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Microsoft Dynamics Partner Academy

How to Sell Microsoft Dynamics ERP. Pain Chain®


Microsoft Dynamics Partner Academy

Trademark Notice

The following trademarks and service marks are owned by Sales Performance Holding
Company (DBA: Solution Selling® Inc.) and licensed by Sales Performance International,
LLC. Any questions concerning the use of these trademarks or whether a name that does
not appear on this list is in fact a trademark of Solution Selling® Inc. should be referred to
Sales Performance International, LLC in the United States at the following address:

Sales Performance International, Inc.


4720 Piedmont Row Drive, Suite 400
Charlotte, North Carolina 28210 USA
Phone: 704.277.6500 FAX 704.364.8114
Info@spisales.com
www.spisales.com

Solution Selling® and Situational Fluency Prompter®, Pain Sheets®, 9 Block Vision
Processing Model® and Pain Chains® are registered trademarks and service marks of
Solution Selling® Inc. All other referenced marks are those of their respective owners.

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1. Why growth is not linear

Microsoft Dynamics Partner Academy


Pain Chain®

1. Main Pain Chains® for ERP


2. Pain Chains® by Industry
3. Knowledge Check
4. Summary

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Formula for a Successful Sale

KEY FACTORS
PAIN X POWER X VISION X VALUE X CONTROL

3
Basic Principle of Sales

NO PAIN
NO CHANGE

4
Microsoft Dynamics Partner Academy

Critical Business Issue: PAIN

ERODING: Profit, Market Share, Service, Quality, Growth

INCREASING: Costs, Competition, Errors, Return, Employee Turnover

COMPLIANCE: Government regulations, Industry standards

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Microsoft Dynamics Partner Academy

Basic Principle

PAIN FLOWS
THROUGH
AN ENTIRE ORGANIZATION

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1. Main Pain Chain® for ERP

The Pain Chain®

Job Title: CEO


Pain: Earnings per share decreasing
Reason A Eroding profits

Job Title: VP Finance


Pain: Eroding profits
Reason A Missing new account revenue targets
Reason B Increased operational costs
Reason C Increasing credit write-offs
Job Title: VP Sales
Pain: Missing new account revenue targets
Reason A Sellers spend too much time with existing customers
Reason B Increased operational costs
Reason C Increasing credit write-offs
Reason D Not enough referral business

Job Title: CIO


Pain: Current system does not meet the needs of sales departments
Reason A Legacy systems don´t allow for growth
Reason B Disparate databases limit information flow
Reason C Manual processes

The New Solution Selling: The Revolutionary Sales Process That is Changing
the Way People Sell by Keith M. Eades. McGraw-Hill © 2004
B 7
1. Main Pain Chain® for ERP

Three levels of Buyer Needs

Vision of a Solution

Admitted Pain

Latent Pain

The New Solution Selling: The Revolutionary Sales Process That is Changing
the Way People Sell by Keith M. Eades. McGraw-Hill © 2004
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Microsoft Dynamics Partner Academy

Three levels of Need: Definition

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1. Main Pain Chain® for ERP

Meet the Pain Chain®

Establish a Pain Chain®.


"Pain" is the Solution Selling® (SS) term for things that are going awry. Sales are down - that's a pain.
Expenses are up - ditto. SS is very specific about one thing: there is no technical pain. Your PDA cannot
synchronize with your calendar tool - that's not a pain. That's a cause of pain, or maybe a symptom of
pain. The pain in this case might be: “Your employees are missing too many meetings" or “You couldn't
get the PDA synchronization feature into the last release."
A Pain Chain® is a set of pain descriptions, along with the reasons for them.
In each case, a link in the chain has as one of its reasons a pain from a lower level. Thus, the VP of
Software Development may have "We miss too many ship dates" as a pain entry, while the SQA director
has "Our QA cycle is too long". The SQA pain is a contributor to the VP's pain.
The objective of the Pain Chain® is simple.
To get commitment from the upper echelons of the organization. If the sales team can show a simple
visual aid that ties the VP of Software Development down to the Integration Test manager, then the VP
will be committed to helping the manager.
This commitment means that there is an increased likelihood of the organization successfully
implementing the solution that they buy. It's hard for a test manager to impose restrictions on a
development lead, especially one who claims they’re running late.

