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AC to DC CONVERSION

(RECTIFIER)

• Single-phase, half wave rectifier

– Uncontrolled

– R load

– R-L load

– R-C load

– Controlled

– Free wheeling diode

– R load

– R-L load,

– Controlled R, R-L load

– continuous and discontinuous current mode

• Three-phase rectifier

– uncontrolled

– controlled

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Rectifiers

• DEFINITION: Converting AC (from

mains or other AC source) to DC power by

using power diodes or by controlling the

firing angles of thyristors/controllable

switches.

AC input DC output

phase).

• Output can be made fixed or variable

Battery charger,DC power supply, HVDC

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Single-phase, half-wave with

R-load

+

+

vs

vo

_

_

vs

ωt

vo

io

ωt

π

Vo = Vavg = ∫ Vm sin(ωt )dωt

0

Vm

= = 0.318Vm

π

Power Electronics and 3

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

RMS voltage

Output voltage (RMS)

π

1 Vm

∫ (Vm sin(ω t ) ) dω t =

2

Vo , RMS =

π 0 2

Output current (DC),

Vo 0.318Vm

Io = =

R R

the peak value

(normal sinusoidal RMS) to 0.5 or 50%

of peak value.

high distortion supply current. The

supply current contains DC component

that may saturate the input transformer

Power Electronics and 4

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Half-wave with R-L load

i

+

vR +

+ _

vTNB vo

_ +

vL _

_

vs = vR + v L

di (t )

Vm sin( ω t ) = i (t ) R + L

dt

This is a first order differenti al equation.

Solution is in the form of :

i ( t ) = i f ( t ) + in ( t )

" natural" response, respective ly.

From diagram, forced response is :

V

i f (t ) = m ⋅ sin( ω t − θ )

Z

where :

ωL

Z= R 2 + (ω L ) 2 and θ = tan −1

R

Power Electronics and 5

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

R-L load

Natural response is when source = 0,

di (t )

i (t ) R + L =0

dt

which results in :

in (t ) = Aet τ ; τ = L R

Hence

V

i (t ) = i f (t ) + in (t ) = m ⋅ sin(ωt − θ ) + Ae −t τ

Z

A can be solved by realising inductor current

is zero before the diode starts conducting, i.e :

Vm

i (0) = ⋅ sin(0 − θ ) + Ae −0 τ

Z

V V

⇒ A = m ⋅ sin( −θ ) = m ⋅ sin(θ )

Z Z

Therefore the current is given as,

Vm [

i (t ) = ⋅ sin(ωt − θ ) + sin(θ )e −t τ

Z

]

or

V [

i (ωt ) = m ⋅ sin(ωt − θ ) + sin(θ )e −ωt ωτ

Z

]

Power Electronics and 6

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

R-L waveform

vs,

io

vo

vR

vL

0 2π ωt

π 3π 4π

Note :

vL is negative because the current is

decreasing, i.e :

di

vL = L

dt

Power Electronics and 7

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Extinction angle

Note that the diode remains in forward biased

longer than π radians (although the source is

negative during that duration)

diode turns OFF. This point is known as the

extinction angle, β .

Vm [

i ( β ) = ⋅ sin( β − θ ) + sin(θ )e − β

Z

ωτ

]= 0

which reduces to :

sin( β − θ ) + sin(θ )e − β ωτ

=0

β can only be solved numerically.

Therefore, the diode conducts between 0 and β

Vm

Z ⋅[sin(ωt − θ ) + sin(θ ) e −ωt ωτ

]

i (ωt ) = for 0 ≤ ωt ≤ β

0

otherwise

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

RMS current, Power Factor

The average (DC) current is :

β

1 2π 1

Io =

2π 0∫ i (ωt )dωt = ∫

2π 0

i (ωt )dωt

β

1 2π 2 1 2

I RMS =

2π 0∫ i (ωt )dωt = ∫

2π 0

i (ωt )dωt

Po = ( I RMS )2 ⋅ R

P

pf =

S

where P is the real power supplied by the source,

which equal to the power absorbed by the load.

