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An Introduction to

Directional Drilling

(Advanced Drilling Engineering course)

Lecturer: Mojtaba Owrangi - 87333102

Sahand University of Technology

Introduction

2. Reference Systems and Coordinates

3. Types of Directional well trajectories

4. Calculation of a well trajectory

5. Directional Drilling Measurements

6. Deflection Tools

7. Principles of BHA

Definition & Reasons for D.D

z Definition :

z The science of directing a well bore along a

predetermined trajectory to intersect a

designated subsurface target.

z Kick off point (KOP):

z The kick off point is defined as the point below

surface location where the well is deflected from

the vertical.

z Target:

Target

z A predetermined point in the reservoir that D.D

should reaches to it.

Well classification

Vertical Well Wells with less than 10º deviation

Well

Horizontal Well Wells with more than 85º deviation

Well than 2.5

Designer Well Wells with significant turn in the horizontal

plane of 30 to 180 degrees, and turn not

restricted by inclination

Directional wells

Radius Build Rate Radius

Classification ( degrees/30 meter ) (meter)

Medium 7 – 30 285 – 57

Radius

Intermediate 30 - 70 56 – 24

Radius

Reasons for D.D

reaching new targets)

2. Restricted surface locations (inaccessible locations)

3. To reach multiple targets

4. To reduce number of offshore platforms

5. Horizontal Drilling

6. To reach thin reservoirs (using horizontal wells)

7. Salt dome drilling (directing the well from the salt dome to avoid

casing collapse problems)

8. To avoid gas or water coning

9. For intersecting fractures

10. Relief wells

11. For controlling vertical wells

12. Shoreline drilling

D.D applications

D.D applications (multiple targets)

D.D applications (relief well)

D.D applications (side-tracking)

D.D applications (inaccessible locations)

D.D applications (shoreline drilling)

D.D applications (salt dome drilling)

D.D applications (fault drilling)

D.D applications (horizontal well)

Horizontal well

z Horizontal wells

z The Incl. reaches to 90° through reservoir section

: ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻛﺎرﺑﺮد در اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﺑﻬﺮه ﺑﺮداري و در ﻣﺨﺎزن ﺧﺎص ﻣﺜﻞz

z Fracture Limestone & Low permeability zone

ﻓﻮﺗﻲ30 ﺧﺎص ﺑﺮاي اﻳﺠﺎد زاوﻳﻪ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ و در ﻳﻚ ﺷﻌﺎعBHA z

2° per ft z

Deep Kickoff and Build :ﺷﺒﻴﻪ ﻧﻮع z

Drilling Fluid Selection

a fluid for drilling a vertical hole apply to

choosing a fluid for a directional hole:

z Formation protection

z Hole cleaning

z Lubricity

z Inhibition

z Fluid weight required

z Economics

z Environmental impact

Reference Systems and Coordinates

z Depth references

z Measured Depth (MD)

z Pipe tally, wire line depth counter, or mud loggers depth

counter

z True Vertical Depth (TVD)

z calculated from the deviation survey data

z Inclination references

z is the angle (in degrees) between the vertical and the well bore

axis at a particular point.

TVD & MD

Reference Systems and Coordinates

Reference Systems and Coordinates

z Azimuth references

z Magnetic North (measured by MWD)

z True (Geographic) North

z Grid North

• Horizontal distance between rig location & the target.

Note:

Reference Systems and Coordinates

Reference Systems and Coordinates

Types of Directional well trajectories

2. Build-hole-drop (S type)

3. Build-hold-drop-hold (modified S type)

4. Continuous build

5. Deep Kickoff and Build

Types of Directional well trajectories

Build and hold

z Features:

z Build-up section

z Tangent section

the Max buildup angle

z No major changes in incl. & azimuth

After build up section

z Incl: 15 – 55 deg or may be more

z Applications:

displacements

z Moderately deep wells with moderate

horizontal displacement, where

intermediate casing is not required

Build-hole-drop (S type) & Build-hold-drop-hold (modified S type)

Build-hole-drop (S type) & Build-hold-drop-hold (modified S type)

z Features: z Applications:

z Shallow KOP

z Build-up section z Multiple pay zones

z Tangent section z Reduces final angle in

reservoir

z Drop-off section z Lease or target limitations

z Well spacing requirements

z There are several z Deep wells with small

variations: horizontal displacements

z Build, hold &drop back to

vertical (illustrated above) z Disadvantages:

z Build, hold, drop & hold

(illustrated above) z Increased torque & drag

z Build, hold & continuous z Risk of key seating

drop through reservoir z Logging problems due to

inclination

Continuous build

z Features:

z Decrease in torque & drag KOP

z Lowest risk of key seating

z Continuous build rate

Build Section

z Applications:

z This type occurs when Target

using down-hole motors

with bent sub.

