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2006

The Sound Systems between


English and Arabic: a
Comparative Study

Submitted by: T. Abdulbaseer

Jamal Eid

abedaed85@yahoo.com

+962788120771

ZARQA PRIVATE UNIVERSITY

1/1/2006
The Sound Systems between English and Arabic: a Comparative Study 2006

‫بسم ال الرحمن الرحيم‬

I am Abdulbaseer Eid. I was born in


:‫قال تعالى‬
Lebanon. I have finished my secondary
school in Zarqa city Jordan in 2003. I
faced many difficulties in learning English

‫{ وَ الُ جَعَلَ لَكُم مِن أَنفُسِكُم‬


at the beginning during my study at
school so I decided to concentrate on
studding English language and to be
specialist in this language in order to
make it easy for Arabic students to learn

‫أَزوَاجا َوجَعَلَ لَكُم مِن‬


it.

I became a student in Zarqa Private


University immediately after I had
finished my secondary school. During my

َ‫أَزوَاجِكُم َبنِين َو َحفَدةً و‬


study, I wrote three researches in English
language; "The Sound Systems between
English and Arabic: a Comparative Study",
"The Present Tense between English and

ِ‫رَ َزقَكُم ِمنَ ال َطِيبَاتِ َأ َفبِالبَاطِل‬


Arabic: a comparative Study", "English
foundational Grammar". The idea that
emerged from the first two researches is
to make studding English familiar to our
Arabic students because they deal with

‫يُؤ ِمنُونَ وَِبنِعمَةِ الِ هُم‬


the similarities and the differences
between English and Arabic language.

I have graduated from my University and I


employed immediately at Al-Omareyah

} َ‫يَكفُرُون‬
Schools in Amman. I am happy in working
there because it has a wide reputation
with its excellent teaching with Islamic
vision. I have taken many courses that
deal with my work as a teacher and I
have given there a preliminary TOFEL
levels.

Now I am still working on myself. I am


doing my higher Diploma in ICT
"Information Communication Technology" ‫صدق ال العظيم‬
in Education under the umbrella of
Yarmouk University/Jordan and
INHOLLAND University/ The Netherlands.
In addition; I am also about to finish a
book under title of "The Easy Way to the ‫سورة النحل‬
High Education' this material is prepared
for Al-Tawjihe Students in Jordan. It "72" ‫ايه رقم‬
contains all the passages with a sufficient
package of questions to promote students
understanding "The sky is the limit to
what I can do" is my slogan.

Teacher Abdulbaseer Jamal Eid

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The Sound Systems between English and Arabic: a Comparative Study 2006

Dedication
To those people who mean something to me…

To those who have touched my life in one way or another…

To those who make me smile when I really need it….

To those that make me see the brighter side when I am really down…

To those who I want to let them know that I appreciate their love and

support…

My Dear Father, Mother…

To All of my family…

My sisters, Uncles, Aunts…

To My friends whom I have non-forgettable moments with them…

Those who share me the moments of pleasure and labor…

Qabas, Abdulkader, Ahmad Alkhabas

I dedicate this work.

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Acknowledgment

I am very much indebted to my supervisor, Dr. Mua'yyed


Jum'a. Without his invaluable suggestions, helps,
patience and continuous guidance, I might not have
complete this research in its present shape.

Special thanks are addressed to all the people who have


helped me throughout my work and support me in every
way they could.

My appreciation goes also to my family for their support,


and guiding me through my educational journey.
Abstract

This study tries to answer three basic questions which


are; what is English sound system? What is Arabic sound
system? And how does Arabic sound system differs from
English sound system? All these questions refer to one
basic purpose which is to accommodate one's language to
those who learn English or Arabic as second languages
with the correct pronunciation of sounds.

This research explains many things in English


phonetics such as: the definition of phonetics, the
comparison between consonants and vowels.

This study also tries to give some information about


the production of Arabic sounds, the description of
Arabic consonants and the description of Arabic vowels.

In addition to the explanation of English sound


system and Arabic sound system; giving a comparison
between them is considered as a very important purpose.
We find in chapter three many similarities and
differences between the two systems. There are common
consonants, consonants restricted to English, consonants
restricted to Arabic, common vowels, vowels restricted
to English, and vowels restricted to Arabic.

In short, this study tries to compare between Arabic


phonetics and English phonetics by giving some
explanations about the consonants and English vowels.
List of Figures
Page
Number
Chapter 2
2.1 The organ of speech……………………………………… 4
2.2 Sound Waves ………...……………………………………… 5
2.3 Diphthongs ……………………………….…………………… 13
2.4 Cardinal Vowels…………………………………………… 14

Chapter 3
3.1 The organ of articulation ………………………………. 22
3.2 The main place of articulation ……………..…….. 24

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List of Tables
Page
Number

Chapter 2
2.1 The Sounds of English / Consonants……………….. 4
2.2 Stops or Plosives…………………………………………… 6
2.3 Fricatives……………………………………………………… 7
2.4 Affricates…………………………………………………….. 7
2.5 English Consonants………………………………………. 9
2.6 Place of Articulation………………………………………. 10
2.7 The Sound of English / Vowels Part (1)…………… 11
2.8 The Sounds of English / Vowels Part (2)…………… 11

Chapter 3
3.1 The classification of Points of Articulation………. 16
3.2 The description of sounds……….…………………….. 24
3.3 The sounds of Standard Arabic Consonants…… 25
3.4 The Sound of Arabic Vowels………………….. 25

Chapter 4
4.1 Types of phonemic Differences …………………... 26
4.2 Common Consonants……………………………………. 27
4.3 English-Restricted Consonants ………………….. 28
4.4 Arabic-Restricted Consonants ……………………. 29
4.5 Vowel Comparison………………………………………… 30
4.6 Diphthong Comparison………………………… 31
4.7 Arabic Consonants............................................................... 32

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List of Symbols

/ / Phonemic writing
[ ] Phonetic 'allophonic' writing
+ Existing
- Non-Existing

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Table of Contents
Page
Number
Chapter 1 Introduction……………………………………………………….. 1

Chapter 2 The Sound Systems of English………………………….. 3


2.1 Phonetics………………………………………………….….. 3
2.2 Vowel and Consonant……………………………………... 3
2.3 Phonetic Alphabet………………………………………… 4
2.4 Description of Speech Sounds………………..…... 5
2.5.1 Vowels………………………………………………………… 12
2.5.2 Dephthongs…………………………………………………. 13
2.5.3 Triphthongs……………………….…………...……………. 14
1.6 Phonemes and Allophones………………………… 15

Chapter 3 The Sound Systems of Arabic…………………………... 16


3.1 Organs of Speech and Speech Production………. 16
3.2 Modification of Air……………………………………….. 17
3.3 Description of Speech Sounds……………………….. 19

Chapter 4 The Sound Systems of English and Arabic…….. 26


4.1 English and Arabic Phonetics………………………... 26
4.2 Common Consonants……………………………………. 26
4.3 Consonants Restricted to English………………….. 28
4.4 Consonants Restricted to Arabic……………………. 29
4.5 Vowel Comparison………………………………………… 30
4.6 Diphthong Comparison…………………………. 30
Chapter 5 Conclusion…………………………………………………………..

