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Introduction:

“Competency Mapping” refers to a process through which


the competencies of the necessary process are identified. It
is done to determine the critical activities of the mandatory
processes of the organization. If Competency Mapping is
done, then the organization can identify its area of thrust
and can take necessary actions for future implementation of
the activities. In the Competency Mapping, the process is
break down into sub components named as activities and
the competency of all these activities are identified.

Organizations perform the task of Competency Mapping to


determine the areas which are crucial for its proper working
and success. The competencies which are included in the
identification are Managerial, Behavioral, Technical, Skill
based, Attitude based and Conceptual Knowledge based. All
these aspects together lead to determine the actual status of
the activity completion and process functioning which is
important for the organization.

Competency Mapping is made up of two terms –


Competency + Mapping, Where, Competency refers to
clarify any underlying characteristic that is required to
perform the process or the activity and Mapping refers to
the scheduling of the activities in a sequential order.
Together, Competency Mapping refers to the proper
scheduling of the activities which are required for the
completion of the crucial processes.

Competency has following three parameters:


Skills

Knowledge

Attitude

Mapping the Competencies – The Process:

In any organization, one of the major concern areas for the


Human Resource Department is to determine the
competencies of the processes and to evaluate the strength
level of the person working on it. Competency Mapping has
emerged as a major concern for the organization in the
recent times and has attracted the attention of the top
management. To conduct the competency mapping certain
steps needs to be followed, which can be summarized as
follows:

1. At the initial level, H.R. Personnel should select the


job(s) from which the competencies are to be identifies.
2. Before starting the competency procedure, a specific
profile is to be set for the jobs which are to be
evaluated in the future.
3. A small meeting with the person who is handling the
process or the job is done.
4. People (on the job) are asked about the responsibility,
duties, pressure, performance limits and power
structure.
5. All the data collected is to be recorded in a systematic
sequence.
6. All the activities which are crucial for the proper
execution of the activity of the process are marked
separately.
7. Information from the superiors, peers, co-workers and
subordinates are also collected.
8. All the people who are not directly attached to the
process but indirectly are attached to it are asked
about the major competency issues.
9. The information can be collected from direct interview
or through questionnaires or e-mails (whatever is
suitable).
10. All the information is collected, systematically
evaluated and processed by the H.R. personnel and the
crucial factors (which are necessary for the success of
the process) are determined.
11. These competencies are noted for the future
reference of the job and the job holder respectively.
12. After assessing the competency requirement for
the job, the present level of the individual working on
the process is judged.
13. In case of discrepancy in between the actual
requirement of the capability and the desired level, the
individual working with the specific set of process (s) is
provided with the training.
14. For determining the present level of the individual
(working on the process), Competency Identification
worksheet can be prepared.
15. The worksheet includes all the issues related to
the job and the data collected form the individuals
directly or indirectly in the organization.
16. All the employees would be properly informed
about the competencies which are crucial for
performing their task or job.
17. The data collected will be reserved with the HR
Department for the future reference (for next
competency mapping or job up-gradation process).
Competency Identification Worksheet:

Competency Identification worksheet is prepared by the H.R.


Department personnel for assessing the level of the
employee working on a specific process. Through the
worksheet, the H.R. Personnel can determine the present
standard of working of the employee and the required level
of skills. These worksheets are constructed to attain
knowledge about the present level of working and gap in
contrast to the desired standards. It can be prepared by the
organization on the basis of their requirements. An example
of the worksheet which can be constructed for the
identification of the competencies is:

· Rating is done on 1- 7 parameter.

· All the fields are mandatory to be filled.

1 = Not Known/Absent

2 = Slightly Known

3 = Known
4 = Well Knowledge

5 = Average Known

6 = Above Average Knowledge

7 = Excellent knowledge

Hypothetical Example (A small practical worksheet)

Duty/ Role of the Employee (Suppose Sales Manager):

a. To assess the monthly sales.

b. To determine the new areas.

c. To manage the team members.


d. To evaluate the Data sheet on weekly basis.

e. To establish a proper communication channel between the


employees.

f. To maintain high rate of customer satisfaction.

Match Competency level with the employee:

Communication

Leadership Skills
Proactivity

Clarity in concepts

Innovativeness and

Creativity

Team Building skills

· In this worksheet a number of issues can be added


according to the job requirement. After filling of all the
sheets, total score is calculated and the result is generated.