A 10
1. Main Pain Chain® for ERP

Pain Sheets®

The Pain Sheet®, or the Situational Fluency Prompter®, documents specific


control questions for salespeople to use when diagnosing buyer pains and
creating buying visions.
You can find this document and more information in the following book.
The New Solution Selling: The Revolutionary Sales Process That is Changing
the Way People Sell by Keith M. Eades. McGraw-Hill © 2004.

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1. Main Pain Chain® for ERP

Main Pain Chain® for ERP

Low Productivity of Unable to respond to


People and changing business
Processes conditions

Difficulty in Managing Difficulty in


Organizational Growth Connecting
Customers, Partners
and Employees

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1. Main Pain Chain® for ERP

Low Productivity of People and Processes (I)

Main Reasons

CEO CFO VP Sales VP Marketing


Pain: Low company Pain: High cost of Pain: Can’t compete Pain: Marketing is costly
productivity prevents taking operations successfully but not producing results
advantage of growth potential

 Reason 1 : High costs of  Reason 1: Lack of real-time  Reason 1: Lack of real-time


 Reason 1: Lack of real-
operations insight into key financial insight into key sales
metrics metrics
time insight into key
 Reason 2: Can´t compete marketing metrics
successfully  Reason 2: Difficulty managing  Reason 2: Difficult for sales
financial accountability and people to access customer  Reason 2: Hard to
 Reason 3: Technology is a measure performance of
compliance. information
cost center, not a productivity marketing campaigns
factor  Reason 3: Expensive,  Reason 3: Sales cycles too
ineffective business long  Reason 3: Difficult to
 Reason 4: Marketing is
costly and not producing processes.  Reason 4: Inability to
identify opportunities and
emerging needs
results  Reason 4: Unfavorable respond quickly to new
margins customer needs
 Reason 5:Unproductive
business practices  Reason 5: Admin. staff need  Reason 5: High cost of
to create and maintain the operations is preventing
 Reason 6: Inefficient
books effective price competition
manufacturing processes
 Reason 6: Overwhelming
need for repeated data entry

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1. Main Pain Chain® for ERP

Low Productivity of People and Processes (II)

Main Reasons

CTO VP Operations VP Manufacturing


Pain: Technology is a cost Pain: Unproductive Pain: Inefficient
center, not a productivity business practices manufacturing processes
factor

 Reason 1: Redundant data  Reason 1: Duplication of


 Reason 1: Supply chain
entry still necessary efforts and data entry
management not flexible
 Reason 2: No  Reason 2: : Difficult to do to accommodate growth
personalization features for business within the company and increased demand
users efficiently
 Reason 2: Difficult and
 Reason 3: Service delivery
 Reason 3: No integration costly to make changes to
not responsive enough to
between business customers
BOMs and customer
management system and orders
other applications  Reason 4: Employee
frustration with company’s  Reason 3: Business
 Reason 4: IT burdened with inability to change course technology not supporting
inefficient tasks, such as efficiencies
 Reason 5: Lack of
producing simple reports automation and efficiency
tools

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1. Main Pain Chain® for ERP

Low Productivity of People and Processes (III)

Capabilities of Microsoft Dynamics ERP

Role Tailored
User Experience

Integration
Alerts Between Finance,
SCM and CRM

Analysis Tools

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1. Main Pain Chain® for ERP

Unable to Respond to Changing Business Conditions (I)

Main Reasons

CEO CFO VP Sales VP Marketing


Pain: Company not an Pain: Not financially Pain: Sales lag behind Pain: Not filling sales
industry or market leader performing any better than competitors pipeline successfully
the competition
 Reason 1 : Sales lag behind  Reason 1: Not enough sales at  Reason 1: Ineffective
competitors,(with Marketing reasonable cost and margin
 Reason 1: Difficulties in
marketing support
not filling the sales pipeline) assessing opportunities
 Reason 2: High cost of  Reason 2: Poor and planning activities
 Reason 2: Technology not acquiring customers understanding of business
helping gain on competitors trends  Reason 2: Unable to
 Reason 3: Business and
respond early to new
 Reason 3: Not financially manufacturing processes not  Reason 3: Difficult for sales
performing any better than economical
market trends
staff to access customer and
the competition
 Reason 4: Not all management transaction information  Reason 3: Brand
 Reason 4: Difficulty in decisions financially sound  Reason 4: Remote sales presence and equity not
maintaining productive offices not tied into business strong enough
 Reason 5: Competitors
customer and partner processes
successfully diminishing  Reason 4: Partner
relationships
revenue stream  Reason 5: No self-service marketing not efficient
 Reason 5: Manufacturing capabilities for customers
unable to adjust to changing  Reason 5: Company lacks
business conditions clear direction