Appendix I…………………………………………………………………………….....
Appendix II……………………………………………………………………………..
Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………
Arabic references…………………………………………………………………….

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Chapter 1
Introduction
Each language has its own phonetic system, but in
this research we compare between two systems which are
Arabic sound system and English sound system. This
study aims to explain three things; First, the sound
system of English. Next, the sound system of Arabic.
Finally, the comparison between these two systems. All
of these purposes refer to one basic purpose which is to
accommodate one's language to those who learn English
or Arabic as second languages with the correct
pronunciation of sounds.

In English phonetics we describe consonants


according to three criteria which are place of articulation,
manner of articulation and voicing. According to the
place of articulation; English consonants are divided into
eight groups which are: bilabials, labio-dentals, dentals,
alveolars, platao-alveolars, palatals, velars and glottals.
But according to the manner of articulation English
sounds are divided into six groups which are: stops,
fricatives, affricates, nasals, lateral and approximants.

English vowel sounds are described according to


three criteria which are: frontness – backness, closeness
– openness, and lip – rounding.

In contrast, in Arabic phonetics we describe sounds


according to ten criteria which are: bilabials, labio
dentals, alveolars, retroflex, palatals, velars, uvulars,
pharyngals and glottals. Each group has many
characteristics such as deep, soft, whishpered, magnified,
delicate, sonorous, nasal, curved, and trill.

Arabic vowels are only eight which are: a ‫فتحة‬, aa


‫اللف‬, u ‫الضمة‬, uu ‫الواو‬, i ‫الكسرة‬, ii ‫الياء‬, ai ‫أي‬, and au ‫أو‬.

There are some similarities and differences between


the two systems, we have eighteen common consonants
in both English and Arabic such as /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, /ŝ/, /ĵ/,
/f/, /z/, /s/, /h/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /w/, /r/, / /, / /, and /y/. There
are ten consonants restricted to Arabic such as /T/ /‫ط‬/, /q/
/‫ء‬/ /?/ ,/‫ق‬/, /D/ /‫ض‬/, /S/ /‫ص‬/, /H/ /‫ح‬/, /X/ /‫خ‬/, /D/ /‫ظ‬/, /G/ /
‫غ‬/, and /9/ /‫ع‬/ and there are consonants restricted to
English such as /p/, /g/, /ĉ/, /v/, / / and /z/.

In Arabic phonetics there are eight vowels three of


them are common to both English and Arabic such as
/i,a,u/. Four of them are restricted to English such as
/e,æ,i,ə/. Only one vowel is restricted to Arabic which is
/a:/.

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Chapter 2
The Sound Systems of English

2.1. Phonetics:

Phonetics can be defined as the study of speech


sounds their articulation, transmission and their
reception. phonation is defined as the result from
opening and closing the vocal cords (voicing). The vocal
cords are placed in the larynx, the lung air has to pass
through these cords.

Branches of phonetics:
There are three branches of phonetics. First,
articulatory phonetics which studies the means of
production. Next, acoustic phonetics which studies the
analysis of sound waves. Finally, auditory phonetics
which tells us about how speech sounds are received by
hearers. (Alkuli: 2002) & (Aitchison: 1992)

2.2 Vowel and consonant:

There are two differences between vowels and


consonants. The most important difference is their
different distributions; the distribution of vowels and
consonants is different for each language.
Another difference between them is the obstruction.
Vowels are sounds in which there is no obstruction to the
flow of air as it passes from the larynx to the lips. In
contrast, consonants are sounds in which there is a full
obstruction. If we make a consonant sound like (s), it can
be clearly felt that we are making it difficult or
impossible for the air to pass through the mouth.

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In Arabic the short vowel sounds are represented by
the diacritics (‫ الفتحه و الضمه و الكسره‬:‫)الحركات‬. In English,
on the other hand, all vowels are represented in
orthography (the written form of the language) (letters of
the alphabet). (Lyons: 1981)

2.3 Phonetic Alphabet

symbol keyword symbol keyword symbol Keyword


b bad n name think
d do p pot ship
f fall r read chair
g good s sad measure
h hat t tap just
yes v vast sing
k key w we
l like z Zink
m me that
Table 2.1 The Sounds of English / Consonants

Fig. 2.1 The organ of speech


Adopted from Rogers (1991)

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Fig. 2.2 Sound Waves

2.4 Description of Speech Sounds


1.4.1 Classification of Consonants:
There are five criteria to describe each consonant:
1. Place of articulation.
2. Manner of articulation.
3. Voicing.
4. Airstream mechanism. (the source of air)
a. Pulmonic airstream.
b. Non-pulmonic airstream.
5. The nature of the airstream.
a. Egressive: The air pushed out.
b. Inegressive: The air pushed in.
All English and Arabic sounds are egressive pulmonic.
(Aitchison: 1992)

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1. Place of articulation
It describes the point at which the articulators actually
touch.
i. Bilabials: In English these are /b/, /p/, /m/ and /w/.
ii. Labio-dental: In English these are /f/ and /v/.
iii. Dentals: In English these are / / and / /.
iv. Alveolars: These are /t/, /d/, /n/, /s/, /z/, /l/ and /r/.
v. Palato-alveolars or (Alveo-palatals): In English
these are / /, / /, / / and / /.
vi. Palatals: In English there is only one palatal sound,
the /j/.
vii. Velars: In English there are /k/, /g/ and /y/.
viii. Glottals: There is only one English glottal sound,
/h/. (Aitchison: 1992)

2. Manner of Articulation:
It describes the type of obstruction caused by the
narrowing or closure of the articulators.
i. Stops or plosives.
There are three steps to produce a top sound:
a. Complete closure stage.
b. Compression stage.
c. Sudden release stage.
In English jthe stops are /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/ and /g/.

