE-TO-
GROUND VOLTAGE OSCILLATIONS : formers with a line-to-line
Tz. T3, W I T H THE L I N E - T O - L I N E
I SELECT P T s TI.
RATED VOLTAGE
RESISTANCE NOT GREATER THAN 4 0 PERCENT OF FIG. 5.5 Grounded-Y broken-
THE TRANSFORMER MAGNETIZING REACTANCE. delta potential transformers for
EACH SECONDARY BUT WILL THEN CDNSUME POWER
ground indicator or zero-se-
AND LIBERATE HEAT CONTlNUOUSLY quence voltage detector.
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 285

## voltage ratiiig and the applirat,iori of shuiiting resistors on the secondary

windings as is outliried iii Fig. 5.5.
Series-capacitor melders are occasionally applied, particularly in the
case of large-sim machiiies because of their ability t o reduce the kva
demaiid aiid improre the operating poiver fartor t o substantially unity.
However, the series-raparitor welder preseiits a definite voltage hazard
to aii uiigrouiided-iieutral a-c supply system. Duriiig welder operation
the voltage arross hoth t,he series raparitor and the weldiiig transformer
primary v i l 1 he severa1 t,imes the rated line-to-liiie voltage. The physical
electrir roiiiieitioiis aiid the associated vector voltage relationships are
iiidicated iii Fig. 5.íi.

48OV 3-PH 6 0 C Y
o

s i i o m m ~ uTO~GROUND -
PHVSlCbL CONNECTDNS
NORMAL POSITION
OF
?--.
IP
UOLTME TRIANGLE; -,,,
/'
b

## FIG. 5.6 Overvoltager on ungrounded syrtemr os a rerult ot o ground contact on a

ieriei capocitor welding mochine.

## Should a fault t o grouiid occur at the juiiction hetveeii the series

capacitor aiid the weldiiig transformer (poiiit, P ) , the lorat,ioii of ground
poteiitial will teiid t o become t,hat of this juiictioii poiiit iiistead of the
center of the a-r system voltage triangle. The t,otal system eapacitiye
impedaiice t,o grouiid would geiierally be expeeted to be high, relatire to
that of the welder series rapacitor, aiid thus offers practically no opposi-
tion t o this shift in the loration of ground potential. Iii the case illus-
trated iii Fig. 5.G, it will be evideiit that the poteiitial of the A-phase roii-
ductor may be elerated to ahout 2000 volts to grouiid, which is about
seveii times iiormal. As iii the other cases, this overvoltage is commuiii-
cated to a11 equipmeiit metallically iiiterroniierted a t this commoii
operatiiig voltage.
AI1 these resonant inductive-caparitive overvoltage hazards can be
elimiiiated by electric system neutra1 groundiiig.
186 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

## Substantial overvoltages can he developed in ungrounded a-c industrial

systems by sputtering or intermittent ground-faulting connertions. The
intermittent character of the short-circuit path may be the result of
vibration which causes an electrical conductor to make contact inter-
mittently with ground, the result of scattering particles of molten con-
ductor metal which intermittently establishes a conducting path to
ground, or as a result of successive breakdown and seal off of the sepa-
rating space between conductor and ground. In the last case involving a
fixed separation between conductor and ground, a progressively increasing
breakdown voltage across this gap is an essential element in the build-up
of severe overvoltages.
Intermittent ground-fault conditions on lom-voltage ungrounded-
neutral systems have been observed to create overvoltages of five or six
times normal quite commonly. An unusual case involved a 480-volt
ungrounded system. Line-to-ground potentials in excess of 1200 volts
were measured on a test voltmeter. The source of trouble mas finally
traced to an intermittent ground fault in a motor-starting autotrans-
former. About two hours elapsed while the source was being located,
during 13 hich time between 40 and 50 motors broke down.
Electric systems which are grounded through reactanre of too high an
ohmic value ( X a more than ten times XI) are also subject to overvoltage
by this same mechanism acting in a little different form.
An understanding of the manner in which a discontinuous electric
connection can he responsible for the generation of overvoltages can he
most easily acquired by examining the case of a sputtering or intermittent
line-to-ground fault on an ungrounded-neutral system.
I n Fig. 5.7 at A is shown the vector voltage pattern of a three-phase a-c
system as it would operate under normal balanced conditions. The
voltage vectors E., Eb, and E, rotate about the neutral at synchronous
speed. The electric neutral is a point of central symmetry and remains
constant at ground potential if the individual phase voltages are pure
fundamental-frequency sine waves.
Should the A-phase conductor become grounded, the system voltage
triangle mould become displaced as illustrated in B . At the phase posi-
tion illustrated in B , the A-phase voltage is at its maximum value at
which instant the charging current to ground (90' ahead of the voltage)
is passing through zero. In case the short circuit contains a small gap or
an arc, the arc current would become extinguished at this point. Note
that the trapped charge on the line-to-ground capacitance will tend to
maintain the voltage triangle in the same displaced position. I n other
words, the potential of the neutral (relative to ground) would tend to
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 287

remain at a d-c potential equal to the crest value of the a-c voltage wave.
All this merely says that there will be little tendency for any voltage to
reappear across the gap in the short circuit immediately following the
current zero which occurs at B .
During the next half cycle, however, the a-c generat,ed voltages will
reverse their polarities (vectors rotate 180°),which would cause the three-
phase vector voltage pattern to assume the position shown in the upper
part of C . Kote that during this one-half cycle time interval, the poten-
tial of the A phase has progressively inrreased from zero value to about
twice the normal line-to-neutral crest voltage relative to ground potential.
This value of line-to-ground potential of the A phase may he sufficient to
break down the gap in the ground-fault circuit arid reestablish the corinec-
tion between the A phase and ground. If so, the A-phase potential will
tend to be suddenly yanked to ground potential. Iuevitably there will
be some system reactance in the A-phase conductor to the ground short-
circuit point which would result in an oscillation of the A-phase-conductor
potential between plus 2 and minus 2 at a frequency probably 20 to 100
times normal. If the short circuit consisted of a solid metallic connection,
this oscillation would decay to zero, leaving the A-phase conductor at
ground potential. Xote that associated with this high-frequency transi-
Ei"' E;

Y--
+ \$ CYCLE --tC \$ CYCLE 4

€0
NORMAL

A B C D
FIG. 5.7 Overvoltages on ungrounded systems due to repetitive momentary contact be-
tween one line and ground.
288 SYSTEM 0VERVOLTAGES.-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

## tory oscillation will he a corresponding trarisitory charging current t o

ground. This transitory charging current t o ground, or restrike current,
will again reach zero value when the system voltage swing is at the maxi-
mum excursion i n the negative direction, as showri in the lower part of C .
Thus, an opportunity is afforded for the gap in the ground short circuit t o
rerlear. If reclearing does occur, a charge is again trapped on the system
rapacitance t o ground which would tend t o maintain a constant d-c
potential t o ground on the system neutral.
In the course of the next following half cycle, the voltage vector system
will again rotate 180°, causing the potential of the A-phase conductor to
ground t o he elevated from minus 2 to minus 4 as indicated by the transi-
tion from the lower part of C to the lower part of D. This increased volt-
age across the short-circuit gap may again result in restrike, in which case
the voltage triangle would tend t o be thrown in the positive direction in
the form of a high-frequency oscillation between poteutial limits of
minus 4 and plus 4, which in the presence of a solid metallic connection
would gradually decay t o zero.
I n this explanation of the mechanism, it will be noted that all conditions
have been most favorable to the creation of the highest possible restrike
voltages in the shortest possible time. The restrike has been assumed t o
occur at the time the maximum recovery voltage was reached but not
before. Likewise it has been assumed that a reclear occurs at the first
current zero after restrike. Under these conditions a line-to-ground
potential of five times normal has been developed in less than two cycles.
I n practical cases, t,he restrike may occur before the maximum recovery
voltage has been reached, and several cycles of the transitory oscillation
may take place before the short cirruit reclears. While in theory it might
he possible progressively t o increase the line-to-ground voltage by succes-
sive restrike without limit if the dielectric strength progressively increases,
voltage measurements on actual systems indicate that voltage levels of
five t o six times normal are rarely exceeded.
There is reason t o believe that damaging overvoltages of repetitive
restrike origin are far more common on ungrounded-neutral systems than
mould a t first he suspected. The case which was mentioned in an earlier
paragraph is unusual in t,hat the obnoxious restriking conditions persisted
for a long interval of time while t.he source was being located. A farmore
common occurrenre is one in which several pieces of electric equipment
on the system suffer electrical breakdown apparently simultaneously
and one or more of the fault conditions were known or believed to
involve ground. These multiple failures are commonly associated with
ungrounded-neutral system operation. It is also known that a solid
metallic ground connectioo on one phase may exist for subshntial inter-
vals of time without producing multiple breakdowns in equipment,
SYSTEM GV'ERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 289

although it does produce 73 per cent overvoltage on two of the phase con-
ductors. It therefore seems reasonable to assume that the multiple
failures result from the appearance of overvoltages considerably in
excess of 173 per cent normal.
Distribution-system ox,ervoltages of repetitive-restrike or intermittent-
ground origin can be entirely eliminated by effective system neutral
grounding (see Chap. 6). Resistance grounding with a resistance ground
fault of any value upward of the line-to-ground charging current mill be
effective. For various other reasons it mill he evident that higher values
of available ground-fault current will he desirable. If reactance ground-
ing is contemplated (it rarely finds application in industrial systems), it
is important to keep the reactance of the grounding circuit sufficiently
low so that the ratio of X o is no more than ten times X , . If this ground-
ing reactanre value is exceeded, opportunity is given for another type of
repetitive restrike action which can result in overvoltages t o ground.
The ground-fault neutralizer (Petersen coil) represents one special case
of high-reactance grounding which is free of overvoltages by repetitive
restrike action. This is due t o the fact that the reactance value is care-
fully selected so that the oscillating circuit formed hetmeen it and the
system-to-ground capacitance will oscillate a t normal line frequency.
Following a ground-fault cnrrent shutoff point as at B in Fig. 5.7, the
potential of the electric system neutral with respect t o ground would
oscillate between plus and minus 1 at fundamental frequency as controlled
by the tuned grounding reactor and system capacitance t o ground. Thus
as the potential of the n-phase conductor with respect t o the neutral due
to the generat,ed voltage in the supply system alternates from minus 1 t o
plus 1, the free oscillation of the zero-sequence circuit remains in step
with it, with the net result that the potential of the A-phase conductor
tends t o remain at ground potential. Voltage of normal frequency
gradually reappears as the free oscillation in the zero-sequence circuit
decays. I n general, some 15 or 20 cycles will elapse before the potential
of the previously shorted phase increases t o three-quarters of normal
value. Thus, the freedom from restrike is due t o the long-delayed
reappearance of voltage across the line-to-ground circuit.

SWITCHING SURGES

## Circuit switching operations constitute abrupt changes in circuit

parameters and can be responsible for the creation of overvoltages although
generally of short duration and not in excess of two to three times normal.
It will be important t o recognize that normal a-c switching interrupters
offer very little opposition t o the flow of circuit current during the course
of current flow but do act t o build up dielectric strength rapidly during a
290 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES- CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

normal current zero and prevent reestablishing current flow during the
following half cycle. As a result of this action it is unnecessary that the
stored magnetic energy in the inductance of the circuit be disposed of
during interruption. Interruption takes place at a normal current zero,
at which time the stored magnetic energy is zero.
A quaiitative understanding of the mechanism whereby such over-
voltages are generated will be useful. Of first consideration is the amount
of voltage change which would tend to appear across the switching con-
tacts if they were switched open. For example, in Fig. 5.8, a line-to-line
short-circuit condition between phases A and B is illustrated. With the
circuit breaker still closed, the potential of a' and b' must be common and
will lie midway between potentials e, and ea, as indicated in the vector
diagram. With the vector relationships shown in the figure, the current
in the faulted circuit will be going through zero, which affords an oppor-
tunity for the circuit breaker to make an interruption if the contacts have
parted. If current flow is interrupted at this current zero, the potential

## OVERVOLTAGE IN CLEARING A LINE- TO- LINE

CIRCUIT FAULT

SHORT CIRCUIT

;-, -\, ,
,, " ' "
VOLTAGE RELATIONSHIP WITH
SHORTCIRCUITON AT THE T I M E OF A
CURRENT ZERO IN THE SHORT CIRCUIT
CIRCUIT e.' = eb'
(VOLTAGE mob AT MAX VALUE1

## - ___- - IF CURRENT INTERRUPTION

OCCURS AT THIS CURRENT ZER?
THE POTENTIAL OF POINTS 0
AND b WILL TEND m SNAP
BACK TO ea AND Ob
RESPECTIVELY BUT DUE TO
PRESENCE OF L AND C I T
WlLL TAYE THE FORM OF h
TRINSITORI OSCILLATION
W l C H WlLL OVERSHOOT END
POINT
MAX e.'DR eb'' 113 PERCENT OR
73 PERCENT OVERMLTAGE

FIG. 5.8 Overvoltages due to interruption of (I line-to-line short circuit at current zero.
SYSTEM O V E R V O L T A G E S - C A U S E S A N D PROTECTIVE MEASURES 291

## There will inevitably be inductive capacitive constants which cause this

return to take the form of an oscillation of relatively high frequency; this
causes the potential of points a' and b' to overshoot their final value by
about a n equal amount. In this illustrative example, the potential of
point b' would transitorily swing t o a value of 1.73 times normal crest
voltage in the positive direction while that of the point a' would make a
corresponding swing to 1.73 times normal crest value in the negative
direction.
Circuit breakers which introduce substantial resistance drop during
current flow tend to reduce the magnitude of switching transient voltages.
As a result of the higher power factor of the short circuit, the point at
which a current zero is reached will approach more rlosely to the point
at which a voltage zero would also he reached, which thus lessens the
magnitude of voltage that tends to appear across the contacts immedi-
ately following current zero. Another form of switching transient which
develops overvoltage primarily on the utilization machine on contact
closing is illustrated in Fig. 5.9. Here illustrated is a n open-cycle auto-
POSSIBLE SWITCHING OVERVOLTAGES ON
CLOSING L I N E BREAKER WITH OPEN CYCLE
AUTOTRANSFORMER START

## ASSUME0 VOLTAGE RELATlONSHlP JUST PRIOR

TO CLOSING L I N E BREAKER IAUTOTRANSFORMER STARTI

CBPOLENOI ISTHE
4e, FIRST TO CLOSE
c, MOTOR TERMINAL B
W I L L TEND TO ABRUPTLY

## MAX TRANSLTORI VOLTAGES-MOTOR TERMINALS TO GROUND

TERMINAL B - 2 5 0 PERCENT 1150 PERCENT OVERYOLTAGEI
TERMINALS A 8 C - 325 PERCENT'1225 PERCENT OVERVOLTAGE1

FIG. 5.9 Possible switching overvoltage when motor running breaker closes lopen-cycle
autotransformer start).
292 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

## transformer starting arrangement. It has been assumed that 65 per cent

voltage has been applied on the starting connection and the machine rotor
brought up to near synchronous speed. The motor was then discon-
nected from the starting tap preparatory to reconnection across full-line
voltage. During this interval it is possible that the internal generated
voltage within the motor has dropped to 50 per cent of rating and has
slipped back in angle so as to he 180' out of phase with respect to the
supply system. At this point, the potential difference appearing across
each of the three line-switching contacts is one and a half times normal
line-to-neutral voltage as indicated by the vector relationships. Suppose
that the line-switching unit is now closed and that pole 1 is the first to
make contact. The potential of motor terminal R would tend to abruptly
assume the potential e,, but the inevitable transitory overshoot would
carry it on up to 250 per cent normal with respect to ground. The
potential of the motor terminals A and C would tend to be carried along
and suffer a transitory excursion to 325 per cent voltage with respect to
ground unless contacts 2 and 3 close at almost the same instant as contact
1. Closed-cycle starting arrangements such as reactor starting or Korn-
doerfer autotransformer starting minimize the overvoltages which may be
developed in this manner.
One of the most severe sources of switching overvoltages is associated
with the separation of two system sections which have become unsyn-
chronized and are switched apart when the generated voltages in the
two sections are nearly 180' out of phase. The elements of this case are
illustrated in Fig. 5.10, which shows a synchronous motor t h a t has pulled
out of step and the internal generated voltage of which is 180' out of
phase with respect to the system. The main supply system on the left is
considered to be operating with grounded neutral and contains a much
smaller reactance than the motor circuit shown on the right. All three
poles of the switching interrupter have been maintained in a closed posi-
tion up to the time indicated by the vector diagram. It has been
assumed that, in the course of pull-out operation, the demagnetizing
reactive current which has been flaming in the motor stator windings has
caused the internal generated voltage ahead of transient reactance in the
motor to he depressed to 50 per cent of normal value. With the vector
system in the position shown, the current in the A phase is going through
zero, which affords an opportunity for interruption if the contacts have
parted. If the current in the A-phase conductor is interrupted at this
point, the potential of the motor A-phase terminal (point a2) will tend to
transitory overshoot will cause its potential to swing about an equal dis-
tance the other side of point E,, as shown hy the dotted line. At the
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES A N D PROTECTIVE MEASURES 293

## maximum of this transitory excursion, the potential of point a2 mould

reach about 3% times normal crest t o ground in the positive direction.
I n coutrast t o the examples just cited, the more usual switching opera-
tion which is involved in separating a normally operating rotating machine
or composite system of rotating machines involves very little switching
surge voltage. The systems on both sides of the switching interrupters
contain internal sourres of generated voltage which are of almost the
same magrrihde and very close t o the same phase position. Very little
change in potential tends to occur on either side of the switching device
at the time interruption takes place.
Arc-furnare circuits can be sources of rather severe overvoltage if
switched off while an arc is in progress within the furnace. As the pri-

.. . .... ..

\i,
A L L C B POLES S T I L L CLOSE0

## ASSUME C B TRIPPED AND POLE I

(PHASE A 1 IS THE FIRST TO INTERRUPT
d . 5 c2 AT T H I S CURRENT ZERO

e,....
i
0 1W I L L T E N 0 TO JUMP TO e0,AND
Q p T O T H E NEW EA WITH .TRANSITORY
EXCURSIONS SHOWN BY DOTTED LINES

FIG, 5.10 Possible overvoltager when interrupting o synchronous motor during out-of-
step conditions.
294 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

## mary circuit-breaker contacts part, current at the breaker contacts can

be forced to zero while current still continues to flow in the furnace arc.
Thus the circuit breaker accomplishes a n interruption of line current
with current flow still Continuing in the secoudary circuit. As the furnace
internal current diminishes, the potential across the furnace arc increases
in accordance with the normal inverse volt-ampere characteristic of an
arc. The arc voltage progressively increases as the current dimiuishes
and can result in a substantial voltage drop as the arc snaps out. While
this voltage may not be high as referred to the arc-furnace anode, it still
may be many times normal operating voltage and will be reflected to the
primary side of the transformer by the turn ratio. The voltage developed
at the transformer high-tension terminals may be dangerously high and
sufficient to produce flashover. Special consideration is given to arc-
furnace transformers, and preventative measures take the form of shunt-
capacitor applications at the transformer terminals on older uuits or
internal Thyrite* shunting resistors across sections of the winding 011 iiew
units.

