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In the partial fulfilment for the award for the Bachelor of Technology Degree In ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION From KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA

(JUNE 2009 TO AUGUST 2009)




To matter what accomplishment we achieve somebody helps us. For every accomplishment we need the cooperation and help of others. As knowledge advances by steps not by leaps so, ability advances by encouragement and guidance. Although you have ability and knowledge but it is worthless unless and until you can develop it if somebody encourages you. I express my deep sense of gratitude and feeling of indebtedness to MR. NAVEEN KUMAR project guide, for their bold attention in this particular time of project and guide us as per according to progress of our project “Automatic Room light controller & visitor counter”. I wish to acknowledge my sincere thanks to MR. RAJIV CHECHI, Head of Department of Electronics and Communications and to my project coordinator and the whole Electronics staff for providing me the vital guidance in my studies and accomplishing the project. I am extremely thankful to my classmates for their valuable suggestions, criticisms, insight and support during the project.

I am students of H.C.T.M engineering college, Kaithal and studying in ECE 6th semester. As a part of four year degree course I have undergone a project as a work on “Automatic Room light controller & visitor counter” to facilitate them with automated software besides the error prone manual work. Present is the age of computers and technology. Practical knowledge has its own importance. Without practical knowledge one can not be specialized in one’s field. I have automated the practical knowledge of institutes and their work in the project. The technology used in this project is Embedded Technology. This report provides the knowledge regarding the platform used in the project. In this project, I have tried best to incorporate the knowledge I have about this.

Table of Contents







In one line we can say Embedded System =Computers Inside a Product Examples:- .“EMBEDDED SYSTEM ”  WHAT ARE EMBEDDED SYSTEMS? Embedded systems are the developing system at this time.The combination of hardware and software components that are embedded into a system to make it interact intelligently with its (physical) environment to meet a specific need with performance in given time.

Qualitative & reliable. Low Power consumption. Small Size. . ⇒ .Important fact:PC microprocessors are responsible for less then 1% of all processors sold. Works in time constrained environment. Embedded processors outsell PC processors by more then 99%. Complete automation. Some embedded systems have mechanical moving parts like disk drives as they are less reliable as compare to solid state parts such as flash memory. Low Weight. Characteristics of embedded system ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ Perform a single set of functions. Low cost (mostly) because they are mass produced in billions. Provide high performance and reliability.

-: APPLICATION:⇒ Telecom:Mobile phones systems (handsets & base stations). Automatic floor cleaners. Passenger inflight entertainment systems. Digital cameras. Autopilots. Medical equipments:An aesthesia monitoring systems. Aerospace applications:Flight control systems. Automotive applications:Breaking systems. Calculators. Steer-bywire systems. etc. Garage door controllers. etc. robotic arms. Microwave ovens. etc. Modems. Digital watches. ECG monitors. TV. Routers. Traction control. Robotics:Fire fighting robots. ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ . Cruise control applications. Remote control. Washing machines. Domestic applications:Dishwashers. Security systems. Video recorders. Airbag release system. Engine management systems.

simple or no operating system. E. etc. thermostats. missile guidance systems. ⇒ Control systems:- • Often use DSP (Digital Signal Processing) chip for control computations. Office automation:Laser printers. thermostats.g. Fighter aircrafts.Pacemakers. Drug delivery systems. E. Gas pumps. Papers.g. Radio systems. ⇒ Distributed embedded control:- • Mixture of large and small nodes on a . MRI scanners. ⇒ Defense systems:RADAR systems. Fax machines. Credit/debit card readers. etc. ⇒ -:Various Embedded Computing Areas:⇒ Small embedded controllers:- • 8-bit CPUs dominate. auto-motive engine control.

automatic trains ⇒ Signal processing:- • Often use DSP chips for vision.g. e. E. cars. elevators ⇒ System on chip:• ASIC design tailored to application area.real-time embedded network. laser printers. E. audio. telephone switches.g. E. E. E. . etc. ⇒ Critical systems:- • Safety & mission critical computing. keyboards. network switches. set-top boxes. pacemakers.g. autonomous vehicles ⇒Computer peripherals • Disk drives. consumer electronics.g. or other signal processing..g. face recognition ⇒ Robotics:- • Uses various types of embedded computing (especially vision and control). ⇒ Network equipment:- • Emphasis on data movement/packet flow.g.

