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‘ The goal of the course is to provide students with the scientific principles, concepts,
and methodologies required to understand the interrelationships of the natural
world, to identify and analyze environmental problems both natural and human-
made, to evaluate the relative risks associated with these problems, and to examine
alternative solutions for resolving and/or preventing them.

‘ The beginning of 20th century:


‘ Major emphasis on control of epidemic communicable diseases.
‘ Importance on water supply and sewage disposal.

‘ The middle of 20th century:


‘ Solid waste disposal, air pollution control, occupational hygiene gain
significance.

‘ The latter part of 20th century:


‘ Chemical pollution, radiation hazards, and hazardous waste management
join the array of environmental pollution problems.
 


 


  
‘ "rganisms depend on the quality of environment, and
they also exert an influence on the quality of
environment.
‘ Man exerts a tremendous impact on the environment
through:
Extraction of resources, and
Modification and manipulation of the
environment, and pollution resulting from
deposition of wastes.
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‘ on the productivity of the ecosystem (green plants,
atmospheric oxygen)
‘ on other organisms (microorganisms, insects, animals)
‘ on climate (global warming, ozone hole, acid rain)

Health impact:
‘ Due to microbiological pollution
‘ Due to microchemical pollution

 
The human environment encompasses all physical, chemical, biological and
social processes and influences, which individually or in combination exert
directly or indirectly a significant influence on the health and well-being of
human race.
‘ Health: Health is not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, but a state of physical,
mental, and social well-being. (WH")

‘ In developing countries:
Microbiological pollution is of more significance.
Environmental factors serve as links in the chain of transmission of diseases
Communicable disease like cholera, typhoid, dysentery, malaria, bilharziasis,
etc.

‘ In industrialized countries:
microphysicochemical pollution is of more significance.
microchemical health hazards more complex than communicable diseases
cancer, leukemia, cardiovascular disorders, etc
  

 
Environmental Engineering is manifest by sound engineering
thought and practice in the solution of problems of
environmental sanitation, notably in the provision of safe,
palatable, and ample public water supplies, the proper
disposal of or recycle of waste water and solid wastes; the
adequate drainage of urban and rural areas for proper
sanitation; and the control of water, soil, and atmospheric
pollution, and the social and environmental impact of
public health, such as control of anthropod-borne diseases,
the elimination of industrial health hazards, and the
provision of adequate sanitation in urban, rural, and
recreational areas, and the effect of technological advances
on the environment. (ASCE)
‘ More population - more food - more water - more of
everything - more industrial goods - more wastes -
more pollution!

‘ World population:
1900 - 1.6 billion
1950 - 2.5 billion
1980 - 5.0 billion
2000 - 6.0 billion
2110 - 10.5 billion (estimated)

‘ Rate of population growth in developing countries is


40% greater than in the world as a whole.

    
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‘ Concentration of people
- increased demand on resources
- increased volume of waste-waters
- Production of solid wastes
- Problems of residential environment
- Slums
- Air pollution

‘ Closely related to the influence of industrialization!



    
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‘ Industrial wastewaters
‘ Industrial solid wastes
‘ Hazardous wastes
‘ Growing numbers and complexity of wastes
‘ Toxic, carcinogenic, cumulative and synergistic
chemicals
‘ Increased demand on resources
‘ Problems of occupational environment
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‘ The Clean Air Act promoted cooperation and self-
regulation and pollution prevention as well as
encouraging public participation to air quality
planning and monitoring.
‘ It advanced the formulation and enforcement of a
system of accountability as regards environmental
impact of a project, program or activity and converted
the Environmental Management Bureau (EMB) as a
line bureau and created the EMB Regional "ffices.
‘ ÿ   

  
‘ The Clean Water Act advanced the prevention,
control, and abatement of pollution in water
resources.
‘ It encouraged that water quality management issues
should not be separated from concerns on water
sources and ecological protection, water supply, public
health and quality of life.
‘ The Act thus endorsed management programs to
address water pollution.