FORCED-CURRENT-ZERO INTERRUPTION

## The discussion of switching overvoltages so far has considered inter-

ruption only a t a normal current zero. The term forced current zero or
interruption of of current zero is used to describe an interrupting mecha-
nism (be it a fuse, switch, section of small wire conductor, etc.) that has
the property of developing a large countervoltage in opposition to rurrent
flow which can force current to zero value at a time quite different from
the normal inherent current zero of the rircuit. Should any element in an
electric circuit have the ability to develop a high potential drop during
current flow, the potent,ial so developed would appear on connected cir-
cuit conductors. The overvoltages so developed would persist until the
stored energy in the inductive elements of the circuits has been dissipated
(a current zero has been forced). A high rurrent short circuit created
through a length of small wire conductors can be responsible for develop-
ing dangerous overvoltages in this manner. As current builds up in such
a circuit, stored magnetic energy is heing accumulated in all inductive
elements of the circuit. When the fusing point of the conductor is
reached, the conductor copper tends t o separate into a loiig string of tiny
globules of molten copper with a small arc between adjacent globules.
The total voltage drop across the entire section of conductor may be
several times the normal operating voltage of the circuit. During this
interval of overvoltage, the magnitude of current is being diminished;
* Registwed tradr-mark of Grncral Elrrtrir Cornpang-.
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 295

however the overvoltage will persist until the magnitude of current has
been returned t o zero value.
Because of the overvoltage problems, the vacuum contact switch finds
little applicatioii. The vacuum switch tends t o shut off current com-
pletely the instaiit that the contacts part. Unless suitable overvoltage
suppressors are associated with such an interrupter, high voltages will be
developed if applied in inductive circuits. The overvoltages so produced
may he sufficient t o sparkover the outside of the vacuum switch unless
some other portion of the circuit breaks dowu a t a lower voltage.
Current-limiting fuses constitute an example of a forced current
interrupter. They possess the property of being able t o reduce the rur-
rent t o zero value ahead of a normal current zero. Overvoltages are
developed during the operation of such an interrupter. As supplied by
reputable manufacturers, the design of the internal elements contains
special features mhirh rontrol the magnitude of such overvoltages, and
full-srale tests are applied to prove the resulting performance t o ensure
that overvoltages so developed d l be within the safe withstand value of
the electric insulation of the voltage class t o which it is t o be applied.
Because of the overvoltage problem, current-limiting fuse interrupters
of a particular voltage rating should not be applied t.o electric systems
of lower operating voltage. I n other words, a 7500-volt rated current-
limiting fuse should not he applied on a 2400-volt operating system
because overvoltages developed iu its operation will be dangerous t o a
2400-volt insulation level.

AUTOTRANSFORMER CONNECTIONS

## Autotransformers for interconnecting two electric systems of different

insulation level should be avoided in industrial systems unless both are
solidly neutral grounded. The common metallic interconnection between
t,he two systems which is formed by the autotransformer windings tends
t o subject the lower voltage system t,o nearly the same transitory voltages
as would be expected on the higher voltage system. There are some
exceptions, and a specific example mill serve t o illustrate the nature.
Should a system be planned which is to operate initially a t 2400 volts and
later be converted t o 4160 volts with all equipment therein contaiuing
insulation levels commensurate with 4100-volt operating potential, i t
would be sitisfactory t o employ a suitable autotransformer for intercon-
necting this 2400-volt system with another 4160-volt syst,em.
An unusual var'ation of autotransformer action which has been respon-
sible for system overvoltages in a number of instances is represenled by a
transformer with extended windings operating on an ungrounded-neutral
system such as illustrated in Fig. 5.11. Applications of this sort are most
296 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES A N 0 PROTECTIVE MEASURES

## often found in test areas or developmental areas which contain multi-

purpose transformers with a multiplicity of taps to permit a wide variety
of output voltages to be obtained. If operated with system line voltage
impressed across a fraction of the total winding, the vector voltage at the
end of the winding extension will be as illustrated in Fig. 5.11 because the
volts per turn developed in the winding extension will be exactly the same
as the volts per turn in the excited winding. Should the end of the wind-
ing extension be inadvertently connected t o ground or develop a short
circuit to ground, the point of ground potential would tend to move away
from the center of the voltage triangle to the potential of the extreme end
of the winding extension resisted only by the high system-to-ground
capacitance coupling. It will be evident that, as a result of this action,
the presence of any extended winding would cause the potential of one
phase conductor to be elevated to more than 173 per cent of normal
operating potential. The degree of overvoltage may be much more
severe if greater amounts of winding extension are present. It is impor-
tant to realize that these overvoltages would be carried to all apparatus
connected to the same metallic system. Thus, a ground short circuit on
a winding extension of a transformer in a small test area at one corner of a
building might impose overvoltages on all equipment fed from the same
load-center substation which might include half the productive machinery
in that building. As has been true so many times before, grounding of
the electric supply system neutral will cure this type of potential over-
voltage also. A system grounding equipment which makes available a
ground-fault current which is equal t o or greater than the short-circuit
current resulting from short circuit of the extended winding portion of the
offending transformer will keep the system line-to-ground potentials
within safe bounds. It is quite generally true that transformers of this
480V WQ
H 60 CY
a
I
" I

PHYSICAL CONNECTIONS

\
\ I
i FIG. 1 1 1 Overvoltage on un-
\ I
'"'
b
grounded systems due to a
ground connection on the wind-
ing of an autotrans-
RESULTING (IOLTAGE vEcmR DIAGRAM former.
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 1P7
character to be found in test areas are of relatively small physical size
and do not impose restrictive requirements on the necessary system
grounding equipment. As a matter of fact, on all low-voltage-system
equipment (GOO volts and less) it is the standard practice to ground the
neutral solidly.
The application of three-phase transformers or three-phase banks of
single-phase transformers, mhich do not incorporate a closed-delta wind-
ing in their make-up, should in general be avoided or quite rarefully
examined to ensure that the resulting operation will be free of damaging
overvoltages. This would be equally true of Y-connected autotrans-
formers (see reference 4). Berause of the nonlinear shape of transformer
magnetizing curves, the required transformer magnetizing current to
produce a fundamental frequency sine wave of voltage will contain rather
prominent amounts of harmonic currents. In a Y-connerted transformer
system energized from a three-phase supply in the absence of a delta-
connected winding, the transformers are unable to obtain a sourre of
third-harmonic current or multiples thereof because these are of zero
sequence. As the result of the inability to obtain a third-harmonic
exciting current, there will appear a third-harmonic voltage whirh may
be as much as 50 per cent of the normal operating potential. Should the
neutral of such a transformer system become grounded intentionally or
accidentally and the supply system be ungrounded or high-resistance
grounded, this third-harmonic voltage will be imparted to and appear on
the system phase conductors and represent a sustained source of over-
voltage. Even though the transformer system neutral is ungrounded,
some fraction of the third-harmonic voltage will appear on the phase con-
ductors, depending on the ratio of capacitance to ground within the trans-
former structure to the distributed capacitance to ground of the rest of the
system.
Core-type three-phase transformers present a fairly low zero-sequence
magnetizing reactance which would hold the zero-sequence voltage to
much lower levels than shell-type three-phase transformers or banks of
three single-phase transformers and are thus much less susceptible to
overvoltage difficulties. If operated with grounded neutral on an
ungrounded-neutral system, a careful check should be made to ensure
freedom from neutral instability, as treated in reference 3.
While grounding the electric system neutral may not solve all the
troubles of the Y-Y transformer connections, it will eliminate appearance
of overvoltage on the phase conductors of a system to which such a bank
of transformers might be connected.
Overvoltage Example. A great many specific cases of system over-
voltages have been analyzed, identified, and catalogued. All types are
well represented. Space will not allow a lengthy treatment of these
298 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES A N D PROTECTIVE MEASURES

B
1
C
I
FUSE
CUTOUTS Q Q PT2

(A1

## POWER SYSTEM PROTECT1V E

EOUIVALENT CIRCUIT EOUIPMENT CIRCUIT

A-PHASE
FUSE OPEN

## EOUIVALENT CIRCUIT FORMED BY OPENING-

OF T H E A- PHASE FUSE

( FJI
FIG. 5.1 2 Circuit conditions responsible for an orenoltoge experience on an ungrounded
power system.
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 299

## specific overvoltage cases. However, it will be interesting to review one

case. The one here described has been selected because it discloses how
obscure may be the basic overvoltage cause. Note that the series
resonant circuit created by the opening of one fuse might very easily fail
to be identified, leaving the overvoltage source to remain a mystery.
A metal-products plant in the North Central section of the country had
made application of a set of rotating-machine protective capacitors and
arresters a t the main bus of a medium-voltage distribution system through
a set of fuse cutouts. To monitor the fuses, two potential transformers
and voltmeters had been applied on the load side of the fuses, as illus-
trat,ed in Fig. 5.12A.
As a result of opening of the fuse unit in the A phase it was observed
that voltmeter V , went off scale, potential transformer 1 overheated and
melted out the compound, the gap shunting resistor 011 the A-phase
arrester was destroyed, and phase-to-ground overvoltages appeared on
the phase conductors of the service system.
Not until the resulting circuit is redrawn as in Fig. 5.12B is it apparent
that the overvoltages result from series resonance (probably of ferro-
resonance character).
System-neutral grounding is to be adopted to ensure freedom from
overvoltages on the distribution system conductors. (Additional cor-
rective measures are needed to ensure freedom from overvoltage trouble
in the local protective equipment circuit-potential transformer and
capacitor shunting arrester.)

## PROTECTION OF POWER SYSTEMS AGAINST THE

OVERVOLTAGES CAUSED BY LIGHTNING
The highest overvoltages to which industrial power systems are sub-
jected are those caused by lightning. Limiting these overvoltages by
suitable protective measures is essential if costly equipment failures and
service interruptions are to be avoided.

## NATURE OF THE OVERVOLTAGES

A lightning stroke to earth represents the sparkover of a highly charged
condenser, a cloud forming one plate, the earth the other, and the air
between the dielectric. The initial charge has been estimated to be as
high as 1 billion volts, and stroke currents as high as 200,000 amp have
been measured.
Although lightning may strike directly a t the terminals of outdoor
electrical equipment, this can generally be avoided by proper shielding.
Thus, the overvoltages usually reach the equipment (both indoor and
300 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

outdoor) through exposed overhead lines which often bring power t o the
plant or, in some cases, distribute power withiu the plant.
Direct Strokes and Induced Surges. Lightning may produce an over-
voltage on a transmission line either by a direct stroke to the line or by
electrostatic induction from a stroke t o earth iri the vicinity of the line.
The probable maximum voltage appearing ori a liiie by a direct stroke is
15 million volts and for an induced surge, 500,000 volts. These voltages
appear between conductor and ground.
Wave Shopes. Although the voltage surges produced hy lightning
have high magnitudes, their duration is very short. I t is measured in
microseconds (millionths of a second). Typically, the voltage rises very
rapidly (in 1 t o 10 psec) t o the maximum or “crest,” value and theu decays
more slowly, reaching 50 per cent of the crest value in 20 t o 150 psec.
As illustrated in Fig. 5.13, the shape of a voltage or current, surge pro-
duced hy lightning (and those produced artificially for test purposes) is
customarily expressed by two numherç. The first, is the time from the
“virtual zero” of t,he wave front t o the time the wave reaches crest value,
while the second numher is the time from the virtual zero t o the time the
voltage or current has decreased t o 50 per cent of the crest value. The

## -WAVE-FRONT - WAVE - TA1 L

-CREST VALUE

t
f

-
I
I
I
ZERO TIME O F CURRENT WAVE
I

.
ZERO TIME O F VOLTAGE WAVE

I
b
&tu-

t 3 -
4 I
T i a N
MICROSEMXIDS

1. _I
WAVE- SHAPE OF
VOLTAGE WAVE ti X 12
CURRENT WAVE t 3 X t e

## FIG. 5.13 Termr ured to dercribe voltage cind current waves.

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 301

virtual zero of a wave front is the intersection with the zero axis of a
straight line drawn through the points on the front of the wave which
are 30 per cent and 90 per cent of the crest value for a voltage wave and
10 per cent and 90 per cent of crest value for a current wave. Both times
are usually expressed in microseconds. To illustrate, a 95-kv lf.5 X
40-psec wave is one that has a crest value of 95 kv, rises to crest value in
134 pser from the time of virtual zero, and decays to 50 per cent of crest
value (47.5 kv) in 40 psec from the time of virtual zero.
Traveling Waves. The voltage surge produced on a transmission line
by lightning does not appear simultaneously at all points on the line;
instead, it appears at successively later intervals of time as the distance
from the point of the st,roke increases. Furthermore, the magnitude and
shape (voltage vs. time) of the surge remain approximately the same at
all points of a uniform line, but are simply displaced in time phase. In
effect then t,he surge which appeared as a voltage-time wave on the line
where the stroke occurred becomes two identical voltage-distance waves
on the line which travel at uniform velocity in oppvsite directions from
the point of origin.
Keglecting all resistances, it can be shown that
1. The voltage waves travel along the conductor without change in
magnitude or shape with a velocity equal to l / d T C fps, where L is the
inductance in henrys per foot of line and C i s the capacitance in farads per
foot of line.
2. A current wave accompanies the voltage wave and is of exactly the
same shape, that is, a t any instant at any point on the line, the current
flowing in the conductor is directly proportional to the voltage from con-
ductor to ground.
3. The ronstant of proportionality between the current and voltage is
called t,he surge impedance Z and is equal to 4 r C ohms, where I, i s the
inductance in henrys for any unit length of the line and C is the capaci-
tance in farads for the same unit length. The current in amperes is equal
to the voltage in volts divided by the surge impedance in ohms.
The inductanre and caparitance of an overhead line are such that the
velocity of a current or volt,age wave (called velocity of propagation) is
equal to the velocity of light in free space, which is 984 ft per psec. In
most ralrulations the round number 1000 is used. The propagation
velority in a cable varies with its construction, but a typical value is
600 f t per psec.
The surge impedanre of an overhead line varies with the size of the
ronductor and its height aboveground, but is usually between 400 and
500 ohms. A typical value for a cable is 30 ohms.
Reflection of Traveling Waves. A change occurs in a traveling wave
when it reaches the junction between two conductors of different surge
302 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

impedance, for example, an overhead line and rahle. The original wave,
called the inrident wave, gives rise to two waves at the t,ransition point,
namely, a “refracted” wave whirh rontinues on through the second con-
ductor and a “reflected” wave which starts traveling hack over the first
conductor.
If, at any instant, E is the voltage of the incident wave at the junc-
tion, then E X (Z, - Z,)/(Z, + ZJ is the voltage of the reflected
wave, where Z, is the surge impedance of the first rouductor (over whirh
the surge arrived) arid Z , is the surge impedaure of the second ronduc-
tor. The voltage of the refracted wave at the junrtiorr is the sum of
the voltages of the incident and reflected waves, that is, it equals
E X (222)/(Z2 + Zi).
Reflected and refracted current waves accompany the corresponding
voltage waves, the constant, of proportionality being t,he surge impedanre
ZIor Z2 of the conductor the wave is traveling oil. A reversal of dirert,ion
of a voltage wave, without change i n polarity, reverses t,he direction of
flow of current.
As indirated by t,he equations, if Z 2 is greater than Z,, a voltage wave
reflects positively at, the junctioo and the voltage a t the junrtion (equal
to the voltage of the refracted wave) is greater than the vokage of the
incident wave. In the limiting rase if 2%is infinite (the line is open), the
voltage at t,he junction is double the voltage of the inrident wave. On
the other hand, if Z,is less than Z , , the wave reflerts negatively and the
refracted wave is less than the incident wave. For the limiting rase of
Z2 equal t o zero (the line is shorted t o ground), the volt,age a t the junr-
tion is, of course, equal t o zero. The current t o ground will equal twire
the current of the incident wave.
Although neglecting all resistances represents an idealized condition,
the simplified relations this makes possihle are useful in many practical
situations.

INSULATION CHARACTERISTICS

## It is characteristic of most insulations that t,he maximum voltage which

they can successfully ivithstatid varies inversely with the duration of the
voltage. Since power systems are subject t o various types of overvoltage,
some of long and some of short duration, power distribut,ion equivment is
usually required t o withstand at least tivo different types of dielect,ric
tests. The first are the so called “lorn-frequency” (00-cyrle) tests,
usually of 1-min duration, that cstahlish the ahility of the insulation t o
withstand moderate overvoltage of relatively long durat,ion. The others
are the “impulse” tests which prove that, the insulation will not break
down on vokage surges of high magnitude but short duration. Since the
overvoltages produced by lightning are surges of high magnit,ude and
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 303

short duration, it is the impulse tests that are important as far as protec-
tion against these overvoltages is concerned.
Basic Impulse Insulation levels. The impulse test which is most com-
monly used consists of the application of a 155 X 4O-psec full-wave volt-
age surge of a specified crest value to the insulation of the equipment
involved. The crest value of the wave is called the basic impulse insula-
tion leuel (abbreviated BIL) of the equipment. T o simplify the design
and appliration of elertrical equipment, the Joint Committee on Coordi-
nation of Insulation of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers
(AIEE), the Edison Electric Institute (EEI), and the Xational Electrical
Manufacturers Association (KEMA) have established a series of Stand-
ard Basic Impulse Insulation Levels. These are listed in Table 5.1. It
was the intent that the impulse level assigned t o any equipment should he
taken from the standard series. This has generally been done, but in
some cases the value adopted for a given insulation class is that shown in
Table 5.1 for a different reference class.

## TABLE 5.1 Standard Basic ImDulse Insulation Levels

Boric
Reference impulse Reference
<I.., in."lation <I..,
kv led. kv
kv
~

## 1.2 30 23 150 138 650

2.5 45 34.5 200 161 750
5 60 46 250 196 900
8.7 75 69 350 230 1050
95* 92 1300
15 110 115 1550

*The 95-kv BIL was estahlished for rertain types of equiprnrnt in t h e 15-kv class.

## The standard BII, of most pover distribution equipment whose insula-

tion class is 23 kv or higher is the value assigned to the corresponding
reference class, as shown in Table 5.1. This is true for oil-immersed
transformers, oil-immersed induction- and step-voltage regulators, oil-
immersed reactors, instrument transformers, apparatus bushings, air
switches, and bus supports. However under special conditions, equip-
ment having lower impulse ratings may be furnished. For example, on
high-voltage systems (115 kv and above) that are very well grounded,
transformers having a RIL one step below the standard value have been
successfully applied. These are referred t o as reduced-insulation trans-
formers, while those having a BIL in accordance with Table 5.1 are called
fully insulated.
304 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

## The standard RII, of distribution a n d power transformers, reactors and

voltage regulators (all oil-immersed), and instrument transformers whose
insulation class is 15 kv and below are given in Table 5.2.
TABLE 5.2 Standard Impulse Tests

Oil-immersed
Oil-immersed
distribution transformers and
power transformers and
"Oltage regulotorl;
current-limiting reactors
in.trument trondormers'

lnlUlotior
.I.%,
kv
Chapped-wore test 56
"II-r.Yc
X 40 ! Chopped-rare test

tell
Min time to ,mat, Min time to
Crest, 3-11,, crest,
Rashover, Ro-rhovar.
kv kv kv
p*oc

I .2
2.5
5.0
8.66
30
45
60
75
ii
69
88
1 1 .o
1.25
1.5
1.6
45
60
75
1 %i I I .5
1.5
1.6

15 95 110 I 1.8
- I

* Thr YSIUP ivm for the 15-kv insulation rlass apply to instrument transiormers
oi the 151.-kv ulatiou PLSS. For the 1511-kv class thc full-wavr test is 110 kv and
the rlropp~rl-wnrrt p s t is 130 kv with 2.0 ~ S C Cto flashover.

