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TEACHING SPOKEN PROCEDURE TEXT

TO YOUNG LEARNERS
(A Pre-Experimental Study at the Seventh Grade of SMPN 1 Banjarsari)

A PAPER

Submitted to the English Education Program


Faculty of Teacher Training and Education Sciences of Galuh University
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

By
YUSUF HIDAYAT
2109060194

ENGLISH EDUCATION PROGRAM


FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION SCIENCES
GALUH UNIVERSITY
2010
APPROVAL PAGE

Name : YUSUF HIDAYAT

Card Number : 2109060194

Program Study : ENGLISH EDUCATION PROGRAM

Title :1TEACHING SPOKEN PROCEDURE TEXT TO

YOUNG LEARNERS

Approved by

First Advisor, Second Advisor,

ISKHAK SAID, Drs., M.M., M.Pd. U. D. GUNTORO, Drs., M.M.

Acknowledged by

Head of English Education Program

ELAN SUHERLAN, S.Pd., M.Hum.


This is to certify that the Board of Examiners has approved the paper of YUSUF

HIDAYAT as the requirements for the Sarjana Pendidikan in English Program.

Ciamis, August 8th, 2010

Board of Examiners

ISKHAK SAID, Drs., M.M., M.Pd. _____________________ (Chairman)

A. M. SURACHMAT, Drs., M.Pd. _____________________ (Member)

RACHMAT S., Drs., Dipl., TEFL _____________________ (Member)

U. D. GUNTORO, Drs., M.M. _____________________ (Member)

Acknowledged by:
Head of English Education Program

ELAN SUHERLAN, S.Pd., M.Hum.


MOTTO

All praise be to You, we have no knowledge


Except what You have taught us.
(Surah 2 Verse 32.)

To:

My lovely parents

My lovely wife

My lovely younger brother


DECLARATION

Hereby I certify that this paper is completely my own work. I am fully aware that

I have quoted some statements and ideas from the other resources and they are

properly acknowledged in the text.

Ciamis, July 2010

YUSUF HIDAYAT
ABSTRAK

YUSUF HIDAYAT. 2109060194. “TEACHING SPOKEN PROCEDURE


TEXT TO YOUNG LEARNERS” (A Pre-Experimental Study at the Seventh
Grade of SMPN 1 Banjarsari).
Penulis mengambil judul di atas karena penulis ingin mengetahui apakah
pengajaran teks Procedure secara lisan (spoken cycle) yang masih jarang
diterapkan kepada siswa khususnya siswa kelas VII bisa memberikan dampak
yang positif guna meningkatkan kemampuan speaking disamping kemampuan
writing siswa. Jika memang ada, maka dapat dikatakan bahwa pengajaran genre-
based khususnya pengajaran spoken untuk teks Procedure turut menentukan
kemampuan speaking disamping kemampuan writing siswa.
Masalah pokok yang perlu dijawab pada penelitian ini adalah apakah ada
perbedaan signifikan antara kemampuan speaking siswa sebelum dan sesudah
diberi treatment berupa pengajaran teks Procedure secara lisan (spoken cycle).
Populasi pada penelitian ini adalah seluruh siswa kelas VII B, yang dipilih secara
purposive di SMPN 1 Banjarsari tahun pelajaran 2009/2010 yang berjumlah 39
orang siswa, kemudian penulis mengambil semuanya sebagai sampel.
Adapun instrument yang digunakan untuk mengumpulkan data adalah
pre-test dan post-test berbentuk tes lisan berupa sebuah pertanyaan bagi setiap
siswa, yang berfungsi mengukur kemampuan speaking siswa khususnya pada teks
Procedure.
Dari penelitian yang telah dilaksanakan, diperoleh t-observed adalah 23,036,
sementara t-critical adalah 2,042. Dengan demikian nilai t-observed > nilai t-critical, pada
taraf signifikasi 0,05. Oleh karena itu, hipotesa alternatif yang menyatakan bahwa
pengajaran spoken teks Procedure berpengaruh terhadap kemampuan speaking
siswa bisa diterima. Hal ini membuktikan adanya hubungan yang signifikan antara
kedua variabel yang dibandingkan, yaitu pengajaran spoken teks Procedure
dengan peningkatan kemampuan speaking siswa. Oleh karena itu, penulis menarik
kesimpulan bahwa pengajaran speaking (spoken cycle) di dalam genre-based
approach perlu diperhatikan oleh para guru Bahasa Inggris disamping pengajaran
writing (written cycle) guna meningkatkan kemampuan speaking disamping
kemampuan writing siswa.
PREFACE

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. All the

praises and thanks be to Allah, the lord of the universe. Peace and blessing may

always be bestowed to our Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him, his relatives

and his companions.