Place of articulation
Voicing Bilabials Alveolars Velars
Voiceless (fortes) p t k
Voiced (lenis) b d g
Table 2.2 Stops or Plosives

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ii. Fricatives: To produce a fricative sound a narrow
passage must be made between the two articulators,
the air escapes between the two articulators and the
active articulator moves to apassive articulator, In
English there are / /, / /, / /, / /, / /, /z/, / /, / /
and /h/.
Place of Articulation
Voicing Dentals Labio-dental Alveolar Palato-lveolar Glottal
Voiceless (fortes) s h
Voiced (lenis) z
Table 2.3 Fricatives

h : depends on the sound following it.

iii. Affricates: To produce an affricate sound, there are


three steps:
1. Complete closure stage.
2. Compression stage.
3. Slow release stage.
In English these are / / and / /.
Place of articulation
Voicing Palato-alveolars
Voiceless (fortes)
Voiced (lenis) d
Table 2.4 Affricates

Affricate sounds begin as plosives and end as


fricatives.
The plosive and the following fricative must be
made with the same articulators, the plosive and
fricative must be (homorganic) two sounds = one
phone.

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iv. Nasals: In nasal sounds there is no compression, the
air escapes through the nose, for this to happen, the
soft palate must be lowered. In English Nasals are
/m/, /n/ and /y/.

v. Lateral: There is only one lateral sound which is /l/.


To produce this sound the air must escape from
aside of the tongue.
/l/ voiced / Alveolar/ Lateral.
There are two kinds of (L):
1. Dark (L): is found when it precedes a consonant.
2. Clear (L): in found when it precedes a vowel.
E.g. Dark (L): tell, fill.
Clear (L): slim, plane.

vi. Approximants: IN English these are /j/, /w/ and /r/.


/r/ it is an articulation in which the Tongue is in fact
usually curled back wards with the tip raised,
consonants with this tongue shape are usually called
(retroflex). There are two kinds of accent:
a. Rhotic accent (American accent).
This accent has (r) in final position before a pause
and before a consonant.
b. Non-rhotic accent (British accent): In this accent (r)
only occurs before vowels.
Semi-vowels: semi- vowels are /j/ and /w/. They are
phonologically like consonants but phonetically like
vowels. Phonologically their function as consonants,
they only occur before vowel phonemes. Phonetically
the articulation of /j/ is the same as that of a front close
vowel such as /i:/ but it is very short. In the same way
/w/ we have to raise the back of the tongue toward the

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velum and simultaneously rounding the lips. (Aitchison:
1992)& (Alkhali: 2002) & (Alitchison: 1992)

3. Voicing:
If the vocal cords vibrate during its production, a
sound is called voiced sound; otherwise, it is called
voiceless. Whereas all vowel sounds are voiced.
Place Bilabial Labio- Dental Alveolar Palato- Palatal Velar Glottal
Dental Alveolar
Manner

Stop p t k
Voiceless ?
b d g
Voiced
Affricate
Voiceless

Voiced
Fricative f s
Voiceless h
v z
Voiced
Nasal m n ŋ
Voiced
Lateral l
Voiced

Approximant w r j
Voiced

Table 2.5 English Consonants


Adopted from Aitchison (1992)

Note: /h/ phonetically, is a voiceless vowel with the


quality of the voiced vowel that follows it.
Phonologically, /h/ is a consonant. It is usually found
before vowels (voiced) when /h/ occurs between voiced

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sound it is pronounced with voicing. E.g. greenhouse
/gri:nhaυs/ , a head /əhed/.

Bilabials Labio- Dentals


/p/ /b/ /m/ /w/ /f/ /v/
pen bad man wet fall voice

Articulators: Articulators:
(The two lips) (lower lip + upper teeth)

Palatals Dentals
/j/ / / Ө/ /
yes then thin

Articulators: Articulators:
(Hard palate + tongue) (teeth + tongue)

Alveolars Palato-Alveolars
/t/ /d/ /n/ /s/ /z/ /l/ /r/ /s/ / tʃ/ / / / /
tea did no so zoo leg red she chin vision June
Articulators:
Articulators:
(Alveolar ridge + tongue)
(hard palate + alveolar ridge
+ tongue)
Velars Glottals
/k/ /g/ /ŋ/ /h/
cat got sing how

Articulators: Articulators:
(Soft palate + tongue) (Vocal cards)

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Table 2.6 Place of Articulation

Symbol Keyword Symbol Keyword


See ɔ Port
Ship u Too
Ten Put
Lamb Cup
а Arm 3 Fur
Pot ə Age
Table 2.7 The Sound of English / Vowels Part (1)

Symbol Keyword
pay
five
join
go
now
near
pure
hair
Table 2.8 The Sounds of English / Vowels Part (2)

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2.5.1. Vowels
Vowels are produced with no obstruction and all
vowels sounds are voiced (vibrating the vocal cards).
We can describe vowels according to these criteria:
1. Frontness – backness (Shape of the tongue).
2. Closeness - openness (how far up or down that part
moves)
3. Lip – rounding (the shape of the lips).
The shape of the lips:
1) Spread.
2) Rounded.
3) Neutral (Neither spread nor rounded).

1.5.1. Cardinal Vowels:


1. /i/ is a long, high, front vowel with spread lips as in
see.
2. / / is the short /i/ as in sip.
3. /e/ is a short, mid, front vowel made with spread lips
as in get.
4. / / is a short, low, front vowel made with the
spread lips as in get.
5. /a/ is a long, low, back vowel made with neutrally
open lips as in park.
6. / / is a short, low, back vowel made with slightly
rounded lips (in British English) as in hot.
7. / / is the long counter part of / / as in caught.
8. /υ/ is a short high back vowel made with rounded
lips as in foot.
9. /u/ is the long counter part of /υ/ as in boot.
10./ / is a short, low, central vowel as in but.