## S o industry standard impulse levels have been established for dry-

type transformers, hut present practire is to use the following combina-
tions of insulation class arid UIL, both in kv:
I".Yl.ti." Class 811
I .2 10
2.5 20
5 25
~~

8.66 35
I5 50

## The impulse levels of power circuit breakers, switchgear assemblies,

and metal-enrlosed huses for the various voltage ratings, in kv, are as
fOllO\VS :
Voltage Roting 811 Voltage Roting 811
2.4 45 46 250
4.16 60 69 350
7.2 75' 92 450
13.8 \$3 115 550
14.4 110 138 650
23 150 161 750
34.5 200 230 900
* 95 ior rnctal-rlnd gear with oillcss hreakcrs.
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 305

## Impulse testing of rotating machines has not been adopted. I t is

generally considered that their impulse level is the crest value of the
60-cycle dielectric test. The rms value of the latter is twice rated line-to-
line voltage plus 1000 volts.
Chopped-wave Tests. In addition to the 145 X 40 full-wave test, oil-
immersed transformers (reactors and voltage regulators) and instrument
transformers are given a “chopped-wave” test. In this the applied
voltage is built up at a predetermined rate and then reduced substantially
to zero by sparkover of an air gap. The crest voltage reached and the
minimum time to sparkover of the air gap for the chopped-wave tests are
given in Table 5.2 for equipment having an insulation class of 15 kv or
below.
For the higher voltage insulation classes the crest value of the chopped
wave is approximately 1.5 per cent higher than the BIL and the minimum
time to sparkover of the air gap is 3 psec.

PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

## The protection of electrical equipment against the overvoltages caused

by lightning depends primarily upon the proper application of lightning
arresters.
How lightning Arresters Operate. Lightning produces overvoltages
between the line conductors of a power system and ground. A lightning
arrester limits the overvoltage by providing a conducting path of rela-
tively low impedance betmeen the line and ground. The resulting cur-
rent flow to ground, through the surge impedance of the line, limits the
line-to-ground voltage. But this low-impedance path must not exist
before the overvoltage appears, and it must be broken immediately after
the voltage has returned t o normal. This is accomplished in a lightning
arrester by (1) an enclosed gap, or several gaps in series, which will with-
stand the normal operating voltage but sparkover and become conducting
a t some higher voltage; and (2) a device which in conjunction with the
gaps interrupts the flow of currentfrom the power system, called “follow
current,’’ after the lightning surge has passed.
Two different principles are used to interrupt follow current, and
arresters may he classified according to which of these they use.
Expulsion-type and Valve-type Arresters. As the term implies,
expulsion-type arresters interrupt the Row of follow current by expulsion
action. The gap is arranged so that upon sparkover the arc must pass
over the surface of gas-evolving material; for example, the gap enclosure
may he a gas-evolving fiber tube or the gap may he filled with celofiber
spheres. As the gas is emitted it rushes out through a suitably placed
opming in the arrester case, blowing out the arc. Interruption takes
306 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES A N D PROTECTIVE MEASURES

place as the a-c current goes through zero. The action is similar t o the
operation of an expulsion fuse.
I n the valve-type arrester, on the other hand, interruption of follow
current depends upon having in series with the gaps a column of material
whose resistance varies inversely a s some power of the voltage applied.
Hence, this “valve ” material exhibits a relatively low resistance when the
overvoltage due t o lightning exists, but as soon as the voltage returns to
normal its resistance increases t o a high value. This reduces the magni-
tude of the follow current to a value which can be interrupted by the
series gaps. Xormally interruption takes place the first time the a-c
current goes through zero. The construction features of one design of
valve-type arrester are shown in Fig. 5.14.
Expulsion-type arresters have assigned current interrupting ratings

FIG. 5.14 A valve-type lightning arrester with section removed to show features of
construction.
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES A N D PROTECTIVE MEASURES 307

slid should not he applied to systems whose fault current exceeds such
ratings. Furthermore since some of the gas-producing material is
destroyed each time the arrester operates, there is a limit t,o the number
of operations t o which they can he safely subjected. Valve-typc arresters
have ueither of these limitations. The expulsion arrester also has a
higher sparkover voltage, although following sparkover it exhibits a
lower resistanre t,o the flow of lightniug discharge current than does the
valve-type arrester. Finally the gaseous disrharge from an expulsiorr-
type arrester makes it uusuitable for moiiriting wit,hin equipment enclo-
sures or in close proximity to other elertrical apparatus. For these
reasons the valve-type arrester is used almost exclusively for the prot,ec-
tion of equipment on industrial power systems.
Voltage Rating of Arresters. The voltage rating of an arrester is
defined as the highest a-c voltage (rms value) hetween its line and ground
terminals a t which it is desigued t o perform its operating duty cycle.
I n effect it represents the highest voltage at, which it is guaranteed to
interrupt the follow current after sparkover on a voltage surge. It does
not represent the voltage at which the arrester sparks over; in fact,
industry standards specify that an arrester shall not sparkover at any
60-cycle voltage less than 150 per cent of its rating.
As n.ill be shown (see Application Proredure) the proper voltage rating
of a n arrester for any system depends not only on the syst,em voltage but
also on how the system is grounded.
Protective Characteristics of Arresters. The two characteristics of a
lightning arrester which determine the degree of protection it can provide
are (1) its impulse sparkover voltage and (2) its discharge voltage, i.e.,
the voltage which appears across its terminals during the passage of dis-
charge current. The latter is sometimes referred t o as the I R voltage
drop or simply I R drop.
manufacturers. One is the “critical sparkover voltage” with a l!i X 40-
psec wave, i.e., it is the crest value of the 1>6 X 40 wave which will cause
sparkover on 50 per cent of the applications of this wave. Sparkover
occurs on the tail of the wave. The other is the average voltage at which
front of wave sparkover occurs with the voltage wave rising at the rate
specified in the AIEE standards for arrester tests, namely, 100 kv per
psec for each 12 kv of arrester rating. This sparkover voltage is generally
higher-as much as 50 per cent higher for some arresters-than the crit,i-
cal sparkover voltage for a I f 5 X 40-psec wave.
Arrester discharge voltages usually published are the average crest
values of the voltage appearing across the arrester terminals when dis-
charging a 10 X 20-psec current wave having various crest values such as
1500, 3000, 5000, 10,000 and 20,000 amp.
300 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

## From the average protective rharacteristirs of lightning arresters

xyhivh are puhlished, the masimum values can be determined h y means of
iirdustry rerogniaed toleraiires. As shown in Table 5.3, these give the
amount hy whirh the masimum sparkover and disrharge voltages of a n
arrester may be eupeited to exceed the average values. The various
types of arresters listed in Table 5.3 are defined under the heading
(:lassification of High-voltage Arresters which follovs.
TABLE 5.3 Tolerances in Performance of Valve-type Lightning Arresters

Type of Arrester
1 ayeroge "(IiYe, per cent

## I Sparkover voltage Discharge voltage

..........
Distribution. 25 20
Line................. 20 15
.............
Stotion. I5 10

Effect of Altitude. Since the sparkover voltage of a gap varies with the
atmospheric pressure, the protective characteristics of arresters are
afferted by the altitude a t which they are installed. This is true even if
the arrester has a sealed gap since the seals employed are not expected t o
maintain a pressure different from the surrounding atmosphere for any
extended period. Standard arresters are considered suitable for altitudes
up to GOO0 ft. Special arresters are available for altitudes of 6001 t o
12,000 ft and for altitudes of 12,001 t o 18,000 f t .
Classification of High-voltage Arresters. Arresters in ratings of 1000
voks and higher are classified in accordance with their principal charac-
t,eristirs and field of application as follows:
1. Distribution-type arresters
2. Line-type arresters
3. Station-type arresters
Distribution-type arresters are available in voltage ratings of 1, 3, 6,
9, 12, 15, arid 18 kv. Though designed primarily for the protection of
dist,ribut,ion transformers, they are also used to protect other equipment
such as metering and switching devices, voltage regulators, distribution
rapacitors, and cable. The arresters are small, lightweight units t h a t are
readily mounted on poles or crossarms, have reasonably good protective
rharacteristics, and are very low in cost.
Line-type arresters are available in voltage ratings of 20, 25, 30,37, 40,
50, GO, and 73 kv. They are relatively small and lightweight, are moder-
ate in cost, and have good protective characteristics. They are used for
the protection of the smaller transformers and substations in the medium-
voltage range.
309 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

## From the average protective rharacteristirs of lightning arresters

xyhivh are puhlished, the masimum values can be determined h y means of
iirdustry rerogniaed toleraiires. As shown in Table 5.3, these give the
amount hy whirh the masimum sparkover and disrharge voltages of an
arrester may be eupeited to exceed the average values. The various
types of arresters listed in Table 5.3 are defined under the heading
(:lassification of High-voltage Arresters which follovs.
TABLE 5.3 Tolerances in Performance of Valve-type Lightning Arresters

Type of Arrester
1 ayeroge "(IiYe, per cent

## I Sparkover voltage Discharge voltage

..........
Distribution. 25 20
Line................. 20 15
.............
Stotion. I5 10

Effect of Altitude. Since the sparkover voltage of a gap varies with the
atmospheric pressure, the protective characteristics of arresters are
afferted by the altitude a t which they are installed. This is true even if
the arrester has a sealed gap since the seals employed are not expected to
maintain a pressure different from the surrounding atmosphere for any
extended period. Standard arresters are considered suitable for altitudes
up to GOO0 ft. Special arresters are available for altitudes of 6001 to
12,000 ft and for altitudes of 12,001 t o 18,000 f t .
Classification of High-voltage Arresters. Arresters in ratings of 1000
voks and higher are classified in accordance with their principal charac-
t,eristirs and field of application as follows:
1. Distribution-type arresters
2. Line-type arresters
3. Station-type arresters
Distribution-type arresters are available in voltage ratings of 1, 3, 6,
9, 12, 15, arid 18 kv. Though designed primarily for the protection of
dist,ribut,iontransformers, they are also used to protect other equipment
such as metering and switching devices, voltage regulators, distribution
rapacitors, and cable. The arresters are small, lightweight units that are
readily mounted on poles or crossarms, have reasonably good protective
rharacteristics, and are very low in cost.
Line-type arresters are available in voltage ratings of 20, 25, 30,37, 40,
50, GO, and 73 kv. They are relatively small and lightweight, are moder-
ate in cost, and have good protective characteristics. They are used for
the protection of the smaller transformers and substations in the medium-
voltage range.
310 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

## t,he arresters must withstand is 100,000amp for thestation typeand 65,000

amp for the distribution and line types.
TABLE 5.4 Industry Average Protective Characteristics of Valve-type
Lightning Arresters

Average discharge
A v e r a g e impulse
oltage with 10,00O-~mp
rporkover voltage
10 x zo-psec CUrlent
V0ltog on AlEE test wove, kv
wave, kv
rating,
kr __
Distribution
OrreSler.
~ ~

3 I8 13 I5 11
6 34 23 30 22
9 48 35 44 33
I2 61 43 55 44
I5 71 53 69 54
18 84 ... 78

Line Line
Or,e.te,S O,,&e,*

20 75 72 92 72
25 93 89 Ill 90
30 110 I06 I35 108
37 136 131 I64 132
40 147 136 I77 144
50 183 178 222 179
60 220 214 271 217
73 267 261 328 262
97 ... 345 ... 349
I09 ... 388 ... 394
121 ... 430 ... 438
145 ... 51s ... 523
169 ... 602 ... 610
195 ... 691 ... 698
242 ... 860 ... 872

## Arresters and Capacitors for Rotating-machine Protection. A vari-

ant of the station-type arrester designed particularly for rotating-
machine protection is offered by some manufacturers. One version (see
Fig. 5.16) has characteristics similar t o that of standard station-type
arresters but differs mechanically in that it has a porcelain top with the
line-terminal connection brought out through the center. This allows
placing the three arresters of a three-phase installation close t o each
other, thus reducing space requirements to a minimum. The arresters
are available in voltage ratings of 3 t o 27 kv with the 3-, 4 . 5 , 6-, 7.5-, 9-,
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 31 I

## 12-, aiid 15-kv rat,ings of particular interest for industrial npplicat,ions.

The 4.5- and 7.5-kv voltage ratiirgs are not, available in t h e standard
station-type arresters. They are iiicliidrd in this line to give bet,ter pro-
tection to 1.16- and 6.0-kv machines tliaii rim be provided by t h c standard
6- aiid 9-kv arrest,ers. Tlic latter ~vouldotherwise be required where the
paver syst,cnis are riot, sufficiently well grounded to permit t,lie USC of
3- and ti-kv arresters on 4.16- and G.!bkv rnachiiics (
Arrester T’oit,age Ratings). The coristructioii fcatorcs niid additioiial
voltage ratiiigs available make these arresters dcsirahle for iit,her app1ii.a-
tioiis such as t.he protection of switchgear.
Surge protective capacitors are also available for rotatiiig-mii~hiiie
protection. They are used to reduce tlic stcepriess of the wdve front of
lightning surges aiid arc available in ratirigs of OM50 volts with 1 .O pi
per pole, 2.1, 1.16, 1.8, arid 6.9 kv with 0.5 pi pf’r pole, and 11.5 and 13.8
k v with 0.2.5 pf p t pole.
~ l’liese capacit,ors differ from thc staridad
porver-fact,or impr(iviiig capacitors i i i that they are designed t o withstaiid
higher test, voltages and have low interrid inductance. A typiciil unit is
shovii in Fig. 5.17.
Low-voltage Arresters. For thc prntectiou of etluilimixit on circuits
whose line-to-ground voltage is iri the 110- to 125-volt range, a 175-volt

FIG. 5.16 Rotating-machine form of station-type FIG. 5.17 Surge protective capaci-
lightning arrester rated 6 kv. tor rated 6900 volts, 25 to 60
cycler, 0.5 ilf.
312 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES--CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

## liglituing arrester is avsilal-lie. This is built in a two-pole lorm; so a

single unit will provide protect,ioii to the common 1 15i230-volt sirigle-
phase tliree-wire grounded-iieutral circuit,. A t y p i d iiistallation is
showii in Fig. 5.18. For a two-wire circuit, grounded o r 1 oiie side, the two
poles of the wrcster arc generally roniiecied in parallel between the
uiigrouiided h i e arid gruund. For three-phase circuits such as those
supplied from a208Yjl20-volt
grounded-imitral system, t x o
arresters arc required.
For the protection of equip-
merit on higher voltage cir-
cuits-up t o 600 volts-~-~twu
forms of arresters areavailahle,
both rat,cd 650 volts. One has
a port:elaiii housing (see Fig.
5.19), is for oiitdoor service
oiily, arid is availablein a single-
poleaiidatno-poleform. T h e
other has t i niet,al enclosure
(see Fig. 5.20), is suitable for
either indoor or outdoor serv-
ice, axid is availsblc in one.,
two-, arid t,lirce-polc forms.
This unit also has better pro-
k c l i v e characteristi(,s and so
FIG, 5.18 lnrtallotion of (I two-pole 175-volt
is t,hc oIic usually selected for
lightning orrester on o 115,'230-volt single-phore
three-wiro circuit.
protection of indust,rial plaiit
equipmeti t.
Arresters for D-C Systems. .krrcst,ers designed for use on a-c power
systoms are iiot getierally suitable for service on d-c
employed t o interrupt follow r'urrrirt is not cffectiv
diics not periodir:ttlly go through zero. Arresters, hinrevcr, arc avail-
rtiilo for d-? scrvicc. The moderir forms arc simply capacitors having iiot
less tiinti 4 pf of capnt,itaricc. Tiicy are coiiriected from line to ground
arid limit, tlit. tw:st, - i d t i e of a volt,age surge by absorbing the current as a
charge o i i ttic capwitor. fleiice llie effectiveiiess of the arrester in limit,-
irig the \-oltnge of ail iticwmitig surge depends upon the duration as i\-ell
as the magriitude of the surge. lrmvever, it, also ser t o slope t,he froiit
of tiit? ivavc a r i d tliiis reduce the turii-to-turn voltage sircss on the d-c
rotating mnr.liities. 'I'hc arresters are available i i i three voltage classes,
iiamely, Obi30 volts (illustrated iii Fig. 5 . 2 ! ) , 751-2000 v o h , and 2001-
:?&00\-o1ts.
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 313

FIG. 5.19 Single-pole lightning arrester FIG. 5.20 Three-pole lightning or-
with porcelain housing roted 650 volts, rester in metol core roted 650 volt>.
for outdoor service. for indoor or outdoor service,

FIG. 5.21 Capacitor-type lightning orrerter rated 0 to 750 volts, 4 rrf for w e on d-c
cirwiti. lnruloting cop and sleeve removed ot one end to show terminol.
314 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

APPLICATION PROCEDURE

## Every exposed overhead line distributing power within or supplying

power t o an industrial plant represents a possihle sourre of destruitire
overvoltages. Lightning arresters should be so applied that a voltage
surge from any of these sources will be reduced to a ralue ~ v e l lheIoi\- the
impulse strength of all apparatus involved.
The application procedure consists of (1) selecting t,he voltage rating
of the arresters t o he used, (2) choosing t,he types of arrest,ers needed, and
(3) determining where the arresters should be located to ensure adequate
yet economical protection.
Selection of Arrester Voltage Ratings. The protective characteris-
tics of an arrester are hetter and, in general, its cost, is lower, the lower its
voltage rating. On the other hand, if the line-to-ground system voltage
after sparkover of a n arrester should exceed its voltage rating, the
arrester may not interrupt follow current and then iI-ill fail very quickly.
This makes it important t o determine the maximum lilie-to-groutid sys-
tem voltage at the point at which the arrester is applied. 111 so doing
it is necessary t o consider all abnormal conditions which ran exist, par-
ticularly those conditions which are likely t o exist when the arrest,er
sparks over.
Under normal balanced operatirig conditions, the voltage from each
line t o ground on a three-phase system is the syst,em line-to-line voltage
divided by the square root of 3. This applies vhethcr the system neutral
is grounded or ungrounded. There are, however, many abnormal roti-
ditions which can occur that result in higher t,hari normal line-to-ground
voltages. Hut the one that is most likely t o exist a t the time of arrester
sparkover is a line-to-ground fault. For example, if a lightning stroke
causes flashover and hence a fault on one phase of a transmission line, the
voltage indured on the sound phases is apt, t o cause sparkover of the
arresters connerted t o these phases. These arresters must then interrupt,
follow curreut, with a line-to-ground fault on the system. The voltage
ratings of arresters are, therefore, generally selected 011 the hasis of the
system voltage t o which they arc subjected under line-to-ground fault
condi t,ions.
The voltage from sound conductors t o grouud with a line-to-ground
fault 011 a system depends upon how the system neutral is grounded.
For the usual ungrounded or resistailre-grounded system, t,his vokage
will be essentially equal to the system line-to-line voltage, and the light-
ning arresters used must be selected 011 this basis. Thcse are siimetimes
referred to as ‘‘ 100 per cent arresters.” However, for solidly grounded
or reactance-grounded systems the sooiid-rotidurtor-to-ground voltage
with one line grounded may be as low as the system line-to-neutral volt-
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 315

age. It depends upon the relation between the zero- and positive-
sequence impedances of t,he syst,em. For example, if the ratio of zero-
sequence reactance X Ot o the positive-sequence reactance X I is positive
and less than 3 and the rat,io of the zero-sequence resistance R , t o the
positive-sequence reactance X I is less thau 1, the voltage from sound
conductors to ground will not exceed 140 per cent of the system liue-to-
neutral voltage or about 80 per cent of t,he system line-to-line volt,age.
Such a system is said to he “effei.t,ivelygrounded,” and t,he arresters used
are referred to as “80 per rent arrest,ers.” Some syst,ems are grouudcd so
that arresters of even lower voltage rating can he used as far as the orer-
voltage caused by line-to-ground f a u h is concerued. This, however,
should he done only after a careful check of the possible overvoltages
from all sources t,o make sure that v o h g e s in excess of t,he arrester rating
are not likely to occur at the time of sparkover.
Table 5.5 lists the voltage ratings of arresters usually selected for
(1) ungrounded or resistauce-grouuded systems and (2) “effectively
grounded” systems. Selections are show1 for all system voltages likely
to he encountered in industrial plants.
As shown in Table 5.5, 3-kv arresters are often used on 2.4/4.1C,Y-kv
grounded-oeutral systems and 9-kv arresters on 7.2/12.47-kv grourided-
neut,ral syst,ems, akhough in t,hcse cases the arrester rating is only 125 per
cent of t,he nominal system line-to-neutral voltage. Before using these
lmi-er rat,ed arresters, the maximum operating voltage and the rise iu
soulid-conduct,or-to-ground rokages with a linn-t,o-grouud fault, should be
determitied t o make sure that under these conditions the voltage applied
to the arresters will not exceed their rating. I n geueral they should not
be used on industrial pmver systems unless (1) the ratio of zero-sequenre
reart,ance X o to the positive-sequence reactance X I is less thau 1.5 and
(2) the ratio of the zero-sequence resistance Ro t,o t,he positive-sequence
reactance X I is less thau 0.5.
Even though a system meets the qualifications of an eflectively
grounded system at the power source, it may not a t other points in the
system because of the impedance of intervening lines. Furthermore,
the system may be “effectively grounded” under uormal operating
conditions, but certain faults or other emergencies may result in the
opening of switches which leaves a portion of the system ungrounded
but still energized either from generators or from mot,ors whirh can
temporarily act as generators. Such possibilities should he considered
before selecting the voltage rating of arresters to he applied on what
appears t o be an effectively grounded system.
Choice of Arrester Type. Where the arrester voltage ratiug required
is 3 t o 15 kv, a choice must be made between the distribution-type and
the station-type arrester. Similarly, if the rating required is hetween 20
316 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