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1. Main Pain Chain® for ERP

Unable to Respond to Changing Business Conditions (II)

Main Reasons

CTO VP Operations VP Manufacturing


Pain: Technology not Pain: Difficulty maintaining Pain: Manufacturing unable
helping gain on competitors productive customer and to adjust to changing
partner relationships business conditions

 Reason 1: Business data too  Reason 1: Service delivery


hard to get to and work with
 Reason 1: No
not responsive enough
understanding of
 Reason 2: No easy way to  Reason 2: Poor customer changing customer needs
share information with communications
partners, customers, and  Reason 2: Too difficult to
vendors  Reason 3: Not open for plan supply and demand
business at all times
 Reason 3: No system-wide  Reason 3: Manufacturing
updates when inventory,  Reason 4: Partners having
difficulty doing business with
processes inefficient and
shipping, and order data expensive
changes the company
 Reason 5: Unable to  Reason 4: Lack of
 Reason 4: Business
support customers in foreign automation
management system too
languages
difficult to use  Reason 5: Hard to adjust
 Reason 5: IT too absorbed changing workloads
with support and maintenance

A 17
1. Main Pain Chain® for ERP

Unable to Respond to Changing Business Conditions (III)

Capabilities of Microsoft Dynamics ERP

Order Processing
and Fulfillment Exception
and Changes

Graphical
Production
Schedule
Multi-language,
Multi-currency,
Multi-location

Data Analysis
and Reporting

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1. Main Pain Chain® for ERP

Role Play: Case 1

• Create groups of 3 people: customer, salesperson, and


observer.
• Take a couple of minutes to prepare.

• Practice, remember this is not an acting test.


• Be realistic, not too nice, not too hard.

• Ask if the person wants to receive feedback.


Giving feedback Receiving feedback
• Ask the person how he thought he did. • Don’t be defensive…..reflect & look
• Start with what went well. for themes.
• Describe the behavior. • Accept this as a legitimate view of
• Be honest and balanced. the person offering it.
• Check that the other person • Be open to doing something
understands your feedback. different, ask for suggestions.

A 19
1. Why growth is not linear

Microsoft Dynamics Partner Academy


Pain Chain®

1. Main Pain Chains® for ERP


2. Pain Chains® by Industries
3. Knowledge Check
4. Summary

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2. Pain Chain® by industries

Introduction

• During the sales cycle, you need to know a priori the specific pains of the sector or
industry of the company in order to be able to define and establish the Pain Chains®
and identify which capacities of Microsoft Dynamics you need to show them.

• Knowing these critical business issues by industry shows sales excellence and
leadership and it is key to achieving success.

• Specific information for the ERP key industries (Manufacturing, Distribution,


Professional Services, and Specialty Retail) can be found on:

https://mbs.microsoft.com/partnersource/marketing/campaigns/vertical/MSDindustryvert
ical02.htm

A 21
2. Pain Chain® by industries

Chemicals Manufacturing

Industry Value Chain


Prospects

C-Level CEO, CFO, CIO, COO, CTO


Formulate Sell VP Level Finance, Operations,
(Concept to Opportunity) (Order to Cash)
Suppliers/Contractors

Manufacturing, Supply Chain,


Engineering

Customers
Upper GM, Plant, Materials, Quality,
Produce Management Compliance, Supply Chain,
(Demand to Availability)
Engineering
SIC Coverage 2812-13, 2816, 2819, 2821-24,
Buy Service 2833-36, 2841-44, 2851, 2861,
(Produce to Pay)
(Consumption to 2865, 2869, 2873-75, 2879,
Replenishment)
2891-93, 2895, 2899
Gross $50M-$2B USD
Manage Staff
(Manage the Business) (Manage Human Capital) Revenue per
Annum
Number of 50-2000
Stratascope Inc. Users

