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INTRODUCTION

“We have to take care about nature as much as nature is taking care
about us. Nature is very kind with us. And if you want to enjoy the gifts of nature and the
promises of nature, we have to defer to nature and its need, its rules, its norms .”
-Shimon Peres

The present era may well be designated as the era of ecological crisis that has
threatened the life support system as a whole .Humankind is, thus,involved in what has been
called specide, killing of species,.If homocide is a crime, specide is equally so.The rapid
destruction of ecosystems,as well as decline in quality and quantity of natural resources has
lead to a concern for their conservation. Conservation of ecosystem is nothing but securing
the existence of man on this planet .It is the managment, for the benefit of all life
including humankind, of the biosphere so that it may yield the highest substainable
benefit to the present generation, while keeping its potential to meet the needs &
aspirations of future generations.

One of the major challenges for the conservation biology today is to enhance
the level of protection of ecosystem and biological diversity in landscapes increasingly
dominated by human beings.Habitat alteration , over-exploitation, pollution etc. are going to
threaten the global biological resources . This has led to the fast depletion of biodiversity in
different ecosystems and adversely affected the ecological balance . Therefore, for the
conservation of the environment, many laws were enacted from time to time.

However, in most countries, conservation relies strongly on modern western


protocol, and a system of national parks and reserves, often established in marginal land,
usually far from major urban and production centres. This stategy has worked best in
developed nations, where land can be allocated to different uses on a more permenent basis.

In contrast , developing countries are going to face problems because large


proportion of the people are still living in rural areas .Most of their income derives fom the
exploitation of natural resources. Problems have mostly originated from government
policies that allocate land to conservation reserves without taking into account the current
interest and activites of local residents. The present land- use practices in most of these
countries involve radical changes to the original landscape mosaic. This includes reduction
of native vegetative cover and diversity, degradition of ecosystems, and the loss of a wide
range of natural resources traditionally valued by local communities. Under such
circumstances , the so called scientific conservation strategy could not prove itself suitable
enough in the developing countries . To arrive at a suitable solution , it becomes apparent to
rely on alternative conservation practices in addition to the modern ones .
WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY?
Our planet is literally teeming with life. An amazing variety of habitats,
people, plants, and animals—everything from penguins to peas and bacteria to buffalo—are
all interconnected in a fragile web of life we call “biodiversity.” And every member is
essential to keeping this web in balance. Biodiversity is a modern term which simply means
“the variety of life on earth". This variety can be measured on several different levels.
Biodiversity encompasses all the variety of living things - plants, animals and microbes -
and all the places where they're found. It is the diversity of life, from genes to whole
ecosystems.
Biodiversity is essential for our survival. It provides basic necessities - food,
fuel, clean air and water - as well as benefits such as medicine, breakdown of waste and
crop pollination. But it also brings us things we don't want - super bugs that survive
conventional antibiotics, invasive plants and animals, and potential new killers like bird flu.
Scientists believe that the sheer diversity of life is richer now than it has been
in any other period in Earth's history. We have only named 1·75 million different species,
and scientists know some species have been described more than once, so the actual number
of species is lower. We also know the world is losing huge numbers of plant and animal
species, and that this loss is accelerating, perhaps even approaching previous mass
extinction rates.
The basic components of Biodiversity include:
• GENETIC BIODIVERSITY : genetic variation within populations or species.
• SPECIES BIODIVERSITY : number of species within an area.
• ECOSYSTEM BIODIVERSITY:Variation among the ecosystems, communities.

Some common terms associated with biodiversity include:


 Genetic - variation between individuals of the same species. This includes genetic
variation between individuals in a single population, as well as variations between
different populations of the same species. Genetic differences can now be measured
using increasingly sophisticated techniques. These differences are the raw material
of evolution.
 Species - species diversity is the variety of species in a given region or area. This
can either be determined by counting the number of different species present, or by
determining taxonomic diversity. Taxonomic diversity is more precise and considers
the relationship of species to each other. It can be measured by counting the number
of different taxa (the main categories of classification) present. For example, a pond
containing three species of snails and two fish is more diverse than a pond
containing five species of snails, even though they both contain the same number of
species. High species biodiversity is not always necessarily a good thing. For
example, a habitat may have high species biodiversity because many common and
widespread species are invading it at the expense of species restricted to that habitat.
 Ecosystem - Communities of plants and animals, together with the physical
characteristics of their environment (e.g. geology, soil and climate) interlink together
as an ecological system, or 'ecosystem'. Ecosystem diversity is more difficult to
measure because there are rarely clear boundaries between different ecosystems and
they grade into one another.
The facts that pertain to why biodiversity is essential
• Conditions on planet Earth change naturally over time. Life can adapt to new
circumstances over many generations through a process called evolution. But species
that can't adapt fast enough go extinct. If conditions change rapidly, life has no time
to adapt, for example when a large meteorite strikes Earth, a large volcanic eruption
occurs, or the climate changes suddenly.
• Fossil records tell us there is a natural background extinction rate of about one or two
species per year. Scientists estimate extinction rates are now 1,000 times the
background rate.
• Abundant, widespread species tend to survive between one and ten million years,
according to fossil records.
• We know there have been five mass extinctions in the past. The last, 65 million years
ago, wiped out the dinosaurs.
• Mass extinctions are dramatic, but they only account for about 4% of all species
extinctions in the Earth's history.
• There is a big difference between the current loss of biodiversity and previous
extinctions. Physical events caused mass extinctions in the past.
WHERE IS BIODIVERSITY FOUND?
Biodiversity is everywhere. Wherever scientists have looked for life on
Earth, they have found it. Extreme environments like Antarctica's dry valleys support just a
few specialist species, whereas rainforests and coral reefs teem with life. There is life in
rocks deep beneath the Earth's surface, in deserts, on mountains and on ice sheets. NERC
scientists have even found bacteria in clouds.

Biodiversity hotspots
Some ecosystems are particularly rich in species and are known as
'biodiversity hotspots', for example, coral reefs and rainforests.
1. Land
We know more about the biodiversity on land than in any other
environment. Forests and woodlands hold more biodiversity than any other land-based
habitat. In fact, tropical rainforests hold most of the world's known species .The rainforests
are threatened by deforestation and development. Approximately half the forests that
developed since the last ice age have been cleared or degraded by people, creating serious
strains on these ecosystems.
Grassland, open scrubland, desert and tundra tend to have fewer species
than most forests. Notable exceptions are Mediterranean-type shrub lands, which support a
huge variety of plants.We have changed most grassland areas by growing crops and grazing
livestock.
Micro-organisms, including bacteria and fungi, turn nitrogen from the
air into nutrients for plants, recycle nutrients, break down wastes, and deal with toxins.
New DNA techniques mean scientists can identify what organisms are present by screening
soil samples for DNA. Scientists can also search for particular functions, such as the ability
to remove toxic metals, by checking that certain genes are present.
2. Freshwater
Inland waters form a minute proportion of the world's water resource.
Despite this they contain a very wide range of habitats and a disproportionately high
fraction of the world's biodiversity. Fresh water is a vital resource for us, putting inland
water ecosystems under enormous pressure.
3. Oceans
Life originated in the sea. Of the 34 main groups in the animal
kingdom, all but one occur in the ocean and 15 never left.Oceans are one of the last great
frontiers for environmental science. We need to know more about how these ecosystems
function, and assess how vulnerable or resilient they will be to future pressures. Scientists
can already detect many effects of people on marine ecosystems.
Coral reefs harbour vast numbers of different species, from bacteria to
barracuda. They support more species per unit area than any other well-studied marine
environment, including about 4,000 species of fish, 800 species of hard coral, and thousands
of other species.Scientists estimate that there may be as many as eight million undiscovered
species living in and around coral reefs. But these vibrant and complex ecosystems are very
sensitive to environmental change, and many have been destroyed by pollution, over fishing
and boats. Rising ocean temperatures are killing coral. The dead coral turns white - coral
bleaching.Compared with coral reefs, vast swathes of the ocean appeared to be devoid of
life. But this view has been overturned recently. Researchers have found that the open
oceans are home to thousands of micro-organisms, with many that are new to science. These
newly-discovered organisms may be very useful in providing new medicines or antibiotics.