## TABLE 5.5 Voltage Ratings of Arresters Usually Selected for

Three-phase Systems

## Voltage roting of arrester, kv

Nominal system
voltage, kv Sy*tom "e"Ir.1 System neutral
ungrounded or effectively
'eiirtonce groundeq grounded

## 0.120/0.208Y 0.65 0.175

0.240 0.65 0.65
0.480 0.65 0.65
0.600 0.65 0.65

2.4 3 3
2.4/4. I6Y 4.5. or 6 t 4.5,;or 6
4.16 4 . 9 or 6 4.5. or 6
4.8 6 4.5* or 6

6.9 7.5*or9 6
12 I5 12
7.2112.47Y 15 9 t o r I2
13.2 (or 13.81 15 12

23 25 20
34.5 37 30
46 50 40

69 73 60
115 121 97
I38 145 121

## * The 4.5- and 7.5-kv arresters are available only

;he station type.
t The use of these arresters requires an X o / X ,
1 less than that necessary to
I
make the system "effectively grounded" (see accompanying text)

## and 73 kv, either the line-type or the station-type arrester must he

selected.
The value of the equipment protected and the importance of uninter-
rupted service in an industrial plant generally warrants the use of station-
type arresters throughout their voltage range. However, for the smaller
(liquid-filled) transformers and substations, say 1000 kva and less, dis-
tribution- or line-type arresters are frequently used. Similarly, for the
protection of short lengths of cable joining overhead lines and apparatus,
these lower cost arresters are generally chosen. They are also used to
protect small breakers, disconnecting switches, and similar outdoor
switching equipment. Finally, distribution-type arresters are often used
in the protection of rotating machines, thereby supplementing the protec-
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 317

## tioii provided h y statioii-type arresters (sec l'rotcrtioii of h-C Iliitatiiig

hlarhiiirsj.
Location of Arresters. The ideal location of lightiiiiig arrestcrs, from
the staiidpoi~rt,:if the prutrrtioii whirh they provide, is directly at the
terminals of t h e apparatus heiiig protwted. .kt this location, aiid with
the arrester groutid leads i.oiinerted direi.tly to the tank, framc, or other
metallii, strnctiire h i r h supports the iiisrilated parts, thc surge voltage
applied to the itisrtlatioti will he limited to the sparkover vultage aiid the
discharge voltage of the arresters. Iii some cases, howe\-er, it might I)P
quite costly or aivk\\-ard t o muiiiit the arresters at tlie apparatus tcrmi-
iials. Furthermore, i i i somc iiistatlations, if the arresters are mo\-cd
away from the trrmitials 11f the protected equipme~it.a single set of
arresters caii he lorated \\-here they will intercept all lightiiiiig surges
to two or more pieres of apparatus. H o ~ e v e rsuch separation hetwecti
lightning arresters alid thc eqriipme~it,does mean some itiiwase i n the
magiiitude of the voltage surge 11-hivh is applied t o t h r eiluipmmt.
First, the equipmelit protevted will ofteir have a highrr surge impedtilice
than that iif the h i e or mhle over \\-hich the lightiiiiig srirge arrives.
This means that thc voltage wave will refle1.t positix-ely nt the equipmetit
termiiials aiid the 1-oltage rearhed at this poiiit n-ill al\\-ays he lriglrcr
than the sparkover v d t a g e of the arrester. T h e amoriiit of the itirvmse
will depend upoii ( I ) the steepiirss of the froiit of the srirgc viiltagr, (2)
the relative surge impedance of the eqnipmeiit aiid the circuit hetiweti
the arrester and the protected equipmeiit. (3) the sparkowr \-iiltnge of
the arrester, and (4) the length of the rirt,nit hrtivreli the arrester and the
protwtrd eiluipmeiit. The greatest i i i i ~ r a s riii voltage wciiss if the
cirruit is iipeir at the protected eiluipmetit (iiititiite surge i m p d a t i w j .
111 this rase tlie voltagr will IK dinible the arrester sparko\-er voltagr if
the sepitration distairre is such that parko over ownrs before tlic voltage
wave reflected from the eiliiipmriit arrives hack at the arrestrr, U'ith
less separatiiiii the voltage will iiot iiirreasr a s miidi. This is showi h y
the iwrves of Fig. 3.22. Citrve ;I applies if the overhead liiie. over \\-hirIi
the surge arrives. estends past the arrester to the priitri,tid eqiiipmetrt,
i\-hile curre B applies i f a i,ahle of typical chnravteristiis forms the cirruit
het\\-eeti the arrester aiid t h r proterted equipment.
The voltage whirh appears arross an arrester after spnrkovrr, i.e., its
disrharge voltage. is also magnified by separation atid priidrwrs ii Iiighrr
voltage at the protevtcd equipmeiit. Fnrthermiirr. if thew is ail? appre-
riable lciigth of lead hetween t h e h i e rolidrii~tiir atid the arrester or
het\\-een the arrester atid griiulid, the voltage drop wross surh a lead adds
to the discharge voltage of the arrester aiid is also itiiwased by separation
betxi-eeii the arrester and the protected eqiiipmrtit. Finally, if a11 arrester
located away from the protected equipment has a11isolated co~iiicctioiito
318 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

## ground, the additional voltage drop resulting from discharge current

flowing through the ground resistance also adds to the line-to-ground
voltage a t the arrester and a magnified addition appears a t the protected
equiqment.
Certain installation practices help to reduce the difference between
arrester discharge voltage and the corresponding voltage a t the pro-

FIG. 5.22 Effect of reparotion between a lightning arrester and the protected equip-
ment on the rotio of the maximum voltage a t the equipment to the sparkover voltage of the
arrester (doer not include any effect of the voltage at the arrester following its sparkover).
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 319

## tected equipment. For example, where an arrester is connected between

an overhead line and ground, the leirgth of the line and ground leads can
both he reduced to a minimum by use of the V connection. The arrest,er
is placed a t ground level, and the line coriductor is brought down to the
arrester and then back up, forming a V. The angle hetween the two
sides of the V should not be less than 30" to minimize their mutual
inductance. The effect of high ground resistance a t the arrester ran be
minimized by interconnection of the arrester ground terminal with the
tank or enclosure of the protected equipment, the station steelwork, and
the ground mat. Finally, where the circuit hetween an arrester and the
protected equipment consists of cable having a contirruous metallic
sheath, the arrester ground terminal should he connected directly to the
cable sheath and the sheath connected to the equipment tank or enrlo-
sure. In this may arrester lead lengths can he kept to a minimum and the
effect of ground resistance eliminated.
More specific recommendations covering the application of arrest,ers
for the protection of various types of equipment,, including suggested
maximum separation distances, are given in the remainder of this chapter.

PROTECTION OF TRANSFORMERS

## Transformers generally constitute one of the must important elements

of any industrial power system. Furthermore they are frequently con-
nected directly to exposed overheadlines and so are suhject to destructive
overvoltages unless properly protected by lightning arresters.
A liquid-filled (oil or askarel) transformer having arresters mounted a t
its terminals is well protected against the overvoltages produred hy
lightning, with the possible exception of those result,ing from severe direct
strokes to the transformer terminals or to the conneitcd lines close t,o the
transformer. Furthermore, the possibility of such direct strokes can he
essentially eliminated by proper shielding. Often, howerer, in order t o
protect (with the same set of arresters) switching and other equipment
located between the transformer and the exposed lines, or to protect two
or more t,ransformers connected to the same line, it may appear desirable
to mount the arresters some distance away from the transformer termi-
nals. The maximum permissible separation distanres depend, among
other things, upon the magnitudes and rates of rise of the voltage surges
which can he expected to reach the arresters. Until more statistical
data on these surges are available, no determination of permissible separa-
tion distances can be considered final. Hou,ever, making That appears
to he reasonable assumptions, a Working Group of the AIEE Suhcom-
mittee on Lightning Protective Devices (of the AIEE Committee on
Protective Devices) proposed the maximum separation distances shown
in Table 5.6.* The installation conditions on which these distances are
* Ser AIEE Misccllaneous Paper 51-285.
320 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESS-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

## based arc that ( 1 ) the transformer is fully insulated (liquid-filled), (2)

statioii-type arresters are used, (3) arrester lead lengths are zero (V
r~~nncctioiror eqnivalent), (4) ground resistance is negligible, and (5) the
transformer is a t the elid of a single overhead line (the worst condition)
with the arresters located on the line directly in the path of incoming
sr1rgcs.

## TABLE 5.6 Separation Distance Permissible between Station-type

Arresters and Transformer Bushings

Separation diitonce, ft

## Tiomformer Botic impvke

i"lYl.ti0" inrvlotion
System neutral System neutrd
CI.I., IWel,
ungrounded or effectively
kv kv
esistance grounded grounded
1100% arrosten) 180% arresters)
-___
25 I50 25 70
34.5 200 25 70
46 250 ~.
25 70
69 350 25 70
92 450 30 75
115 550 30
35 85
138 650 95

## For transformcrs of lower volt,age ratings (15-kv class and below)

which are not covered i t t Table 5 . 6 , permissible separation distances have
not becti estahlished. Severtheless it appears that for these ratings any
apprecialile scparatiott should be avoided, that is, the arresters should he
mounted 011 t,he transformer itself or closely adjacent to it.
In ratings of 15 kv and helow, transformers are often connected t o
exposed overhead lines through a length of cable. I n this case fully
insulated liquid-filled power transformers ronnerted t o the overhead line
through a cable having a continuous metallic sheath will be adequately
protcvtrd by statioii-t,vpe arrestcrs located at the junction of the cable and
the overhead l i t e. Thc arrester ground terminals must he connected
directly t o thc catilc sheath, and at the transformer the cable sheath must
lie rotinerted t o the transformer tank. If the transformers are of the
distribution rathcr thaii the po\ver rlass or if distrihution-type rather
than station-type arresters are provided at the junction of the cable and
overhead line, it may he necessary to add a set of arresters at the t,rans-
forme,r terminals to eiisurc adequate protection.
Dry-type transformers, \\-hose impulse level is ahout half that of the
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 321

## liquid-filled type, are not generally recommended where connection t o

exposed overhead lines is required. If used they should definitely be
protected by station-type arresters located at the transformer terminals
regardless of whether the connection t o the exposed overhead h i e is
direct or through a cable.
If a liquid-filled transformer is connected t o an exposed overhead line
only through another transformer which is adequately protected by
lightning arresters, no additional protection is required. In the same
situation a dry-type transformer should, preferably, have station-type
arresters mounted a t its terminals since analysis iiidicates that the surges
that come through the other transformer can have magnitudes greater
than the recognized impulse level of the dry-type units.

## Metal-clad switchgear (used on 2.4 t o 13.8-kv circiits) is often con-

nected t o an exposed overhead line either directly from roof bushings or
through a moderate length of cable. In either case it is esseiitial that
If the switchgear is connected directly t o the overhead line from roof
bushings, lightning arresters should always be provided a t the gear.
Although the arresters are sometimes mounted on the first structure away
from the gear which supports the overhead h e , the resulting separation
between the arresters and the protected equipment substantially reduces
the effectiveness of the protection. Heiice locating the arresters at the
gear is definitely recommended. They may be mounted on the roof of
the switchgear enclosure adjacent t o the bushings or inside the enrlosure
but on the line side of the breaker. Since the former arrangement gener-
ally requires an extra ground bus, the inside mounting is usually selected.
The arresters should preferably be of the station type (rotating-machine
form), but space limitations may sometimes make i t necessary t o use the
distribution type. The voltage rating selected should he the lowest that
is consistent with the system voltage and method of grounding.
If the metal-clad switchgear is connected by cable t o the exposed over-
head line, the first requirement is that arresters be provided a t the junc-
tion of the cable and the overhead line in order t o protect the cable.
Then if the cable does not have a continnous metallic sheath, a second
set of arresters should be provided at the switchgear. I n this case dis-
* Adapted from Dillow, Gittings. Halherg. Hoffman. Howard. and Hontrr, Light-
ning Protection of Mptalclad Saitchgear and Unit Substations Connected to Over-
head Lines, Gen. Eke. lieu., March, 1949.
322 SYSTEM OVERVOtTAGE5,-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

tribution-type arrcsters are usually used a t the junction, but those at the
switchgear should preferably be of the station type (see Fig. 5.23).
If the cable eoiiiiectiiig niet,al-clad gear t o an exposed overhead line
does have ii coritiiiiious metallie sheath, the set:orrd set, of arresters at the
gear may or may not be rec.]uired. It depends upon (1) tho iiisulation
level of the gear, ( Z j the type and
... . . . .. voltage rating of the arresters
provided at the junction, aiid (3)
the length of the cable. An
analysis of this ease was made
on t,he basis of the followiiig
assumptions :
1. The arrestors at the jiinc-
tioii maintain a voltage at, this
point which does not exceed the
sparlrover voltage of the arrester
as given in Table 5.8.
2. The maximum voltage at
the switchgear must be limited
to 80 per cent, of its BIL.
3. The volt,age waves which
appear on the overhead liue arid
reach the cable junction have a
const,ant rate of rise which does
not exceed 1000 kv per psec.
4. The surge impedance of the
overhead line is 500 ohms, and
t h a t of the cable is 30 ohms.
FIG. 5.23 Stofion-type lightning orresterr
5 . The velocity of propagat,ion
(rotating-mochine form) mounted in metal-
clad switchgear. of the surge iii the cable is GOO f t
per \$see.
The r e s u k of the analysis are shown in Table 5.7.
I n all cases the grouiid terminal of the junction arrester should be cori-
iiected to t,lre cable sheath as me11 as t o ground, aiid at the switchgear the
cable sheat,h should he eonri d to the ground bus (see Fig. 5.24A).
This is essential if no arresters are provided in the gear aiid is desirable
in any case. Where large single-coiiductor cables are used, it may not be
desirable t o ground bot,b ends of the sheath because of excessive sheath
curreiit. I n this case the lightning-arrester ground terminal should still
be coririected directly t o the cable sheath arid the sheath grounded at the
switchgear, hut the connection t o ground at the arrester should be made
through aii isolatiiig gap, as shown in Fig. 5.24R.
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 323

lines through Continuous Metallic Sheath Cable

## System voltage Arresters in witchgeor

(required or not requiredl
Voltage Voltoge
roting m d rating of
Neutral
811 of .2,T&*,S
ungrounded With dirtri- With
switchgear. effectively
or bution-typo station-Wpe
kv grounded, iundion, k?
resistance arresters 01 arresterr rrt
kv the junction
grounded, kv the iunction

## 4.16 2.4or4.16 2.4 3. Not required Not required

160 811) 4.16 4.5 t Not required
4.16 6 Required (55 h)f

## 13.8 4.8 .... 4.5 t Not required

I95 8111 4.8 or 6.P 4.8 6 (75 tilt Not required
6.9 7.5 t Not required
11.5 6.P P Required Not required
13.8 11.5 12 Required (30 ftlt
13.8 15 Required Required*

’The use of
-
arresters on a 4.16-kv system requires an X d X , ratio IPSS than
Y
that necessary t o make the system “effectively grounded” (see Selection of Arrester
Voltage Rating).
t The 4.5- and 7.5-kv arresters are available only in the station type.
t Arresters required in snitchgesr if length of cable exceeds this value.

## TABLE 5.8 Sparkover Voltage of Arresters Used in Analysis of Protection

Sparkover voltogs. k r

V0lt.go rating
of arraters,
Distribution-type Stofion-type
kv
.r,der* .lr,e*t*r*

-I 3 22
I 15
6 42.5 25
P 60 37
12 74 52
15 81.5 64
324 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGLS-CAUSES
AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

type arresters and a set of protective capacitors (as used for rotating-
macliitie protection) at the junction of the rable and overhead line. The
ground terrniual of both the arresters aiid the caparitors should be con-
nected to the rable sheath as \yell as t o ground (directly or through a n
isolating gap), aud the (.able sheath should he eoiniected t o the ground
bus a t the switchgear.

11, a l l - P ~ ~
I?

CABLESHEATH

## THIS ARRESTER MAY NOT BE REQUIRED

- . -T-
q&2 ’

4
1

-<4p

~
4 -

PROTECTION OF SUBSTATIONS

## Outdoor substation equipment should be protected against direct

strokes of lightning by proper shielding. This may take the form of steel
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 325

## masts (see Fig. 5.25) or extensions of tlie steel structure arrarrged so as t o

divert, t o themselves all lightning strokes which might otherivise strike a
bus, disconnecting switch, bushing terminal, or other exposed current-
carrying part,. The mast,s, or eqiiivaleiit, are designed so as t o form a
“protective zone” ivithin which all vulnerable parts will lie. JVith a
single mast the protective zone is usually corrsidered to be a cone hax-ing
its apex at the top of the mast and whose sides make an angle with the
vert,ical of 30 t o 15”. With two or more masts the protective zotie of each
is iricreased somewhat in the area betweeir t,hem. 1‘his may be con-
sidered as an iiicrease in the angle (made with tlie vertical) of the side of
each protective cone which lies bet,rveeii two masts. With the usual
spacings between masts, this angle may iiicrease to 60’.
It is also desirable t,o shield the inc,omiiig lines, by ovcrhead ground
wires, for a distarice of a t least 2000 ft out from the statiou. This r e d i m s
the possibility of direct strokes t,o tlie lines i l l t,he riciiiit,y of the statioir
and thus limits both the Inagnitude arid rate of rise of the voltage surges
which reach tlie station. The overhead ground wire should lit: grounded.
with as low a ground resistarrce as it is practicable t o obtain, at each p o k ,
and i t should he connected to the ground bus a t the substat,ion. Loir
ground resistance is particularly important for the ground rotinertion at
the first few Doles adjacent to t,he substation.

FIG. 5.25 Substation with lightning masti for direct stroke protection and station-type
lightning arresters far protection agoinrt surges entering the station over the incoming
liner.
326 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES A N D PROTECTIVE MEASURES

## In addition to proper shielding against direct strokes, substation equip-

ment should be protected against voltage surges entering over the incom-
ing lines by the proper application of lightning arresters. The type,
voltage rating, and location of the arresters should he selected (by the
methods that have been described) so as to protect all the equipment in
the substation.
Typically, a set of arresters is required on each exposed overhead line
as it enters the station to provide protection to disconnerting switches,
buses, etc. Whether or not these arresters will also protect the trans-
former depends upon the system voltage, method of grounding, and cir-
cuit distance between the arresters and the transformer (see Protection of
Transformers). It may prove necessary to install an additional set of
arresters at the transformer.
Although the feeders from an industrial-plant substation are usually
underground cahle circuits with no lightning exposure, occasionally over-
surges from whirh the suhstation equipment should he protected by the
proper application of lightning arresters.