Implementation of Competency Model:

The Competency Model can be implemented in various areas


of Human Resource. Some of them can be listed as follows:
Recruitment and Selection

Competency

Model

Training and Development

Reward and Recognition system

Performance Management and Administration

Career and Succession Planning

In each field of Human Resources, Competency Mapping


plays a vital role. If the Competency Mapping is done in a
planned manner then the various functions of H.R.
department can be functioned systematically. Through the
help of the competency mapping, the crucial activities of
each activity is generated and the task force working on the
same (job/process) can be provided with the training to
perform the work with correct and with accuracy.

Reasons for Competency Mapping:


Competency Mapping is excessively used in the organization
to determine the crucial elements and activities. The basic
reasons due to which the mapping of the competencies is
done are as follows:

1. Once the competencies are determined, proper training


can be provided to the individuals to work more
efficiently on the processes.
2. Key performance areas can be improved by
understanding the fields where there is a gap between
the actual and the desired results.
3. If the competencies are determined for the given job,
then the person whose career panning phase is taking
place can consider those competencies and can be
ready for the same.
4. Through competency mapping, the individual is
preparing himself for the next set of responsibilities.
5. With the help of the competency mapping the individual
can alter the style of work where the gap exists.
6. By overcoming the differences in the desired level and
the actual status of performance the individual can feel
the increase in the self confidence and the motivation
level.
7. Competency based approach can lead the individual to
derive much efficient results (with more accuracy) as
compared to work in a non-competency derived
situation.
8. Helps the individual to determine the areas where the
development is required and thus leads the individual
to develop a self development plan.
9. Competency mapping leads the individual to
understand the actual position and the gap from the
desired status of work.
10. Competency mapping plays a crucial role in career
planning of the individual in the organization.

David McClelland said that “definitions for various


competencies, which contain real-life examples of more
competent behavior, provide specific guideposts as to how
to develop the competency. The feedback information also
provides a basis for career counseling or explaining why a
person should or should not be promoted.” (McClelland,
1994, p. 10)

COMPETENCY MAPPING

ABSTRACT

This paper focus on competency marketing. Competency


mapping is an process an individual uses to identify and
describe competencies that are the most critical to success
in a work situation or work role. This paper deals with
component of competency, competency model, mapping
process and benefits of using competency.

INTRODUCTION

Competency Mapping is processes of identifying key


competencies for an organization and/or a job and
incorporating those competencies throughout the various
processes (i.e. job evaluation, training, recruitment) of the
organization. It generally examines two areas: emotional
intelligence or emotional quotient (EQ), and strengths of the
individual in areas like team structure, leadership, and
decision-making. Large organizations frequently employ
some form of competency mapping to understand how to
most effectively employ the competencies of strengths of
workers. . Competency mapping can also be done for
contract or freelance workers, or for those seeking
employment to emphasize the specific skills which would
make them valuable to a potential employer. These kinds of
skills can be determined, when one is ready to do the work.

DEFINITION:

According to Boyatzis(1982) “A capacity that exists in a


person that leads to behaviour that meets the job demands
within parameters of organizational environment, and that,
in turn brings about desired results”

COMPONENTS OF COMPETENCY

There are four major components of competency:

1.SKILL: capabilities acquired through practice. It can be a


financial skill such as budgeting, or a verbal skill such as
making a presentation.

2.KNOWLEDGE: understanding acquired through learning.


This refers to a body of information relevant to job
performance. It is what people have to know to be able to
perform a job, such as knowledge of policies and procedures
for a recruitment process.

3.PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES: inherent characteristics which


are brought to the job, representing the essential foundation
upon which knowledge and skill can be developed.

4.BEHAVIOR: The observable demonstration of some


competency, skill, knowledge and personal attributes. It is
an essentially definitive expression of a competency in that
it is a set of action that, presumably, can be observed,
taught, learned, and measured.

COMPETENCY MODEL:

Competency model is a set of competencies that include the


key behaviors required for excellent performance in a
particular role.

DESIGN DECISION

In term of grand design, competency model should be


guided by firm’s strategy which is shaped by four factors:
vision & mission, stakeholder requirements, market realities
and core capabilities of the firm.

In a more technical design, competency model development


should be determined in the process of design decision. In
this stage, one should discuss the design of the model with
clients, based on their specific needs and expected outcomes
of the competency model.

The following are some factors that need to be considered in


deciding the design of the competency model.

