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Chapter 2

AC to DC CONVERSION
(RECTIFIER)
• Single-phase, half wave rectifier
– Uncontrolled
– R load
– R-L load
– R-C load
– Controlled
– Free wheeling diode

• Single-phase, full wave rectifier


– R load
– R-L load,
– Controlled R, R-L load
– continuous and discontinuous current mode

• Three-phase rectifier
– uncontrolled
– controlled

Power Electronics and 1


Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Rectifiers
• DEFINITION: Converting AC (from
mains or other AC source) to DC power by
using power diodes or by controlling the
firing angles of thyristors/controllable
switches.

• Basic block diagram

AC input DC output

• Input can be single or multi-phase (e.g. 3-


phase).
• Output can be made fixed or variable

• Applications: DC welder, DC motor drive,


Battery charger,DC power supply, HVDC

Power Electronics and 2


Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Single-phase, half-wave with
R-load

+
+
vs
vo
_
_

vs

ωt
vo
io

ωt

Output voltage (average),


π
Vo = Vavg = ∫ Vm sin(ωt )dωt
0
Vm
= = 0.318Vm
π
Power Electronics and 3
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
RMS voltage
Output voltage (RMS)
π
1 Vm
∫ (Vm sin(ω t ) ) dω t =
2
Vo , RMS =
π 0 2
Output current (DC),
Vo 0.318Vm
Io = =
R R

• DC voltage is fixed at 0.318 or 31.8% of


the peak value

• RMS voltage is reduced from 0.707


(normal sinusoidal RMS) to 0.5 or 50%
of peak value.

• Half wave is not practical because of


high distortion supply current. The
supply current contains DC component
that may saturate the input transformer
Power Electronics and 4
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Half-wave with R-L load
i

+
vR +
+ _
vTNB vo
_ +
vL _
_

vs = vR + v L
di (t )
Vm sin( ω t ) = i (t ) R + L
dt
This is a first order differenti al equation.
Solution is in the form of :
i ( t ) = i f ( t ) + in ( t )

where : i f , in are known as " forced" and


" natural" response, respective ly.
From diagram, forced response is :

V 
i f (t ) =  m  ⋅ sin( ω t − θ )
 Z 
where :
ωL 
Z= R 2 + (ω L ) 2 and θ = tan −1  
 R 
Power Electronics and 5
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Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
R-L load
Natural response is when source = 0,
di (t )
i (t ) R + L =0
dt
which results in :

in (t ) = Aet τ ; τ = L R

Hence
V 
i (t ) = i f (t ) + in (t ) =  m  ⋅ sin(ωt − θ ) + Ae −t τ
 Z 
A can be solved by realising inductor current
is zero before the diode starts conducting, i.e :

 Vm 
i (0) =   ⋅ sin(0 − θ ) + Ae −0 τ
 Z 
V  V 
⇒ A =  m  ⋅ sin( −θ ) =  m  ⋅ sin(θ )
 Z   Z 
Therefore the current is given as,
 Vm  [
i (t ) =   ⋅ sin(ωt − θ ) + sin(θ )e −t τ
 Z 
]
or
V  [
i (ωt ) =  m  ⋅ sin(ωt − θ ) + sin(θ )e −ωt ωτ
 Z 
]
Power Electronics and 6
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Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
R-L waveform
vs,

io

vo

vR

vL

0 2π ωt
π 3π 4π

Note :
vL is negative because the current is
decreasing, i.e :
di
vL = L
dt
Power Electronics and 7
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Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Extinction angle
Note that the diode remains in forward biased
longer than π radians (although the source is
negative during that duration)

The point when current reaches zero is when


diode turns OFF. This point is known as the
extinction angle, β .