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- controlled toxic substances and hazardous and
nuclear wastes by way of regulating, restricting or
prohibiting the importation, manufacture, processing,
sale, distribution, use and disposal of chemical
substances and mixtures that present unreasonable
risk and/or injury to health or the environment.
It also prohibited the entry, even in transit, of
hazardous and nuclear wastes and their disposal into
the country.
,113  & § 

  

  /41112
‘ This Act maximized the utilization of valuable
resources and encouraged resource conservation and
recovery.
‘ It promoted solid waste avoidance and volume
reduction.
‘ RA 9003 places the primary enforcement and
responsibility of solid waste management with LGUs
and encouraged cooperation and self-regulation
among waste generators.
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A single family residence uses about 400 Lcpd (liters per
capita per day).

The variation of demand is normally reported as a factor


of the average day.

For metered dwellings the factors are as follows:

Maximum day = 2.2 x average day

Peak hour = 5.3 x average day


Problem 1. A small residential development of 28 houses is being planned.
Assume that the average residential consumption applies, and that each house
has three residents. Estimate the additional average daily water production in
L/d that will have to be supplied by the city.
Solution:
(28 houses)( 3 people/house)(400 Lcpd) = 33,600 L/d

Problem 2. If a faucet is dripping at a rate of one drop per second and each drop
contains 0.150 milliliters, calculate how much water (in liters) will be lost in
one year.
Solution:
(0.150 mL/s)(86,400 s/d)(365 d/y)(1 x 10-3 L/mL) = 4,730 L/y

Problem 3. A sanitary landfill has available space of 16.2 ha at an average depth of


10 m. Seven hundred sixty five (765) cubic meters of solid waste are dumped at
the site five days per week. This waste is compacted to twice its delivered
density. Draw a mass-balance diagram and estimate the expected life of the
landfill in years.
Solution:
Compaction to twice delivered density means that the volume is reduced to ½.
The annual volume of compacted solid waste is:
(5 d/wk)(52 wk/y)(765 m3/d)(1/2) = 99,450 m3/y
The available space:
(16.2 ha)(1 x 104 m3/ha)(10 m depth) = 1,620,000 m3
The expected life of the landfill is:
1,620,000 m3 / 99,450 m3/y = 16.3 years

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Matter can neither be created nor destroyed but that it
can be changed in form. This concept serves as a basis
for describing and analyzing environmental
engineering problems. This concept is called a
Y      , or a Y     ©

In environmental system or subsystem, the equation


would be written:

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Mass balance equation:
Input = "utput 1 + output 2 + output 3 + output 4 + accumulation

"ne half of input is food = (0.5)(50 Kg) = 25 kg

"ne half of food is for biological maintenance = output 1 = (o.5)(25 Kg) = 12.5 Kg

"ne half of food is lost to sewer system = output 2 = (0.5)(25 kg) = 12.5 kg

The recycled amount is 25 percent of what remains of input after food and
accumulation is removed = "utput 3 = 0.25( input Ȃoutput 1 Ȃ output 2 Ȃ
accumulation) = 0.25(50 Ȃ 12.5 -12.5 Ȃ 1) = 6 kg

"utput 4 = input Ȃ output 1 Ȃ output 2 Ȃ output 3 Ȃ accumulation


= 50 Ȃ 12.5 Ȃ 12.5 Ȃ 6 Ȃ 1
= 18 Kg
HYDR"L"GY
The continuous circular process, in which the water of the Earth evaporates from the
oceans, condenses, falls to the Earth as rain or snow, and eventually returns to the oceans
through run-off in rivers or streams. Some water is absorbed by plants and returned to
the atmosphere as vapor.
 