1.CONTEXT:

Competencies are actually context bound. They answer the


question ‘What does a superior performer look like in a
specific setting?’ In other words, effective competencies are
linked to a particular organizational target or goal.
Therefore, depending on the context, the design of models
may be geared toward:

• the total organization (e.g., core competencies or


values)
• an entire function (e.g., finance, human resources)
• a specific role (e.g., HR generalist)
• a specific job (e.g., compensation analyst)

2.LEVEL OF ORIENTATION:

This factor deals with the level of orientation of the model:


will the model reflect future or current job requirements. The
degree of future orientation depends on how the
organization plans to apply the model and the pace and
nature of changes occurring within the organization. If an
organization decides that their model will be based on future
requirements, they might use future performance

needs (i.e., benchmark data; best practices) to create


competencies.

3.LEVEL OF COMPLEXITY:

Two other critical factors should be considered in developing


competencies the length of models and the degree of
complexity and detail described in behavioral indicators.
Frequently, competency initiatives fail because models are
too long and too detailed or because organizations spend too
much time and too many resources researching and editing
behaviors. Consequently, organizations fail to provide a
simple framework to users in a timely manner. Models that
work best follow the 80-20 rule. They provide the 20% of
behaviors that drive 80% of excellent performance.

4.THE MODEL SHOULD BE LINKED TO STRATEGY:

Effective competency models support and contribute to the


company's and the function's strategy and goals. For
instance, if a goal of the company is to transcend functional
barriers, the model needs to describe the behaviors that
demonstrate that competency. Likewise, if a goal is
ensuring that all employees communicate and work together
effectively, the model should describe the behaviors that
demonstrate that competency.
5.THE MODEL SHOULD BE COMPANY SPECIFIC:

Unlike many job descriptions, competency models are not


easily transferable among companies. Competencies
needed for a company are determined by the company's
unique characteristics, such as culture, strategy, size, and
industry. This is true even of the competencies needed for a
position common to many companies, such as the job of a
financial analyst. The competencies required of a financial
analyst at an automobile manufacturer are vastly different
from those required of a financial analyst at a health care
company, for instance.

6.THE DEVELOPED MODEL SHOULD BE FLEXIBLE:

A good competency model functions as a performance


management tool. It provides enough detail to distinguish
between employees who are operating at different levels of
proficiency. It also helps a company articulate why an
employee is at the current level and the competencies
needed to advance. In this sense, a competency model is
prescriptive, yet it must not be too binding. It needs to be
flexible enough to accommodate differing approaches to
success, simple enough to be easily understood, and readily
adaptable to changing business environments.

7.THE MODEL SHOULD BE FUTURE-ORIENTED:

Competency models with a forward-looking perspective


stimulate organizational change. Rather than defining
competencies in the context of "tasks," or how a job has
traditionally been carried out, useful competencies articulate
how the job is evolving and will best be performed in the
future. Not only does this approach increase a model's shelf
life, it ensures that employees have enough time to
understand what the required competencies are and to
develop them.

MAPPING PROCESS:
There are about five stages while performing competency
mapping. The following are the five stages discussed in
detail.

FIRST STAGE:

The first stage of mapping requires understanding the vision


and mission of the organization.

SECOND STAGE:

Second stage requires understanding from the superior


performers the behavioural as well as the functional aspects
required to perform job effectively.

THIRD STAGE:

Third stage involves thorough study of the BEI Reports/


Structured Interview Reports.

• Identification of the competency based on competency


frame work.
• Measurement of competency.
• Required levels of competency for each job family.
• Development of dictionary which involves detail
description of the competency based on the indicators.
• Care should be taken that the indicators should be
measurable and gives objective judgment.

FOURTH STAGE:

a. This stage requires preparation for assessment.

b. Methods of assessment can be either through


assessment centers or 360 Degree Feedback

c. If assessment centre is the choice for assessment


then tools has to be ready
beforehand

i. Tools should objectively measure the entire


competency required. ii. Determine the type
of the tools for measuring competency

ii. Prepare the schedule for assessment

iv. Training to the assessor should indicate their


thorough understanding of the competencies and the tools
and also as to how the behavior has to be documented.

FIFTH STAGE:

This stage involves conducting assessment centre. Usually it


is a two day program which would involve giving a brief
feedback to the participant about the competencies that has
been assessed and where they stand to.

SIXTH STAGE:

Sixth stage involves detailed report of the competencies


assessed and also the development plan for the
developmental areas.

BENEFITS OF USING COMPETENCY MODEL

There are some useful benefits of using competency model


for the company, managers, and employees as well.

FOR THE COMPANY

• Reinforce corporate strategy, culture, and vision.


