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Thakral College Of Technology

Mathematics Presentation
Submitted by

Submitted to

Ketan Tarkas

Sonendra sir

Change of Order of Integration


To evaluating a double integral we integrate
first with respect to one variable and
considering the other variable as constant,
and then integrate with respect to the
remaining variable. In the former case, limits
of integration are determined in the given
region by drawing stripes parallel to y-axis
while in second case by drawing strips
parallel to x-axis

However, if the limits are constant, the order


of integration is immaterial, and in such a
case we have
b

f(x,y)dxdy

f(x,y)dydx

That is,

dy f ( x, y )dx dx f ( x, y )dy

But if the limits are variables and the


integral f(x,y) in the double integral is either
difficult or even impossible integrate in the
given order then we change the order of
integration and corresponding change is
made in the limits of integration. By
geometrical considerations therefore a clear
sketch of the curve is to be drawn, the new
limits are obtained.

Reversing the order of


integration
When evaluating double integrals, we can
either integrate with respect to y first
and then x or vice versa. In this short
lesson, we will learn the method of
reversing the order of integration.
Suppose we have the situation
of finding the double integral of a type 2
region that is,

Region of Type I
R: a x b, g1(y) y g2(y)
Region of Type II
R: c y d, h1(x) x h2(x)

Region of Type I
R: a x b, g1(y) y g2(y)

Region of Type II
R: c y d, h1(x) x h2(x)

For an example, let us evaluate,


2

y/2

x2

e dxdy

A sketch of the region R is below.


y

X=1

Y=2x

2
(1,2)

R
0

Since there is no elementary anti derivative of


, the integral cannot be evaluated by
performing the x-integration first. What we
do is to evaluate this integral by expressing
it as an equivalent iterated integral with the
order of integration reversed.
For the inside integration, y is
fixed x varies from the line to the line . For
the outside integration, y varies from 0 to 2.

(1,2)

R
0

This is a type 2 region or how we would describe the region is


by drawing a horizontal line, tracing the left and right ylimits first and then moving the horizontal line up and down
to trace the x-limits, as illustrated above.
We now describe the same region as type 1 region and use the
appropriate process of finding the limits

(1,2)

Now that we are finding the y limits, we just


rearrange to get , and the lower limit of y
becomes . The limits for x easily follow. So,

2 1

y/2

e dxdy e dA
x2

x2

2x

0 0

R
1

[e y ]
x

2x
y 0

x2

e dxdy

dx 2 xe dx
x2

[e ] e 1
x2 1
0

Notice how easily it is to integrate our


function with respect to y first. That is the
whole point of reversing the order of
integration.

Example
Sketch the region of integration and
change the order of integration for

y/2

f ( x, y)dxdy

Solution

The domain for the integral of the problem


is labeled below.
For fixed y, x is ranging from y/2 to 2
4

X=y/2

X 1

When we reverse the order of integration


we hold x fixed, with x between 0 and 2,
and y ranges from 0 to 2x
4

y=2x

Thus the reversed integral is

2x

f ( x, y )dydx

Why do we need to study


Integration?
Often we know the relationship involving
the rate of change of two variables,
but we may need to know the direct
relationship between the two variables.
For example, we may know the velocity
of an object at a particular time, but we
may want to know the position of the
object at that time.

The processes of integration


are used in many applications
Historically, one of
the first uses of
integration was in
finding the volumes

of wine-casks

(which have a curved


surface).

The Petronas Towers


in Kuala Lumpur
experience high forces
due to winds.
Integration was used
to design the building
for strength.

The Sydney Opera


House is a very unusual
design based on slices
out of a ball. Many
differential equations
(one type of
integration) were
solved in the design of
this building.

Bibliography
Internet
Books

Engg. Mathematics - Sonendra Gupta


Engg. Mathematics - Dr. B.S. Grewal