Alhamdulillah, the writer had had an opportunity to write this paper, he

tried to make an inquiry about “TEACHING SPOKEN PROCEDURE TEXT

TO YOUNG LEARNERS”, which is his paper’s title. The purpose of this study

is to know whether there is a significant difference in students’ speaking ability

before and after being taught by means of spoken procedure text, especially in the

seventh grade of SMPN 1 Banjarsari.

The writer hopes through this experiment, he could know whether spoken

cycle is important or not to be learnt by students of young learners besides written

cycle in genre-based curriculum.

Ciamis, July 2010

The writer

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. All the

praises and thanks be to Allah, the lord of the universe. Peace and blessing may

always be bestowed to our Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him, his relatives

and his companions.

The writer is well aware of his shortcoming in completing this paper.

Therefore, the writer would like to express his deepest appreciation to many

people who helped him in his study. He would like to express his great honor to:

1. Iskhak Said, Drs., M.M., M.Pd., his first advisor who has patiently given

valuable advices and guidance to finalize this paper.

2. U.D. Guntoro, Drs., M.M., his second advisor who has also patiently given

valuable advices and guidance to finalize this paper.

3. Elan Suherlan, S.Pd., M.Hum., the Head of English Education Program.

4. All the lecturers of the English Education Program who give him knowledge of

English.

5. Dra. Kustinah, M.Pd., the school principal of SMPN 1 Banjarsari and also for

the other teachers who helped him.

6. His beloved wife that also helped and guided him in completing this paper.

7. His parents and younger brother who also always support him in completing

this paper.

8. The other people who can not be mentioned one by one for their contribution to

the writer during the completion of this paper.

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Finally, the writer hopes that this paper can be useful for the writer

himself and for the readers in general. And the writer also hopes for any

suggestions and corrections to make the paper come out better.

Ciamis, July 2010

The writer

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

APPROVAL PAGE

DECLARATION

ABSTRAK

PREFACE .................................................................................................... i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .......................................................................... ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................... iv

LIST OF TABLES ..................................................................................... vi

LIST OF APPENDICES ........................................................................... vii

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION .................................................................. 1

A. Background of Study ................................................................. 1

B. Research Questions ................................................................... 6

C. The Objective of the Study ....................................................... 6

D. Hypotheses ................................................................................ 6

E. Significance of the Study .......................................................... 7

F. Limitation of the Study ............................................................. 8

G. Operational Definitions ............................................................. 8

H. Research Paper Organization .................................................. 10

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................... 11

A. Concept of Teaching ............................................................... 11

B. Spoken Language .................................................................... 14

C. Defining Young Learners ........................................................ 17

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D. Genre-Based Approach ........................................................... 21

E. Procedure Text ........................................................................ 25

F. The Application of Genre-Based Approach in the Classroom.. 26

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ..................................... 32

A. Research Method ..................................................................... 32

B. Research Design ...................................................................... 33

C. Population and Sample ............................................................ 34

D. Data Collection Technique ...................................................... 34

E. Data Analysis Technique ........................................................ 35

CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION ........................ 46

A. Analyzing And Computing the Data ....................................... 46

B. Interpreting the Result of Computation ................................... 52

C. Testing the Hypothesis ............................................................ 52

D. Discussion ............................................................................... 53

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION .............................. 56

A. Conclusion .............................................................................. 56

B. Suggestion ............................................................................... 56

BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................... 59

TABLES .................................................................................................... 62

APPENDICES .......................................................................................... 63

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Score of Students’ Pre-Test and Post-Test ................................... 46

Table 2. Table of Product Moment Correlation Coefficient ...................... 62

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LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix 1: Syllabus as Research Instrument ........................................... 63

Appendix 2: Lesson Plan ........................................................................... 64

Appendix 3: Sample of Procedure Text ..................................................... 74

Appendix 4: Students’ Answer Sheet ........................................................ 76

Appendix 5: Surat Keputusan Penetapan Judul ........................................ 84

Appendix 6: Surat Keterangan Penelitian ................................................. 85

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

This chapter is divided into some subsequent parts. It consists of

background of study, research question, objective of the study, hypothesis,

significance of the study, limitation of the study, operational definition and

research paper organization.