S is the apparent power supplied by the

source, i.e

P

⇒ pf =

(Vs,RMS ).(I RMS )

Power Electronics and 9

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Half wave rectifier, R-C Load

+ iD +

vs vo

_ _

vs

Vm

π /2 π 2π 3π /2 3π 4π

Vmax vo

Vmin ∆Vo

iD

α θ

vo = −(ωt −θ ) / ωRC

Vθ e when diode is OFF

vθ = Vm sin θ

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Operation

• Let C initially • After ωt=π/2, C

uncharged. Circuit discharges into

is energised at load (R).

ωt=0

• The source

• Diode becomes becomes less than

forward biased as the output voltage

the source become

positive • Diode reverse

biased; isolating

• When diode is ON the load from

the output is the source.

same as source

voltage. C charges • The output voltage

until Vm decays

exponentially.

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Estimation of θ

The slope of the functions are :

d (Vm sin ωt )

= Vm cos ωt

d (ωt )

and

(

d Vm sin θ ⋅ e −(ωt −θ ) / ωRC )

d (ωt )

1 −(ωt −θ ) / ωRC

= Vm sin θ ⋅ − ⋅e

ωRC

At ωt = θ , the slopes are equal,

1 −(θ −θ ) / ωRC

Vm cosθ = Vm sin θ ⋅ − ⋅e

ωRC

Vm cosθ 1

⇒ =−

Vm sin θ ⋅ ωRC

1 1

=

tan θ − ωRC

Power Electronics and 12

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Estimation of α

π π

θ = -tan(∞ ) + π = − + π =

2 2

and Vm sin θ = Vm

At ωt = 2π + α ,

or

This equation must be solved numerically for α

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Ripple Voltage

Max output voltage is Vmax .

∆Vo = Vmax − Vmin

= Vm − Vm sin( 2π + α ) = Vm − Vm sin α

DC output voltage is constant, then α ≈ π 2.

2π +π 2−π 2 2π

− −

ωRC ωRC

vo (2π + α ) = Vm e = Vm e

2π 2π

− −

ωRC ωRC

∆Vo ≈ Vm − Vm e = Vm 1 − e

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Voltage ripple-cont’d

Approximation of exponent term yields:

−2π ω RC 2π

e ≈ 1−

ω RC

Substituting,

2π Vm

∆Vo ≈ Vm =

ω RC fRC

by increasing C.

•As C is increased, the conduction interval

for diode decreases.

•Therefore, reduction in output voltage

ripple results in larger peak diode current.

• EXAMPLE:

The half wave rectifier has 120V RMS source at

60Hz. R=500 Ohm and C=100uF. Determine (a)

the expression for output voltage, (b) voltage ripple.

Power Electronics and 15

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Controlled half-wave

ig ia

vo

ia

+ + α

ωt

vs vo vs

_ _

ig

α ωt

Average voltage :

1 π Vm

Vo = ∫ Vm sin (ωt )dωt = [1 + cos α ]

2π α 2π

RMS volatge

π 2

1

VRMS = ∫ [Vm sin (ωt )] dωt

2π α

=

4π α∫ [1 − cos( 2ω t ] d ω t =

2

1 −

π

+

2π

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Controlled h/w, R-L load

i

+

vR

+ +

_

vs vo

_ +

vL _

_

vs

π 2π ωt

vo

io

π β 2π ωt

α

−ωt

V

i (ωt ) = i f (ωt ) + in (ωt ) = m ⋅ sin (ωt − θ ) + Ae ωτ

Z

Initial condition : i (α ) = 0,

−α

V

i (α ) = 0 = m ⋅ sin (α − θ ) + Aeωτ

Z

−α

V

A = − m ⋅ sin (α − θ ) e ωτ

Z

Power Electronics and 17

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Extinction angle

Substituting for A and simplifying,

V −(α −ωt )

m ⋅ sin (ωt − θ ) − sin (α − θ )e ωτ

Z

i (ωt ) = for α ≤ ωt ≤ β

0 otherwise

Extinction angle, β is defined when i = 0,

(α − β

V

i( β ) = 0 = m sin ( β − θ ) − sin ( β − θ )e ωτ

Z

which can only be solved numerically.

Angle ( β − θ ) is called the conduction angel.

i.e the diode conducts for γ degrees.