 Vm [
i ( β ) =   ⋅ sin( β − θ ) + sin(θ )e − β
 Z 
ωτ
]= 0
which reduces to :

sin( β − θ ) + sin(θ )e − β ωτ
=0
β can only be solved numerically.
Therefore, the diode conducts between 0 and β

To summarise the rectfier with R - L load,

 Vm 

 Z  ⋅[sin(ωt − θ ) + sin(θ ) e −ωt ωτ
]
i (ωt ) = for 0 ≤ ωt ≤ β
0
otherwise

Power Electronics and 8


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Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
RMS current, Power Factor
The average (DC) current is :
β
1 2π 1
Io =
2π 0∫ i (ωt )dωt = ∫
2π 0
i (ωt )dωt

The RMS current is :


β
1 2π 2 1 2
I RMS =
2π 0∫ i (ωt )dωt = ∫
2π 0
i (ωt )dωt

Power absorbed by the load is :


Po = ( I RMS )2 ⋅ R

Power Factor is computed from definition :


P
pf =
S
where P is the real power supplied by the source,
which equal to the power absorbed by the load.
S is the apparent power supplied by the
source, i.e

S = (Vs , RMS ).( I RMS )

P
⇒ pf =
(Vs,RMS ).(I RMS )
Power Electronics and 9
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Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Half wave rectifier, R-C Load

+ iD +
vs vo
_ _

vs
Vm

π /2 π 2π 3π /2 3π 4π

Vmax vo
Vmin ∆Vo
iD

α θ

Vm sin(ωt ) when diode is ON


vo =  −(ωt −θ ) / ωRC
Vθ e when diode is OFF
vθ = Vm sin θ

Power Electronics and 10


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Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Operation
• Let C initially • After ωt=π/2, C
uncharged. Circuit discharges into
is energised at load (R).
ωt=0
• The source
• Diode becomes becomes less than
forward biased as the output voltage
the source become
positive • Diode reverse
biased; isolating
• When diode is ON the load from
the output is the source.
same as source
voltage. C charges • The output voltage
until Vm decays
exponentially.

Power Electronics and 11


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Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Estimation of θ
The slope of the functions are :
d (Vm sin ωt )
= Vm cos ωt
d (ωt )
and
(
d Vm sin θ ⋅ e −(ωt −θ ) / ωRC )
d (ωt )
 1  −(ωt −θ ) / ωRC
= Vm sin θ ⋅  − ⋅e
 ωRC 
At ωt = θ , the slopes are equal,

 1  −(θ −θ ) / ωRC
Vm cosθ = Vm sin θ ⋅  − ⋅e
 ωRC 
Vm cosθ 1
⇒ =−
Vm sin θ ⋅ ωRC

1 1
=
tan θ − ωRC

θ = tan −1 (− ωRC ) = − tan −1 (ωRC ) + π


Power Electronics and 12
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Estimation of α

For practical circuits, ωRC is large, then :


π π
θ = -tan(∞ ) + π = − + π =
2 2
and Vm sin θ = Vm

At ωt = 2π + α ,

Vm sin( 2π + α ) = (Vm sin θ )e −( 2π +α −θ ) ωRC


or

sin(α − (sin θ )e −( 2π +α −θ ) ωRC = 0


This equation must be solved numerically for α

Power Electronics and 13


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Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Ripple Voltage
Max output voltage is Vmax .

Min output voltage occurs at ωt = 2π + α

Reffering to diagram, the ripple is :


∆Vo = Vmax − Vmin

= Vm − Vm sin( 2π + α ) = Vm − Vm sin α

If Vθ = Vm and θ = π 2, and C is large such that


DC output voltage is constant, then α ≈ π 2.

The output voltage evaluated at ωt = 2π + α is :


 2π +π 2−π 2   2π 
−  − 
 ωRC   ωRC 
vo (2π + α ) = Vm e = Vm e

The ripple voltage is approximated as :


 2π    2π  
−  − 
 ωRC    ωRC  
∆Vo ≈ Vm − Vm e = Vm 1 − e 

 

Power Electronics and 14


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Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Voltage ripple-cont’d
Approximation of exponent term yields:

−2π ω RC 2π
e ≈ 1−
ω RC
Substituting,

 2π  Vm
∆Vo ≈ Vm  =
 ω RC  fRC

• The output voltage ripple is reduced


by increasing C.
•As C is increased, the conduction interval
for diode decreases.
•Therefore, reduction in output voltage
ripple results in larger peak diode current.