A. Background of Study

Language plays an important role for human beings in their social

relationship. As a communication media, language is used by people to express

their ideas, talk about their problems heart to heart, teach their children and their

students, besides as a medium for thought, a vehicle for literacy expression, a

social institution, a matter for political controversy, and a factor in nation building

(O’Grady and Dobrovolsky, 1989:1).

The statement above means that language is a complex media that can

not be separated from the human daily activities. Even, today in globalization era

all people should be able to involve themselves in the international society using

the international language. English as one of the international languages is very

important since it requires as a bridge of communication. In Indonesia, English is

one of the compulsory subjects which is being taught in every school from

Kindergartens, Elementary School, Junior and Senior High School and in

University as the first foreign language.

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Teaching English particularly in Junior and Senior High School has been

accepted in Indonesia in line with our government’s newest curriculum, namely

School Based Curriculum (KTSP) as the revision of curriculum 2004. It is stated

in Government’s Rule (Peraturan Pemerintah No. 19/2005) which is also

supported and issued in National Education Rule (Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan

Nasional RI, No. 24/2006). The implementation of the new curriculum offers

wider opportunities to the teacher to manage the whole classroom activities based

on the school’s policy which is related to the society environment condition. It is

imperative to remember that activities were never intended to be replaced the

school curriculum, their purpose is giving reinforcement and enrichment to the

curriculum itself (Howard 1968:113, as cited in Astuti, 2009:3).

In School-Based Curriculum, both for Junior and Senior High School

contain new teaching approach, the so-called genre-based approach. The students

have to know and learn about genres (text types). The students of Junior High

School are demanded to understand and be able to create text types like

procedure, descriptive, recount, narrative and report. Meanwhile the students of

Senior High School are demanded to understand and be able to create text types

like procedure, descriptive, recount, narrative, news item, analytical exposition,

hortatory exposition, spoof, explanation, discussion, review and public speaking

(Surachmat and Sundayana, 2008:64 and 72).

In learning genres, the students have to learn both spoken and written

genres, because in general genre-based approach comprises of 2 cycles, they are

spoken and written cycle. In spoken cycle, it focuses on the students’ ability in
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producing the language orally (spoken). Whereas in written cycle focuses on the

students’ ability in writing. The last product of students is about written product.

To know about what genre is, many experts introduce and present their concept

about it. Christie (2005:233) says that “Genre is a technical term for a particular

instance of a text type”.

The argument above means that genre is a term used to mention a

particular text types both in spoken and written text. Therefore, genre is important

for the students to be able to create a good and functional text. In addition, Nunan

(1999:308) also pointed out that:

Genre is a purposeful, socially constructed oral or written


communicative event, such as narrative, a casual conversation, a
poem, a recipe, or a description. Different genres are characterized
by a particular structure or stages, and grammatical forms that reflect
the communicative purpose of the genre in question.

From the definition above, we can infer that genre is a meaningful constructed

form both in spoken and written, and its forms are influenced by its structures and

stages. The form can be a narrative, descriptive, a recipe, poem, recount, report

and so on. After analyzing two definitions about genre above, the writer infers that

genre is a meaningful term used to mention a particular text types both in spoken

and written text.

Besides that in the application particularly in Indonesia, genre-based

approach has four stages in its teaching and learning process. The four stages are:

The first stage is building knowledge of field (BKoF), where teacher and students

build culture context, share experience, discuss vocabulary, grammatical pattern

and so on. The second stage is modeling of the text (MoT), where students listen
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the statements of short functional text, conversation, and monologue that is

completed by a certain communicative purpose. Next stage is Joint Construction

of Text (JCoT), at this stage, the students try to develop their spoken text with

their peers and with the teacher’s help. They need to demonstrate their speaking

ability to show confidence to speak. The last stage is Independent Construction of

the Text (ICoT), at this stage the students are expected to be able to speak

spontaneously monologue that are aimed to give directions or showing ways to do

things such as how to make sweet tea, how to make cake and so on.