Deep Kickoff and Build

z Features:

z Deep KOP

z Build-up section

z Short tangent section (optional)

z Applications:

z Salt dome drilling

z Sidetracking

z Appraisal wells to assess the extent of a

newly discovered reservoir

z Disadvantages:

z Formations are harder so the initial

deflection may be more difficult to

achieve

z Harder to achieve desired tool face

orientation with down hole motor

deflection assemblies (more reactive

torque)

z Longer trip time for any BHA changes

required

z Build up rate is more difficult to control

Calculation of a well trajectory

(build-hold where X3 < r1)

z Radius of curvature:

180 1

r1 = ×

π q

q= build rate (deg/100 ft)

X3<r1 :

⎡ r1 ⎤ ⎛ r − X3 ⎞

θ = arc sin ⎢ ⎥ − arc tan ⎜⎜ 1 ⎟⎟

⎢⎣ ( r1 − X 3 ) 2 + ( D 3 − D1 ) 2 ⎥⎦ ⎝ D 3 − D1 ⎠

π

× r1 × θ Or LDC =

L DC =

θ

180 q

build section:

X 2 = r1 (1 − cos θ )

Calculation of a well trajectory

(build-hold where X3 < r1)

z The total measured depth:

D M = D1 + θ

q + r1

tan Ω

D 2 = D 1 + r1 ⋅ sin θ

z Measured depth at CP section:

CP′

CP = CP′ = ( D′ − D1 − r1 ⋅ sinθ )

cos θ

z Another way of expressing maximum

inclination angle, in term of r1, D1, D3

and X3 for X3<r1 is:

D − D1

θ = arc tan( 3 )−

r1 − X 3

⎧⎪ ⎛ D − D1 ⎞ ⎤ ⎫⎪

arc cos ⎨ ( r1

D 3 − D1

)× sin ⎡⎢arc tan ⎜⎜ 3

−

⎟⎟ ⎥ ⎬

⎪⎩ ⎣ ⎝ 1

r X 3 ⎠⎦ ⎪ ⎭

Calculation of a well trajectory

(build-hold where X3 > r1)

by:

⎛ D 3 − D1 ⎞

θ = 180 − arc tan ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ −

⎝ X 3 − r1 ⎠

⎧⎪ ⎛ r1 ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ D 3 − D1 ⎞ ⎤ ⎫⎪

arc cos ⎨ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ × sin ⎢ arc tan ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎥ ⎬

⎪⎩ ⎝ D 3 − D1 ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ X 3 − r1 ⎠ ⎦ ⎪⎭

Calculation of a well trajectory

(S type)

r1<X3 & r1+r2<X4 r1<X3 & r1+r2>X4

D4 − D1 ⎛ D −D ⎞

θ = arc tan( )− θ = 180 − arc tan⎜⎜ 4 1

⎟⎟ −

r1 + r2 − X 4 ⎝ 4

X − ( r1 − r2 ⎠

)

⎧⎪ ⎡ ⎛ D4 − D1 ⎞⎤ ⎫⎪ ⎧⎪⎛ r + r ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ D4 − D1 ⎞⎤ ⎫⎪

arc cos⎨ ( r1 + r2

D 4 − D1

)

× sin ⎢arc tan⎜⎜

+ −

⎟⎟⎥ ⎬ arc cos⎨⎜⎜ 1 2 ⎟⎟ × sin ⎢arc tan⎜⎜

⎪⎩⎝ D4 − D1 ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ X − ( r + r )

⎟⎟⎥ ⎬

⎠⎦ ⎪⎭

⎪⎩ ⎣ ⎝ 1 2

r r X 4 ⎠⎦ ⎪⎭

4 1 2

Example 1- Design of D.D

restrictions:

¾ Total horizontal departure= 4500 ft

¾ True vertical depth (TVD)= 12500 ft

¾ Depth of KOP= 2500 ft

¾ Rate of build of inclination angle= 1.5

deg/100ft

¾ Type 1 well (build-hold)

B. What is the total measured depth?

Example 1- Design of D.D

Ans.