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

RMS voltage and current

Averagevoltage:

β

1 V

Vo = ∫Vm sin(ωt )dωt = m [cosα − cosβ ]

2π α 2π

Averagecurrent RMScurrent

β β

1 1 2

Io = ∫ i(ωt )dω I RMS = ∫ i (ωt )dω

2π α 2π α

Thepowerabsorbedby theloadis :

Po = I RMS2 ⋅ R

• EXAMPLES

• 1. Design a circuit to produce an average voltage of 40V

across a 100 ohm load from a 120V RMS, 60Hz supply.

Determine the power factor absorbed by the resistance.

60Hz. R=20 ohm, L=0.04H, and the delay angle is 45

degrees. Determine: (a) the expression for i(ωt), (b)

average current, (c) the power absorbed by the load.

Power Electronics and 19

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Freewheeling diode (FWD)

• Note that for single-phase, half wave

rectifier with R-L load, the load (output)

current is NOT continuos.

commutation diode) can be placed as

shown below to make it continuos

io

+

vR

+ +

_

vs vo

_ +

vL _

_

io io

vo= 0

+ vo= vs +

+

vs vo

vo io

_

_

_

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Operation of FWD

• Note that both D1 and D2 cannot be turned

on at the same time.

• For a positive cycle voltage source,

– D1 is on, D2 is off

– The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure (b)

– The voltage across the R-L load is the same as

the source voltage.

– D1 is off, D2 is on

– The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure (c)

– The voltage across the R-L load is zero.

– However, the inductor contains energy from

positive cycle. The load current still circulates

through the R-L path.

– But in contrast with the normal half wave

rectifier, the circuit in Figure (c) does not

consist of supply voltage in its loop.

– Hence the “negative part” of vo as shown in the

normal half-wave disappear.

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

FWD- Continuous load

current

load current, as shown below.

negative part.

output vo

io

iD1 ωt

Diode

current

iD2

0 π 2π 3π 4π

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Full wave rectifier with R load

iD1

io

is

+ +

vs vo

_ _

Bridge circuit

is iD1

+

vs1

+ _ − vo +

vs

_ + io

vs2

_

iD2

Center-tapped circuit

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Notes on full-wave

• Center-tapped rectifier requires center-tap

transformer. Bridge does not.

compared to four for bridge. Hence, per

half-cycle only one diode volt-drop is

experienced. Conduction losses is half of

bridge.

tapped is twice than bridge.

vo = {V− Vsinsinωtωt

m

m

0 ≤ ωt ≤ π

π ≤ ωt ≤ 2π

DC voltage :

1π 2Vm

Vo = ∫ Vm sin (ωt )dωt = = 0.637Vm

π0 π

Power Electronics and 24

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Bridge waveforms

vs

Vm

2π 3π 4π

π

vo

Vm

vD1

vD2

-Vm

vD3 vD4

-Vm

io

iD1 iD2

iD3

iD4

is

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Center-tapped waveforms

vs

Vm

2π 3π 4π

π

vo

Vm

vD1

-2Vm

vD2

-2Vm

io

iD1

iD2

is

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Full wave bridge, R-L load

io

iD1

is +

vR

+ +

vs

_

_ vo

+

_

vL

_

iD1 , iD2

π 2π 3π 4π

iD3 ,iD4

vo

output io

vs is

supply

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

R-L load analysis:

approximation with large L

Using Fourier Series, output voltage

is described as :

∞

vo (ωt ) = Vo + ∑ Vn cos(nωt + π )

n = 2, 4...

where

2V

Vo = m

π

2V 1 1

Vn = m −

π n − 1 n + 1

The DC and harmonic currents are :

Vo Vn Vn

Io = In = =

R Z n R + jnωL

amplitude for the nth harmonic decreases.

This makes I n decreases rapidly for

increasing n. Only a few terms sufficient

to approximate output.

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

R-L load analysis

IfωLis large enough, it is possible to drop all the

harmonic terms, i.e. :

Vo 2Vm

i(ωt ) ≈ I o = = , for ωL >> R,

R R

The approximation with large L is shown below.