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11./ / is a long mid, central vowel made with slightly
rounded lips as in bird.
12./ə/ "the schwa" is a short, mid, central vowel made
with slightly spread lips as in sofa. (Aitchison: 1992)
& (Alkhuli: 2002)

2.5.2 Diphthongs
Diphthongs are vowel sounds consisting of two parts
each part considered as a single part. We produce the
two sounds with two articulators without interruption.
They can be divided into three kinds:
1. Those ending with / /:
/ / as in late /l t/.
/ / as in file /f l/.
/ / as in toy /t /.
2. Those ending with /υ/:
/əυ/ as in snow /snəυ/.
/aυ/ as in town /taυn/.
3. Those ending with /ə/:
/ / as in near /n /.
/υə/ as in sure /ʃυə/.
/eə/ as in hair /heə/. (Aitchison: 1992)

/ / / / / / ending in / / ending in / /
Fig 2.2 Diphthongs

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1.5.3 Triphthongs:
They are not counted vowels because we have two
tongue movements and the last part of the
triphthongs is rarely heard.
Triphthongs are:
1) / ə/ as in player.
2) / ə/ as in liar.
3) / ə/ as in lawyer.
4) /aυə/ as in hour.
5) /əυə/ as in lower. (Lyons: 1981)

Fig. 2.3 Cardinal Vowels


Adopted from Aitchison (1992)

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2.6 Phonemes and Allophones:

Phoneme is the smallest sound unit that indicates


difference in meaning. Allophone is the different
pronunciation of a phoneme.

E.g. the phoneme /l/ is pronounced differently in


different word positions. In word kill it is called dark (L),
but in the word killing it is called clear L. The two
pronunciations are allophones of the meaning must be
changed e.g. /t/ is considered a phoneme because the
change of this sound in the word bit /b t/ into another
such as bid /b d/ changes the meaning of the word. But
whether the phoneme /t/ is pronounced as [t] in a word
like pit /p t/ into [T] as in the word but /b t/ does not
make any difference. (Aitchison: 1992) & (lyons: 1981) &
(Alkhuli: 2002)

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Chapter 3
The Sound Systems of Arabic

3.1. Organs of speech and speech production:

Speech is modified breathing. That is, the basic of


human sound in all its variety is the air stream that goes
through our vocal tract to or fro our lungs. Aspeech
sound wave is usually set up by a source of energy.
Lungs serve as an initiator. Most ordinary sounds are
produced by air stream coming from the lungs.
Omar (1976) proposes four processes in speech
production:
1. Air stream.
2. Phonation.
3. Oro-nasal.
4. Articulatory.

The upper articulator The lower articulator The classification of


‫العضو العلى‬ ‫العضو السفل‬ articulation
‫التصنيف المخرجي‬
Upper lip ‫الشفه العليا‬ Lower lip ‫الشفه السفلى‬ Bilabial 1. ‫شفتاني‬
Upper teeth ‫السنان العليا‬ Lower lip ‫الشفه السفلى‬ Labiodentals 2. ‫شفوي أسناني‬
Upper teeth ‫السنان العليا‬ Blade of the tongue ‫طرف اللسان‬ Dental 3. ‫أسناني‬
tooth-ridge ‫اللثه‬ Blade of the tongue ‫طرف السان‬ Alveolar 4. ‫لثوي‬
Palate ‫الغار‬ Blade of the tongue ‫طرف السان‬ Retroflex 5. ‫التوائي‬
Hard-palate ‫"الغار "الطبق الصلب‬ Front of the tongue ‫مقدم اللسان‬ Palatal 6. ‫غاري‬
Velum ‫الطبق اللين‬ Front of the tongue ‫مؤخر اللسان‬ Velar 7. ‫طبقي‬
Uvula ‫اللهاة‬ Front of the tongue ‫مؤخر اللسان‬ Uvular 8. ‫لهوي‬

Table 2.1 "‫ "التصنيف المخرجي‬The classification of Points of Articulation


Adopted from Omar (1976)

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9. There are some sounds are produced in the pharynx
and larynx, mouth and nose don't do anything except the
formation of sounds and these sounds are called
"resonates".
Pharyngeal are produced by the root of the tongue and
the back of the mouth. So, it is better to call these sounds
as linguo-pharyngal. This position may produce fricative
sound or stop sound. Stops are very hard to be produced
but fricatives are produced easily. "‫ "ح‬and "‫ "ع‬are
considered as fricative pharynals.

Glottal is produced in the glottis. When we close the


glottis "‫ "ء‬sound is produced and when we narrow the
glottis "‫ "هـ‬sound is produced.

10. There are some sounds which are produced fro the
nose only, the air goes through the nose. We can describe
the sounds if we know their place of articulation. So, it is
important to indicate the position of the closure. Nasals
are considered as stops. Nasals are produced when the
velum is lowered to allow the air pass freely through the
nose. (ibid)

3.2. Modification of air:

1. Complete closure then open stage:


This modification produce stops which are called
plosives or "occlusives" and these sounds are also called
'momentary'. Plosives are described as "Aspirated
Sound" if a kind of aspiration goes with the plosion. This
kind of aspiration is symbolized by (p ) or (p ). There are
two kinds of plosives; the first kind is "explosives" and

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the second kind is "implosives". (Isteatiah: 2006)& (Omar:
1976)

2. Narrowing:
In this modification "continuants" are produced
which are divided into a. "Sibilants" or "Whistles" such
as (‫ )س‬and (‫)ز‬. Sometimes sibilants are divided into
"hissing" e.g. (s) and "hushing" e.g. (S). (Ibid)
b. Fricatives which are also called "constrictives" or
"spirants" e.g. (‫ )ن‬and (‫)ذ‬.

3. Closure then narrowing:


In this modification we have "Affricates" or "Affricated
release" or "Semi-stops". (ibid)

4. Partial closure:
There is a partial closure in one place then a partial
opening in other place. This partial closure consists of:
a) Laterals such as (‫ )ل‬sound.
b) Nasals which are sometimes called vowel-like sounds.
These sounds are produced with vibration.

5. Close trill: There are some positions for close trill:


a) Uvula: which produces uvular trill sound.
b) Tongue against teeth and tooth-ridge. This position
produces lingual trill sound.
c) The tip of the tongue against the palate. This position
produces retroflex trill sound.
d) The lip: which produces labial trill.
If we have one wave of vibration, these sounds are called
as one-tap- trill or flapped. Consonants are produced by
these five phases.