4. The Poles
The Polar Regions are arguably the most inhospitable places on the
planet. Organisms must survive sub-zero temperatures, biting winds and months of
darkness. The Arctic is home to several well-known species of animals such as snowy owls,
foxes, polar bears, walruses and whales. Scientists predict climate change will affect the
Arctic more than other natural ecosystems: Alaska and Siberia are two of the fastest-
warming regions on the planet. Computer models predict there will be no Arctic sea ice in
the summer by the end of this century - some models say as early as 2060. This is a serious
threat to biodiversity.Few Antarctic plants and animals live on land. The communities that
do are ecologically simple, and often seem to cling on at the edge of existence. But in the
sea, biological communities are rich and diverse. Here, the temperatures are low but stable,
with distinctly seasonal winter ice cover and summer plankton blooms.
WHY IS BIODIVERSITY IMPORTANT?
ECONOMIC VALUE :
− medicines and other helpful chemicals

− resources, including food

− genes for better crops


UTILITARIAN VALLUE:
− prevent erosion

− purify & recycle water, CO 2 ,O2

− regulate climate

− recycle nutrients through decomposition

− collectively,” ecosystem services”

PSYCHOLOGICAL VALUE & INSTRINSIC VALUE:


− direct or indirect enjoyment of nature
− independent of humans

LOSSES OF BIODIVERSITY
Extinction is a fact of life. Species have been evolving and dying
out ever since the origin of life. One only has to look at the fossil record to appreciate this. It
has been estimated that surviving species constitute about 1% of the species that have ever
lived.However, species are now becoming extinct at an alarming rate, almost entirely as a
direct result of human activities. Previous mass extinctions evident in the geological record
are thought to have been brought about mainly by massive climatic or environmental shifts.
Mass extinctions as a direct consequence of the activities of a single species are
unprecedented in geological history.
The loss of species in tropical ecosystems such as the rain
forests, is extremely well-publicised and of great concern. However, equally worrying is the
loss of habitat and species closer to home in Britain. This is arguably on a comparable scale,
given the much smaller area involved.Predictions and estimates of future species losses
abound. One such estimate calculates that a quarter of all species on earth are likely to be
extinct, or on the way to extinction within 30 years. Another predicts that within 100 years,
three quarters of all species will either be extinct, or in populations so small that they can be
described as "the living dead".It must be emphasised that these are only predictions. Most
predictions are based on computer models and as such, need to be taken with a very
generous pinch of salt. For a start, we really have no idea how many species there are on
which to base our initial premise.
There are also so many variables involved that it is almost impossible to predict what
will happen with any degree of accuracy. Some species actually benefit from human
activities, while many others are adversely affected. Nevertheless, it is indisputable that if
the human population continues to soar, then the ever increasing competition with wildlife
for space and resources will ensure that habitats and their constituent species will lose out.
It is difficult to appreciate the scale of human population increases over the last two
centuries. The only possible conclusion is that unless human populations are substantially
reduced, it is inevitable that biodiversity will suffer further major losses.
A world International agency-International Union for Conservation of Nature and
Natural (IUCN) resources maintains a database called the“Red Database”. Information
regarding endangered and vulnerable species of plants and animals is kept in it . The IUCN
has developed categories for plants and animals based on
 present and past distribution of species.
 decline in the number of population of the species in the course of time.
 abundance and quality of natural habitat of the species.
 potential value of the species.
The four categories which the IUCN has developed on the basis of the above conditions are
1)Endangered species:
2)Vulnerable species
3)Rare species
4)Threatened species
Some species are more vulnerable to extinction than others. These include:
 Species at the top of food chains, such as large carnivores-Large carnivores usually
require fairly extensive territories in order to provide them with sufficient prey. As
human populations increasingly encroach on wild areas and as habitats shrink in
extent, the number of carnivores which can be accommodated in the area also
decreases. These animals may also pose a threat to people, as populations expand
into wilder areas inhabited by large carnivores. Protective measures, including
elimination of offending animals in the area, further reduces numbers.
 Endemic local species (species found only in one geographical area) with a very
limited distribution-These are very vulnerable to local habitat disturbance or human
development.
 Species with chronically small populations-If populations become too small, then
simply finding a mate, or interbreeding, can become serious problems.
 Migratory species-Species which need suitable habitats to feed and rest in widely
spaced locations (which are often traditional and 'wired' into behaviour patterns) are
very vulnerable to loss of these 'way stations'.
 Species with exceptionally complex life cycles-If completion of a particular
lifecycle requires several different elements to be in place at very specific times, then
the species is vulnerable if there is disruption of any single element in the cycle.
 Specialist species with very narrow requirements such as a single specific food
source, e.g. a particular plant species.
Loss of an individual species can have various different effects on the remaining species in
an ecosystem. These effects depend upon the how important the species is in the ecosystem.
Some species can be removed without apparent effect, while removal of others may have
enormous effects on the remaining species. Species such as these are termed "keystone"
species.
WHY CONSERVE BIODIVERSITY?
 Ecological Reasons
Individual species and ecosystems have evolved over millions of
years into a complex interdependence. The ecological arguments for conserving biodiversity
are therefore based on the premise that we need to preserve biodiversity in order to maintain
our own life support systems. Two linked issues which are currently of great ecological
concern include world-wide deforestation and global climate change.
Forests not only harbour untold numbers of different species, but
also play a critical role in regulating climate. The destruction of forest, particularly by
burning, results in great increases in the amount of carbon in the atmosphere. This happens
for two reasons. Firstly, there is a great reduction in the amount of carbon dioxide taken in
by plants for photosynthesis and secondly, burning releases huge quantities of carbon
dioxide into the atmosphere. This is significant because carbon dioxide is one of the main
greenhouse gases implicated in the current global warming trend.
Average global temperatures have been showing a steadily
increasing trend. Forests also affect rainfall patterns through transpiration losses and protect
the watershed of vast areas. Deforestation therefore results in local changes in the amount
and distribution of rainfall. It often also results in erosion and loss of soil and often to
flooding. Devastating flooding in many regions of China over the past few years has been
largely attributed to deforestation. These are only some of the ecological effects of
deforestation. The effects described translate directly into economic effects on human
populations.