## PROTECTION OF AERIAL CABLE

The best protection that can he provided for aerial cahle against direct
lightning strokes consists of grounding the messenger and sheath a t every
pole and securing as low a ground resistance as possible. This is to
allow a lightning stroke to the messenger to drain off by current flow to
earth without causing the voltage of the messenger and sheath to rise
excessively above the voltage of the cable conductors. If an aerial cable
joins a n open-wire line, lightning arresters should be installed at the
junction to protect the cable insulation against lightning surges which
arrive over the open line. The ground terminal of these arresters should
be connected directly to the cable messenger and sheath as well as to
ground.
Since the voltage and current surges produced in the messenger of
aerial cable by a lightniug stroke to the messenger result in voltage and
current surges in the cable conductors, it is generally recommended that
aerial cahle be considered the same as open-wire lines as far as the pro-
tection of terminal equipment is concerned.

## Rotating machines present a special problem in lightning protertion.

First the insulation of the stator windings of a-c rotating machines has a
relatively low impulse strength. The highest test voltage it must with-
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 327

stand is simply the crest of the fi0-cycle high-potential test whose rms
value is twice rated (line-to-line) voltage plus 1009 volts. This means
that special effort must be made to limit the magnitude of the surge
voltage which reaches the terminals of the machines. Secondly, the
steep front of the voltage surge produced by lightning may damage the
turn insulation even though the magnitude of the surge is limited t,o a
value which can be safely withstood by the major (ronductor-to-ground)
insulation. Such damage is avoided by reducing the steepness of the
voltage wave which reaches the machine. Finally, as a result of the
above limitations, lightning protertive equipment must be considered
even though the machine is connected to the exposed overhead line
through a transformer whose line side is adequately protected by a
lightning arrester. A voltage surge of a magnitude and a steepness of
front u,hich will damage machine insulation can be t,ransmitted through
a transformer by electrostatic and electromagnetic coupling.
The scheme of protection recommended differs somevhat for (1)
machines connected direct,ly to exposed overhead lines and ( 2 ) machines
connected to exposed overhead lines through transformers.
Protection of Machines Connected Directly to Exposed Overhead
lines. First to protect the turn insulation, the maximum rate of change
of voltage (steepness of wave front) applied to the machine must be
reduced to a value which will limit the resultant turn-to-turn voltage to a
safe value. This is accomplished by (1)connecting a protective capacitor
between each line and ground in the path of the incoming surge (pref-
erably a t the terminals of the machine) and ( 2 ) connecting a distribution-
type arrester from line to ground a t a distance of 1500 to 2000 f t out on
each directly connected exposed line. Then to ensure reliable protection
of the major insulation, a station-type arrester should be connected in
parallel with the protective capacitor.
When located at the terminals of the rotating marhine, the ground
terminals of both the arresters and capacitors should be connected
directly to the machine frame, which of course should be connected to the
plant ground bus. When the protective devices cannot be located
directly at the terminals of the machine, it is preferable to bring the
incoming lines to the terminals of these devices and then on to the
machine, as shown in Fig. 5.26A4,rather than use separate leads from the
machine terminals to the protective devices, as shown in Fig. 5.2CR.
For additional improvement in the protection provided, the exposed
lines should be shielded by overhead ground wires for a distance of approxi-
mately 2000 ft out from the plant, This reduces the possibility of direct
strokes terminating on the circuits close to t,he station. It also ensures
that a voltage surge originating on the line, beyond the arrester which is
installed 1500 to 2000 f t from the station, will have its amplitude limited
328 SYSTEM 0VERVOLTAGES.-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

## to the sparkover voltage and I R drop of this arrester regardless of the

arrrst,er grouiid resistarice. The overhead ground mires should be directly
ronnerted to the arrester grounds; they should he mel1 grounded a t each
pole strurture; and they should be eoniiected to the plarit ground bus.
l'he complete protective scheme is shown in Fig. 5.27.
Where overhead groiind-wire shielding of lines does riot give effective
protertion against direct strokes (hecause of inadequate line insulation

n
r3 L
J 'I
3-

(AI (01

## FIG. 5. 5 Allernaiive methodr of making connertions to rototing-machine protective

equipment where thir equipment cannot be located directly a t the machine terminal%

MACHINE t----
I -
DISTRIWTION-TYPE
ARRESTER
' 6
f+t ARRESTER

Ls c GROUND
CDNNECTION

I
t 1500-2000 FT -I
FIG. 5.27 Arrmgement of lightning protective equipment for <I rototing mochine com
nected directly 10 on exposed overheod lhe.
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 329

## in relation t o the resistance of the pole structure grounds), an alternative

method is availahle. This roiisists of installing a sperial ronrentrated
inductanre of about 200 mirroheiirys, and of suitable ampere rating for
the line rurrent, i l l earh phase b e t ~ e e i the
i exposed lines and t,he parallel-
connected statioir-type arresters and protective capacitors. 111 addition
a distribution-type arrester should he installed on the line side of each
ronreiitrated itidnctanre.
Protection of Machines Connected to Exposed Overhead Lines
through Transformers. In this case no arresters are reqnired out on the
line, hut instead a station-type arrester should be installed on the line
side of the t,ransformer (see Fig. 5.28). In addition, to give the most
reliable protection to both the major and the turn insulation of the rotating
machine, a set of station-type arresters and protective caparitors should
be installed between the transformer and the machine, preferably a t the
machine terminals. The roniiertions t o this protective equipment
should he as outlined for machines connected directly to exposed overhead
lines.
Protection of Machines Connected to Exposed Overhead lines
through Reactors or Regulators. The protection provided in this case
should he the same as for marhines roiinected dirertly to exposed lines.
I n addition a11 arrester should be applied dose t o the line terminals of the
reactor or regulator, as sho\vn in Fig. 5.29, t o protert this equipment.
Protection of Machines Connected Both Directly and through Trans-
formers to Exposed Overhead lines. As shown in Fig. 5.30, the protec-
tion in this rase is provided by a combination of the arrangements
described above; that. is, a station-type arrester should he provided on the
line side of the t,ransformer, a distribution arrester 1500 t o ZOO0 ft out
on the line t o which the machine is ronnerted dirertly, and a station
arrester and protective capacitor at the machine terminals.

FIG. 5.28 Arrmgemenl of lightning protective equipment for D rotating machine con-
nected to on e.,,ored overhead line through a transformer.
330 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

r-------7-----

ARRESTER
*GROUND
'CONNECTION
f7
CONNECT ARRESTER
-.ARRESTER

## AND CAPACITOR CONNECTION

GROUND T E R M I N A L S
T O MACHINE FRAME 1500-2000F T
AND TO RELIABLE
STATION GROUND
FIG. 5.29 Arrangement of lightning protective equipment for o rotating machine con-
nected to an exposed overhead line through a voltage regulator or through a current-
limiting reactor.

ARRESTER GROUNDCONNECTEDTO
TRANSFORMER TANK

MACHINE
DISTRIBUTION-TY PE
ARRESTER

OONNECTYM

## TO MACHINE FRAME 1500 -2000 FT

AND TO RELIABLE
STATION GROUND

FIG. 5.30 Arrangement of lightning protective equipment for a rotating machine con-
nected to exposed overhead lines both directly and through a transformer.

## Effect of Cables and Switching Equipment between Rotating Machine

and Exposed Overhead Lines. There will normally be one or more
lengths of cable as well as switching equipment between the rotating
machine and the exposed overhead lines. For the lengths of cable nor-
mally encountered in industrial plants, this does not affect the application
of rotating-machine protective equipment. However, the cable and
switchgear should also be provided with adequate lightning protection
(as previously described), and it may be found that some of the devices
used can also serve in the rotating-marhine protective scheme.
Protection of low-voltage Machines. As indicated by their GO-cycle
high-potential tests, low-voltage machines (600 volts and helow) have
relatively higher dielectric strength than the higher voltage machines.
Where such machines are connected only to exposed overhead lines
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 331

## t,hrough transformers which have adequat,e lightning protection on their

primary, w additional lightning protective equipment is generally
warranted. However, where Ion-voltage machines are supplied direct,ly
from exposed overhead lines, lightning prot,ection shonld he provided.
l y p i r a l installations of t,his t,ype include motors installed in oil fields and
in quarries.
Protection of Machines Having Single-turn Coils. Rotating machines
above a certain size (lower limit varies wit,h speed and voltage rating) are
generally built with single-turn coils in which the coil insulation also
serves as the turn insulation. For 3GOO-rpm turbine generators, typical
lower limit,s are 2500 kw a t 2400 v o k , 5000 k w at 4160 volts, and -10,000
k w a t 13,800 volts. For such machines, protective raparitors are essen-
tial only if they are required t o limit the rise of volhage at the neutral of
the machine due t o positive reflection of the surge voltage wave a t t,his
point, Hence t,hey are not required if the machines (having single-turn
coils) are connected t o the exposed overhead lines through delta-Y or
Y-delta transformers. Xeither are they essential if the machine neutral
is grounded t,hrough a neutral resistor of 25 ohms or less or through a
neutral reactor of 0.1 ohm or less (on a 60-cycle basis).
Protection of Two or M o r e Machines on the Same Bus. The installa-
tion of station-type lightning arrest,ers and p r o t e h v e raparitors at t,he
terminals of each rotating machinc is always an ideal arrangement as far
as the protection provided is concerned. However, where two or more
machines in a plant are connected t,o the same exposed overhead lines,
there are obvious economies in plaring t,he protective equipment, on a
rommon bus or a t some other point where it will be in the path of the
lightning surges t o all machines. Where there are a number of machines
involved, a set of protective equipment on each incoming line may he the
most economical arrangement,. In such inst,allations, if the protective
equipment is not over 500 ft from the rotating machines and is placed
directly in the path of t,he incoming surges, there is relatively little loss in
protection.
A compromise arrangement places the protective capacitors a t the
terminals of each machine with a single set of arresters at the common
point.
If the protective equipment is not located at the machine terminals,
careful grounding of the arrester and capacitor sod a n interconnection
between this ground and the marhine frame is quite important. If the
circuit between the protective equipment and the machine frame consists
of continuous metallic-sheath cable or the cable is run in metallic conduit,
the arrester and capacitor ground terminals should also be connected t o
the cable sheath (or conduit) and the latter should be joined t o the
machine frame.
332 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

## Ratings of Protective Equipment Recommended. Table 5.9 shows

the ratings of the lightning arresters and protective capacitors recom-
mended for protection of three-phase rotating machines of the popular
voltage ratings. The ratings of the arresters required on the line side of
any transformer between the rotating machine and an exposed overhead
line are not shown. Such arresters must he selected to match the voltage
and method of grounding of the line-side system.
For single-phase machines the same recommendations apply except
that only two single-pole units are required if neither line is grounded and
only one (on the ungrounded line) if one line is grounded. However, for

## For instoilofion IS00 to 2000

For indallation mt machine tsrminoli or on mochine bus ft out on directly connected

Mochine
Protective capacitors
- - ~
st.tion-type orrester, 1 Distribution-type orrc~tcrs
~

*olt.ge
rating Voltage rating Voltage rating
Iphose-to
~ ~

## phase1 Single i"gle- Single-

MiUO
Volt- p01e pole Un- pole
w e ""it. units grovnde< ""it.
per Effective1 iff&i"*l:
di"( re. re- or re-
pole groundec groundoc
quire. "ired rnidonca quired
system system
ground=<
system
- - ~

-I- ~

## 0-650 0-65 I .o 3' 650 650 650 3

2,400 2.40 0.5 3* 3,000 3,000 3,000 3
4.160 4.16 0.5 3* 4,500 3,000\$ 3 6,000 3,0001 3
4.800 4.80 0.5 3 6,000 4,500 3 6,000 6,000 3
6,900 6.90 0.5 3 7,500 6,000 3 9,000 6,000 3
11.500 11.50 0.25 3 or 6 12.000 9,000 3 12,000 9,000 3
13.800 13.80 0.25 3 or 6 15.000 I2.000 3 15,000 12,000 3
-- - - - - --
* A single three-pole unit is commonly used.
t Use six capacitor units (0.5 pf per phase) where both of the following conditions
apply: (1) Maehinc IS directly connected to t h e exposrd overhead lines. is connected
through a n autotransformer. or is eonnectcd throneh a Y-Y transformer with both Y's
~~ ~~0~~~~
~ ~~~

## grounded. (2) Machine is ungrounded, is neutral grounded through a resistance

greater than 50 ohms, or is neutral grounded through a reactance greater than 5 ohms
(60-cycle basis). In all other cases three capacitor units (0.25 pf per phase) will
suffice.
\$The use of 3000-volt arresters on a 4160-volt system requires s n X o / X Iratio less
than that newssary to make the system "effectively grounded." (See Selection of
Arrester Voltage Rating.)
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 333

## CkG5O-volt marhines a t,hree-pole protertive caparit.or is commonly used

in any rase. T\\-o-pole 2400-volt capacitors and two-pole GO-volt
arresters are available for use on single-phase systems i n which neither
line is grounded.
As shown, the voltage rating of the protective capacitors rerommended
matches the system phase-to-phase vokage for both effectively grounded
and ungrounded systems. They arc generally designed so that t,hey rail
be used on any marhine whose voltage rating does not exreed 110 per rent
of the capacitor voltage rating. Where the voltage rat,ing of a marhine
falls between the voltage ratings of the prot,ertive raparitors available,
one of the next higher voltage rating r a i l alivays be used.

## D-C motors and generators connected to exposed overhead lines should

be proterted hy suit,ahle d-r arresters, snrh as the capacitor type. They
may he installed at the machine terminals, on the bus, or at the station
on each outgoing feeder.
Mercury-arr rectifiers and t,heir transformers (Fig. 5.31) may be pro-
tected hy a set of station-type or distribution-type arresters on t,he supply
side of the transformer and, if the d-r feeders are exposed, suitable d-r
arresters a t the d-c terminals of t,he rertifier, on the d-r hus, or on the
exposed d-c feeders. In addition t o this protection, rectifier transformers
are often supplied with built-in nonlinear resistors or “surge eliminators”
installed on one of the secondary Y’a or zigzags, and also installed across
AC SUI

1
RECTIFIER
TRANSFORMER ANODES

MERCURY
CATHODE
I ~

+ DC
T I

I/

## 4 THYRITE SURGE ELIMINATORS

(BUILT IN AS INHERENT PART ff
GENERAL ELECTRIC RECTIFIER
TRANSFORMERS I
I L L

4
FIG. 5.31 Typical scheme of lightning prokction for a mercury-arc rectifier.
334 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

## the interphase transformer winding, to absorb the high peaked surges of

small energy associated with mercury-arc phenomena.

## The protection of a complete power system is accomplished simply by

providing adequate protection to each component of the system by the
methods which have been described. In some cases it will be found that
the protective equipment required for one piece of apparatus will also
serve to protect other pieces. The effect of separation between arresters
and protected equipment must, however, be considered.
Typical arrangements of protective equipment for an industrial power
system are illustrated in the one-line d i a g a m of Fig. 5.32. As shown,

## FIG. 5.32 Typical arrangement of lightning protective equipment on on industrial power

ryrtern.
SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEMURES 335

## lightning arresters are provided on the high-voltage incoming line. It is

assumed that the distance between these arresters and the transformer
terminals is short enough so that no additional protection is required for
the transformer. The generator and large motor are provided with both
lightning arresters and capacitors a t their terminals, while the smaller
motor has the capacitors only. Lightning arresters are also provided on
the line side of the breakers to which the overhead feeders are connected.
Arresters are also required a t the junction of the overhead line and cable,
but it is assumed that the length of this cable is such that these arresters
do not give adequate protection to the switchgear. Finally, arresters are
installed a t a distance of 1500 to 2000 f t nut on each overhead feeder to
complete the protection required for the rotating machines. In all cases
the type and voltage rating of the arresters would be selected as outlined
under Application Procedure.
No attempt has been made to show the details of the connections to the
arresters. These should be made in accordance vith the recommended
practices that have been outlined.

REFERENCES
1. Modern Conwpts of Lightning ProtPetion for Transmission and Distribution
Circuits, Ocneral Electric Company Publication GET-I720A, 1948.
2. Lightning Protective Equipment for Rotating Machines, Gerieral Electric Com-
pany Puhlication GEA-l743H, 1953.
3. Shott. €1. S.. and H. H. Peterson, Critoris. for Xeutral Stability of Wye-Grounded
Primary Ijroken Delta Secondary Transformw Circuits, Tmns. A I E E , vol. 60,
November, 1941.
4. Blrmie, L. F., and A. Bwajian, "Transformer Engineering," 2d ed., John Wiley
& Sons, Ine.. New York, 1951.
5. Schroeder. T. W.,The Cause and Control of Somr Typcs of Switching Surges,
Tions. A I E E , vol. 6 2 , November, 1943.
6. AIEH Committee Rcport, Poner Systmn Overvoltages Produccd by Faults and
Switching Operations, 1948.
7. AIEE Committee Rcport, Corrdation of System Overvoltagcs and Pystem
Grounding Impedance, 1943.
8. Lewis, W. W.."The Protection of Transmission Systems Against Lightning,"
John UIIPy & Sons, Inc., New l-ork, 1950.
9. Brwley. L. V., "Traveling Waves on Transmission Systems," 2d ed., John WilQy
& Sons, Inc., New York. 1951.
10. Joint Cornmittcc on Coordination ai Insulation of AIEE, E E I , and KEMA,
Standard Basic lmpulsc Insulation l,evels, EEI Publication No. H-8, NEMA
Publication No. 109, 1941.
11. National Clcetrieal Manufacturers Association, Standards of Lightning Arresters,
Publiention Kos. LAl-1852 to I,A5-1952, 1952.
12. "American Standard for Lightning Arrestprs for Alternating Current Power
Circuits," ASA Standard C62.1, 1944.
13. Hunter, E. M.,E. Pragst, and P. H. Light, Dctermination of Ground-fault Cur-
rent and Voltages on Transmission Systrrns, Cen. Elec. Rev., August and Novem-
ber. 1939.
336 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

## 14. Wagner, C. F., G. D. McCann, and C. M. Lear, Shielding of Substations, T ~ a n s .

A I E E , vol. 61. February, 1942.
15. Boehne, E. W., Voltage Oscillations in Armature Windings under Lightning
Impulses, Trans. A I E E , vol. 49, 1930.
16. Rudge, W. J., R. W. Wiesernan. and W. M. Lewis, Protection of Rotating A-C
Maehinps Against Traveling Wave Voltage Due to Lightning, Tians. AZEE,
vol. 52, 1933.
17. Hunter, E. M., and N. E. Dillow, Surge Protection of Rotating Machines, Gen.
Eke. Rev., May, 1950.
18. General Electric Application Committee, Lightning Protection of Metalclad
Switchgear and Unit Substations Connected to Overhead Lines, Gen. Elec. Re".,
March, 1949.
19. Towne, H. M., Lightning Protection of Substations. supplement to Dist7ibulion
Magdzine, July, 1951.
20. Allen, E. J., Protecting Meter Equipment from Lightning, supplemmt to Distri-
bulion Magazine, July. 1952.
21. Rudge, W. J., W. A. MeMorris, S. B. Howard, and T. J. Carpenter, The New
Thyrite Mrtgne-Valve Ststion Arrester, AIEE Conference Paper, 1954.
Chapter 6 by L. J. Carpenter and L. G. Levoy, Jr.