III
6. Open approximation:
Open approximation produces sounds without
friction or explosion. All the vowels are produced in this
and some consonants such as (v), (w) and (s). (ibid)

3.3. Description of Speech Sounds:


‫شفوي شديد مجهور مرقق‬. ‫ ب‬1.
1. ‫ ب‬Delicate sonorous strict bilabial.
‫شفوي أنفي مجهور مرقق‬. ‫ م‬2.
2. ‫ م‬Delicate sonorous nasal bilabial.
‫أنفوي لين مجهور مرقق‬. ‫ و‬3.
3. ‫ و‬Delicate sonorous soft bilabial.
‫شفوي أسناني رخو مهموس مرقق‬. ‫ ف‬4.
4. ‫ ف‬Delicate whispered lax nasal bilabial.
‫من طرف اللسان وأطراف الثنايا رخو مجهور مفخم‬. ‫ ظ‬5.
5. ‫ ظ‬Magnified sonorous lax from the blade of the
tongue and the blade of the folds.
‫من طرف اللسان وأطراف الثنايا رخو مجهور مرقق‬. ‫ ذ‬6.
6. ‫ذ‬ Delicate sonorous lax from the blade of the
tongue and the blade of the folds.
‫من طرف اللسان وأطراف الثنايا رخو مهموس مرقق‬. ‫ ث‬7.
7. ‫ ث‬Delicate whispered lax from the blade of the
tongue and the blade of the folds.
‫من طرف اللسان وأصول الثنايا شديد مجهور مفخم‬. ‫ ط‬8.
8. ‫ط‬ Magnified sonorous strict from the blade of the
tongue and the roots of the folds.
‫من طرف اللسان وأصول الثنايا شديد مجهورم مرقق‬. ‫ د‬9.
9. ‫د‬ Delicate sonorous strict from the blade of the
tongue and the roots of the folds.
‫من طرف اللسان وأصول الثنايا شديد مهموس مرقق‬. ‫ ت‬10.

III
Delicate whispered strict from the blade of the
tongue and the roots of the folds.
‫من طرف اللسان وفويق الثنايا رخو مجهور مرقق‬. ‫ ز‬11.
11. ‫ز‬ Delicate sonorous lax from the blade of the
tongue and the upper folds.
‫من طرف اللسان وفويق الثنايا رخو مهموس مرقق‬. ‫ س‬12.
12. ‫ س‬Delicate whispered lax from the blade of the
tongue and the upper folds.
‫من طرف اللسان وفويق الثنايا رخو مجهور مفخم‬. ‫ ص‬13.
13. ‫ ص‬Magnified whispered lax from the blade of the
tongue and the upper folds.
‫ما بين طرف اللسان وفويق الثنايا أنفي مجهور مرقق‬. ‫ ن‬14.
14. ‫ن‬ Delicate sonorous nasal from the blade of the
tongue and the upper folds.
‫ما بين طرف اللسان وفويق الثنايا أدخل في ظهر اللسان مكرر‬ ‫ ر‬15.
‫مجهور‬.
15. ‫ر‬ Sonorous trill between the blade of the tongue
and the upper folds entered to the back of the
tongue.
‫من حافة اللسان إلى الطرف و ما فوقهما منحرف مجهور‬. ‫ ل‬16.
16. ‫ل‬ Sonorous curved from the tip of the tongue to
the blade and above them.
‫من أول حافة اللسان وما يليه من الضراس رخو مجهور مفخم‬. ‫ ض‬17.
17. ‫ ض‬Magnified sonorous lax from the tip of the
tongue to the following teeth.
‫من أول حافة اللسان وما يليه من الضراس رخو مهموس مرقق‬. ‫ ش‬18.
18. ‫ ش‬Delicate whispered lax from the tip of the
tongue to the following teeth.
‫من وسط اللسان وسط الحنك العلى شديد مجهور مهموس مرقق‬. ‫ ج‬19.
19. ‫ج‬ Delicate sonorous strict from the middle of the
tongue "the middle of the hard palate"
‫من وسط اللسان وسط الحنك العلى لين مجهور مرقق‬. ‫ ى‬20.
20. ‫ ى‬Delicate sonorous soft from the middle of the
tongue "the middle of the hard palate"

III
‫من مؤخر اللسان وما يليه من الحنك العلى شديد مهموس مرقق‬. ‫ ك‬21.
21. ‫ك‬ Delicate whispered strict from the back of the
tongue and the following hard palate.
‫من أقصى اللسان وما يليه من الحنك العلى شديد مجهور مفخم‬. ‫ ق‬22.
22. ‫ ق‬Magnified sonorous strict from the maximum of
the tongue of the following hard palate.
‫من أدنى الحلق رخو مجهور مفخم‬. ‫ غ‬23.
23. ‫غ‬ Magnified sonorous lax from the minimum of
the pharynx.
‫من أجنى الحلق رخو مجهور مفخم‬. ‫ خ‬24.
24. ‫خ‬ Magnified whispered lax from the minimum of
the pharynx.
‫من وسط الحلق بين الشديد والرخو مجهور مرقق‬. ‫ ع‬25.
25. ‫ع‬ Delicate sonorous between strict and lax from
the middle of the pharynx.
‫من وسط الحلق رخو مهموس مفخم‬. ‫ ح‬26.
26. ‫ح‬ Delicate whispered lax from the middle of the
pharynx.
‫من أقصى الحلق شديد مجهور مرقق‬. ‫ ء‬27.
27. ‫ء‬ Delicate sonorous strict from the maximum of
the pharynx.
‫من أقصى الحلق رخو مجهور مرقق‬. ‫ هـ‬28.
28. ‫ هـ‬Delicate whispered lax from the maximum of
the pharynx.
‫من أقصى الحلق هاو مجهور‬. ‫ أ‬29.
29. ‫أ‬ Sonorous deep from the maximum of the
pharynx.
(Hassan: 1988)

III
Fig 3.1 ‫ ' الجهاز النطقي‬The organ of articulation'
Adopted from Omar (1976)
'Lips' ‫ الشفتان‬1.
'Teeth' ‫ السنان‬2.
'Tooth-ridge' ‫ اللثة‬3.
'Hard palate' ‫ الحنك الصلب‬4.
'Soft palate' ‫ الحنك اللين‬5.
'Uvula' ‫ اللهاة‬6.
'Blade of tongue' ‫ طرف للسان‬7.
'Front of tongue' ‫ مقدمة اللسان‬8.
'Back of tongue' ‫ مؤخرة للسان‬9.
'Pharynx' ‫ الحلق‬10.
'Epiglottis' ‫ لسان المزمار‬11.