⇒Wireless systems • Wireless network-connected “sensornetworks” and “motes” to gather and report information ⇒Embedded PCs • Palmtop and small form factor PCs embedded into equipment ⇒Command and control • Often huge military systems and “systems of systems”.g. a fleet of warships with interconnected computer . E.


highperformance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 4K bytes of In-System Programmable Flash memory. DISCRIPTION:The AT89S51 is a low-power. ⇒Intel refers to it as MSC-51 now.8051-MICROCONTROLLER ⇒ Developed by Intel corporation in year 1981 ⇒It was called as a “system on a chip”. the Atmel AT89S51 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. The AT89S51 provides the following standard features: 4K bytes of . The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density non-volatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 instruction set and pin-out. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with In-System Programmable Flash on a monolithic chip. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer.

serial port. and interrupt system to continue functioning. . ⇒Full duplex UART (serial port). two 16-bit timer/counters. 128 bytes of RAM. In addition. ⇒On chip flash memory. a five-vector two-level interrupt architecture. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM. Watchdog timer. STANDERD FEATURES OF THE 8051 ⇒8-BIT data path and ALU. two data pointers. ⇒128 X 8—RAM. timer/counters. the AT89S51 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes.Flash. ⇒ 5K X 8—ROM. a full duplex serial port. and clock circuitry. disabling all other chip functions until the next external interrupt or hardware reset.Data memory. The Power-down mode saves the RAM con-tents but freezes the oscillator.Program memory. on-chip oscillator. 32 I/O lines. ⇒Multiple 16-BIT timer/counter.

⇒Six interrupt sources. There are more then 50 companies like ST. WINBONDS etc. FAMILY MEMBERS OF uC –8051 Features 8051 ROM 4k RAM 128 Timers 2 I/O pins 32 Serial port 1 Interrupt sources 6 8031 0k 128 2 32 1 6 8052 8k 256 3 32 1 7 8032 0k 256 3 32 1 7 Intel allows other manufacturers to and markets any version of 8051 depending upon the speed and on-chip ROM.⇒On chip clock oscillator. ⇒32 I/O pins. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF uC –8051 . SIEMENS. TI. marketing microcontroller base on Intel-8051.


⇒ PSEN – (pin 29 ) :.pins (32 .17) : i/o pins  Contains internal pull-ups.⇒ Port 0 –.39) : Input/output pins.Program store enable .8) : i/o pins  Contains internal pull-ups.  Alternate function to provide signal such as interrupts.  Used as I/O port and higher address byte ⇒ Prot 3 — pins (10 ..  Used as I/O port and higher address byte. ⇒ Prot 2 — pins (21 .28) : i/o pins  Contains internal pull-ups. ⇒ Prot 1 — pins (1 .  Required external pull-up register of 10 k ohm.

 To excess external ROM it must be connected to GND.  Requires minimum 2 machine cycles.  Terminates all activities of microcontroller. . Active low input. ⇒ RESET – ( pin 9) : Active high input. ⇒ EA – ( pin 31) : Active low input.Address latch enable  Active high.  Used while accessing external memory  Connected to OE pin of external ROM.(pin 30 ) :. ⇒ ALE -. ⇒ XTAL1 & XTAL2 – (pins 18 & 19): Provide electric field to quartz oscillator for oscillations.  Set PC to 0000h.  Used for de-multiplexing the address & data by connecting G pin of the 74LS373.

As described above XTAL1 and XTAL2 are connected to pin no 18 and 19 of controller and pin 20 is grounded. It provides clocks to 8051 for its operations. .⇒VCC – (pin 40) ⇒GND –(pin 20) CRYSTAL CONNECTIONS The capacitor C1 & C2 are of 33 pF each.

Up to 64K bytes each of external Program and Data Memory can be addressed.-:MEMORY ORGENIZATION:MCS-51 devices have a separate address space for Program and Data Memory. .