π 2π 3π 4π

iD3 ,iD4

vo

output io

2Vm/R

is

supply

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Examples

(

I RMS = I o 2 + ∑ I n, RMS 2 = I o)

Power delivered to the load : Po = I RMS 2 R

AC source Vm=100V at 50Hz, and R-L

load with R=10ohm, L=10mH

– b) determine the first two higher order

harmonics of the load current

– c) determine the power absorbed by the load

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Controlled full wave, R load

iD1

io

is

+ +

vs vo

_ _

1π Vm

Vo = ∫ Vm sin (ωt )dωt = [1 + cos α ]

πα π

π 2

1

VRMS = ∫ [Vm sin (ωt )] dωt

πα

1 α sin (2α )

= Vm − +

2 2π 4π

The power absorbed by the R load is :

VRMS 2

Po =

R

Power Electronics and 31

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Controlled, R-L load io

iD1

is +

vR

+ +

vs

_

_ vo

+

_

vL

_

io

α π β π+α 2π

vo

Discontinuous mode

π+α

io

α π β 2π

vo

Continuous mode

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Discontinuous mode

Analysis similar to controlled half wave with

R - L load :

V [

i (ωt ) = m ⋅ sin(ωt − θ ) − sin(α − θ )e −(ωt −α ) ωτ

Z

]

for α ≤ ωt ≤ β

Z = R 2 + (ωL) 2

ωL L

and θ = tan −1 ; τ =

R R

For discontinous mode, need to ensure :

β < (α + π )

must be solved numerically with condition :

io ( β ) = 0

discontinous current mode is when β in

the output current expression is (π + α ).

ωt = (π + α ) must be greater than zero.

Power Electronics and 33

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Continuous mode

i (π + α ) ≥ 0

sin(π + α − θ ) − sin(π + α − θ )e −(π +α −α ) ωτ ≥ 0

sin(π + α − θ ) = sin(θ − α ),

[

sin(θ − α ) 1 − e −(π ωτ )

] ≥ 0,

Solving for α

−1 ωL

α = tan

R

Thus for continuous current mode,

−1 ωL

α ≤ tan

R

Average (DC) output voltage is given as :

1 α +π 2Vm

Vo = ∫ Vm sin (ω t )dω t = cos α

π α π

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Single-phase diode groups

D1

io

D3 vp

+

vs +

_ vo

D4 _

D2 vn

vo =vp −vn

• In the top group (D1, D3), the cathodes (-) of the two

diodes are at a common potential. Therefore, the

diode with its anode (+) at the highest potential will

conduct (carry) id.

reverses (by taking loop around vs, D1 and D3).

When vs is (-), D3 conducts, D1 reverses.

are at common potential. Therefore the diode with

its cathode at the lowest potential conducts id.

When vs is (-), D4 carry id. D2 reverses.

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Three-phase rectifiers

D1

+ van - io

D3

+ vbn - D5

n vpn

+

+ vcn - vo

D2 _

D4

Vm

vp

Vm

vn

vo =vp - vn

0 π 2π 3π 4π

Power Electronics and 36

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Three-phase waveforms

• Top group: diode with its anode at the

highest potential will conduct. The other

two will be reversed.

the lowest potential will conduct. The other

two will be reversed.

conducts, vp is connected to van.. If D6 (of the

bottom group) conducts, vn connects to vbn .

All other diodes are off.

vo=vp-vn

the peak of the line to line voltage vab .

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Three-phase, average voltage

vo

vo

π/3

Vm, L-L

0

π/3 2π/3

its average over 60 degrees or π 3 radians.

Average voltage :

2π 3

1

Vo =

π 3π3 ∫ Vm, L − L sin(ωt )dωt

3Vm, L − L

= [cos(ωt )]π2π33

π

3Vm, L − L

= = 0.955Vm, L − L

π

Note that the output DC voltage component of

a three - phase rectifier is much higher than of a

single - phase.

Power Electronics and 38

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Controlled, three-phase

D1

+ van - io

D3

+ vbn -

D5 vpn

n

+

+ vcn - vo

D2 _

D6 vnn

D4

Vm

vo

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

Output voltage of controlled

three phase rectifier

From the previous Figure, let α be the

delay angle of the SCR.

2π 3+α

1

Vo = ∫ Vm, L − L sin(ωt )dωt

π 3 π 3+α

3Vm, L − L

= ⋅ cos α

π

an input voltage of 415V RMS at 50Hz. The load

R=10 ohm. Determine the delay angle required to

produce current of 50A.

Drives (Version 2),

Dr. Zainal Salam, 2002

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