III
'Position of vocal cords' ‫موقع الوتار الصوتية‬. 12.
'Tip of tongue' ‫ حد اللسان‬13.
(Omar: 1976)

Fig. 3.2 ‫" أماكن النطق الرئيسية‬The main place of articulation"


Adopted from Omar (1976)

"‫ و‬، ‫ م‬،‫"ب‬ Bilabial ‫شفتاني‬ 1.


"‫"ف‬ Labiodental ‫شفوي أسناني‬ 2.
"‫ ث‬، ‫ ظ‬، ‫"ذ‬ Dental ‫أسناني‬ 3.
" ‫ ص‬،‫ ز‬،‫ س‬، ‫ ض‬، ‫ ط‬،‫ ت‬،‫"د‬ Alveolar ‫لثوي أسناني‬ 4.
"‫ ن‬، ‫ ر‬، ‫"ل‬ Retroflex ‫التوائي‬ 5.
"‫ ي‬، ‫ ج‬،‫"ش‬ Palatal ‫غاري‬ 6.
"‫ غ‬، ‫ خ‬، ‫"ك‬ Velar ‫طبقي‬ 7.

III
"‫ "ق‬Uvular ‫ لهوي‬8.
"‫ ح‬، ‫ "ع‬Pharyngeal ‫ حلقي‬9.
"‫ هـ‬، ‫ "همزه‬glottal ‫ حنجري‬10.

III
Table 3.2 ‫" صفات الحروف‬The description of sounds"
Adopted from Hassan (1988)

III
letter Symbol Keyword Letter symbol Keyword
‫الهمزة ء‬ ? ‫أحمد‬ ‫ز‬ z ‫نزار‬
‫ب‬ b ‫بلد‬ ‫س‬ s ‫سلم‬
‫ت‬ t ‫تاب‬ ‫ص‬ S ‫صعد‬
‫ط‬ T ‫بسط‬ ‫ش‬ ‫شمس‬
‫ث‬ ‫ثالث‬ ‫ع‬ 9 ‫علم‬
‫ج‬ ‫جمل‬ ‫غ‬ g ‫غاب‬
‫ح‬ ћ ‫حمل‬ ‫ف‬ f ‫فات‬
‫خ‬ x ‫خلف‬ ‫ق‬ q ‫قلم‬
‫د‬ d ‫دار‬ ‫ك‬ k ‫كلم‬
‫ص‬ D ‫صرر‬ ‫ل‬ l ‫لمع‬
‫ذ‬ ‫ذهب‬ ‫م‬ m ‫مات‬
‫ظ‬ Ð ‫ظل‬ ‫ن‬ h ‫نور‬
‫ر‬ r ‫رمى‬ ‫و‬ w ‫ولد‬
‫ي‬ j/y ‫يوسف‬
Table 3.3 The sounds of Standard Arabic Consonants
Adopted from Kharma & Bakir (2001)

Letter or Diacritic Symbol Keyword


‫الفتحة‬ a َ‫ذَ َهب‬
‫اللف‬ aa ‫قـاتل‬
‫الضمة‬ u ‫قُل‬
‫الواو‬ uu ‫حُوت‬
‫الكسرة‬ i ‫قِف‬
‫الياء‬ ii ‫قِيـل‬
‫أي‬ ai ‫بَيْت‬
‫أو‬ au ‫ صَوْت‬/ ‫قَوْل‬
Table 3.4 The Sound of Arabic Vowels
Adopted from kharma & Bakir (2001)
Chapter 4

III
The Sound System of English and Arabic

4.1 English and Arabic phonemes

English language has its own phonetic system, but


such systems may share some similarities in addition to
some differences. There are three types of relationship
between English system and Arabic system. First, there
are phonemes common to both languages. Second, there
are phonemes existent in the first language (L1), but not
in the other language (L2). Third, there are phonemes
existents in (L2), but not in (L1). (Alkhuli: 1997)

Type L1 L2
1 +p +p
2 +p -p
3 -p +p
Table 4.1 Types of phonemic Differences
Adopted from Alkhuli (1997)

4.2. Common Consonants:

There are some common consonants in both English


and Arabic. These consonants are (d, b, t, j, f, , , z, š, h,
l, m, n, w, r and y). There are eighteen consonants
common between English and Arabic. However, these
common consonants are not always identical; there are
some differences. (Ibid)
1. /t/ in English is alveolar, but in Arabic it is dental.
Here is a difference in the point of articulation.
2. /d/ in English (E) is alveolar, but dental in Arabic (A).
3. /h/ occurs in initial and medial positions in English,
but not finally, e.g., horse, behalf. In Arabic, /h/ occurs in

III
all positions, e.g., َ‫ هَتَف‬,‫ به‬,‫ َوجْه‬. Here is a difference in
distribution.
4. /r/ is flat in British English and retroflexed in
American English. But trilled in Arabic, especially in a
final position, e.g., ‫نهر‬. The terms here refer to tongue
shape and tongue position. With a flat /r/, the tongue is
flat, with a retroflexed /r/, the tip of the tongue is curved
back. With a trilled /r/, the Sound /r/ is repeatedly
produced.
5. Although /l/ is a common consonant, the rules of light
dark phone distribution ae different in English and
Arabic. We notice that the difference may still be there:
in the point of articulation, manner of articulation on
distribution.
Common English Arabic Common English Arabic
phoneme phoneme Example phoneme phoneme Example
1. /b/ Bait ‫باب‬ 13. /l/ Little ‫ليث‬
2. /t/ Ton ‫تأمل‬ 14. /m/ Mother ‫ماء‬
3. /b/ Day ‫دم‬ 15. /n/ Now ‫نام‬
4. /k/ Kit ‫كان‬ 16. /w/ Water ‫وضوء‬
5. / / Jug ‫جاء‬ 17. /r/ Rate ‫رجع‬
6./f/ Fine ‫فتى‬ 18. /y/ yet ‫يتكلم‬
7. / / Thin ‫ثلثه‬
8. / / Then ‫ذلك‬
9. /s/ Sign ‫سوف‬
10. /z/ Zoo ‫زال‬
11. / / Shoe ‫شمال‬
12. /h/ hen ‫هذا‬
Table 4.2 Common Consonants
Adopted from Alkhuli (1997)

4.3 Consonants Restricted to English:

III
There are consonants that exist in English, but not in
Arabic. These consonants are called English-restricted
consonants. (ibid)