System Grounding'

## About midafternooil one day i l l a West Coast manufarturi~igplant,

normal operations herame suddenly disrupted. The first evidenre of
trouble came in the form of a motor failure 011 the 480-volt system, then
another, and still anot,her in close succession. h i i inspertion of switch-
board voltmeters (measuring line-to-line volts) and ammeters indicated
no unusual conditions. System equipment continued to fail. A test
voltmeter W:LS rigged up having a full-srale ralihratioti of 1200 volts.
Upon coiiiiecting it phase-to-ground, the pointer went o f srale. A phase-
to-ground potential on a 480-volt system of more t,haii 1200 v o l h existed!
At once the inroming service t,raiisformers were snsperted of iiiternal
breakdown hetween high- and Ion-voltage windings, As the last of these
transformers was isolated and individually tested, it hemme evident that
they mere not at fault. System equipment rontiiiued t o fail, and the
situation was desperate.
A frantic group went into a huddle aiid derided that, t,he only way out,
was t o trip the main inroming service breaker n-hich would deenergize the
entire system. A t this point one of the workmeii noticed a small wisp of
smoke coming from a motor-starting autotransformer and, upon approach-
ing, could hear a buzzing noise inside. This circuit was switched rlear of
the system, and the overvoltages disappeared. During the two-hour
period that this arcing fault existed, hetween 40 and 50 motor windiiigs
Finally it was found that the autotransformer enclosing case had been
bashed in and was practically in contact with the coil. The spot where
An attempt mas made t o show the plant engineer what had been the
trouble. A solid connection was made between the frame aiid the burned
* Crrdit for much of the original analytical work on this srhjcat is duc to IV. I i .
Roire, who was formerly a mcmher of the Industrial EnginPcring Srction. Orrwral
Electric Company.
337
338 SYSTEM GROUNDING

spot on the coil. Much to the bewilderment, of the operating men and
according to the expectations of the plant engineer, no mnre than the 73
per cent increase in the voltage to ground on the other two phases
occurred. The main ingredient of the overvoltage (discontinuous con-
This is an actual case of severe prolonged experience of overvoltage of
repetitive restrike origin on a 280-volt ungrounded system.
This story is spectacular because of the magnitude of the disturbance
and consequential damage. Similar occurrences of lesser extent are not
uncommon, however, and there is evidence that they are more frequent
than realized. It is a characteristic of ungrounded systems that they are
subject to relatively severe transient overvoltages. This trouble can be
avoided by proper grounding of the system, and other importaut benefits
are also obtained. For a detailed explanation of the nature and causes of
these overvoltages, refer to Chap. 5 .
System grounding has been practiced since the beginning of electric
power systems. This method of operation has not been universally uni-
form even within a given voltage class of systems or between various
operating companies. On the other hand, rertain systems are nearly
always grounded, for example, 120-volt lighting circuits.
The problem of whether or not a system neutral should be grounded,
and how it should be grounded, has sometimes not had the complete
understanding and engineering analysis which it deserves. As a conse-
quence, the grounding of many systems has heen hased on past experience
or opinion, and therefore system grounding practice is found to vary
widely on existing systems. On the other hand, most new systems con-
form to modern grounding practices.
A comprehensive review of the problems involved in grounding the
neutrals of industrial power systems clearly shows that it is generally
advantageous to ground all power-system neutrals regardless of voltage
or of process in the plant. The application in practical systems, however,
must be tempered by the availability of standard a p p a r a h s for new sys-
tems and the equipment and practices in an existing plant.

DEFINITIONS
The word “grounding” is commonly used in electric power system
work to cover both “system grounding” and “equipment grounding.”
To avoid confusion or possible misunderstanding, this chapter is devoted
exclusively to the subject of system grounding. The following chapter
(7)is devoted to equipment grounding.
These terms are defined by the National Electrical Code as follows:
SYSTEM GROUNDING 339

## System Ground: A system ground is a connection to ground from one of

the current-carrying conductors of a distribut,ion system or of an interior
wiring system.
Equipment Ground: An equipment ground is a ronnertion to ground
from one or more of the non-current-carrying metal parts of the wiring
system or of apparatus connected to the syst,em. As used in this sense,
the term equipment includes all such metal parts as met,al conduit,s, metal
raceway, metal armor of cables, outlet boxes, cabinets, switch boxes,
motor frames, and metal enclosures of motor controllers.
The following definitions are taken from AIEE Standard S o . 32.
Seutral Grounding Devices.
System Neutral Ground: A system neutral ground is a connection to
ground from the neutral point or points of a rircuit, transformer, rotat,ing
machine, or system. The neutral point of a syst,em is that point whirh
has the same potential as the point, of junction of a, group of equal non-
reactive resistances if connected at their free ends t o the appropriate
main terminals or lines of the system.
(Except where specifically stated to be otherwise, the srope of this
chapter includes and relates t o neutral grounding of three-phase a-r sys-
tems in industrial plants.)
Grounded Sydern: A grouuded system is a system of conductors i n which
at least one conductor or point (usually the middle wire or neutral point
of transformer or generator windings) is intentionally grounded, either
solidly or through a current-limiting device.
KOTE:Grounded systems may be subject to various steady-stat,e and
transient overvoltages depending upon the ratios of X o / X , and R o / X , as
viewed from the fault location. Elo, X o , and X,are, respectively, the
zero-sequence resistance, the zero-sequence reactanre, taken as positive
if inductive and negative if capacitive, and positive-sequence subtransient
reactance.
Ungrounded: Ungrounded means without an intentioual connection to
ground except through potential-indicating or measuring devices.
Solidly Grounded (Directly Grounded) : Solidly grounded means
grounded through an adequate ground connection in whirh no imcedance
has been inserted intentionally.
Resistance Grounded: Resistance grounded means grounded through
impedance, the principal element of which is resistance.
Reactance Grounded: Reactance grounded means grounded through
impedance, the principal element of which is reactance.
Resonant Grounded (Tuned Grounded) : Resonant grounded means
reactance grounded through such values of reactance that, during a fault
between one of the conductors and earth, the rated-frequency current
340 SYSTEM GROUNDING

## flowing in the grounding reactanres and the rated-frequency capacitance

iwrrent flowing between the unfaulted condurtors and earth shall he sub-
stantially equal. In the fault, these two components of the fault current
will be substantially 180’ out of phase.
Ground-fault Neutralizer: A ground-fault ueutraliaer is a grounding
device which provides an inductive component of current in a ground
fault that is substantially equal t o and therefore neutralizes the rated-
frequency capacitive component of the ground-fault current, thus render-
ing the system resonant grounded.
Grounding Transformer: A grounding transformer is a transformer
intended primarily t o provide a neutral point for grounding purposes.

## CHARACTERISTICS OF UNGROUNDED SYSTEMS

The term ungrounded system is used t o identify a system in which there
is no intentional connection betneen the system condurtors aud ground.
However, in any practicalsystem, therealmaysesists a rapacitive coupling
between the system conductors aud ground. Consequently, the so-called
“ungrounded system” is in reality a “capacitively grounded” system by
virtue of the distributed rapacitanre from the system rondurtors t o
ground.
When the neutral of a system is not grounded, it is possible for destruc-
tive transient overvoltages, of several times normal, t o appear from h i e to
ground during normal switrhing of a circuit having a line-to-ground fault.
Tests have shown that overvoltages may be developed Sy repeated
restriking of the arr during interruption of a line-to-ground fault, par-
ticularly in lom-voltage systems. Experieiice has proved that these orer-

UNFAULTED
CIRCUIT

UNGROUNDED
- 4 )TRANSIENT
OVERVOLTAG ES
fI

+-
POWER SOURE
t I MAY CAUSE
1
I SECOND FAULT
I HERE
-
4,

c-
lb- POTENTIAL
, -SINGLE- LINE- TO
~ GROUND FAULT

## FIG. 6.1 Transient overvoltages due to ground-fault interruption on ungrounded system

may cause other faults to occur on system.
SYSTEM GROUNDING 341

## voltages may cause failure of itisulat,ioii at other lo(.atiotis on the system

than t,hc point of fault,. Thus, a litie-t,o-ground fault 011 one circuit may
result ill damage t o eiluipmeiit aud interruption of service on other rir-
ruit,s. The same condition will result from the repeated restrike of the
arc: in at1 arcing fault from line t,o ground. The condit,ion described is
illustrated ill Fig. (i.1.
In aii uiigrouiided-neutral system, a serond ground fault 011 another
phase may occur heforc the first fault, is removed. The second fault may
he on the same cirruit as t,he original fault or OII another. In any event,,
the resulting line-to-line fault will avtuate relays or circuit breakers and

' I
i SECChD
GROUNC
FAULT

FIG. 6.2 Double line-to-ground faults on ungrounded system result in outages of two
circuits and high-level fault currents which can cause severe damage to equipment.
FIG. 6.3 One ground foult on an ungrounded ryrtem may cause ground foultr in other
connected apparatus.

-:;i:::VOLTAGE
FU LL LIN E -T O -
LINE VOLTAGE

NEUTRAL

NORMAL
GROUND
GROUND * P O T E NT I A L
VOLTAGE
Y

## (A) NO FAULT ON SYSTEM (01 SINGLE-LINE-TO-

(N E U TR A L FL O A T S AT GROUND FAULT ON
GROUND POTENTIAL) SYSTEM (ONE LiNE AT
GROUND POTENTIAL1

## FIG. 6.4 Effect on line-to-ground voltages of (I single line-to-ground fault on an un-

grounded neutral system.
SYSTEM GROUNDING 343

cent higher than normal. Figure G.4 illustrates the increase i n line-to-
ground voltage due t o a ground fault. Usually the insulation het,ween
each line and ground is adequate t,o withstand full line-to-line voltage.
However, if this voltage is applied for loug periods, it may result in failure
of insulation which may have deteriorated hecausc of age or severe
service conditions.
Line-to-ground faults on ungrounded-iieutral systems muse a very
small ground-fault current t o flow through the raparkanre of cahles,
transformers, and other electrical equipment ou t h e system. This current
may have a magnitude from a few amperes t o 25 amp or more 011 larger

rLA
J
- ~.
1 I I
T T h
1Y 1Y s
Y
2Y

T
s5 3
"
5

## FIG. 6.5 Location of ground faults m a y be troublesome on ungrounded neutral systems.

344 SYSTEM GROUNDING

## systems. This is not, in general, enough to actuate protective devices,

bnt it may do considerable damage if allowed to flow for a long period.
Ground detectors on an ungrounded-neutral system will indicate the
existence of a ground fault but will not give its location (see Fig. 6.5).
Several dt vices are available for determining the approximate location
of ground faults. Such devices are admittedly helpful, hut they do not
provide the complete answer. Some time is still required to locate and
remove the faulty feeder from service for repair. These devices do
nothing to prevent the occurrence of the fault.

SWITCHES

hll. G K g

FIG. 6.6 Ungrounded low-voltage system with single line-to-ground fault in one circuit.
SYSTEM GROUNDING 345

## The problem of locating a fault on an ungroiuided-iieutral system is

illustrated in Fig. R.G. While it is easy to see where the fault is iii the
diagram, it is not easy to locate it i n the artual ungrounded system.
The first step is to opeti the secondary feeders one at a time. This will
tell on whirh feeder the fault is. After finding vhirh feeder the fault is
on, then the branch cirruit,s are opeired one at, a time and finally the
motors and loads taken off one at a time. If this is done during produr-
tion hours, it rail readily he seen how much production loss there may he
just t o find a ground fault iir an ungrounded system. This is contrasted
with a grounded-neutral system where only t,he motor A , Fig. 6.6, would
have been tripped out and no other produrtion marhines iuterfered with.
A second ground may occur on the same phase, but at a different location
than the first. This is more diffirult t o find bemuse the operator must
then open all circuits a t once and dose them one a t a time t o find the
ground fault.
Often it is argued that with an ungrounded system one ground fault
cau be left on the system uutil it is convenient to locate it without inter-
fering with production.
Experienre has shoivn that double ground faults are rery common in
ungrounded systems simply because the first ground is left on, hoping
that the operator will find it before the serond ground fault occurs.

## ADVANTAGES OF SYSTEM NEUTRAL GROUNDING

The advantages of operating an industrial power system grounded
compared with operatiug it ungrounded may be one or more of the
following :
1. Reduced operating and maintenance expense
a. Reduction in magnitude of transient overvoltages
b. Improved lightning protection
c. Simplification of ground-fault location
d. Improved system and equipment fault protection
2. Improved servire reliability
3. Greater safety for personnel and equipment
The relative weight of these advantages varies with system voltage
classes and t o a lesser degree with installation conditions.
Wheii the system is grounded at the neutral by a low value of imped-
ance, grounded-neutral lightning arresters may be used which give hetter
lightning protection, other things being equal, than do ungrounded-
neutral arresters required for ungrounded-neutral systems or for grounded-
neutral systems which are grounded through a relatively high neutral
impedance. I n general, circuits below 15 kv are not exposed to lightning
within the industrial plant, so that the advantage gained from better
346 SYSTEM GROUNDING

## light,ning protection through the use of <rounded-neutral arrest,ers is not

too often an important factor. When industrial plants use voltages
above 15 kv, these circuits are often exposed to lightning so that low
impedance syst,emneutral grounding to allow the use of grounded-neutral
Voltages below 15 kv are most commonly used in industrial plants and
are the highest voltages to which rotating machines are ordinarily con-
nected. It is in these systems that the advantages of system neutral
grounding are ohtained in the greatest degree. Minimizing damzge at,
the point of fault is usually more important than improved lightning
protection.
The reasons that the advantages are obtained stem from the operating
characteristics of grounded-neutral vs. ungrounded-neutral systems.
Better protection can he ohtained in a grounded-neutral circuit because
differential-relay protection of motors, generators, and transformers is
improved in grounded-neutral systems. If the neutral of the system is
not grounded, protection against grounds in the machine minding by
percentage differential relays is provided only upon t,he occurrence of a
second ground in another phase of t,he system, whereas in a grounded-
neutral system, percentage differential relays will operate for single
ground faults in the protected zone.
Phase-overcurrent relays in power systems are set at a value of current
samc current transformers and relays as does the fault current. Hom-
ever, ground-fault relays may he set to operate at considerably less than
full-load currelit, since load current does not pass through them in the
normal three-phase industrial power systems with t,hree-phase loads. It
is this characteristic of ground relays that permits the use of low ground-
fault current associated with resistor grounding. Phase overcurrent
relays usually have tap settings from 4 to 16 amp, whereas ground relays
have tap settings as low as 0.5 to 2.0 or 1.5 to 6 amp for this reason.
Slightly lower system costs can sometimes he obtained hecause cables
designed for grounded-neutral service are appreciably less expensive than
those designed for ungrounded-neutral service for (1) systems at 13.8 kv
and above and (2) where automatic ground-fault relaying is used.
I n other rases the cost of the grounded-neutral system may be increased
by the cost of the grounding equipment which, in most cases, in the
2.4- to 13.8-kv range, is a grounding resistor. This cost is not generally
significant.
It is often advantageous to operate low-roltage industrial power sys-
tems, four-wire, three-phase. Thus, 208Y/120-volt systems may be used
directly for three-phase motors and single-phase lighting. Likewise
480Y/277-volt four-wire systems may be used for 480-volt motors and
SYSTEM GROUNDING 347

## 277-volt fluorescent lighting without lighting transformers. I n each

case, the neutral is solidly grounded.
It has been the experience of operators who have used both grounded-
and ungrounded-neutral systems that the failure rate is substantially
lower and the time the system is out of service is less on the grounded
system. This results from the fact that transient overvoltages are
greatly reduced on a grounded-neutral system. Because grounding
reduces these overvoltages, the life of electric insulation will he increased
and service interruptions will be minimized. Even though the over-
voltages of a n ungrounded-neutral system may not he high enough to
cause multiple failures, every time a ground fault occurs, the repeated
application of these overvoltages will weaken the insulation and cause a
higher failure rate than in a grounded-neutral system.
TABLE 6.1 Summq f of Advantages of the Grounded-neutral 480-volt System

Grounded-neutral system
I Ungrounded system

Safety. ... . .. . . ... SAFEST-Only 277 voits to ground Normolly 277 volts to ground when
at m y time (assume good ground no around on sydem. 480 vdti 10
and 480 volts maximum line to line1 ground on two conductors when one
phore i s grounded
SAFEST-Voltage on system limited Voltage on recondory system may be
to obout 277 volts when primary to as high as primary voltage for
secondary failure OCCUR in Irons- breakdown between primary and
former supplying system rocondory Ironsfarmer windings
SAFEST-Ground fault in ~ontroi Control circuit ground fault likely to
wiring cmn put only 58 per ~ e n line
f put full v ~ l t o g eon cantactor closing
volloge on line-to-line connected coils
LO"t.dO, closing coil.
Service rdiobility. HIGHEST-Ground faults ore mod- Port or 011 of system must be taken
ily located and repaired; syitem out of service to Rnd ground faults
need not be taken out to Rnd Subject to severe transient overvolt-
ground faults age*
HIGHEST-Ground foults arc locd- Ground faulh if not removed may
ired and trip off immediately upon occurrence of a second
HIGHEST-h%nimizes Irondent over- ground foult cause N o circuits to
voltages on the system goout atonce, thus causing 0 lossof
twice (IS much production equipment
HIGHTEST-Flooting grounds are Floating or arcing grounds likely
very unlikely
Maintenonce cost.. .. LOWEST-Ground faults arc easily Time must be spent hunting ground
located fault,
Fin1 coil. . . .. ...... About same (IS delta-connected
substation and ground detector
High-vollage Rvoresce Provides 277 volts for direct opera- Mud use step-down handormen
lighting lion of fluorescent lights. resulting from 480 to 277 volts or lower
in a cod roving by lhe elimination
of lighting Ironsformers and a
reduction in copper
348 SYSTEM GROUNDING

## A summary of the advantages of grounded-neutral operation on a 480-

volt system is given in Table 6.1. In general, the same advantages are
applicable to other system voltages of 600 or lower. A summary of the
advantages of grounded-neutral operation on systems of 2.4 to 15 kv is
given in Table 6.2.
TABLE 6.2 Summary of Advantages of the Grounded-neutral
System (2.4 to 15 Kv)

Grounded-neutral system
I Ungrounded system

Safely. ..... ....... SAFEST: Single line-to-ground faulh Subject lo severe troniient over-
are tripped off immediocly voltages
Somice roiiobllity . .... HIGHEST: Ground faults are readily Part or 011 of system must be taken
located and repaired out of service to find fovltr
HIGHEST:Limited fault current C(IUSFI Ground foulh, i f not removed, may
a minimum of damage to equip- upon occurren~eof (I second ground
ment [with conventional resistonce fault C W S ~ two circuiti to go out at
grounding) once, lhur couiing the 1 0 s of Wice
as much production equipment
HIGHEST: Minimizer transient over- High fault current assdated with two
voltages on lhe system line-to-ground, faulh moy result in
more damage to equipment
Maintenance cost.. ... LOWEST: Ground fauih ore easily Ground faulh ore more diticult lo
locoled locote
First C o l t . . . .... ..... ABOUT SAME: Adds cost of resistor Requires ground-detector and fault-
and nwtral relaying locator equipmentto be comparable

## HOW TO OBTAIN THE SYSTEM NEUTRAL

The best way to obtain the system neutral is to use source transformers
or generators with Y-connected windings. The neutral is then readily
available. Such transformers are readily available for practically all
voltages. On new systems, 208Y/120 or 480Y/277 volts may be used to
special 2400Y- or 4800Y-connected source transformers may be purchased
or grounding transformers used.

GROUNDING TRANSFORMERS
System neutrals may not be available, particularly in many old systems
600 volts or less and many existing 2400-, 48On-, and 6900-volt systems.
When it is desired to ground existing delta-connected low-voltage sys-
tems (0-600 volts), grounding transformers are used to form a neutral
which is then connected solidly to ground. I n like manner, 2.4- t o 15-kv
SYSTEM GROUNDING 34P

## systems having only delta-connected equipment may he grounded by

adding grounding transformers and neutral resistors.
Grounding transformers may be either of the zigzag or Y-delta type.