Data Memory :The AT89S51 implements 128 bytes of onchip RAM. Internal data memory Lower 128 bytes : 00H – 7FH  . if EA is connected to VCC. On the AT89S51. so the 128 bytes of data RAM are available as stack space. all program fetches are directed to external memory. Stack operations are examples of indirect addressing. The 128 bytes are accessible via direct and indirect addressing modes. program fetches to addresses 0000H through FFFH are directed to internal memory and fetches to addresses 1000H through FFFFH are directed to external memory.Program Memory :If the EA pin is connected to GND.

Airthemetic Instructions ii. . Logical Instructions iii.    Four register bank Bit addressable area General purpose area SFR address space : 00H – 1FH : 20H – 2Fh : 30H – 7Fh : 80H – FFH INSTRUCTION SET OF uC-8051  full instruction set includes : i. Data movement Instructions. Branching Instructions iv.

direct A. #data A Rn direct @Ri 1/1 2/1 1/1 2/1 1/1 1/1 2/1 1/1 . AIRTHEMATIC INSTRUCTIONS : OPERANDS BYTES/CYCLES MNEMONIC S ADD SUBB ADDC INC DEC A. Rn A. @Ri A.

/bit A C Bit 1/1 2/1 1/1 2/1 2/1 3/2 2/2 2/2 1/1 1/1 2/1 CLR CPL . #data Direct.MUL INC DIV DA DPTR AB AB A 1/2 1/4 1/4 1/1 LOGICAL INSTRUCTIONS MNEMONICS OPERANDS BYTES/CYCLES ANL OR XRL A. direct A. Rn A.#data C. bit C. A Direct. @Ri A.

RLC RR. Rn. direct A. #data direct.RL. @Ri A. A direct.RRC SWAP SET CLR A (FOR ALL) 1/1 1/1 1/1 1/1 1/1 1/1 C C CLP bit 2/1 DATA TRANSFER INSTRUCTIONS MNEMONIC S OPERANDS BYTES/CYCLES MOV A. Rn A. direct 1/1 2/1 1/1 2/1 1/1 2/2 2/1 2/1 2/2 3/2 . Rn direct. direct Rn. #data Rn A.

#data16 C. @Ri XCHD . A A. #data DPTR. @A+DPTR A. Rn A. @Ri A. A @Ri. @Ri @Ri. direct @Ri. C 1/1 2/2 2/1 3/2 2/1 2/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 2/2 2/2 1/1 2/1 1/1 1/1 MOV MOVX A. @A+PC direct direct A. direct A. A MOVC PUSH POP XCH A. @Ri bit bit. #data 2/2 3/2 MOV @Ri. @DPTR @DPTR.


ACAL L RET. RETI CJNE rel bit.JNC JB.JNZ LJMP.JNB.#data.reL direct.#data.#data.BRANCHING INSTRUCTIONC MNEMONICS OPERANDS BYTES/CYCLES JC.rel Rn.rel l 2/2 3/2 2/2 3.AJMP SJMP JMP LCALL.2/2 1/2 3/2 3/2 3/2 3/2 2/2 DJNE JN.2/2 2/2 1/2 3. rel rel addr16/11 rel @A+DPTR addr16/11 -A.rel A.rel NOP -- 3/2 1/1 .


ac and many more by slight changes like controlling of the temperature of a room by this project by using temperature controlled fan/ac. etc. This project is just an image of device automation using embedded technologies. This project will control lights of a room. offices.Introduction to project This project is developed for people who are interested in automation of homes. halls. . It will switch in the lights automatically as a person enters into the room and switch them as all people left the room. This project use embedded technology in which we use 8051 microcontroller with different electronics components. In further modification of this project we can control the more devices like fan. This technology is currently under a great progress.

8051 IDE:The 8051 IDE combines a text editor. 3. 8051 Burner:The 8051 burner is a Microcontroller IC programmer for AT89S51/52 ICs. All components that are needed to develop 8051 programs are available and controllable from this single IDE running on Windows 2000 and XP. Keil Compiler:Keil PK51 is a complete software development environment for classic and extended 8051 microcontrollers. and software simulator into a single program. assembler. .Tools used in project This project programming is developed in assembly language. The other main tools which we have used in this project are listed below:1. 2.