 Economic Reasons
Environmental disasters such as floods, forest fires and hurricanes
indirectly or directly caused by human activities, all have dire economic consequences for
the regions afflicted. Clean-up bills can run into the billions, not to mention the toll of
human misery involved. Susceptible regions are often also in the less-developed and poorer
nations to begin with. Erosion and desertification, often as a result of deforestation, reduce
the ability of people to grow crops and to feed themselves. This leads to economic
dependence on other nations.Non-sustainable extraction of resources (e.g. hardwood timber)
will eventually lead to the collapse of the industry involved, with all the attendant economic
losses. It should be noted that even if 'sustainable' methods are used, for example when
harvested forest areas are replanted, these areas are in no way an ecological substitute for
the established habitats which they have replaced.
Large-scale habitat and biodiversity losses mean that species with
potentially great economic importance may become extinct before they are even discovered.
The vast, largely untapped resource of medicines and useful chemicals contained in wild
species may disappear forever. The wealth of species contained in tropical rain forests may
harbour untold numbers of chemically or medically useful species. Many marine species
defend themselves chemically and this also represents a rich potential source of new
economically important medicines. Additionally, the wild relatives of our cultivated crop
plants provide an invaluable reservoir of genetic material to aid in the production of new
varieties of crops. If all these are lost, then our crop plants also become more vulnerable to
extinction.
 Ethical Reasons
The questions that arise at this context are: Do we have the right to
decide which species should survive and which should die out? Do we have the right to
cause a mass extinction? Most people would instinctively answer 'No!'. However, we have
to realise that most biodiversity losses are now arising as a result of natural competition
between humans and all other species for limited space and resources. If we want the luxury
of ethics, we need to reduce our populations.

 Aesthetic Reasons
Most people would agree that areas of vegetation, with all their
attendant life forms, are inherently more attractive than burnt, scarred landscapes, or acres
of concrete and buildings. Who wouldn't prefer to see butterflies dancing above coloured
flowers, rather than an industrial complex belching smoke?
Human well-being is inextricably linked to the natural world. In
the western world, huge numbers of people confined to large urban areas derive great
pleasure from visiting the countryside. The ability to do so is regarded not so much as a
need, but as a right. National governments must therefore juggle the conflicting
requirements for more housing, industry and higher standards of living with demands for
countryside for recreational purposes.
IN-SITU CONSERVATION
In-situ conservation means "on-site conservation". It is the
process of protecting an endangered plant or animal species in its natural habitat, either by
protecting or cleaning up the habitat itself, or by defending the species from predators. This
term refers also to the conservation of genetic resources in natural populations of plant or
animal species, such as forest genetic resources in natural populations of tree species, and is
increasingly being applied to conservation of agricultural biodiversity in agroecosystems by
farmers, especially those using unconventional farming practices. One benefit to in-situ
conservation is that it maintains recovering populations in the surrounding where they have
developed their distinctive properties. Another is that this strategy helps ensure the ongoing
processes of evolution and adaptation within their environments. As a last resort, ex-situ
conservation may be used on some or all of the population, when in-situ conservation is too
difficult, or impossible.