• EXAMPLE:
The half wave rectifier has 120V RMS source at
60Hz. R=500 Ohm and C=100uF. Determine (a)
the expression for output voltage, (b) voltage ripple.
Power Electronics and 15
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Controlled half-wave
ig ia
vo
ia

+ + α
ωt
vs vo vs
_ _

ig

α ωt
Average voltage :

1 π Vm
Vo = ∫ Vm sin (ωt )dωt = [1 + cos α ]
2π α 2π

RMS volatge

π 2
1
VRMS = ∫ [Vm sin (ωt )] dωt
2π α

Vm2 π Vm α sin (2α )


=
4π α∫ [1 − cos( 2ω t ] d ω t =
2
1 −
π
+

Power Electronics and 16


Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Controlled h/w, R-L load
i

+
vR
+ +
_
vs vo
_ +
vL _
_

vs

π 2π ωt

vo

io

π β 2π ωt
α

−ωt
V 
i (ωt ) = i f (ωt ) + in (ωt ) =  m  ⋅ sin (ωt − θ ) + Ae ωτ
 Z 
Initial condition : i (α ) = 0,
−α
V 
i (α ) = 0 =  m  ⋅ sin (α − θ ) + Aeωτ
 Z 
−α
 V  
A = −  m  ⋅ sin (α − θ ) e ωτ
 Z  
Power Electronics and 17
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Extinction angle
Substituting for A and simplifying,
 V  −(α −ωt ) 
 m  ⋅ sin (ωt − θ ) − sin (α − θ )e ωτ 
 Z   

i (ωt ) = for α ≤ ωt ≤ β
0 otherwise



Extinction angle, β is defined when i = 0,
 (α − β 
V 
i( β ) = 0 =  m  sin ( β − θ ) − sin ( β − θ )e ωτ 
 Z  

which can only be solved numerically.
Angle ( β − θ ) is called the conduction angel.
i.e the diode conducts for γ degrees.

Power Electronics and 18


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Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
RMS voltage and current
Averagevoltage:
β
1 V
Vo = ∫Vm sin(ωt )dωt = m [cosα − cosβ ]
2π α 2π

Averagecurrent RMScurrent
β β
1 1 2
Io = ∫ i(ωt )dω I RMS = ∫ i (ωt )dω
2π α 2π α

Thepowerabsorbedby theloadis :

Po = I RMS2 ⋅ R

• EXAMPLES
• 1. Design a circuit to produce an average voltage of 40V
across a 100 ohm load from a 120V RMS, 60Hz supply.
Determine the power factor absorbed by the resistance.

• 2. A half wave rectifier has a source of 120V RMS at


60Hz. R=20 ohm, L=0.04H, and the delay angle is 45
degrees. Determine: (a) the expression for i(ωt), (b)
average current, (c) the power absorbed by the load.
Power Electronics and 19
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Freewheeling diode (FWD)
• Note that for single-phase, half wave
rectifier with R-L load, the load (output)
current is NOT continuos.

• A FWD (sometimes known as


commutation diode) can be placed as
shown below to make it continuos
io

+
vR
+ +
_
vs vo
_ +
vL _
_

io io

vo= 0
+ vo= vs +
+
vs vo
vo io
_
_
_

D1 is on, D2 is off D2 is on, D1 is off

Power Electronics and 20


Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Operation of FWD
• Note that both D1 and D2 cannot be turned
on at the same time.
• For a positive cycle voltage source,
– D1 is on, D2 is off
– The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure (b)
– The voltage across the R-L load is the same as
the source voltage.

• For a negative cycle voltage source,


– D1 is off, D2 is on
– The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure (c)
– The voltage across the R-L load is zero.
– However, the inductor contains energy from
positive cycle. The load current still circulates
through the R-L path.
– But in contrast with the normal half wave
rectifier, the circuit in Figure (c) does not
consist of supply voltage in its loop.
– Hence the “negative part” of vo as shown in the
normal half-wave disappear.

Power Electronics and 21


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Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
FWD- Continuous load
current

• The inclusion of FWD results in continuos


load current, as shown below.