sensors. . The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer. Seven segments are used as display device. optocouplers. Programming is accomplished by 8051IDE which is an assembly language interface. The AT89S52 is a CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory & is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. Micro-controller:In this project AT89S52 is used. seven-segments.  Hardware description We have used many different electronics components into this project like Microcontroller (AT89S52). LED’s. different resistances. There is the description of some of the major components:1. relays.  We used optocouplers as sensors.

non contact sensing. 3. The housing is designed for wide gap.2. It consists of an infrared light emitting diode coupled to an N-P-N silicon phototransistor packaged into injection molded housing. DIAGRAM H-SHAPED OPTOCOUPLER We have used two optocouplers one for sensing entering and other for sensing exiting. It is used to sense the entering or leaving the room by any person. Segment display:It is the most common type of display used in embedded system. Optocouplers:In this project optocoupler MOC7811 is used. It has seven leds in it one for .

TV and many more household applications. stereos. Common cathode Each seven-segment display is an individual light emitting diode. micro-waves. They can be viewed from 8 meters. A diode is made up of a p-n junction with has a basic property to allow the current to flow only in one direction. 4. These seven segments are of two types:1. We use 2 seven segments as display device. We have used one relay switch operating at 12v. RELAYS:A relay is an electrically operated switch. VCR’s.each segment. Common anode 2. They are commonly used in Calculators. It is also called electromechanical switch made up of electro-magnets and allows one circuit to switch to a second circuit which can be completely separated from first. .

) 10 register of 1 k ohm (for LED connections) 2 resistors of 330 ohm (for optocouplers) 1 capacitor of 10pf (across pin 9) Some pictures of resistors and capacitors:- . RESISTORS & CAPICITORS:In this project multiple valued resistors and capacitors are used. Hare is the details of resistors :6 register of 2. It pins are connected to 18 & 19 pins of uC. CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR:A simplified schematic of the oscillator circuit used in this project is shown in the previous section.2 k ohm (in different ckts.5. The value of capacitors is 33pF. 6.

A general buzzer is shown below : . Thus sound/alarm is produced . It produces oscillations when electric field is applied to it upto frequency range of 20Hz to 20 kHz So it can be heard easily. BUZZER:Buzzers are made up of piezo electric crystals.7. In this project one buzzer is used for alarming purpose.

-: WORKING IDEA OF PROJECT:In this project we have used two optocouplers as sensors. Whenever anybody enters in the room (can be modelled by swiping a card b/w gate is opto.) the rays are cut by him and it is detected as signal 0 by the microcontroller and it will set the relay by sending 1 or 0 accordingly to the i/p of relay and lights will be switched on and counter is incremented be 1 showing the single person .

-: FEATURES:1) RELIABLE:With more use of more practical sensors and microcontroller this project is quit reliable. 2) FASTER RESPONSE:- . Now for the exiting case. As the liit crosses that value and as anybody try to enter the buzzer will start alarming indicating the entry of extra person. as a person exit from the room it will sensed by microcontroller and it will decrement the counter by one. This will continue until the no.entrance in the room & display this to display device. In this way the lights of a room is controlled with counting the entries by this project. It will continue to decrement the counter with every exit until the room is not empty which is sensed when the value of counter will becomes zero and microcontroller commands relay to switch off the light. Now for next entry it will just increment the counter by one. of person entering in the room is not equal to a pre-decided limit.

7) HUMAN INRTFACING:- .In this project we use microcontroller with the response time in terms of microseconds. So this projects is has faster response. 6) SMALL POWER REQUIREMENT:It consumes less power approximate 12v and also eliminates the danger of electric shock. 3) AUTOMATIC:Once programmed the microcontroller takes up the responsibilities of operating it. 4) CHEAPER:With large production coming up the production cost of electric goods has decreased dramatically. 5) APPLICABLE TO SMALL AS WELL AS LARGER LEVELS:It can be used as a counter for people by using “LASER” and “LDR”. coupling as sensors or at a lover level by using an optocoupler.

banquet hall where exact no. of people can be counted and hence no wastage of food. . -:USES: IN HOTELS.  HOUSES -: ADVANTAGES: Cost effective  Reliable  Very useful for blind and deaf people  Operated with same electricity source  Can be used in hotels.  IN COMMERCIAL COMPLEXCES.Human interfacing is possible by using LCD and LED (seven segments).