z r1=(180/Л)*(1/q)=(180/Л)*(100/1.5)= 3820 ft

Because r1<X3:

⎛D −D ⎞

θ = 180 − arc tan ⎜⎜ 4 1

⎟⎟ −

⎝ X 4 − r1 ⎠

z ⎧⎪⎛

arc cos ⎨⎜⎜

r1 ⎞

⎪⎩⎝ D 4 − D1 ⎠

⎡

⎣

⎛ D − D1 ⎞ ⎤ ⎫⎪

⎟⎟ × sin ⎢ arc tan ⎜⎜ 4

⎝ X 4 − r1

⎟⎟ ⎥ ⎬

⎠ ⎦ ⎪⎭

⇒ ɵ=26.29 deg

z Total measured depth:

D M = D1 + θ

q + r1

tan Ω DM=2500+1753+9264=13517 ft

Survey Calculation Methods

estimate the well bore trajectory as it is being

drilled. Eighteen methods are known for

computing surveys, but the 3 most widely used

methods are the tangential, angel-averaging and

minimum curvature methods.

is to ascertain the coordinates by using some

type of surveying instrument to measure the

inclination and direction at various depths

(stations) and then to calculate the trajectory.

Survey Calculation Methods

1. Acceleration method

2. Average angle method

3. Angle-averaging method

4. Backward station method

5. Balanced tangential method

6. Circular arc method

7. Compensated acceleration method

8. Mercury method

9. Minimum curvature method

10. Quadrant method

11. Radius of curvature method

12. Secant method

13. Tangential method

14. Terminal angle method

15. Trapezoidal method

16. Vector averaging method

Survey Calculation Methods

Survey Calculation Methods

z Tangential method:

method

z (Backward station method) or (Terminal angle method)

z the tangential method uses only the inclination and direction

angles at lower end of the course length.

⎧ n

⎪ n ∑ i

L = L

z It is inaccurate among other methods:

⎪ ⎪ n

M i = DMi . sin(α i ). sin(ε i )⎬ ⇒ ⎨M n = ∑ M i

Di = DMi . cos(α i ) ⎪ ⎪ i =1

⎭ ⎪ n

Li= latitude north/south

Mi= latitude east/west

⎪ Dn = ∑ Di

Di= TVD segment αi= inclination angle ⎩ i =1

DMi= course length εi= direction angle

Example 2- tangential method

for tangential method?

3000 2 N 28 E

3300 4 N 10 E

3600 8 N 35 E

3900 12 N 25 E

5000 15 N 30 E

6000 16 N 28 E

7000 17 N 50 E

8000 17 N 20 E

9000 17 N 30 E

10000 17 N 25 E

Survey Calculation Methods

• the angle averaging method is the simple average of the

angles at the top and bottom of course length.

α i + α i −1 ε i + ε i −1 ⎫ ⎧ n

2 2

⎪ ⎪ i =1

α i + α i −1 ε i + ε i −1 ⎪ ⎪ n

M i = DMi . sin( ). sin( ) ⎬ ⇒ ⎨M n = ∑ M i

2 2 ⎪ ⎪ i =1

α i + α i −1 ⎪ ⎪ n

Di = DMi . cos( ) ⎪ ⎪ Dn = ∑ Di

2 ⎭ ⎩ i =1

Example 3- Average angle method

given below:

7100 0 0

7200 10.1 S68W

7300 13.4 S65W

7400 16.3 S57W

7500 19.6 S61W

Note:

For the first point the direction should not be averaged, it means that at

MD= 7200 we use dir. = 248 instead of 124.

For the first point the inclination should be averaged, so for

MD=7200 the incl. = 5.05.

Survey Calculation Methods

and

Radius of curvature method:

uses the angles at A1 and A2

over the course length

Survey Calculation Methods

radian, it is reasonable to set F=1.0

⎫

cos β i = cos (α i − α i −1 ) − {sin α i −1 . sin α i (1 − cos (ε i − ε i −1 ))}⎪

⎪ ⎧ n

β

F = ⎛⎜ 2 ⎞⎟. tan ⎛⎜ i ⎞⎟ ⎪ ⎪ Ln = ∑ Li

⎝ βi ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎪ ⎪ i =1

⎪ ⎪

⎛ D Mi ⎞ ⎪ n

Mi = ⎜ ⎟.(sin( α i −1 ). sin (ε i −1 ) + sin α i . sin ε i ).Fi ⎬⇒ ⎨M n = ∑ M i

⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎪ ⎪ i =1

⎪ ⎪

Li = ⎛⎜ Mi ⎞⎟.(sin( α i −1 ). cos (ε i −1 ) + sin α i . cos ε i ).Fi

n

D

⎝ 2⎠ ⎪ ⎪ D n = ∑ Di

⎪ ⎩ i =1

D ⎪

⎝ 2⎠ ⎪⎭

Comparison of accuracy of various calculation methods

method differences from actual (ft) differences from actual (ft)