Wildlife and livestock conservation is mostly based on in situ


conservation. This involves the protection of wildlife habitats. Also, sufficiently large
reserves are maintained to enable the target species to exist in large numbers. The
population size must be sufficient to enable the necessary genetic diversity to survive within
the population, so that it has a good chance of continuing to adapt and evolve over time.
This reserve size can be calculated for target species by examining the population density in
naturally-occurring situations. The reserves must then be protected from intrusion, or
destruction by man, and against other catastrophes.

It also refers to the maintenance and use of wild plant


populations in the habitats where they naturally occur and have evolved without the help of
human beings.The wild populations regenerate naturally, and are dispersed naturally by
wild animals, winds and in water courses. There exists an intricate relationship, often
interdependence, between the different species and other components of the environment in
which they occur. The evolution is purely driven by environmental pressures and any
changes in one component affect the other. Provided that changes are not too drastic, this
dynamic co-evolution leads to greater diversity and better adapted germplasm.

The conservation of the forests and other wild plant species is often carried out
through, but not limited to, the designation of protected areas such as national parks and
nature reserves. Diversity’s work focuses on the maintenance of the genetic dimension of
the wild species, especially on forest and crop wild relatives in the protected areas and
beyond to ensure that their wild populations are of sufficient diversity to allow them to
adapt to the changing environments and in particular to climate change.

 Step to develop implement in-situ conservation:


(a) Establish a system of protected areas or areas where special measures need to be
taken to conserve biological diversity;
(b) Develop, where necessary, guidelines for the selection, establishment and
management of protected areas or areas where special measures need to be taken to
conserve biological diversity;
(c) Regulate or manage biological resources important for the conservation of biological
diversity whether within or outside protected areas, with a view to ensuring their
conservation and sustainable use;
(d)Promote the protection of ecosystems, natural habitats and the maintenance of viable
populations of species in natural surroundings;
(e) Promote environmentally sound and sustainable development in areas adjacent to
protected areas with a view to furthering protection of these areas;
(f) Rehabilitate and restore degraded ecosystems and promote the recovery of threatened
species, inter alias, through the development and implementation of plans or other
management strategies;
(g) Establish a means to regulate, manage or control the risks associated with the use and
release of living modified organisms resulting from biotechnology which are likely to
have adverse environmental impacts that could affect the conservation and sustainable
use of biological diversity, taking also into account the risks to human health;
(h) Prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien species which threaten
ecosystems, habitats or species;
(i) Endeavour to provide the conditions needed for compatibility between present uses
and the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of its components;
(j) Subject to its national legislation, respect, preserve and maintain knowledge,
innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities embodying traditional
lifestyles relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and
promote their wider application with the approval and involvement of the holders of
such knowledge, innovations and practices and encourage the equitable sharing of the
benefits arising from the utilization of such knowledge, innovations and practices;
(k) Develop or maintain necessary legislation and/or other regulatory provisions for the
protection of threatened species and populations;
(l) Where a significant adverse effect on biological diversity has been determined,
regulate or manage the relevant processes and categories of activities; and

 Advantages, risks, and opportunities

In-situ maintenance of biodiversity through the establishment of conservation and multiple-


use areas offers distinct advantages over off-site methods in terms of coverage, viability of
the resource, and the economic sustainability of the methods:

(1) Coverage. A worldwide system of protected and multiple-use areas would


allow a significant number of indigenous species and systems to be protected,
thus taking care of the unknowns until such time as methods are found for their
investigation and utilization

(2) Viability. Natural selection and community evolution continue and new
communities, systems, and genetic material are produced).