No. Consonant English Example Arabic Example


1 /p/ Pen -
2 /g/ Good -
3 / / Chair -
4 /v/ Vine -
5 / / Sing -
6 / / measure -
Table 4.3 English-Restricted Consonants
Adopted from Alkhuli (1997)

However, some elaboration may be desirable here:


"1. /p/ exists in English as a phoneme. It does not exist in
Arabic as a distinct phoneme. Nevertheless, [p] exists in
Arabic as an allophone of /b/ conditioned by the phonetic
environment, e.g, (laps) ‫لَبْس‬. Here /b/ in phonemic in
English, i.e, significant, because it affect meaning, but
the difference in Arabic is phonetic, i.e. , non-phonemic,
non-functional, or insignificant, because it does not affect
meaning." (Alkhuli, 1997: 4)
2. /g/ is an English- restricted consonant. However, we
can find this sound in some Arabic dialects such as the
Egyptian dialect and the Yemenite dialects, dialects not
considered standard dialects.
For example, a reader of the Holy Quran would not
produce /g/ in the place of / /.

III
3. / / does not exist in standard Arabic, we can find this
sound in some rural dialects. The counter-consonant in
standard Arabic is /k/.
4. / / does not exist in most Arabic dialects. However,
we find this sound in Syrian Arabic and Lebanese Arabic
in the place of / / in other dialects, e.g., / abal/ instead
of / abal/ ‫جَبَل‬.
5. / / doesn't exist in Arabic at all. In English, it has a
restriction on occurrence: it doesn't occur initially. It only
occurs medially and finally, e.g. finger, sing.

4.4. Consonants Restricted to Arabic.

There are some consonants in Arabic that don't exist


in English. There Consonants are called Arabic-restricted
consonants. (Alkhuli: 1997)

No. Consonant Arabic Example English Example


1 /T/ /‫ط‬/ ‫طعام‬ -
2 /q/ /‫ق‬/ ‫قام‬ -
3 /?/ /‫ء‬/ ‫أكل‬ -
4 /D/ /‫ض‬/ ‫ضرب‬ -
5 /S/ /‫ص‬/ ‫صام‬ -
6 /H/ /‫ح‬/ ‫حالة‬ -
7 /X/ /‫خ‬/ ‫خاف‬ -
8 /Ð/ /‫ظ‬/ ّ‫ظل‬ -
9 /G/ /‫غ‬/ ‫غناء‬ -
10 /9/ /‫ع‬/ ‫عمل‬ -
Table 4.4 Arabic-Restricted Consonants.
Adopted from Alkhuli (1997)

III
4.5 Vowel Comparison:

There are some simple vowels. Three of them are


common to both E and A: /i, a, u/. four of them are
restricted to English /e, , i, /. Only one vowel is
restricted to A i.e., /a:/, the only long vowel in the table.
(Alkhuli: 1997)

No. Vowel English Example Arabic Example Type


1 /i/ bit ‫بنت‬ EA
2 /e/ bet - E
3 / / man - E
4 /i/ wanted - E
5 / / the - E
6 /a/ hot ‫بَنَى‬ EA
7 /a:/ - ‫قال‬ A
8 /u/ put ‫بُهتان‬ EA
Table 4.5 Vowel Comparison
Adopted from Alkhuli (1997)

4.6. Diphthong Comparison:

"A diphthong is a vowel followed by a glide or semi-


vowel. E.g., boy, bow. There are four diphthongs
common to E and A. Here we refer to Standard English
and Arabic SA, i.e., the two standard languages. The
common ones are /iy/, /ay/, /aw/, /uw/. There are four
ones restricted to English: /ey, ow, oy, ɔw/. There is no
diphthong restricted to Arabic." (Alkhuli: 1997,6)

III
It is mention worthy to say that some phoneticians
consider the diphthongs /iy, ey, uw, ɔw/ long vowels,
which have to be symbolized as such: /i:, e:, u:, /.
However, this disagreement among phonetians does not
change the comparative observation in this respect. The
types of relationship between E and A with regard to
these sounds remain the same, no matter how they are
transcribed. A main EA difference must be pointed out
here with respect to vowels and diphthongs. English
allows them to occur anywhere; initially, medially, and
finally, e.g., in, not, no, with some exceptions in final
positions. In contrast, Arabic does not allow them to
occur initially; all Arabic words begin with consonants,
never with vowels or diphthongs." (Ibid: 6-7)

No. Diphthong English Example Arabic Example Type


1 /iy/ Beat ‫ريم‬ EA
2 /ey/ Bait - E
3 /ay/ Fine ‫بَيْت‬ EA
4 /aw/ Round ‫َبوْت‬ EA
5 /ow/ Boat - E
6 /oy/ Boy - E
7 /uw/ Boot ‫يأتون‬ EA
8 /ɔw/ bought - E
Table 4.6 Diphthong Comparison
Adopted from Alkhuli (1997)

III
Place

Manner

plosive b d ‫ض‬ - -
Voiced
D ‫ء‬
Voiceless
- t ‫ط‬
T
k ‫ق‬
q
?
Affricate
Voiced
‫ج‬
-
Voiceless

Fricative - z D 9
Voiced
‫ذ‬ ‫ظ‬ ‫ش‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ع‬ h
f s S - x h -
Voiceless
‫ث‬ ‫ص‬ ‫خ‬ ‫ح‬

Nasal m n
Voiced
ŋ
Lateral l
Voiced

Vibrates r
Voiced

Semi- Voiced y
Vowels
(j)

Table 4.7. Arabic Consonants


Adopted from Kharma & Bakir (2001)

III
Chapter 5
Conclusion

As we have seen in this research, there are many


differences and similarities between the sound systems of
English and the sound systems of Arabic. This research
explains these differences and similarities to
accommodate one's language who learns English or
Arabic as a second language with the correct
pronunciation.

This research tries to distinguish between these two


systems, as we have seen in chapter one, it shows many
things about English consonants and vowels. It gives
many of information about classification of consonants
and description of speech sounds of both consonants and
vowels. In contrast, in chapter two it explains many
things such as organs of speech, speech production,
modification of air and description of Arabic speech
sounds.

In addition to these things, this research gives us a


clear comparison between these two systems, as we have
seen in chapter three there are some consonants restricted
to English and others restricted to Arabic. There is
another comparison for vowels and diphthongs between
Arabic and English.