Tangential 1628.61 -25.38 998.02 +43.09

curvature

Minimum 1653.99 0.0 954.93 0.0

curvature

Mercury 1653.63 -0.37 954.89 0.04

Directional Drilling presentation ٤٨

Dogleg Severity

place high bending stresses on the pipe. In addition, these

doglegs can cause key seating problems. Most operators place

a limit on the amount of angle change allowable over a 100-ft

segment. The limit is 4-6 deg per 100 ft.

100

DL =

L[(sin I1 sin I 2 )(sin A1 sin A2 + cos A1 cos A2 ) + cosI1 cosI 2 ]

L: course length

I1, I2 : Inclination at upper & lower survey, deg

A1, A2 : direction at upper & lower survey, deg

Directional Drilling Measurements

z Magnetic multi shot instruments

z Measurement while drilling (MWD)

z Electromagnetic

z Acoustic

z Pressure pulse

z Pressure pulse modulation

z Cable & DP

Directional Drilling Measurements

The figure above shows the basic configuration of the Directional Sensor

probe. The directional probe is mounted to the MWD assembly and

keyed into a Non-Magnetic Drill Collar. The nominal length of the sub is

30 feet. The nonmagnetic collar is usually referred to as Monel.

Directional Drilling Measurements

z Records

–inclination

–direction

–tool face position

z on sensitized paper or photographic film

Inclination may be determined by

–a float on a liquid

–a pendulum

Directional Drilling Measurements (Single shot)

z Procedure:

–load film into

instrument

–activate timer

(activate

stopwatch)

–make up the tool

–drop the tool

–retrieve tool (wire

line or drill pipe)

Magnetic Multi shot Instruments

z May be dropped down the drill pipe or run on wire line in open hole.

z The unit contains a watch that is spring wound and uses the power of the

spring to operate a timer cam.

z The multishot tool is usually dropped down the drill pipe and

landed in the nonmagnetic drill collar.

z During the trip out, a survey is taken every 90 ft, i.e. every stand.

z More closely spaced stations could be obtained by stopping the

pipe more often, and waiting for a picture.

z A stopwatch at the surface is synchronized with the instrument

watch.

Magnetic Multi shot Instruments

MWD (Measurement While Drilling)

information on:

Inclination temperature

Direction weight on bit

tool-face angle torque on bit

gamma ray sonic velocity

Resistivity

interest in directional drilling. A lower cost MWD tool can

be used if only directional drilling information is required.

+ve or - ve pressure pulses, or pressure pulse modulation

Deflection Tools

z Hole angles are usually kicked off by jetting, whip stocks or some type of bent

sub, down hole motor tools.

z Geology affects the decision as well as the desire to use a steering tool.

1. Jetting:

It was a widely used technique several years ago. It involved the use of a large bit jet

and two smaller jets. After washing 6-8 ft rotary was used to drill the rest of the

joint

2. Whip stock

is a very simple device used to kick off the well.

Separated into 2 categories:

i. Open hole whip stocks

ii. Casing whip stocks

3. Bent subs:

are used with down hole motors. The sub has 1/2 -5/2 degree of bend in it that will

deflect the motor in the desired direction.

Deflection tools (Jetting)

z Jetting

z A standard soft formation tri-

cone bit, with one very large

nozzle and two smaller ones.

z Important parameter:

z Geology:

z S.S & oolitic limestone (best)

z Unconsolidated S.S & very

soft rock (good)

z Very soft rocks erode too

much (bad)

z As a rough rule of

thumb, ROP>24m/hr

using normal drilling

parameters

z Hydraulic energy

z A rule of thumb: mud

velocity through the

large jet should be at

least 500 ft/sec.