(3) Economic sustainability. A country that maintains specific examples of


biodiversity stores up future economic benefits. When the need develops and this
diversity is thoroughly examined, commercially valuable genetic and
biochemical material may be found

It is not sufficient to establish a conservation area and then assume its biodiversity is
automatically protected and without risk. Many risks, both natural and man-created, remain.
An extreme example was the near-obliteration of the entire remaining habitat of the golden
lion tamarin in 1992 by fire cites four broad categories of natural risk:

(1) Demographic uncertainty resulting from random events in the survival and
reproduction of individuals.
(2) Environmental uncertainty due to random, or at least unpredictable, changes
in weather, food supply, and the populations of competitors, predators, parasites,
etc.

(3) Natural catastrophes such as floods, fires, or droughts, which may occur at
random intervals.

(4) Genetic uncertainty or random changes in genetic make-up due to genetic


drift or inbreeding that alter the survival and reproductive probabilities of
individuals.

The greatest uncertainties, however, are often anthropogenic.


The elimination of habitat to make way for human settlement and associated development
activities is the most important factor contributing to the diminishing mosaic of biodiversity.
These uncertainties can only be met with a full array of conservation programs, including
those that use ex-situ methods.

 Strategies of In-situ conservation:

PROTECTED SITES OR BIO RESERVES


In situ conservation maintains not only the genetic diversity of
species, but also the evolutionary adaptations that enable them to adapt continually to
shifting environmental conditions, such as changes in pest populations or climate. In situ
conservation also ensures that along with target species, a host of other interlinked species
are also preserved as a by-product. It is generally cheaper than ex situ methods (although
not cheap). It may often be the only conservation option, for example for species with
recalcitrant seeds.
In situ conservation measures involve designating specific areas as
protected sites. Protection may be offered at various levels, from complete protection and
restriction of access, through various levels of permitted human use. In practice, complete
protection is rarely necessary or advisable in a terrestrial context. Human beings have been a
major part of the landscape for many thousands of years. Over the course of that time,
human cultures have emerged and adapted to the local environment, discovering, using and
altering biotic resources.
The biosphere reserve concept has been developed through the
Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organisation (UNESCO). Biosphere reserves are an attempt to reconcile the
problems of conserving biodiversity and biological resources, with sustainable use of
natural resources for people. They form an international network of sites, nominated by
national governments, but designated by UNESCO. The first reserves were nominated as
long ago as 1976. By 2001, a network of 393 reserves in 94 countries had been developed.
Biosphere reserves are areas of terrestrial, coastal or marine
ecosystems that are internationally recognised under the Man and Biosphere (MAB)
Programme of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
(UNESCO). They form an international network of sites, nominated by national
governments, but designated by UNESCO. The first reserves were nominated as long ago as
1976. By 2001, a network of 393 reserves in 94 countries had been developed.
Biosphere reserves are an attempt to reconcile the problems of conserving biodiversity and
biological resources, with sustainable use of natural resources for people. They have three
main functions:
 Conservation of biodiversity (ecosystems, species and genes).
 Sustainable local economic and human development compatible with conservation
needs.
 Logistical support for environmental research and monitoring.

Each biosphere reserve ideally consists of one or more core areas, a buffer zone and a
transition zone.

 CORE AREAS: The core areas are securely protected sites for
conserving biological diversity, monitoring ecosystems, carrying out non-destructive
research and low impact uses.
 BUFFER ZONES: This surrounds the core area and is used for co-
operative activities which do not damage the ecology of the area.
 TRANSITION AREAS: An area containing agricultural activities and local
communities, where interested parties work together to reconcile economic and
conservation needs, while developing local resources in a sustainable way.
Biosphere reserves are unusual in having flexible boundaries,
which are not legally defined. They are mostly managed by more than one owner or agency.
Marine conservation areas lag behind terrestrial ones. Protected areas have existed on land
for over a century, but there is no tradition of managing marine areas for conservation. The
only current statutory marine reserve in England is Lundy Island. This harbours a huge
variety of marine life due to the diversity of underwater habitats present there.
Marine reserves may be vital tools in preserving species-rich
areas such as tropical coral reefs, which are being devastated by non-sustainable fishing
methods in many areas. The rationale of such reserves is not to lock away fish from
fishermen, but rather to create refuges inside which populations can build up and spill over
to repopulate adjacent areas. Marine Reserves need to be carefully designed to take into
account, movement patterns, dispersal rates and population dynamics of particular target
species. For example, it would be pointless having a reserve where the resident species
regularly travelled to non-protected areas. It would also be pointless protecting the habitat of
an adult, but neglecting the geographically different breeding grounds and habitats of
juveniles, or vice versa. Such factors should also be taken into consideration in the design of
terrestrial reserves.