• Establish expectations for performance excellence,
resulting in a systematic approach to professional
development, improved job satisfaction, and better
employee retention.
• Increase the effectiveness of training and professional
development programs by linking them to the success
criteria (i.e., behavioral standards of excellence).
• Provide a common framework and language for
discussing how to implement and communicate key
strategies.
• Provide a common understanding of the scope and
requirements of a specific role.
• Provide common, organization-wide standards for
career levels that enable employees to move across
business boundaries.

FOR MANAGERS:

• Identify performance criteria to improve the accuracy


and ease of the hiring and selection process.
• Provide more objective performance standards.
• Clarify standards of excellence for easier
communication of performance expectations to direct
reports.
• Provide a clear foundation for dialogue to occur
between the manager and employee about
performance, development, and career-related issues.

FOR EMPLOYEES:

• Identify the success criteria (i.e., behavioral standards


of performance excellence) required to be successful in
their role.
• Support a more specific and objective assessment of
their strengths and specify targeted areas for
professional development.
• Provide development tools and methods for enhancing
their skills.
• Provide the basis for a more objective dialogue with
their manager or team about performance,
development, and career related issues.
What is Competency Mapping?
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Competency mapping is a process through which one assesses
and determines one’s strengths as an individual worker and in
some cases, as part of an organization. It generally examines
two areas: emotional intelligence or emotional quotient (EQ),
and strengths of the individual in areas like team structure,
leadership, and decision-making. Large organizations
frequently employ some form of competency mapping to
understand how to most effectively employ the competencies
of strengths of workers. They may also use competency
mapping to analyze the combination of strengths in different
workers to produce the most effective teams and the highest
quality work.

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Competency mapping can also be done for contract or


freelance workers, or for those seeking employment to
emphasize the specific skills which would make them
valuable to a potential employer. These kinds of skills can be
determined, when one is ready to do the work, by using
numerous books on the subject. One of the most popular ones
is Now, Discover Your Strengths by Marcus Buckingham and
Donald Clifton, initially published in 2001.

Buckingham and Clifton’s book, and others like it, practice


competency mapping through testing, having the person sift
through past work experiences, and by analyzing learning
types. However, the disadvantage to using a book alone is that
most people may have a few blind spots when they analyze
their own competency. Their perception of how others react to
them may not be accurate.

Competency mapping also requires some thought, time, and


analysis, and some people simply may not want to do the
work involved to sufficiently map competencies. Thus a book
like the above is often used with a human resources team, or
with a job coach or talented headhunter. Competency
mapping alone may not produce accurate results unless one is
able to detach from the results in analyzing past successes and
failures. Many studies find that people often overestimate
their abilities, making self-competency mapping results
dubious.

The value of competency mapping and identifying emotional


strengths is that many employers now purposefully screen
employees to hire people with specific competencies. They
may need to hire someone who can be an effective time leader
or who has demonstrated great active listening skills.
Alternately, they may need someone who enjoys taking
initiative or someone who is very good at taking direction.
When individuals must seek new jobs, knowing one’s
competencies can give one a competitive edge in the job
market.

Usually, a person will find themselves with strengths in about


five to six areas. Sometimes an area where strengths are not
present is worth developing. In other cases, competency
mapping can indicate finding work that is suited to one’s
strengths, or finding a department at one’s current work where
one's strengths or needs as a worker can be exercised.

A problem with competency mapping, especially when


conducted by an organization is that there may be no room for
an individual to work in a field that would best make use of
his or her competencies. If the company does not respond to
competency mapping by reorganizing its employees, then it
can be of little short-term benefit and may actually result in
greater unhappiness on the part of individual employees. A
person identified as needing to learn new things in order to
remain happy might find himself or herself in a position
where no new training is ever required. If the employer
cannot provide a position for an employee that fits him or her
better, competency mapping may be of little use.

Related topics
Gis Mapping
Mapping Navigation
Gis Map
Knowledge Mapping
Gis Maps
Knowledge Mapping Software
Knowledge Map Software

However, competency mapping can ultimately serve the


individual who decides to seek employment in an
environment where he or she perhaps can learn new things
and be more intellectually challenged. Being able to list
competencies on resumes and address this area with potential
employers may help secure more satisfying work. This may
not resolve issues for the company that initially employed
competency mapping, without making suggested changes. It
may find competency mapping has produced dissatisfied
workers or led to a high worker turnover rate.

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Discuss this Article


25
1. what is the procedure or the method to do the competency
mapping?

2. What are the limitations of competency mapping, if any?

3. What's the need for competency mapping in the present


economic situation?