Deflection tools (Jetting)

Advantages & Disadvantages Of Jetting

z Advantages z Disadvantages

z Same BHA to change z Only works in soft

trajectory & drilling ahead formation and therefore at

z Simple and cheap method shallow depths.

in soft formations. z high dogleg severities are

z Dogleg severity can be often produced. Deviation

partly controlled from is produced in a series of

surface by varying the sudden changes, rather

number of feet “jetted” than a smooth continuous

each time. change. For this reason, it

z The survey tool is not far

is normal practice to jet

behind the bit. an under gauge hole and

then open it out to full

z Orientation of tool face is gauge, which smoothes

fairly easy off the worst of the

doglegs.

Deflection tools (Whip stock)

1. Movie 1 (bottom trip W.S)

2. Movie 2 (section milling)

3. Movie 3 (section milling)

4. Movie 4 (retrieving a W.S)

5. Movie 5 (cement type W.S)

6. Movie 6 (Casing W.S)

Deflection tools (Whip stock)

Deflection tools (Whip stock)

z Whip stocks

z Standard removable Whip stock

z used to kick off wells

z Sidetracking

z Disadvantage

z If the whip stock is set on the fill, then whip stock rotate when

drilling starts

z Fill tend to wash away, causing the bit to slide down the side of

the well bore and entire whip stock assembly to rotate

z Critical: when bit leaves the end of W. wedge, if the rock too

soft & circulation too high, bit can lose curvature and continue

straight

z number of “trips” involved.

z whip stock produced a sudden, sharp deflection

z Advantages

z It is a fairly simple piece of equipment which requires relatively

little maintenance and has no temperature limitations.

Deflection tools (Whip stock)

– the drilling mud initially flows through a passage to the bottom of

the whip stock which permits more efficient cleaning of the

bottom of the hole and ensures a clean seat for the tool.

– It is most efficient for washing out bottom hole fills.

z used where a “window” is to be cut in casing for a sidetrack

z advantage

z operation usually takes less time.

z disadvantage

z gives a sharp dogleg

z Casing window is too short. Numerous trips & long hours of rotation

can wear or damage the casing, difficult to trip out the BHA through

the casing window

Deflection tools (Whip stock)

Down hole motors

began to be used in the US

z PDM & turbine + Bent Sub + Bent Housing or

eccentric stabilizers

and positive

displacement

motor (right)

designs.

PDM s vs. Turbines

z PDM:

z The directional driller can

use pump pressure as a

weight indicator

z longer bit life

z because of the slower

rotary speed.

z Use a small bend at the

U-joint housing instead of

bent sub

z Turbine:

z operate at higher

temperatures

z DO NOT have a dump

valve.

Factors Affecting directional behavior of rotary assemblies

z Diameter and length of drill collars

z Weight -on-bit

z Rotary speed

z Bit type

z Formation anisotropy and dip angle of the

bedding planes

z Formation hardness

z Flow rate

z Rate of penetration

PDM accessories

PDM accessories

PDM accessories

PDM accessories

Turbine accessories

Principles of BHA (Fulcrum)

to build angle (increase

borehole inclination)

z Full gauge near bit stabilizer,

followed by 40 to 120ft DC, before

the first string stabilizer, or no string

stabilizer

Principles of BHA (Fulcrum)

string stabilizer

• Increase in hole inclination

• Reduction of drill collar diameter

• Increase in weight on bit

• Reduction in rotary speed

• Reduction in flow rate

(in soft formations)

Principles of BHA (Stabilization)

hold angle and direction

short, stiff drill collar sections, then the three stabilizers will resist

going around a curve and force the bit to drill a reasonably

straight path

Principles of BHA (Stabilization)

Principles of BHA (Pendulum)

Drop angle

References

z “Applied drilling engineering” Adam T.bourgoyne, spe text book,vol 2.

z “Oil well drilling engineering” H. Rabia, univ. of newcastle,1985.

z “Advanced directional drilling” drilling services, computalog, Texas.

z “Drilling engineering” N.J Adams, pennwell books, Tulsa, Oklahoma.

z “Drilling engineering workbook” baker huges INTEQ,80270H rev. B, Dec

1995.

z “IADC Drilling manual”, e-book version(11),2000.

z “Well engineering & construction” Hussein Rabia, e-book version.

z “Introduction to directional drilling” schlumberger hand out, 1998

z “Directional drilling training manual”, schlumberger handbook, 1996

Attachment- review of 6 calculation methods

Attachment- review of 6 calculation methods

Attachment- review of 6 calculation methods

Attachment- review of 6 calculation methods

Attachment- review of 6 calculation methods

Attachment- review of 6 calculation methods

That was all I knew about D.D

Thanks for your attention

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