A 22
2. Pain Chain® by industries

Key Pain

Chemicals Manufacturing
Poor On-Time
Operating Costs Delivery and
Out of Control Throughput

Failure to Meet
Varying Product Compliance
Quality, Standards
Traceability

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2. Pain Chain® by industries

Capabilities of Microsoft Dynamics ERP

Profound Experience Industry-specific


in Process Features
Manufacturing

Flexibility in the
Implementation

A 24
2. Pain Chain® by industries

Industrial Equipment Manufacturing

Industrial Equipment Manufacturing Value Chain


Prospects

C-Level CEO, CFO, CIO, COO, CTO

Design Sell VP Level Finance, Operations, Manufacturing,


Suppliers/Contractors

(Concept to Opportunity) (Order to Cash) Supply Chain, Engineering


Upper Plant Manager, Materials Manager,

Customers
Management Engineering Manager, Supply Chain
Produce Manager
(Demand to Availability)
SIC 3433, 3511, 3519, 3523-24, 3531-37,
Coverage 3541, 3542, 3544, 3545, 3547, 3549,
3552-56, 3559, 3561, 3563-69, 3581-82,
Buy Service 3585-86, 3589, 3593-94, 3596, 3599,
(Consumption to
(Produce to Pay) Replenishment) 3699, 3743,3799
Gross $50M-$2B USD
Manage Staff Revenue per
(Manage the Business) (Manage Human Capital)
Annum
Number of 50-2000
Stratascope Inc. Users

B 25
2. Pain Chain® by industries

Key Pain

Industrial Equipment Manufacturing


Improving cost
Meeting management
customer
demand for
products,
pricing, and
services
Improving
financial control
Enhancing
operational
efficiency
Making data
accessible/visible

B 26
2. Pain Chain® by industries

Capabilities of Microsoft Dynamics ERP

Improve
Meet Demanding Operational Efficiency
Customer Needs

Improve
Reduce Costs Financial Control

Provide Access
to Centralized,
Current Data

B 27
2. Pain Chain® by industries

Automotive Supplier Manufacturing

Industry Value Chain


Prospects (Automotive Suppliers)

C-Level CEO, CFO, CIO, COO, CTO


Design Sell
(Innovation Management) (Order to Cash)
VP Level Finance, Operations,
Suppliers/Contractors

Manufacturing, Supply Chain,


Engineering

Customers
Produce Upper Plant, Materials, Engineering,
(Demand to Availability) Management Supply Chain
SIC Coverage 3465, 3519, 3592, 3647, 3694,
37xx
Buy Service
(Consumption to
(Produce to Pay) Replenishment) Gross Revenue $50M-$2B USD
per Annum

Manage Staff Number of 50-2000


(Manage the Business) (Manage Human Capital)
Users

Stratascope Inc.

B 28
2. Pain Chain® by industries

Key Pain

Automotive Supplier Manufacturing

Improving Managing a
Operational Complex Supply
Control Chain

Improving
Customer Leaner
Service Manufacturing

Increasing Production of
Time-to-market Unauthorized
Demands Parts

B 29
2. Pain Chain® by industries

Capabilities of Microsoft Dynamics ERP

Industry-specific Lean Manufacturing


KPIs Capabilities

Develop Profitable
Build Connections to Customer Relationships
Suppliers and
Vendors

B 30
2. Pain Chain® by industries

Professional Services

Industry Value Chain


Prospects (most Professional Services organization
prospects are mid-size firms)

Top Level CEO, Partner, Owner


Develop Sell Executive
Suppliers/Contractors

(Relationship Management) (Account and Opportunity


Management)
Other Executive Operations, Global Services or
Level (Title may Service Delivery, Sales or Market

Customers
be Principal, VP, Development, Finance and
Deliver or C-level) Administration
(Engagement Management)

Upper Marketing, Information


Management Technology, Human Resources,
Resource Maintain Training and Development,
(Talent Management) (Non-project Revenue) Customer Service

Manage
(Manage the Business)

Stratascope Inc.