Management of Nature Reserve


Nature reserves are usually designated to protect a particular species,
assemblage of species, or specific habitats. As such they can rarely be left in isolation to
manage themselves. Management is necessary in order to prevent natural processes such as
succession from taking place.
Such resulting changes in habitat may mean the loss of particular species for
which the reserve was originally designated.Succession is a natural process which will tend
to replace particular species with different ones. This is often as a result of ecological
change induced by the organisms themselves. In former times, while an area of a particular
habitat might be lost through succession there would always be other wetland habitats at an
earlier stage of the succession process elsewhere. These would act as species reservoirs.
With the drastic loss of area of natural habitat occurring world-wide, this is often no longer
the case.
Some of the important bioreserves of India:

1)NILIGIRI BIORESEVE
The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is an International Biosphere Reserve in the
Western Ghats, Nilgiri Hills range of South India. The Western Ghats, Nilgiri Sub-Cluster,
conjoining the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, is under consideration by the UNESCO World
Heritage Committee for selection as a World Heritage Site.The reserve extends from the
tropical moist forests of the windward western slopes of the Ghats to the tropical dry forests
on the leeward east slopes. Rainfall ranges from 500 mm to 7000 mm per year. The reserve
encompasses three ecoregions, the South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests, South
Western Ghats montane rain forests, and South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests. The
habitat types include montane rain forest, semi-evergreen moist forest, thorn forest and
scrub, montane grassland, and high-elevation Shola forests
Fauna includes over 100 species of mammals, 350 species of birds &
butterflies, 80 species of reptiles;about 39 species of fish & amphibians, 60 species of
reptiles, and innumerable invertebrates. Rare animals include the tiger, Asian Elephant, and
Nilgiri Tahr.The reserve has very rich plant diversity. Of 3300 species, 1232 are endemic.

2) NANDA DEVI BIORESERVE


Nestled in the Chamoli district of the Upper Himalayas, in the state of Uttaranchal
lies the beautiful Nanda Devi bioreserve. It is close to the second highest mountain peak in
the world, the Nanda Devi, and hence the name. This reserve boasts of some of the most
unique high altitude flora and fauna, amazing picturesque beauties, deep dark woods and a
rich biosphere.The Nada Devi sanctuary has a rich vegetation of mainly fir, birch,
rhododendron and juniper. As you go to the inner deeps of the sanctuary, the vegetation gets
dryer till the Nanda devi Glacier where thee is hardly any vegetation found. Soon, the kind
changes as the main vegetation gives way to grasses, prone and mosses. The Nanda Devi
sanctuary is the home to many animals ranging from brown bear, Bhural. Langaur, Goral.
Himalayan Black Bear. Himalayan Musk deer, leopard and snow leopard. Census found
around 80 different kinds of species in the Nanda Devi Wildlife Sanctuary. Being at such a
high altitude, the Nanda Devi Wildlife Sanctuary has cold weather the major part of the
year. April to October is the ideal time to visit the place.
3) SUNDARBANS BIORESERVE

The Sunderbans, extending over an area of 1,000,000 hectares, is the world's largest
delta, formed by the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghana rivers.The vast swampy delta
extends over areas comprising of mangrove forests, swamps and forest island, all
interwoven in a network of small rivers and streams. The Sundarbans National Park, home
of the Royal Bengal Tiger and the largest mangrove forest in the world, form the core of this
area. The Sundarban region has got its name from Sundari trees, once found in abundance
here. The Sunderbans forest is home to more than 400 tigers. The Bengal Tigers have
adapted themselves very well to the saline and aqua environs and are extremely good
swimmers. The aqua fauna of Sunderbans include variety of fishes, red fiddler crabs and
hermit crabs.
There are crocodiles, which can be often seen along the mud banks. Park is also
noted for its conservation of the Ridley Sea Turtle. There's is a incredible variety of reptiles
also found in Sundarbans, which includes chital dear and rhesus monkey, king cobra, rock
python and water monitor. The endangered river Terrapin, Batagur Baska is found on the
Mechua Beach, while the Barkind Deer is found only in Holiday Island in Sunderbans.