Based on some research literature did in the past, the writer read most of

them investigated genre-based only in written cycle aspect. For instance, the

writer would like to show the previous study to prove the originality of this study.

The first research was conducted by Belcher (2005), her research entitled

“Effectiveness of the Genre-based Approach for Graduate Students’ Writing”.

The aims of the study is to investigate how the ESL program in Georgia State

University has applied the genre-based approach give the satisfaction effect to the

students’ writing ability and how they perceive the benefit of this approach. The

findings of this study based on the data collected from the students and the

teacher, it appears that the program offered by Georgia State University showed

the effectiveness of the genre-based approach for the students’ writing ability.

The second is the research conducted by Kongpetch (2008), his research

entitled “The Implications of The Genre-based Approach on The Teaching of

English Writing at The Department of Foreign Languages, Khon Kaen University

in North-Eastern Thailand”. His research focuses on factual English writing


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because it is highly valued in government, commerce and industry. The result of

that research showed that genre-based approach had a significant positive impact

on students’ factual writing, showing gains in the control of generic structure and

language features of the text.

The third research was conducted by Widiyanti (2009), her research

entitled “The Mastery in Writing Procedure Text of The Students of SMPN 1

Wiradesa Pekalongan”. Her research focuses on how the students are able to

create a good procedure text concerned with the social purposes of language,

vocabulary, and language feature of simple present tense, imperative sentence,

mainly the temporal conjunctions, material process and focus on generalized

human agents. The findings of her research showed that the students are able to

master in writing procedure text.

From the three researches above, it can be inferred that all of them had

the effectiveness impact of genre-based approach for the students’ writing ability.

But unfortunately, all those researches only focuses on writing cycle aspect,

whereas spoken cycle aspect is still rare to be investigated. Meanwhile genre

spoken based materials give more opportunities for the students to speak actively

for language performance in daily life context, such as stated by Astuti (2009:3).

Therefore, the writer feels unsatisfactory to the past investigations as mentioned

above. Based on the condition above, the writer would like to investigate genre-

based in spoken cycle aspect specifically in procedure text to students of young

learners particularly in the seventh grade of SMPN 1 Banjarsari. The writer would

like to conduct his study entitled “TEACHING SPOKEN PROCEDURE TEXT


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TO YOUNG LEARNERS (A PRE-EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AT THE

SEVENTH GRADE OF SMPN 1 BANJARSARI)”.

Then, the writer expects that the result of this study can enrich the past

study concerning genre-based investigation, and also at least it can give a bit

contribution both for teachers and students in teaching and learning about genre-

based in their classroom.

B. Research Questions

This research will be designed to answer the following question:

“Is there a significant difference in students’ speaking ability before and after

being taught by means of teaching spoken procedure text?”

C. The Objective of the Study

The objective of this research is as follows:

To know whether there is a significant influence of the implementation of genre-

based approach in teaching spoken procedure text to students of young learners.

D. Hypotheses

In this study, the writer will propose two hypotheses as follows:

1. Null Hypotheses (H0) : There is no significant difference in

students’ speaking ability before and

after being taught by means of teaching

spoken procedure text

2. Alternative Hypotheses (H1) : There is a significant difference in

students’ speaking ability before and


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after being taught by means of teaching

spoken procedure text.

In addition, to get clear what hypotheses is, the writer refers to Burns’s

(1995:83) definition that hypothesis is “A hunch, an educated guess which is

advanced for the purpose of being tested”.

E. Significance of the Study

The results of this study will give contributions to the following

educational agents:

1. For The Writer

It will give the accurate data whether the implementation of genre-based

approach in teaching spoken procedure text is useful to improve students’

speaking skill.

2. For Students

It will give a model in learning English to the students who are given the

freedom in creating the text types particularly procedure text, especially in the

daily context which is appropriate to the students’ environment. In addition, it

also helps the students to understand more about how to learn genre-based

approach particularly in procedure text.

3. For Teachers

It will give an alternative model in teaching English for the English teachers to

motivate the students’ thinking pattern to make them more active in learning

text types based on genre-based approach particularly procedure text.