The water cycle has no starting or ending point. The sun, which drives the water cycle, heats
water in the oceans. Some of it evaporates as vapor into the air. Ice and snow can sublimate
directly into water vapor. Rising air currents take the vapor up into the atmosphere, along with
water from evapotranspiration, which is water transpired from plants and evaporated from the
soil. The vapor rises into the air where cooler temperatures cause it to condense into clouds. Air
currents move clouds around the globe, cloud particles collide, grow, and fall out of the sky as
precipitation. Some precipitation falls as snow and can accumulate as ice caps and glaciers, which
can store frozen water for thousands of years. Snowpacks in warmer climates often thaw and melt
when spring arrives, and the melted water flows overland as snowmelt. Most precipitation falls
back into the oceans or onto land, where, due to gravity, the precipitation flows over the ground
as surface runoff. A portion of runoff enters rivers in valleys in the landscape, with streamflow
moving water towards the oceans. Runoff, and ground-water seepage, accumulate and are stored
as freshwater in lakes. Not all runoff flows into rivers. Much of it soaks into the ground as
infiltration. Some water infiltrates deep into the ground and replenishes aquifers (saturated
subsurface rock), which store huge amounts of freshwater for long periods of time. Some
infiltration stays close to the land surface and can seep back into surface-water bodies (and the
ocean) as ground-water discharge, and some ground water finds openings in the land surface and
emerges as freshwater springs. Over time, the water continues flowing, some to reenter the ocean,
where the water cycle renews itself.
9
         
·   is condensed water vapor that falls to the Earth's surface. Most precipitation
occurs as rain, but also includes snow, hail, fog drip, graupel, and sleet. Approximately 505,000
km³ of water fall as precipitation each year, 398,000 km³ of it over the oceans.

·     is the precipitation that is intercepted by plant foliage and eventually
evaporates back to the atmosphere rather than falling to the ground.

·  refers to the runoff produced by melting snow.

· includes the variety of ways by which water moves across the land. This includes both
surface runoff and channel runoff. As it flows, the water may infiltrate into the ground,
evaporate into the air, become stored in lakes or reservoirs, or be extracted for agricultural or
other human uses.

·    is the flow of water from the ground surface into the ground. Once infiltrated, the
water becomes soil moisture or groundwater.
·    is the flow of water underground, in the vadose zone and aquifers. Subsurface
water may return to the surface (eg. as a spring or by being pumped) or eventually seep into the
oceans. Water returns to the land surface at lower elevation than where it infiltrated, under the
force of gravity or gravity induced pressures. Groundwater tends to move slowly, and is
replenished slowly, so it can remain in aquifers for thousands of years.

·   is the transformation of water from liquid to gas phases as it moves from the
ground or bodies of water into the overlying atmosphere. The source of energy for evaporation is
primarily solar radiation. Evaporation often implicitly includes transpiration from plants, though
together they are specifically referred to as evapotranspiration. Approximately 90% of
atmospheric water comes from evaporation, while the remaining 10% is from transpiration.
Total annual evapotranspiration amounts to approximately 505,000 km³ of water, 434,000 km³ of
which evaporates from the oceans.

   is the state change directly from solid water (snow or ice) to water vapor.


  is the movement of water ² in solid, liquid, or vapour states ² through the
atmosphere. Without advection, water that evaporated over the oceans could not precipitate over
land.


  is the transformation of water vapour to liquid water droplets in the air, producing
clouds and fog.
99

ëoss of water from a plant, mainly through the stomata of leaves. Darkness,
internal water deficit, and extremes of temperature tend to close stomata and
decrease transpiration; illumination, ample water supply, and optimum
temperature cause stomata to open and increase transpiration. Its exact
significance is disputed; its roles in providing the energy to transport water in the
plant and in aiding dissipation of the sun's heat (by cooling through evaporation of
water) have been challenged. Since stomatal openings are necessary for the
exchange of gases, transpiration has been considered by some to be merely an
unavoidable phenomenon that accompanies the real functions of the stomata.