B 31
2. Pain Chain® by industries

Key Pain

Professional Services
Gaining Deep,
Real-time
Managing and Insight
Reducing Costs

Managing Meeting
Dispersed or Stringent
Virtual Customer
Engagement Reporting
Teams Needs
Ensuring
Aligning Skills Compliance
and People with
Customer
Engagement

B 32
2. Pain Chain® by industries

Capabilities of Microsoft Dynamics ERP

Project Financial
Management Reporting

Financial
Management

B 33
2. Pain Chain® by industries

Specialty Retail

Industry Value Chain


Prospects (Automotive Suppliers)

C-Level CEO, CFO, CIO, COO, CTO


Collaborate Sell
Suppliers/Contractors

(Order to Cash)
(Concept to Opportunity) VP Level Sales, Marketing, Merchandising,
Operations, IT

Customers
Upper GM, Operations, Sales, Marketing
Plan Management
(Demand to Availability)

SIC Coverage 5211, 5231, 5251, 5261, 5271,


5611, 5621, 5632, 5641, 5651,
Buy Service 5661, 5699, 5712-14, 5719, 5722,
(Consumption to
(Produce to Pay) Replenishment) 5731-32, 5734, 5943-48, 5961-63,
5983-84, 5992-93, 5999, 7699
Manage Staff Gross $50M-$2B USD
(Manage the Business) (Manage Human Capital)
Revenue per
Annum

Stratascope Inc. Number of 50-2000


Users

B 34
2. Pain Chain® by industries

Key Pain

Specialty Retail
Outdated IT
Resources
Merchandising
Requirements

Competition High Levels of


from Other Staff Turnover
Types of Retail
Stores and Need to
Minimize Staff
Training
Increasingly
Demanding
Customers

B 35
2. Pain Chain® by industries

Capabilities of Microsoft Dynamics ERP

Connecting
Delivering forecasts
retailers’ demand requirements
and purchase orders directly
to manufacturing, wholesale,
to the retailers’ supplier
and distribution operations

Shortening re-order cycles


Starting up new stores quickly, by integrating
with fast implementations of POS replenishment requirements
with suppliers’ systems

B 36
2. Pain Chain® by industries

Use of Sales Guides

• Read the hand out


https://mbs.microsoft.com/downloads/partner/campaigns/Chemical_Manu/Chemicals
Mfging_SalesGuide_partner.pdf

• Would you use these guides?

• What makes this useful?

A 37
4. Summary

Microsoft Dynamics Partner Academy


Pain Chain®

1. Main Pain Chain® for ERP


2. Pain Chain® by Industries
3. Knowledge Check
4. Summary

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3. Knowledge Check

Knowledge Check

Which of the following are PAINS for ERP?

 Difficulties connecting customers, partners and employees.

 In 2009, the company grew 5%.

 Low productivity of people and processes.

 Support 50% more employees without increasing servers.

B 39
3. Knowledge Check

Knowledge Check - Answer

Which of the following are PAINS for ERP?

 Difficulties connecting customers, partners and employees.

 In 2009, the company grew 5%.

 Low productivity of people and processes.

 Support 50% more employees without increasing servers.

B 40
3. Knowledge Check

Knowledge Check

In a distribution company, which of the following could be a key pain?


 Merchandising requirements.
 Lack of visibility to control inventory and costs.
 Competition from other types of retail stores.
 Chemical manufacturing industry-specific features.

B 41
3. Knowledge Check

Knowledge Check - Answer

In a distribution company, which of the following could be a key pain?


 Merchandising requirements.
 Lack of visibility to control inventory and costs.
 Competition from other types of retail stores.
 Chemical manufacturing industry-specific features.

B 42
3. Knowledge Check

Knowledge Check

In a professional services company, which of the following could be a key


pain?
 Lack of aligning skills and people with customer engagement.
 Starting up new stores quickly, with fast implementations of POS.
 Difficulty managing and reducing costs.
 Delivering forecasts and purchase orders directly to the retailers’ supplier.

B 43
3. Knowledge Check

Knowledge Check - Answer

In a professional services company, which of the following could be a key


pain?
 Lack of aligning skills and people with customer engagement.
 Starting up new stores quickly, with fast implementations of POS.
 Difficulty managing and reducing costs.
 Delivering forecasts and purchase orders directly to the retailers’ supplier.