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4. For the Institution

It will give a little variation in teaching style to develop the function from that

education institution in managing school-based curriculum which focuses on

school basis management. In the other hand, teaching and leaning process

will be based on the condition and the competition of the school and the

environment as the learning source for the students.

F. Limitation of the Study

Talking about genre, there are several genres which are currently learnt

by students in Junior and Senior High Schools in Indonesia. One of the genres is

procedure text. In this study, the writer will only take one type of genre that is

“procedure text” as a sample. Therefore, he would like to implement genre-based

approach by means of spoken procedure text to improve young learners’ speaking

ability.

G. Operational Definitions

To avoid the readers’ misunderstanding when they are reading this paper,

it is better to define the keywords which is used frequently in this study. The

writer clarifies and specifies each term as follows:

1. Teaching

Brown (2000:7) says that “Teaching is showing or helping someone to learn

how to do something, giving instructions, guiding in the study of something,

providing with knowledge, causing to know or understand”. Regarding the

Brown’s definition aforementioned, the writer argues that teaching is a process


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of transferring knowledge to the students by guiding and helping in order to

know and understand the knowledge.

2. Spoken language

Bryne (1998:8) pointed out that “Spoken language is a two way process

between speaker and listener and involves the productive skill of speaking and

the receptive skill of understanding”. Based on the previous definition

expressed by Bryne (1998:8) above, the writer argues that spoken language is

a communication of two ways process between speaker and listener in order to

understand each other.

3. Genre

Christie (2005:233) argues that “Genre is a technical tem for a particular

instance of a text type”. Referring to the Christie’s definition above, the writer

implies that genre is a technical tem for a particular instance of a text type.

4. Procedure text

Anderson and Anderson (2003:50) define that “Procedure text is piece of text

that gives us instructions for doing something. The purpose of a procedure text

type is to explain how something can be done”. Regarding the definition

expressed by Anderson and Anderson (2003:50) aforementioned, the writer

pointed out that procedure text is a kind of text that explains how to do

something.

5. Young learners

Nafi (2003:2) defines that “Young learners are children ranged between 1 to

12 years old. Young learners usually show different characteristics at different


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ages”. Referring to the Nafi’s definition above, the writer also argues that

young learners are all children ranged between 1 to 12 years old.

In this study, the writer took the students ranged between 11 to 12 years old

as respondent. They are normally learning at seventh grade of Junior High

School.

H. Research Paper Organization

This paper is divided into five chapters. Chapter I is the introduction

which includes background of the study, research question, the objective of the

study, hypothesis, significance of the study, limitation of the study, operational

definition and research paper organization.

Chapter II is literature review. It consists of the discussions concerning

concept of teaching, spoken language, defining young learners, genre based

approach, and the application of genre-based approach in the classroom.

Chapter III is research methodology. This chapter consists of research

method, research design, population and sample, data collection technique, and

data analyses technique. Then, chapter IV is data analysis and discussion, and

chapter V presents conclusion and suggestion.


CURRICULUM VITAE

Yusuf Hidayat was born in Ciamis, December 9th 1983.

He is the first son from two siblings of Mr. Sarip

Hidayat and Mrs. Yayah Rokayah. The writer got

married with Euis Ika Gartika, S.Pd on December 9th

2008. He graduated from SDN Kubangpari Banjarsari

in 1996, SLTPN 1 Banjarsari in 1999 and SMK

Muhammadiyah 2 Banjarsari in 2002. Then he continues his study to the English

Education Program Galuh University in 2006 up to now.

When he was studying in SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Banjarsari, he was active in

Intra School Organization (OSIS), in Boy Scouts organization and in an English

Club. In 2002 he got the first winner for the best speaker category in the Speech

Contest Program of SMK level for regency level conducted by SMKN 1 Ciamis.

After being the student of English Education Program of Galuh University, in

2008 he got the big 10th winner of the International Youth Exchange Program

2008. In November 2009 he was elected as one of the ten of the honor invitation

guests from all over Indonesia invited by the Australian Consulate, Australian

Ambassador, Indonesia Australia Language Foundation (IALF) and the KangGuru

Indonesia (KGI) in the 20th Anniversary of Australia Indonesia Partnership (AIP)

in Bali. And recently he is active teaching in MTs. Al-Hidayah located in Desa

Ciulu, Banjarsari, and in an English Club in his village.