• Note also the output voltage has no


negative part.

output vo

io
iD1 ωt
Diode
current
iD2

0 π 2π 3π 4π

Power Electronics and 22


Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Full wave rectifier with R load

iD1

io
is
+ +
vs vo
_ _

Bridge circuit
is iD1

+
vs1
+ _ − vo +
vs
_ + io
vs2
_

iD2

Center-tapped circuit

Power Electronics and 23


Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Notes on full-wave
• Center-tapped rectifier requires center-tap
transformer. Bridge does not.

• Center tap requires only two diodes,


compared to four for bridge. Hence, per
half-cycle only one diode volt-drop is
experienced. Conduction losses is half of
bridge.

• However, the diodes ratings for center-


tapped is twice than bridge.

For both circuits,

vo = {V− Vsinsinωtωt
m
m
0 ≤ ωt ≤ π
π ≤ ωt ≤ 2π

DC voltage :
1π 2Vm
Vo = ∫ Vm sin (ωt )dωt = = 0.637Vm
π0 π
Power Electronics and 24
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Bridge waveforms

vs
Vm

2π 3π 4π
π
vo
Vm

vD1
vD2
-Vm
vD3 vD4

-Vm
io

iD1 iD2

iD3
iD4
is

Power Electronics and 25


Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Center-tapped waveforms
vs
Vm

2π 3π 4π
π
vo
Vm

vD1

-2Vm
vD2

-2Vm
io

iD1

iD2

is

Power Electronics and 26


Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Full wave bridge, R-L load
io

iD1
is +
vR
+ +
vs
_
_ vo
+
_
vL
_

iD1 , iD2

π 2π 3π 4π
iD3 ,iD4

vo
output io

vs is
supply

Power Electronics and 27


Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
R-L load analysis:
approximation with large L
Using Fourier Series, output voltage
is described as :

vo (ωt ) = Vo + ∑ Vn cos(nωt + π )
n = 2, 4...
where
2V
Vo = m
π
2V 1 1 
Vn = m  − 
π  n − 1 n + 1
The DC and harmonic currents are :
Vo Vn Vn
Io = In = =
R Z n R + jnωL

Note that as n increases, voltage


amplitude for the nth harmonic decreases.
This makes I n decreases rapidly for
increasing n. Only a few terms sufficient
to approximate output.

Power Electronics and 28


Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
R-L load analysis
IfωLis large enough, it is possible to drop all the
harmonic terms, i.e. :
Vo 2Vm
i(ωt ) ≈ I o = = , for ωL >> R,
R R
The approximation with large L is shown below.

iD1 , iD2 exact approx.

π 2π 3π 4π
iD3 ,iD4

vo
output io

2Vm/R
is
supply

Power Electronics and 29


Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Examples
(
I RMS = I o 2 + ∑ I n, RMS 2 = I o)
Power delivered to the load : Po = I RMS 2 R

• EXAMPLE: Given a bridge rectifier has an


AC source Vm=100V at 50Hz, and R-L
load with R=10ohm, L=10mH

– a) determine the average current in the load


– b) determine the first two higher order
harmonics of the load current
– c) determine the power absorbed by the load

Power Electronics and 30


Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Controlled full wave, R load

iD1

io
is
+ +
vs vo
_ _

1π Vm
Vo = ∫ Vm sin (ωt )dωt = [1 + cos α ]
πα π
π 2
1
VRMS = ∫ [Vm sin (ωt )] dωt
πα

1 α sin (2α )
= Vm − +
2 2π 4π
The power absorbed by the R load is :

VRMS 2
Po =
R
Power Electronics and 31
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Controlled, R-L load io

iD1
is +
vR
+ +
vs
_
_ vo
+
_
vL
_

io
α π β π+α 2π

vo

Discontinuous mode
π+α
io
α π β 2π

vo

Continuous mode

Power Electronics and 32


Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Discontinuous mode
Analysis similar to controlled half wave with
R - L load :

V  [
i (ωt ) =  m  ⋅ sin(ωt − θ ) − sin(α − θ )e −(ωt −α ) ωτ
 Z 
]
for α ≤ ωt ≤ β
Z = R 2 + (ωL) 2
 ωL  L
and θ = tan −1   ; τ =
 R  R
For discontinous mode, need to ensure :
β < (α + π )

Note that β is the extinction angle and


must be solved numerically with condition :

io ( β ) = 0

The boundary between continous and


discontinous current mode is when β in
the output current expression is (π + α ).