B 44
3. Knowledge Check

Group activity
The group should put themselves in the CEO’s shoes in the scenario described
in each exercise.
For each exercise, explain the reasons behind the problem for each department
affected and how it would be resolved.

B 45
3. Knowledge Check

Exercise 1 Group activity

Suppose you want to make your business grow but the implicated costs and
complexity would make it practically impossible to access new markets and
sources of income. Your company’s technology doesn’t follow the rhythm of your
business plan and as a consequence you are faced with the problem of your
business growing, with the potential risk of operating inefficiently, or maintaining
your current level of activity and running the risk of loosing opportunities, or
even an eventual decline in activity. Your wholesale customers and strategic
partners would like to see you grow, for their own interests, but this doesn’t
happen. You simply don’t know how to make your business grow.

How does this affect your business and you personally? How would you
resolve this?

B 46
3. Knowledge Check

Exercise 2 Group activity

Suppose your customers and partners have difficulties in contacting your


organization, although they are one of your wholesale suppliers or preferred
commercial partners. You would like to give them more information and access
to company activities, but it will be difficult to achieve this without putting the
integrity of confidential company information at risk. As a consequence,
business data is protected but also limited in terms of its business value as it is
only available in a limited way. Customers don’t generate as much business as
you would like and it is possible that partners will start to think about revaluating
their business relationship with you.

How does this affect your organization and you personally? How would
you resolve this?

B 47
4. Summary

Microsoft Dynamics Partner Academy


Pain Chain®

1. Main Pain Chain® for ERP


2. Pain Chain® by industries
3. Knowledge Check
4. Summary

48
4. Summary

Summary

Pain Chain® 1 3 4
2
Low Productivity Unable to respond to Difficulty in Managing Difficulty in Connecting
Pains People and
Processes
changing business
conditions
Organizational Growth Customers, Partners
and Employees

Role tailored Order processing


Scalability Web portals
user experience and fulfillment

Main Multi-language,
Flexibility to
Capabilities Alerts Multi-currency, Web services
change
Multi-location
of
Microsoft Integration
Exception and Cost-effective Intercompany
Dynamics between finance,
changes implementation functionality
ERPs SCM and CRM

Data analysis Technology Drill-down


Analysis tools
and reporting roadmap capabilities

A 49
4. Summary

Summary

Pain Chain® 1 3 4 5 6
2
Distribution Industrial Equipment Chemicals Automotive Supplier Professional Specialty Retail
Industry Manufacturing Manufacturing Manufacturing Services

Meeting customer
Difficulty gaining Increasing
demand for Operating costs Managing and Merchandising
a clear picture of time-to-markets
products, pricing, out of control reducing costs requirements
demand demands
and services

Lack of visibility to Enhancing Poor on-time Managing a Managing Competition from


control inventory operational Delivery and complex dispersed or virtual other types
Key Pain and costs efficiency Throughput supply chain engagement teams of retail stores
By
Industry Improve execution Aligning skills and Increasingly
Improving cost Varying product, Leaner
with suppliers and people with client demanding
management quality, traceability manufacturing
customers engagement customers

High levels of
Upgrade growth Failure to meet
Improving Production of Gaining deep, staff turnover and
with improved compliance
financial control unauthorized parts real-time insight need to minimize
customer service standards
staff training

A 50
4. Summary

Recap: Keys of ERP Pain Chain®

1. Several Pain Chains® could seriously impact the customer, such as:
a.) Low productivity of people and processes.
b.) Unable to respond to changing business conditions.
c.) Difficulty in managing organizational growth.
d.) Difficulty in connecting customers, partners and employees.
2. In addition, each customer is different depending on the industry it’s in. Their key
pain are also different.
3. Microsoft can help customers realize the capabilities of their ERPs.
Microsoft Dynamics Partner Academy

Review Learning Objectives

• Understand the main Pain Chains® when selling an ERP solution, the impact
of each pain on decision-makers and the capabilities Microsoft Dynamics ERP
solutions bring to customers.

• Understand the main Pain Chains® (needs) for specific industries and how
Microsoft Dynamics ERP solutions help address them.

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© 2009 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other
countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentations. Because Microsoft must respond
to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of
this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.

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