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Mathematics Presentation

Submitted by

Submitted to

Ketan Tarkas

Sonendra sir

To evaluating a double integral we integrate

first with respect to one variable and

considering the other variable as constant,

and then integrate with respect to the

remaining variable. In the former case, limits

of integration are determined in the given

region by drawing stripes parallel to y-axis

while in second case by drawing strips

parallel to x-axis

of integration is immaterial, and in such a

case we have

b

f(x,y)dxdy

f(x,y)dydx

That is,

dy f ( x, y )dx dx f ( x, y )dy

integral f(x,y) in the double integral is either

difficult or even impossible integrate in the

given order then we change the order of

integration and corresponding change is

made in the limits of integration. By

geometrical considerations therefore a clear

sketch of the curve is to be drawn, the new

limits are obtained.

integration

When evaluating double integrals, we can

either integrate with respect to y first

and then x or vice versa. In this short

lesson, we will learn the method of

reversing the order of integration.

Suppose we have the situation

of finding the double integral of a type 2

region that is,

Region of Type I

R: a x b, g1(y) y g2(y)

Region of Type II

R: c y d, h1(x) x h2(x)

Region of Type I

R: a x b, g1(y) y g2(y)

Region of Type II

R: c y d, h1(x) x h2(x)

2

y/2

x2

e dxdy

y

X=1

Y=2x

2

(1,2)

R

0

, the integral cannot be evaluated by

performing the x-integration first. What we

do is to evaluate this integral by expressing

it as an equivalent iterated integral with the

order of integration reversed.

For the inside integration, y is

fixed x varies from the line to the line . For

the outside integration, y varies from 0 to 2.

(1,2)

R

0

by drawing a horizontal line, tracing the left and right ylimits first and then moving the horizontal line up and down

to trace the x-limits, as illustrated above.

We now describe the same region as type 1 region and use the

appropriate process of finding the limits

(1,2)

rearrange to get , and the lower limit of y

becomes . The limits for x easily follow. So,

2 1

y/2

e dxdy e dA

x2

x2

2x

0 0

R

1

[e y ]

x

2x

y 0

x2

e dxdy

dx 2 xe dx

x2

[e ] e 1

x2 1

0

function with respect to y first. That is the

whole point of reversing the order of

integration.

Example

Sketch the region of integration and

change the order of integration for

y/2

f ( x, y)dxdy

Solution

is labeled below.

For fixed y, x is ranging from y/2 to 2

4

X=y/2

X 1

we hold x fixed, with x between 0 and 2,

and y ranges from 0 to 2x

4

y=2x

2x

f ( x, y )dydx

Integration?

Often we know the relationship involving

the rate of change of two variables,

but we may need to know the direct

relationship between the two variables.

For example, we may know the velocity

of an object at a particular time, but we

may want to know the position of the

object at that time.

are used in many applications

Historically, one of

the first uses of

integration was in

finding the volumes

of wine-casks

surface).

in Kuala Lumpur

experience high forces

due to winds.

Integration was used

to design the building

for strength.

House is a very unusual

design based on slices

out of a ball. Many

differential equations

(one type of

integration) were

solved in the design of

this building.

Bibliography

Internet

Books

Engg. Mathematics - Dr. B.S. Grewal

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