## The t,ype of gromrding transformer most rommonly used is a three-

phase zigzag transformer with no secoudary winding. The internal coti-
nection of t,his trausformer is illustrated in Fig. G.7. The impedance of
the transformer to three-phase currents is high so that, when t,here is no
fault on the system, only a small magnetizing current flo~vsin the trans-
former windings. The transformer impedance t o ground current,, h o w
ever, is low so that it, allows high ground currents to floxv. The trans-
former divides the ground current iuto t,hree equal componeuts; these
currents are in phase with each other and flow i n the three windings of
the grounding t,ransformer.
The met,hod of wiuding is seen, from Fig. 6.7, t o he such that when
these t,hree equal currents flow the current i n one section of the winding
of each leg of the core is i n a direction opposite to that in the other sertion
of the n\$iding on that lea. The only magnetic
~ I - flus \\-hich results from
the zero-sequence ground rurrents is the leal e field about earh XI-inding

>

1171
1 t- _.)

I -
(0) WINDING SHOWN ON CORE
-
(b) SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
OF CONNECTIONS
FIG. 6.7 Zigmg three-phore grounding transformer.
350 SYSTEM GROUNDING

## section. This accounts for the low impedanre of the transformer to

ground current.
The short-time kva rating of a grounding transformer is equal t o rated
line-to-neut,ral vokage times rated neutral current. h grounding trans-
former is designed to carry its rated current for a limited time only, such
as 10 sec or 1 min. Hence, it is normally about one4enth as large, physi-
cally, as an ordinary three-phase transformer for the same rat,ed kva.

## A Y-delta transformer ran also be utilined as a grounding transformer.

I n this case the delta must he closed t o provide a path for the aero-
sequenre current, but the delta can be made up at any ronvenient voltage
level. It may or may not be used to serve other loads. The Y nindiug
must be of the same voltage rating as the circuit mhirh is to he grounded.
The connections of the transformer are shown in Fig. G.8.

APPLICATION

## A grounding transformer should he connected t o the system in such

manner that the system mill always he grounded. Figure G.9a shows a
grounding transformer with an individual line breaker for connection
directly to a main bus of the system. Figure G.9b shows a means of COII-
necting a grounding transformer t,o a system without an individual line
breaker. In this case, the grounding transformer is connected between
the main t,ransformer bank and its hreaker. If grounding t,ransformers
are connected as shown i n Fig. G.Yb, there should be one grounding trans-
former for each delta-ronnerted bank supplying power t o the system, or
enough t o assure a t least one grounding transformer on the system at all
times.

## FIG. 6.8 Connections and current dir-

tribution in CI Y-delta grounding tranr-
former when line-to-ground foult occurs
on a three-phare system.
SYSTEM GROUNDING 351

A
A A

-
GROUNDING
TRANSFORMER

GROUNDING
R E S l STOR
-

T R A N SFORMER
{Jq3GROUNDlNG i
L
~

GROUNDING
RESISTOR

\$ (b)

## FIG. 6.9 Methods of connecting grounding transformer to system.

352 SYSTEM GROUNDING

## In applying grounding transformers, the first step is to review the sys-

tem voltage and fault current level to determine whether the system
should be grounded solidly or through a resistor.

## METHODS OF NEUTRAL GROUNDING

In grounding the neutral of a power system, the advantages outlined
will be achieved provided that proper attention is given to the impedance
of the circuit from system neutral t o ground. This circuit is illustrated
in Fig. 6.10 for the commonly used grounding methods. These methods
are referred to as solid grounding, rpsistance grounding, reactance ground-
ing, and ground-fault-neutralizer grounding. Kote that each method is
named in accordance with the nature of the external circuit from system
neutral to ground. In each case the impedance of the generator, or
transformer, whose neutral is grounded is in series with the external
circuit.
Characteristics of the various methods of system neutral groundiug are
given in the following text and summarized in Table 6.3. Application
limits and guides for the various methods are outlined with reference to
the following:
1. Effect on development of transient overvoltages
2. Damage a t the point of fault due to magnitude of ground-fault
current
3. Application of standard relays and circuit-interrupting devices for
selective ground-fault tripping
4. Lightning protection

SOLID GROUNDING

## A power system is solidly grounded when a generator, power trans-

former, or grounding transformer neutral is connected directly to the
station ground or to the earth, as shown in Fig. 6.11. Because of the
reactance of the grounded generator or transformer in series with the
neutral circuit, solid grounding cannot be considered a zero-impedance
circuit.
If the reactance of the generator or transformer is too great, the objec-
tives sought in grounding, principally freedom from transient overvolt-
ages, will not be achieved. Thus, it is necessary to determine how solidly
the system is grounded A good guide in answering this question is the
magnitude of ground-fault current as compared with the system three-
phase fault current. The higher the ground-fault current in relation to
the three-phase current, the more solidly is the system grounded.
For nearly all solidly grounded systems (also reactance-grounded sys-
SYSTEM GROUNDING 353

## tems) it ia neecusary for the ground-fault current to he in the range of 25

t o 100 per cent of the three-phase fault rurrent to prevent the develop-
ment of high transient overvoltages. This may mean symmetrical rms
ground-fault currents in the order of 10,000 t o 40,000 amp.
CIRCUIT EOUIVALANT
DIAGRAM

0
I UNGROUNDED
Y
I
5?

3. RESISTANCE GROUNDED cp
5 GROUND F A U L T
NEUTRALIZER

## XG-REACTANCE OF GENERATOR OR TRANSFORMER USED FOR GROUNDING

XN-REACTANCE O F GROUNDING REACTOR
RN-RESISTANCE OF GROUNDING RESISTOR

## FIG. 6.10 System neutiol circuits and methods of grounding.

SYSTEM GROUNDING
SYSTEM GROUNDING 355

## Direct grounding of a generator without external impedanre may cause

the grouiu-fault current from the generator t o exceed the masimum
three-phase fault rurrmt which the generator can deliver aud t,o e x r e d
the short-rirruit rurreiit for which its vindings usually are hraced. Con-
sequently, i n rases where solid grounding of a system is indirated, genera-
tors should be grounded through a react,or having a l o w ohmic value
whirh d l limit fault current t o a value no greater than three-phase fault
rurrent. 111 the case of three-phase four-wire systems, limitation of
ground-fault current t o 100 per cent of the three-phase fault current, is
usually practical n-it,hnut interfering with normal four-wire operation.
Lightning arresters for grounded-neutral systems may be applied when
the system is grounded through a low impedance to prevent displacement,
of t,he system neut,ral d h respert t o ground beyond specified limits. In
this rase, the maximum impedanre may he espresscd in terms of minimum
ground-fault current. This cnrrent should be at least 60 per cent of the
three-phase short-circuit current for appliration of grounded-neut,ral-type
lightning arresters.
I

GENERATOR
SOLIDLY
GROUNDED
POWER
TRANSFORMER
SOLIDLY
GROUNDED
GROUNDING
TRANSFORMER
SOLIDLY 7
T
FIG. 6.1 1 Methods of solidly grounding the neutral of three-phase systems.

RESISTANCE GROUNDING

## In resistance grounding, the neutral is connected t o ground through one

or more resistors, as shown in Fig. 6.12.
In this method, with resistor ohmic values normally used, the line-to-
356 SYSTEM GROUNDING

ground voltages which exist during a line-to-ground fault are nearly the
same as for an ungrounded system (except transient overvoltages). This
is illustrated in Fig. 6.13.
A system properly grounded by resistance is not subject to destructive
transient overvoltages. For resistance-grounded systems at 15 kv and

\$9 Y

## GENERATOR POWER GROUNDING

NEUTRAL TRANSFORMER TRANSFORMER
NEUTRAL NEUTRAL
-
FIG. 6.12 Methods of resistance grounding the neutral of three-phase systems.

NORMAL
LINE-TO-,
NEUTRAL

+' POTENTIAL
- VOLTAGE DROP
+! IN GROUNDED
PHASE,DUE TO
GROUND CURRENT

## A) SYSTEM NEUTRAL 8) SYSTEM GROUNDED

UNGROUNDED BY RESISTOR

FIG. 6.1 3 System voltage diagrams during single line-to-ground faults. (All voltage5
a t operating frequency-transient voltages not shown.)
SYSTEM GROUNDING 357

## below, such overvoltages will not ordinarily be of a serious nature unless

the resistance is so high as to limit the ground-fault current t o a small
fraction of 1 per cent of the system three-phase fault current (i.e., to less
than the system charging current). This much ground current (usually
well below 50 amp) is far less than is uormally used with resistor grounding.
Systems grounded Ghrough resistors as described in this chapter should
use lightning arresters for ungrounded-neutral circuits, where lightning
arresters are required.
The reasons for limiting the current by resistance neutral grounding
are as follows:
1. T o reduce burning aud melting effects in faulted electric equipment
such as switchgear, cables, and rotating machines
2. To reduce mechanical stresses in circuits and apparatus carrying
fault current
3. T o reduce electric shock hazards t o personnel, caused by stray
ground-fault currents in the ground return path
4. To reduce the momentary line-voltage dip occasioned by occurrence
and cleariug of a ground fault

REACTANCE GROUNDING

## The term reactance grounding describes the case in which a reactor is

connected between the machine neutral and ground, as shown in Fig. 6.10.
The magnitude of reactance in the neutral circuit determines how
“solidly” the system is grounded and therefore what its characteristics
will be. Since the ground-fault current which may flow in a reactance-
grounded system is a function of the neutral reactance, the magnitude of
ground-fault current is often used as the criterion for the various system
Characteristics rather than referring to neutral reactance directly.
In practice, reactance grounding is generally used only in the case cited
under Solid Grounding, in which a generator neutral is to be connected
directly to ground. In this event, it may be necessary t o add a low-value
reactor to limit the available ground-fault current through the generator
to a value no greater than the three-phase fault current contributed by the
generator.
The characteristics of a reactance-grounded system, which are depend-
ent 011 the magnihde of ground-fault current, at any point in the system
are summarized it1 Table 6.3.
It will be seeu that, if a system is to be grounded through a reactor, the
available ground-fault current should be a t least 25 per cent of three-phase
fault current. This is considerably higher than the minimum fault cur-
rent desirable in a resistance-grounded system; therefore, reactor ground-
ing is usually not considered an alternative of resistance grounding.
358 SYSTEM GROUNDING

GROUND-FAULT NEUTRALIZERS

## A ground-fault neutralizer is a reactor connected between the neutral

of a system and ground and having a specially selected, relatively high
value of reactance.
A line-to-ground fault causes line-to-neutral voltage t o be impressed
across the neutralizer, which passes a n inductive current, I , (Fig. 6.14).
This current is 180' out of phase and is approximately equal in magnitude
(when the neutralizer is tuned to the system) t o the resultant of t,he sys-
tem charging currents from the two unfaulted phases l a and I , . The
inductive and capacitive components of current neutralize each other, and
the only remaining current i n the fault is due to resistance, insulator leak-
age, and corona. This current is relatively small, and as it is in phase
with the line-to-neutral voltage, the current and voltage pass through a
zero value at the same instant. Hence, the arc is extinguished without
restriking and flashovers are quenched without removing the faulted
line section from service. For systems on which faults in air are rela-
tively frequent, ground-fault neutralizers may be very useful because they
reduce the number of circuit-breaker operations required t o remove faults,
thus improving service continuity. They have been used primarily on
syst,emsabove 15 kv consisting essentially of overhead transmission lines.
A f e n ground-fault neutralizers have been used t o limit ground-fault cur-
rent t o substantially zero when a ground fault occurs in a large 6900-volt
ungrounded-neutral system such as in steel mills. Overvoltages are
reduced also in comparison with an ungrounded system. This, however,
is secoiid choice to resistor grounding, which provides ground-fault relay-
ing to disconnect the faulted circuit. It should be noted, however, that
failures in solid insulation, such as paper, varnished cambric, and rubber,
are not self-healing as insulator flashovers are and are not extinguished by
use of t,he ground-fault neutralizer as flashovers on an open line would be.
I n some cases where it has not been deemed desirable by the plant
Transformer -Ib

## FIG. 6.14 Giound-fault-current pattern in ryrtem grounded b y means of (I ground-fault

neutralizer.
SYSTEM GROUNDING 359

## operators t o trip a circuit 011 the occurrence of a ground fault, special

arrangements have been used t o limit the damage due t o the flow of
charging current and yet he able to locate the faulted feeder easily. One
scheme is to use a ground-fault neutralizer in the neutral t o limit the
ground-fault current and t o reduce switching surges t o safe values. A
resistor is arranged t o be connected in parallel with the neutralizer when
it is desired t o pass enough ground-fault current t o rause relays t o give a
signal or trip the breaker of the faulted feeder, as illustrated in Fig. 6.15.
Because of the current t o be switched, a power circuit breaker should be
used for switching the resistor. The resistor and relaying are selected
as if the resistor only were used. Such a scheme is expensive arid is used
only in very special rases.

POWER CIRCUIT
BREAKER REOUIRED

GROUNDING

REACTOR)

FEEDERS

3 CT’S

FIG. 6.15 Three-current transformers and ground relay required for each circuit in
special ground-fault-neutralirer application.

## Ground-fault neutralizers alone have heen used t o a limited extent in

systems having the following characteristics:
1 . Large existing systems having only two current transformers per
circuit
2. Where the switchgear is such that the addition of a third current
transformer and residual overcurrent relay involves considerable expense
3. Systems having heavy charging current, in which case damage t o
machines may result in the event of a ground fault if the system is left
ungrounded
4. Systems which are susceptible to arcing grounds, for example, over-
3 bQ SYSTEM GROUNDING

## A ground-fault neutralizer plus grounding resistor is also applicable for

systems having the above conditions except that three current trans-
formers and a residual relay are mandatory.
One of the characteristics of resonant-grounded systems is that care
should he taken t o keep the ground-fault neutralizer tuned to the system
capacitance to minimize the development of transient overvoltages.
Thus, when sections of the systems are switched on or off, it may be
necessary to adjust the neutral reactance by changing the neutralizer
taps. This operation may be readily performed by providing in the
powerhouse an ammeter and control switch for remote control of a motor-
driven tap changer on the neutralizer. Thus, when parts of the system
are switched, the neutralizer may be readjusted a t the time.

## SUGGESTED GROUNDING METHODS FOR INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS

Various types of impedances for system neutral grounding have been
used for many years. A review of the various methods and their features
has indicated that the desirable practice for industrial plants is as follows:
1. Systems rated 600 volts and below: solid grounding
2. Systems rated 2.4 to 13.8 kv: resistance grounding in most cases;
solid grounding in a few cases
3. Systems rated 22 kv and higher : solid grounding
A summary of grounding methods a t various voltage levels is covered
in the following text and tabulated in Table 6.5.

## The grounding of 208Y/120-volt systems has been almost universally

adopted. Grounding the neutrals of 480- and 600-volt systems has pre-
viously been impractical because of the fact that most three-phase trans-
formers supplying these voltages have heen historically delta-connected.
Now standard load-center unit substations are available with Y-con-
nected secondary windings rated 208Y/120,480Y/277, or 600Y/346 volts,
which enables lowvoltage system neutral grounding to be used. This
provides a safer, more reliable system with lower operating cost. These
substations are available with delta-connected primary windings.
The new standard Y-connected secondary windings for the 480- and
6OC-volt substations enable these units to he used for either grounded-
neutral or ungrounded 480- or 6OO-volt systems, respectively. The low-
voltage neutral is brought out through a hushing. When grounding is
desired, the terminal of the neutral bushing is connected to the low-volt-
age ground bus. When grounding is not desired, this connection is left
off. Therefore, one line of unit substation transformers now provides al!
SYSTEM GROUNDING 361

the voltage ratings commonly required, plus the advantage of being able
to operate the low voltage either grounded or ungrounded. Substations
rated 240 volts are normally delta-connected. To obtain grounded-
neutral operation in this voltage class, either the 208Y/120-volt substa-
tions or 240-volt delta substations with grounding transformers may be
used.
Relatively high ground-fault currents are usually required to operate
the standard overcurrent protective devices in circuits 600 volts or less.
Thus low-voltage systems are solidly grounded to assure sufficient fault
current for operation of protective devices.
Three levels of fault current are of interest in considering grounding
methods for low-voltage systems. These are (1) ground-fault currents
greater than three-phase fault current, (2) ground-fault currents equal to
three-phase fault currents, and (3) ground-fault currents less than three-
phase fault current. I t is desirable to design toward condition 2. There-
fore, systems supplied only by transformers are grounded solidly, in which
case condition 2 will obtain. However, if generator neutrals are grounded
solidly, condition 1 will obtain. Since the generator may not be braced
for the values of ground-fault current which can flow, it is necessary to
use a low-value neutral reactor t o bring the ground-fault current down to
three-phase fault-current value. For all practical purposes. this is
thought of as “solid” grounding rather than “reactance” grounding
because the resulting ground-fault current remains high.
Where grounding transformers are required to establish a neutral, it is
usually desirable to limit the ground-fault current to less than three-phase
fault current to keep the transformer size within practical limits. In this
case it is necessary t o investigate the tripping characteristics of interrupt-
ing devices and establish a transformer reactance which will assure ade-
quate current for tripping.
Condition 3 romes about in actual practice, either with transformer
solidly grounded or generator grounded through a neutral reactor, because
of the resistance of the ground return path. In medium-voltage systems,
this resistance has little effect. Referring to Table 6.4, 0.1 ohm in a
13.8-kv system neutral has practically no current-reducing effect. How-
ever, in low-voltage systems this resistance has a considerable effect.
Thus, 0.1 ohm in the neutral of a 240-volt system reduces the current by
as much as 95 per rent. Also, the system voltage is low enough that the
hazard from shock due to the flow of ground current through thestructure
of a building is minimized compared with higher voltage systems. All air
circuit breakers and fused knife switches must have three overcurrent
elements for application on three-phase grounded-neutral circuits. These
devices will trip for the same value of current whether the fault is three
phase or single phase t o ground. Hence, special ground relays are not
362 SYSTEM GROUNDING

## TABLE 6.4 Approximate Symmetrical Rms Ground Currents with Solidly

Grounded Transformer Banks
-
Approximate ground currenl

## ramformer Ground Ground

bonk ,e.i.lo"Ce, ,&.lo"Ce.
kva 1.0 ohm 0.1 ohm
~ ~ ~ ~

-- ~ ~ ~

## 13,800 7,500 3,900 87 4,500 100 4,500

I5.000 6,000 67 9,000 100 9,000
30,000 7,300 41 17,500 97 18.000

## 6.900 3,750 3,000 67 4,500 100 4,500

7,500 3.650 41 8.800 98 9,000
15,000 3,900 22 16,400 91 I8.000

## 4,160 2,500 2,160 43 4,900 98 5,000

5.000 2,320 23 9,200 92 10.000
7,500 2,360 16 12,700 85 I5.000

## 2,400 1,500 1.330 26 4,900 94 5,200

3,000 1,370 13 8.300 81 10,300
6,000 1,380 7 11,500 56 20,600

## 600 300 350 8 2,660 63 4,200

500 350 5 3.100 44 7,000
l.000 350 3 3,400 24 14,000
2.000 350 I 3,500 I? 28.000

## 480 300 280 5 2,450 47 5,200

500 280 3 2.680 31 8.700
1,000 280 2 2,750 16 17.300
2,000 280 I 2,770 8 34,600

## 240 150 I40 3 1,330 26 5,200

300 140 1 1,370 13 10.300
500 140 1 1.380 8 17.300
l.000 140 0.5 1.380 4 34,600
-- ---
* Per cent means per cent three-r, ;e fault eurrcnt
t For eero ground resistance, grounc urrent is 100 per cent of three-phase fault
current in all cases.
Norm: 1. Voltage assumed sustained on high-voltage side of bank.
2. 7 per cent reactance assumed for bank.
3. Bank assumed to he only source of fault current.
4. Ground resistance of 1 ohm is maximum recommended for main substation
grounds. Well-bonded grounded return connections in buildings usually have resist-
ance of 0.1 ohm or less.
SYSTEM GROUNDING 363

## used in low-voltage circuits when the neutral is grounded. However, it

should be noted that all three poles of a circuit breaker open simultane-
ously for a single line-to-ground fault but that in the case of the fused
knife switch the faulted phase opens first and the remaining fuses may or
may not open, depending upon the degree of overload imposed on them
by the remaining single-phase circuits.