For continous operation current at


ωt = (π + α ) must be greater than zero.
Power Electronics and 33
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Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Continuous mode
i (π + α ) ≥ 0
sin(π + α − θ ) − sin(π + α − θ )e −(π +α −α ) ωτ ≥ 0

Using Trigonometry identity :

sin(π + α − θ ) = sin(θ − α ),

[
sin(θ − α ) 1 − e −(π ωτ )
] ≥ 0,
Solving for α

−1  ωL 
α = tan  
 R 
Thus for continuous current mode,
−1  ωL 
α ≤ tan  
 R 
Average (DC) output voltage is given as :

1 α +π 2Vm
Vo = ∫ Vm sin (ω t )dω t = cos α
π α π

Power Electronics and 34


Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Single-phase diode groups
D1
io

D3 vp
+
vs +
_ vo
D4 _

D2 vn
vo =vp −vn

• In the top group (D1, D3), the cathodes (-) of the two
diodes are at a common potential. Therefore, the
diode with its anode (+) at the highest potential will
conduct (carry) id.

• For example, when vs is ( +), D1 conducts id and D3


reverses (by taking loop around vs, D1 and D3).
When vs is (-), D3 conducts, D1 reverses.

• In the bottom group, the anodes of the two diodes


are at common potential. Therefore the diode with
its cathode at the lowest potential conducts id.

• For example, when vs (+), D2 carry id. D4 reverses.


When vs is (-), D4 carry id. D2 reverses.

Power Electronics and 35


Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Three-phase rectifiers
D1
+ van - io
D3

+ vbn - D5
n vpn
+
+ vcn - vo
D2 _

D6 vnn vo =vp −vn

D4

van vbn vcn


Vm

vp
Vm

vn

vo =vp - vn

0 π 2π 3π 4π
Power Electronics and 36
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Three-phase waveforms
• Top group: diode with its anode at the
highest potential will conduct. The other
two will be reversed.

• Bottom group: diode with the its cathode at


the lowest potential will conduct. The other
two will be reversed.

• For example, if D1 (of the top group)


conducts, vp is connected to van.. If D6 (of the
bottom group) conducts, vn connects to vbn .
All other diodes are off.

• The resulting output waveform is given as:


vo=vp-vn

• For peak of the output voltage is equal to


the peak of the line to line voltage vab .

Power Electronics and 37


Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Three-phase, average voltage
vo
vo

π/3
Vm, L-L

0
π/3 2π/3

Considers only one of the six segments. Obtain


its average over 60 degrees or π 3 radians.

Average voltage :
2π 3
1
Vo =
π 3π3 ∫ Vm, L − L sin(ωt )dωt

3Vm, L − L
= [cos(ωt )]π2π33
π
3Vm, L − L
= = 0.955Vm, L − L
π
Note that the output DC voltage component of
a three - phase rectifier is much higher than of a
single - phase.
Power Electronics and 38
Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Controlled, three-phase
D1

+ van - io
D3

+ vbn -
D5 vpn
n
+
+ vcn - vo
D2 _

D6 vnn

D4

α van vbn vcn


Vm

vo

Power Electronics and 39


Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002
Output voltage of controlled
three phase rectifier
From the previous Figure, let α be the
delay angle of the SCR.

Average voltage can be computed as :


2π 3+α
1
Vo = ∫ Vm, L − L sin(ωt )dωt
π 3 π 3+α

 3Vm, L − L 
=  ⋅ cos α
 π 

• EXAMPLE: A three-phase controlled rectifier has


an input voltage of 415V RMS at 50Hz. The load
R=10 ohm. Determine the delay angle required to
produce current of 50A.

Power Electronics and 40


Drives (Version 2),
Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002