·99
(ET) is a term used to describe the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration
from the earth's land surface to atmosphere. Evaporation accounts for the
movement of water to the air from sources such as the soil, canopy interception,
and water bodies. Transpiration accounts for the movement of water within a plant
and the subsequent loss of water as vapour through stomata in its leaves.
Evapotranspiration is an important part of the water cycle.
·      9

Is a representation of the environmental demand for evapotranspiration and


represents the evapotranspiration rate of a short green crop, completely
shading the ground, of uniform height and with adequate water status in the
soil profile. It is a reflection of the energy available to evaporate water, and of
the wind available to transport the water vapour from the ground up into the
lower atmosphere. Evapotranspiration is said to equal potential
evapotranspiration when there is ample water.

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In hydrology, a rock layer or sequence that contains water and releases it in
appreciable amounts. The rocks contain water-filled pores that, when
connected, allow water to flow through their matrix. A confined aquifer is
overlain by a rock layer that does not transmit water in any appreciable
amount or that is impermeable. There probably are few truly confined
aquifers. In an unconfined aquifer the upper surface (water table) is open to
the atmosphere through permeable overlying material. An aquifer also may be
called a water-bearing stratum, lens, or zone.
  

In the c ntext f the ater cycle, a reserv ir represents the ater c ntaine in ifferent
steps ithin the cycle. The largest reserv ir is the c llecti n f ceans, acc nting f r
97% f the Earth's ater. The next largest q antity (2%) is st re in s li f rm in the
ice caps an glaciers. The ater c ntaine ithin all living rganisms represents the
smallest reserv ir.
The v l mes f ater in the fresh ater reserv irs, partic larly th se that are available
f r h man se, are imp rtant ater res rces.

      

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Oceans 1370 97.25
Ice caps & glaciers 29 2.05
r n ater 9.5 0.6
ëakes 0.125 0.01
S il m ist re 0.065 0.005
Atm sphere 0.013 0.001
Streams & rivers 0.0017 0.0001
Bi sphere 0.0006 0.00004
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The total quantity of water available to the earth is finite, the global hydrologic system is
considered to be a closed system: that is self-contained or in mass balance.

 0 1  0 1  0 1 2 0 1  0 1 9 0 3 *

Where:
V = volume
P = precipitation
S = storage
R = runoff
G = groundwater infiltration
E = evaporation
T = transpiration
ȡ = density
    45 / 

f = fC + (fO ± fC)e -kt

Where:
f = infiltration rate, mm/h
fC = equilibrium or final infiltration rate, mm/h
fO = initial infiltration rate, mm/h
k = empirical constant, h-1
t = time, h

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General characteristics of
groundwater and surface water
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Treatment plants can be classified a simple disinfection, filter


plants, or softening plant.

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Public Water Systems (PWSs) come in all shapes and sizes,


and no two are exactly the same. They may be publicly or
privately owned and maintained. While their design may
vary, they all share the same goal - providing safe, reliable
drinking water to the communities they serve. To do this,
most water systems must treat their water. The types of
treatment provided by a specific PWS vary depending on the
size of the system, whether they use ground water or surface
water, and the quality of the source water.
9 .   @  

ëarge-scale water supply systems tend to rely on surface


water sources, while smaller systems tend to rely on
ground water. Around 35 percent of the population served
by community water systems (CWSs) drink water that
originates as ground water. Ground water is usually
pumped from wells ranging from shallow to deep (50 to
1,000 feet). The remaining 5 percent of the population
served by CWSs receive water taken primarily from
surface water sources like rivers, lakes, and reservoirs.
9 .   @  

The amount and type of treatment applied by a PWS varies with the source
type and quality. Many ground water systems can satisfy local as well as
national government requirements without applying any treatment, while
others need to add chlorine or additional treatment. Because surface water
systems are exposed to direct wet weather runoff and to the atmosphere
and are therefore more easily contaminated, regulations require that these
systems treat their water.

Water suppliers use a variety of treatment processes to remove


contaminants from drinking water. These individual processes may be
arranged in a "treatment train" (a series of processes applied in sequence).
The most commonly used processes include filtration, flocculation and
sedimentation, and disinfection for surface water. Some treatment trains
also include ion exchange and adsorption. Water utilities select a
combination of treatment processes most appropriate to treat the
contaminants found in the raw water used by the system.
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