## As noted in Table 6.5 medium-voltage systems are usually resistance-

grounded. In this range of system voltages, limited ground-fault current
is highly desirable, in the usual industrial power system. Connection of
rotating machines directly a t these voltages is common; hence resistance
grounding is used to reduce the damage which may result because of a
grouud fault in the machine windings.
In the case of small systems supplied by generators, reactor grounding
(to produce not less than 25 per cent of three-phase fault current) may
be used in the interest of economy and berause ground-fault currents are
not too large. If the system is small and supplied by transformers, they
may be grounded solidly for the same reasons.
Arresters for grounded-neutral circuits discharge a t lower levels of
surge voltage and, hence, limit overvoltages to values about 20 per cent
lower than arresters for ungrounded-neutral circuits. The use of
grounded-neutral lightning arresters, to obtain better lightriing protection
for equipment connected directly to overhead lines, is the principal
reason for ever selecting reactance or solid grounding in place of resistor
grounding for an industrial power system of 2.4- to 15-kv class.
Reactance grounding at this voltage level is preferred only when all
the following conditions exist:
1. Overhead circuits directly connected to rotating equipment are snh-
ject to lightning exposure.
2. This type of grounding does not result in excessive ground-fault
current.
In such cases the neutral reactor of a generator must be selected so that
X , / X , is equal to or greater than 1 for the generator alone, and X , / X , for
the system must be equal to or less than 3 to permit the use of grounded-
neutral lightning arresters.
If high ground-fault current is acceptable and the systems include
suitable power-transformer banks, solid grounding may be preferred in
some cases because neutral reactors or resistors are not required and line-
to-ground lightning arresters may be used.
SYSTEM GROUNDING
Condition Grounding practice Remorks

D. If Y-connected generators on system Use resistonce grounding 1. Ganaroton used for grounding should be of ode-
quate sire bee Toble 6.61
2. When severe lightning exposure is present, gen.
erator may be grounded through 1ow-vobe reactomc
Grounding reiistor- to permit use of g'~vnded-nevtml-t~pOlightning
orrede.,
3. Small systems. where the resulting ground-fault cur-
rant would not be excessive, may be reactance
grounded, if desired, in the interest of economy v)
<
Do not ground solidly
-
E. If Y-connected transformers on system Use redstance grounding
[we tronsformen which supply power to
the system, ovoid transformen which are
___-
G! Y ~ --
1. Capacity of transformen used for grounding should
be of odequote size (see Toble 6.61
2' . Smell systemr, where the resulting growd-fault cur- 0
a
P
c
loads on the system) rent would not be excessive, may be solidly grounded. z
if desired, in the interest of economy 0
Resistor- -
2
0

-~ -_---__ _ _ __- __
F. If no Y-connected generators or tronr- Use one or more grounding transformers with resistors I. In m o l l systems. where the r e d l i n g ground-fault cur-
formers on system rent would not be exesrive, lhe growding trans-
former may be solidly grounded in the intorest of
economy

-to bur
-
366 SYSTEM GROUNDING

## Systems above 15 kv are nearly always solidly grounded, because these

are usually transmission circuits with open lines in which, in most cases,
grounded-neutral-type lightning arresters are desirable for better over-
voltage protection and lower cost. In addition, rotating equipment is
seldom connected directly to these systems; hence, limited ground-fault
current, to prevent burning of laminations, is a less important factor
than in the medium-voltage systems. In addition, voltages above 15 kv
are not usually carried inside buildings; hence shock hazards due to high
fault currents are not a factor. Finally, the cost of grounding resistors at
these voltages is high.
TABLE 6.6 Minimum Ratings of Generators and Power Transformer
Banks for Grounding
Maaimurn System Mi"im"m
Short-circuit K"0
K"0 Rating
1,000,000 7500
500,000 3750
250,000 1750
l50,OOO 1000
ioo,000 750
50,000 375
25,000 187
NOTES: 1. If a smaller rating is used, system may he subject to transient overvolt-
ages during clearing of ground faults.
2. Tahle assume8 7 per cent for power transformer hank reactance or generator
zero-sequence reactance.
3. System short-circuit kva is maximum value possible when generator or hank to
he grounded is only source of ground current, all other grounded power sources being
out of servioe.
4. Tahle iS based on the criterion that the reactance of the grounded apparatus
dhould he no more than ten times the equivalent three-phase short-circuit reactance.
For example. B system having 250,OWkva three-phaso short-circuit duty has B
reactance of 100 per cent on a250.000-kva. base. The grounded apparatus may then
have a reactance of ten times this or 1000 per cent on a 250,000-kva hxse. If the
apparatus has 7 per cent reactance on its own base, then its kva rating may he

-7 X 250,000
100o = 1750 kva

## INDUSTRIAL VS. UTILITY PRACTICE

The characteristics and operation of industrial power systems differ in
some respects from those encountered in utility systems; therefore, it may
be expected that grounding practices would also be different. Such is
the case, although the basic principles of neutral grounding are followed
in both types of systems.
A comparison of the pertinent characteristics of the two types of sys-
tems is given helow and summarized in Tahle 6.7.
SYSTEM GROUNDING 367

## Utility practice in recent years has favored solid grounding. This

method permits the use of grounded-neutral-type lightning arresters with
the resulting reduced lightning-arrester investment and improved level of
protection. In addition, solid grounding offers savings in the use of
graded insulation in transformers at 115 kv and above. A large per-
centage of ground faults on utility systems occurs by means of insulator
flashovers; and the high ground-fault current due to solid grounding does
not cause expensive damage to equipment at the point of fault.
In the case of industrial power systems, resistance grounding is pre-
ferred for voltage levels from 2.4 to 13.8 kv. The principal reason for this
practice is to ensure reduced magnitudes of ground-fault current and con-
sequent reduction in possible damage at the point of fault. This is a
particularly important factor in the case of ground faults in the windings
of motors and generators. Although a ground-fault of limited magnitude
and duration may cause sufficient damage to require the replacement of
several coils, the desired result is obtained when the damage is confined to
the coils and the machine laminations are left intact.
TABLE 6.7 Industrial vs. Utility Grounding Practice

lnduitriol Utility

## Derimbiiity of high ~ o n t i n ~ i tof ..............

y power. Yes Yes
Predominant method of conducting power.. ........... Cable Overhead lines
Per cent of system subject to lightning hazard.. ........ Smoil
Investment in lightning orresten..................... Small
Predominmce of voltage levels above 15 k v . . ........ Few ~ y i t e m r
Rotding equipment at diitribvlion and tranrmisdon leveis. Yes in most core!

## As illustrated in Fig. 6.16, it is necessary to ground each voltage level

to achieve the protection and advantages of neutral grounding. For
example, if the 4.16-kv system in this diagram were not grounded, this
level would have all the characteristics of an ungrounded system; at the
same time, the 33-kv and 480-volt levels would have the characteristics of
grounded-neutral systems.
Each voltage level may be grounded a t the neutral lead of a generator,
power transformer bank, or grounding transformer. Any generator or
transformer used for grounding should, as far as possible, be one which is
always connected to the system. Alternatively, a sufficient number of
368 SYSTEM GROUNDING

I10 K V SYSTEM

## Y GROUND R E Q U I R E 0 HERE TO GROUND

0 NEUTRA L OF 33 K V S Y S T E M
-

83 K V S Y S T E M

## hl n GROUND REOUIRED H E R E TO GROUND

fi N E U T R A L OF 4.16 K V SYSTEM

4 16 K V S Y S T E M

Nn
"f GROUND REQUIRED HERE TO %ROUND
N E U T R A L OF 4 8 0 V O L T S Y S T E M

480 VOLT S Y S T E M

## FIG. 6.16 Each voltage level is grounded independently.

SYSTEM GROUNDING 369
generators or transformers should be grounded to ensure at least one
ground on the system at all times.

## When a power system is grounded at the neutral of Y-connected motors,

or at primaries of Y-delta stepdown transformers, it is necessary to
ground a number of these points simultaneously to ensure that the system
will remain grounded when one or more of these loads are out of service.
Consequently, ground-fault current may he excessively high when all
grounded points are in service. Since power sources are fewer in number
than loads and are less likely to be disconnected, they are preferred as
grounding points, as shown in Fig. 6.17. Other disadvantages of ground-
ing a t the load are:

GROUND AT L O A D

## FIG. 6.17 Grmnd at the source and not at the load.

370 SYSTEM GROUNDING

## 1. Standard load-center unit substations have delta-connected pri-

maries; therefore special transformers are required if the primaries are
to he used as grounding points.
2. Since the ground-fault current is dependent on the number of
feeders or grounding points in operation, it may vary widely depending
on system operating conditions. This makes selective relaying more
difficult and may require additional directional ground relaying to avoid
false tripping of healthy feeder circuits.

## GROUND EACH MAJOR SOURCE BUS SECTION

When there are two or more major source bus sections, each section
should have a t least one grounded neutral point, since the bus tie circuit
may be open, as shown in Fig. 6.18. If there are two or more power
sources per bus section, there should be provisions for grounding at least
two sources at each section.

## NEUTRAL CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENT

When the method of grounding and the grounding points have been
selected for a particular power system, the second question to consider is
how many generator or transformer neutrals will be used for grounding
arid whether (1) each neutral will be connected independently t o ground
or (2) a neutral bus with single ground connection will be established.
The factors involved in this determination and recommended practices
are given below.

GROUNDING
RESISTOR GROUNDING
RESISTOR

(MAY BE OPEN)
FIG. 6.18 Grounding CI system consisting of two or more sections which may operate
independently.
SYSTEM GROUNDING 371

## SINGLE POWER SOURCE

When a power system has only one sourre of power (geuerat,or or trans-
former), grounding of the neutral of this sourre may he arcomplished as
shown in Fig. 6.19.
Provision of a switrh or rirruit breaker to opeu the neutral rirruit is
not necessary berause (1) neutral rirvuits have prartirally zero poteutial
with respect t o ground exrept duriug the short interval of a fault; heuw
breakdowns are unlikely; (2) it is not desirable to operate the system
ungrounded by haviug t,he ground ronnertiou open while the generator
or transformer is in service; (3) uenbral si7-itrhing equipment greatly
increases the cost of grounding.
I n the event that some means of disrounertiug t,he grouud (.ounertion
is required in a particular rase, a metal-rlad rircuit hreaker should he
used rather than a n open disconnert s\vit,rh for indoor iustallatioirs. The
latter is hazardous t o personnel if a ground fault should orcur at the time
the switch is opened or closed. The merit of metal-rlad equipment over
open wiring and open devices is generally rerognised for all types of
electric equipment notwithstanding the iurreased rost for metal-clad
switehgear.

## Individual Neutral Impedances. When there are only a few genera-

tors or power transformer banks at a station, individual neutral irnped-

4%
S I N G L E GENERATOR
\$ Y8
Y
SINGLE TRANSFORMER

( 0 ) (b)
FIG. 6.19 Grounding CI single power source.
372 SYSTEM GROUNDING

ances are frequently used. With this arrangement, the neutral of each
generator or main transformer bank is connected directly toits neutral im-
pedance without intervening switching equipment, as illustrated by Fig.
6.20 ( a ) t o ( c ) . No special operating instructions are required since each
impedance is automatically connected whenever the corresponding power

## EiTHER OF THESE TWO GENERATORS WILL

ALWAYS,BE ON BUS WJiEN BUS IS ENERGIZED

9
Y
\$

ALWAYS BE

Q\$ v

## FIG. 6.20 Grounding of multiple-source system with individual neutral impedances.

SYSTEM GROUNDING 373

## source is in use and is deenergized mhenever this source is disconnected.

Whrn oiily two sourres are invoived, this arrangement is preferahle to
the use of a iieutral biis. When several sources are invoived, howrver,
the ground rurrent is increased each time a source is added and may be
raised t o levels whirh are undesirably high.
In the case of resistance grounding, earh resistor must he rated for
suffirient current to assure satisfactory relaying mhen operating inde-
pendentiy. Consequentiy, the ground current mith several resistors will
be several times the minimum required for effective relaying.
Wheii individual resistors are used, cirruiation of harmonic current
betweeii paralleled gerierators is iiot a problem, since the resistance limits
the circulating current t o negligible values.
Neutra1 Bus and Switchgear. When there are more than two or three
generators or power-suppiy traiisformer banks at one station, it is com-
monly drsirable to use only oiie resistor. Each power source is then
connected t o the resistor through a neutral bus and neutral switching
equipment as showii by Fig. 6.21. This arraiigemerit keeps the grouiid-
fault current t o a practical minimum, since the ground current from the
station is never greater than can be supplied through a single resistor. It
also assures the same vaiue of ground current regardless of the numher of
generators or transformers iii use and simplihes ground relaying.
The primary purpose of the neutral breakers is to isolate the generator
ar transformer neutral from the neutral bus mhen the source is taken out
of servire, because the neutral bus is energized during ground faults.
Breakers are preferred t o discorinecting switches for indoor installations

GROUND BUS
A A A
v v v
GROUNDING
RESISTOR

\$
Y Y
(d) \$
Y
FIG. 6.21 Neutra1 grounding b>i rneonr of neutrd bur and switchgear.
374 SYSTEM GROUNDING

## to assure safety to personnel. If disconnecting switches are used (as with

some outdoor installations), they should be elevated or metal-enclosed
and interlocked in such a manner as to prevent their operation except
when the transformer primary and secondary switches or generator line
and field breakers are open.
As shown in Fig. 6.21, it is necessary to provide only two neutral
breakers, and only one of these is closed, although all generators may he
in operation. This will eliminate any circulating harmonic zero-sequence
currents. When the generator whose neutral is grounded is to be shut
down, the second generator is grounded by means of its neutral breaker
before the line and neutral breakers of the first one are opened. This
procedure will assure that the system is grounded a t all times.
I n the case of multiple transformers, all neutral breakers may he nor-
mally closed because the presence of delta-connected windings (which
are nearly always present on at least one side of each transformer) mini-
mizes circulation of harmonic currents between transformers.
Selection of Arrangement. When total ground-fault currents with
several individual resistors would exceed about 4000 amp, it is suggested
that neutral switchgear and a single resistor be considered for reuistance-
grounded systems.
When only one source is involved hut others may be added to the sta-
tion, it is suggested that space be allowed for neutral switchgear to be
added if this will be necessary later.
For similar generators with reasonably equal load division, circulating
currents are negligible, and it is often found practical to operate with
neutral breakers of two or more generators closed. This simplifies operat-
ing procedure and increases assurance that the system will be grounded at
all times.

## CALCULATION OF GROUND-FAULT CURRENT

The magnitude of current which will flow in the event of a ground fault
on a solidly grounded system is usually determined hy the impedance of
the grounded apparatus, plus the impedance of the lines or cables leading
to the fault and the impedance of the ground return path. For intercon-
nected systems, calculation of the rurrent may he rather complicated.
For simpler cases, an approximation of the available fault current may be
obtained from Table 6.4. This table applies only for faults near the
transformer terminals when power is supplied by a single transformer
hank wit,h its neutral directly connected to earth and with the primary
connected to a system of relatively large short-circuit capacity.
S Y S T W GROUNDING 375

RESISTANCE GROUNDING

## When a single line-to-ground fault occurs on a resistance-grounded

system, a voltage appears across the resistor (or resistors), nearly equal
to the normal line-to-neutral voltage of the system.
The resistor current is equal t o the current in the fault. Thus the
current is practically equal to line-to-neutral voltage divided by the num-
ber of ohms of resistance used. For example, consider a 13,800-volt
three-phase system grounded by a 4-ohm resistor. Normal line-to-
neutral voltage for this system is 13,800/-\/3, or 8000 volts. The ground
current is, therefore, very nearly equal to 8000/4, or 2000 amp. If two
such resistors were used on the system, the ground current would be
approximately 4000 amp.
Resistors have a voltage rating equal to line-to-neutral voltage and an
ampere rating equal to the current which flows when this voltage is
applied t o the resistor. Thus, for example, a maximum ground-fault
current of approximately 2000 amp will he obtained on a system when
using a 2000-amp resistor.
This very simple method of calculating the ground-fault current is not
suitable except when the ground-fault current is small compared with
the three-phase fault current for a fault a t the same location. Horucver,
it is usually suitable for systems grounded by resistance of ohmir values
normally used.
The method just outlined applies to faults on lines or buses, or at the
terminals of machines or transformers. If the fault is internal to a
rotating machine or transformer, the ground-fault current will be less.
The reduction in current is primarily due to the internal voltage of the
apparatus. I n the case of Y-connected equipment, this internal voltage
is a t full value a t the terminals and is zero a t the neutral. If the fault
occurs a t the neutral of any apparatus, no voltage will appear across the
system grounding resistor; so the fault current will be zero. At inter-
mediate points in the winding between the neutral and a terminal, the
fault current will he intermediate between zero and the current to a
terminal fault, as shown in Fig. 6.22. For example, at a point 10 per cent
of the winding length from neutral, the ground-fault current will bc
approximately 10 per cent of the value for a terminal fault. For a fault
anywhere between this point and a terminal, the current will be more than
10 per cent of the amount for a terminal fault.
In the case of delta-connected machines the internal voltage to neutral
may he considered to he 100 per cent a t the terminals and 50 per cent a t
the mid-point of the windings, as shown in Fig. 6.22(c). The mid-points
have the lowest potential with respect to the electric neutral of any d h e r
376 SYSTEM GROUNDING

UNGROUNDED GROUNDED - N E U T R A L
GENERATOR NO.1 GENERATOR NO.2

FAULT OCCURS
ÇOMEWHERE IN GROUNDING
WINDING E E - RESISTOR
TWEEN NEUTR
AND L I N E _íGROUND)
TERMINAL

## ( o ) FLOW OF GROUND-FAULT CURRENT FOR I N T E R N A L

FAULT IN WYE-CONNECTED GENERATOR
N0.I N0.2
b b

- t
""'~
" " ' ~ " ~ ' ~ -
(GROUND P O T E N T I A L )
-' ~ ' ~
t

## IF PHASE (0) O F EUS

VI I N T E R N A L VOLTAGE
VT -(V, -VI]
Vr T E R M I N A L VOLTAGE IF = = -V I
I F FAULT C U R R E N T R R
R GROUNDI NG RESIÇTANCE
( b ) MAGNITUDE OF CURRENT FOR INTERNAL GROUND
FAULT I S PROPORTIONAL TO I N T E R N A L VOLTAGE

## INTERNAL VOLTAGE 100%

@
VOLTAGE FROM ELECTRICAL
NEUTRAL TO ANY POINT ON
WINDING I S EETWEEN 50%
AND 100%

## INTERNAL VOLTAGE 50%

(c)MINIMUM GROUND-FAULTCURRENT FOR DELTA -
CONNECTED APPARATUÇ IS 50% OF MAXIMUM
GROUND-FAULT C U R R E N T
FIG. 6.22 Magnitude of currenl for interna1 g m m d faulb in maichinei connected to (I

## ryrtem having a rerirtance-grounded neutial.

part of the windings. Therefore, a ground fault at any point in the wind-
ing w i l l produce a ground-fault current of 50 per cent or more of the
resistor current rating.

REACTANCE GROUNDING

## In a rractance-grounded system with a single line-to-ground fault, the

ground-fault current may he compiited from the formula
SYSTEM GROUNDING 377