- anon86888
24
can you please tell the methodology to conduct competency
mapping?
- anon84345
23
good info
- anon78667
22
what's the need for competency mapping in the present
economic situation?
- anon78504
21
Can I have few competency mapping samples?
- anon75878
20
how can I do a project work on the concept of competency
mapping? Please let me know.
- anon74437
18
can you please help me in forming a synopsis?
- anon65518
17
How do I prepare an HR score card? What are the procedures,
steps and formats used?
- anon61586
16
What are the procedures and methods of Competency
Mapping?
- anon61583
15
i would like to do a project on competency mapping. can you
suggest to me a questionnaire?
- anon61224
14
what are the objectives of competency mapping and what are
the steps or procedure followed for it?
- anon56304
13
how is a succession planning be prepared?
- anon51306
10
Explain the process of Job analysis and job design.
- anon19674
9
limitations of competency mapping if any....
- anon18959
8
what is the procedure & steps of competency mapping?
- anon17050
7
what is the procedure or the method to do the competency
mapping? What are all the objectives of the competency
mapping study?
- madhavaa
4
Hey the article was pretty good but what i dont understand is
how can the emotional intelligence of a person can be
increased, because getting a high intelligence level may be
feasible for a long run but in short run is it pragmatically
possible because its all about human mind to resist adapting
things easily.
- taashu
3
what is the procedure or the method to do the competency
mapping?
Competency Mapping
Employees are always considered to be an organization's indispensable assets.
Competency mapping is a technique that is used by the human resource team in
order to determine the qualities of an employee that can be put to use, for the
betterment of the employee's career as well as the company's projection. To
know more, read on…

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The term competency is quite generic and related to human behavior and
psychology. Competency is often defined as a quality of being adequately
qualified, intellectually able and emotionally stable. The concept of
competency is basically used to define a capability of being able.
Competency mapping is a psychological test that helps the human resource
management department to test the competence or competency of an
employee or a potential employee. It must be noted that competency is
measured in the employee's quality(es) and not quantity (measurement of
performance). For instance, while mapping a person's competency the
question 'when and where' comes into the picture and not 'how much'.
Thus, an employee's ability to perform in a particular field is measured
instead of measuring, 'how much will he perform'. Most of the companies
use simple multiple choice question test to examine a person's
competency.
Arya Chanakya, a well known royal adviser and prime minister from Vedic
India, penned a famous book known as the Arthashastra, which is
probably the first book on competency mapping. The book contains
competency mapping models, the thesis and theories of human aptitude,
intelligence quotient, emotional quotient and in general everything that is
related to human behavior regarding work, logic and emotions. This book
is an excellent leadership and management book and is more than 3000
years old.

What is Competency Mapping


Competency mapping is a process with the help of which the employer, or
the human resource team decides, that where would a particular person
work best, as per his aptitude and temperament. There are several
different factors that are considered during a competency mapping
process. There are also some simple processes that have been made by
experts in the field of clinical psychology. Some important characteristics of
a person's competency have been elaborated below.

• Constitution: Every person's personality is based upon a definite


constitution. Some aspects about work such as a person's ability to
work as a team member or a team leader or even his temperament
to work individually are affected by this constitution.
• Traits: Traits can be physical and also behavioral. The traits are
usually related to the constitution. Knowing the traits of a person is
absolutely important as the management's behavior with every
person differs.
• Self Concept: Every person has an interpretation about himself and
some self ideals. The management bears in mind these simple
ideals, even during day-to-day work, due to the fact that, when these
ideals are respected the employee tends to remain happy and
productive.
• Skill and Knowledge: Every employee has different skills and
knowledge. Competency mapping helps the company to know more
about the person's skills and knowledge. It must be noted that even
a simple virtue of being patient is treated as a skill by the recruiters.

Several companies have started using competency mapping tools in order


to know more about their prospective employees or even current
employees. On an average, a competency mapping test on an employee
would depict skills and knowledge of the person, his ability to work with
other people, his constitution, his dedication and finally his willingness to
work.
A competency mapping presentation depicts every aspect of a person's
personality. The total process of competency management ultimately helps
the company in better personnel management and good workplace
communication. Competency management is thus often considered to be an
indispensable management tool.

CONCLUSION

Competency mapping is one of the most accurate means in


identifying the job and behavioral competencies of an
individual in an organization .Competency mapping should
not be seen as just another means to apportion and
dispense rewards. All the stakeholders must see in the
exercise an opportunity for long-term growth. The key is to
look at competency mapping as going beyond mere
processes. And to see in it an exercise that has a significant
and lasting value to individuals as well as to the
organization.