You are on page 1of 2

TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES

The six trigonometric functions: Sum and product formulas:


opp y hyp r 1 sin a cos b  1 [sin (a  b )  sin (a  b )]
sin    csc     2
hyp r opp y sin  cos a sin b  12 [sin (a  b )  sin (a  b )]
adj x hyp r 1 1
cos   sec     cos a cos b  [cos (a  b )  cos (a  b )]
2
hyp r adj x cos  1
sin a sin b  [cos (a  b )  cos (a  b )]
opp y sin  adj x 1 2
tan     cot     sin a  sin b  2 sin  a 2 b  cos a 2 b 
adj x cos  opp y tan 

Sum or difference of two angles: sin a  sin b  2 cos a 2 b  sin a 2 b 


sin (a  b )  sin a cos b  cos a sin b cos a  cos b  2 cos a 2 b  cos a 2 b 
cos(a  b )  cos a cos b  sin a sin b
cos a  cos b  2 sin a 2 b  sin a 2 b 
tan a  tan b
tan( a  b) 
1  tan a tan b Law of cosines: 2 2 2
a  b  c  2bc cos A
2 tan  where A is the angle of a scalene triangle opposite
Double angle formulas: tan 2 
1  tan 2  side a.
sin 2  2 sin  cos  cos 2  2 cos 2   1 Radian measure: 8.1 p420 1 

radians
cos 2  1  2 sin 2  cos 2  cos 2   sin 2  180
180
Pythagorean Identities: sin 2   cos 2   1 1 radian 

tan 2   1  sec 2  cot 2   1  csc 2 
Reduction formulas:
Half angle formulas: sin()   sin  cos( )  cos 
1 1 sin()   sin(  ) cos()   cos(  )
sin 2   (1  cos 2) cos2   (1  cos 2)
2 2 tan( )   tan  tan()  tan(   )
 1  cos   1  cos   sin x  cos( x  ) 
 cos x  sin( x  2 )
sin   cos   2
2 2 2 2
 1  cos  sin  1  cos  Complex Numbers: e  j  cos   j sin 
tan    
2 1  cos  1  cos  sin  cos   12 ( e j  e  j ) sin   j12 ( e j  e  j )

TRIGONOMETRIC VALUES FOR COMMON ANGLES


Degrees Radians sin  cos  tan  cot  sec  csc 
0 0 0 1 0 Undefined 1 Undefined
30 /6 1/2 3/2 3/3 3 2 3/3 2
45 /4 2 /2 2 /2 1 1 2 2
60 /3 3/2 1/2 3 3/3 2 2 3/3
90 /2 1 0 Undefined 0 Undefined 1
120 2/3 3/2 -1/2 - 3 - 3/3 -2 2 3/3
135 3/4 2 /2 - 2 /2 -1 -1 - 2 2
150 5/6 1/2 - 3/2 - 3/3 - 3 -2 3 / 3 2
180  0 -1 0 Undefined -1 Undefined
210 7/6 -1/2 - 3/2 3/3 3 -2 3 / 3 -2
225 5/4 - 2 /2 - 2 /2 1 1 - 2 - 2
240 4/3 - 3/2 -1/2 3 3/3 -2 -2 3 / 3
270 3/2 -1 0 Undefined 0 Undefined -1
300 5/3 - 3/2 1/2 - 3 - 3 2 -2 3 / 3
315 7/4 - 2 /2 2 /2 -1 -1 2 - 2
330 11/6 -1/2 3/2 - 3/3 - 3 2 3/3 -2
360 2 0 1 0 Undefined 1 Undefined

Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 2/20/2000


Expansions for sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent:
y3 y 5 y 7
sin y  y    
6 5! 7!
y2 y4 y6
cos y  1    
2 4! 6!
y3 2 y5
tan y  y   
3 15
1 y y3 2 y5
cot y     
y 3 45 945
Hyperbolic functions:
1 y
sinh y 
2

e  e y  sinh jy  jsin y
1

cosh y  e y  e  y
2
 cosh jy  jcos y
tanh jy  j tan y
Expansions for hyperbolic functions:
y3
sinh y  y  
6
y2
cosh y  1  
2
y2 5y 4
sech y  1   
2 24
1 y y3
ctnh y    
y 3 45
1 y 7 y3
csch y    
y 6 360
y3 2 y5
tanh y  y   
3 15

Tom Penick tomzap@eden.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 2/20/2000