In conclusion, the purpose of this research which is to


help people to pronounce sounds properly is fulfilled
through this kind of comparative study between the
sound systems of English and Arabic.

III
Appendix I

English Phonemes
1. / / sheep 24. / / yes
2. / / farm 25. / / we
3. / / coo 26. / / moon
4. / / horse 27. / / name
5. / / bird 28. / / sing
6. / / ship 29. / / pen
7. / / hat 30. / / town
8. / / foot 31. / / cat
9. / / sock UK) 32. / / fish
10. / / cup 33. / / think
11. / / head 34. / / say
12. / / above 35. / / she
13. / / mother (US) 36. / / cheese
14. / / book 37. / / day
15. / / day 38. / / eye
16. / / give 40. / / boy
17. / / very 41. / / mouth
18. / / the 42. / / nose (UK)
19. / / zoo 43. / / nose (US)
20. / / vision 44. / / ear (UK)
21. / / jump 45. / / hair (UK)
22. / / look 46. / / pure (UK)
23. / / run 47. / / hand

III
Appendix II
Arabic Phonemes

1. /t/ ‫ت‬ 24. /n/ ‫ن‬


2. /T/ |‫ط‬ 25. /l/ ‫ل‬
3. /k/ ‫ك‬ 26. /r/ ‫ر‬
4. /q/ ‫ق‬ 27. /w/ ‫)و )ولد‬
5. /?/ ‫ء‬ 28. /y/ (‫يد( ي‬
6. /b/ ‫ب‬ 29. /i/ ' ِ '
7. /d/ ‫د‬ 30. /a/ ' َ '
8. /D/ ‫ض‬ 31. /u/ ' ُ '
9. /ĵ/ ‫ج‬ 32. /i:/ (‫سليم( ي‬
10. /f/ ‫ف‬ 33. /a:/ (‫سار( ا‬
11. /θ/ ‫ث‬ 34. /u:/ (‫يدنو( و‬
12. /s/ ‫س‬
13. /S/ ‫ص‬
14. /ŝ/ ‫ش‬
15. /x/ ‫خ‬
16. /H/ ‫ح‬
17. /ð/ ‫ذ‬
18. /z/ ‫ز‬
19. /D/ ‫ظ‬
20. /G/ ‫غ‬
21. /9/ ‫ع‬
22. /h/ ‫هـ‬
23. /m/ ‫م‬

III
Bibliography

1. Alkhuli, M. (1999). Comparative linguistics: English


and Arabic. (Amman: The National Library).

2. Alkhuli, M. (2002). English Phonetics and Phonology.


(Amman: Dar Al-Falah).

3. Aitchison, J. (1992) linguistics. (London: Hodder


Headline Plc).

4. Kharma, N, & M. Bakir. (2001). Introduction to


Linguistics. (Amman: The National Liprary).

5. Lyons, J. (1981). Language and Linguistics. (London:


C.U.P.).

III
‫‪Arabic References‬‬
‫المراجع العربيه‬

‫‪.1‬استيتيه‪،‬سمير‪ :‬الصوات اللغوية ‪ /‬عمان – دار وائل للنشر )‬


‫‪.(2006‬‬

‫‪ .2‬حسان ‪ ،‬تمام‪ :‬دراسة ابيستمولوجيه للفكر اللغوي عند العرب ‪/‬‬


‫مصر و العراق – الهيئة المصريه العامه للكاتب و دار الشؤون‬
‫الثقافيه العامة )‪.(1988‬‬

‫‪.3‬عمر ‪ ،‬أحمد‪ :‬دراسة الصوت اللغوي ‪ /‬القاهرة – دار الكتب )‬


‫‪.(1976‬‬

‫‪III‬‬
‫الخلصة‬
‫تحاول هذه الرسالة أن تجيب عن ثلثة أسئله أساسيه وهما‪:‬‬
‫ما هو علم الصوتيات النجليزي؟ وما هو علم الصوات العربي؟‬
‫و كيف يختلف علم الصوات النجليزي عن علم الصوتيات‬
‫العربي‪ .‬وكل هذه السئله تعود لهدف واحد رئسي وهو تعليم‬
‫اللغة المكتسبة بالفظ الصحيح‪.‬‬
‫يفسر هذا البحث أشياء عديدة في علم الصوات النجليزي‬
‫مثل‪ :‬تعريف علم الصوتيات و المقارنه بين الحرف الصحيحه و‬
‫أحرف العله و وصف الحرف الصحيحة وأحرف العله‪.‬‬
‫و تحاول هذه الدراسة أيضا ً أن تعطي بحض المعلومات عن‬
‫انتاج الصوات العربيه و وصف أحرف العله العربيه وأحرف‬
‫العربيه الصحيحه‪.‬‬
‫بالضافة إلى إعطاء تفسير عن علم الصوات النجليزي و‬
‫علم الصوات العربي‪ ،‬إن إعطاء مقارنه بين هذين العلمين يعدُ‬
‫هدف مهم في هذا البحث‪ .‬فإننا نجد في الفصل الثالث العديد‬
‫من التشابهات و الختلفات بين هذين النظامين اللغويين‪ .‬فهناك‬
‫أحرف صحيحه مشتركه وأحرف مقصورة فقط على اللغة‬
‫العربيه كذلك نجد أحرف عله مشتركه بين اللغتين وأحرف علة‬
‫مقورة على اللغة النجليزيه وأحرف عله مقصورة على اللغة‬
‫العربيه‪.‬‬

‫وهكذا نرى أن هذه الدراسة تحاول أن تقوم بمقارنة بين‬


‫النظام اللغوي العربي و النظام اللغوي النجليزي بواسطة إعطاء‬
‫بعض التفسيرات عن انتاج الحرف العربيه الصحيحه و الحرف‬
‫النجليزيه الصحيحه وكذلك عن أحرف العلة العربيه وأحرف العله‬
‫النجليزية‪.‬‬

‫‪III‬‬
‫الهلية‬ ‫الزرقاء‬ ‫جامعة‬

‫علم الصوتيات‬
‫في‬
‫اللغة النجليزية والعربية‪:‬‬
‫دراسة مقارنة‬
‫إعداد‬
‫المدرس عبد البصير جمال‬
‫عيد‬

‫‪III‬‬
‫ديسمبر ‪ /‬كانون الول لعام ‪2007‬‬

‫‪III‬‬