NATIONAL PARK

A national park is a reserve of land, declared or owned by a national


government, they are protected from most human development and pollution. National
parks are protected areas of IUCN category II. The largest national park in the world is the
Northeast Greenland National Park, which was established in 1974. According to The
World Conservation Union IUCN, there are now 6,555 national parks worldwide.
The criteria for deciding the diversity as national parks:
In 1969 the IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of
Nature and Natural Resources) declared a national park to be a relatively large area with
particular defining characteristics. A national park was deemed to be a place where:
 one or several ecosystems are not materially altered by human exploitation and
occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphologic sites and habitats are of
special scientific, educative and recreative interest or which contain a natural
landscape of great beauty.
 the highest competent authority of the country has taken steps to prevent or eliminate
as soon as possible exploitation or occupation in the whole area and to enforce
effectively the respect of ecological, geomorphologic or aesthetic features which
have led to its establishment.
 visitors are allowed to enter, under special conditions, for inspirational, educative,
cultural and recreative purposes.
In 1971 these criteria were further expanded upon leading to
more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park. These include:
 a minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes
precedence
 statutory legal protection
 a budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection
 Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources (including the development of dams)
qualified by such activities as sport, fishing, the need for management, facilities, etc.

Some of the important national parks in the country are:

1) CORBETT NATIONAL PARK


One of the oldest wildlife reserves in India, Corbett National Park is famous
for its wide variety of wildlife of Tigers, Leopards and Elephants and its beautiful location.
Aboded in the foothills of the Himalayas, the majestic Corbett National Park is home to a
variety of flora and fauna.Corbett National Park was established in 1936, as the Hailey
National Park. India's first national park and the first sanctuary to come under Project Tiger,
Corbett supports a variety of vegetation making it the ideal habitat for the Tiger and its prey.
Dense stands of sal and mixed deciduous forests welcome your visit to Jim
Corbett National Park while the grasslands in the valleys offer visitors a better view of the
wildlife. Orchids, tropical creepers and bamboo grow on the hills. The best way to view
wildlife is by elephant safari. It is possible to travel deep into the park on elephant back and
to get very near to wildlife without frightening them away. It provides shelter to Tigers as
well as its prey, which include four kinds of Deer, Wild Boar and some lesser-known
animals. The most commonly observed wildlife are langur monkeys, rhesus macaques, wild
boars, spotted deer, sambar, peacocks and wild elephants. The park is also a birdwatcher's
paradise containing over 580 different species of bird

2)KAZIRANGA NATONAL PARK

The Kaziranga National Park, when it is large enough, becomes a living self-
sustaining organism providing its own climate, atmosphere, water and nutrition through its
recycling systems.Kaziranga National Park is a birding paradise. In a landscape dominated
by noisy Red-Breasted Parakeets, what strikes you about Kaziranga is the large size of the
birds and beasts. Kaziranga is famous for Indian Elephants, One-Horned Rhinoceros, Wild
Buffaloes, Tigers, Adjutants, Floricans, Fish Eagles, Pelicans, Hornbills & Storks.
The grasslands are a raptor country that can be seen on safari makes a
remarkable experience. These include the Oriental Honey Buzzard, Black-Shouldered Kite,
Black Kite, Brahminy Kite, Pallas's Fishing Eagle, White Tailed Eagle, Grey-Headed
Fishing Eagle, Himalayan Griffon, etc. Huge numbers of migratory birds descend on the
parks lakes and marshy areas during winters, including Greylag Geese, Bar-Headed Geese,
Ruddy Shelduck, Gadwall, Falcated Duck, Red-Crested Pochard and Northern Shoveller.

3)GIR NATIONAL PARK

Created to protect the last wild population of Lion outside the African regions,
Gir National Park is situated in the southwest of the peninsular state of Gujarat. Spread over
an area of 116 square-miles, the Gir sanctuary has been home to lions since 1913 when the
Lion population over here fell drastically to just 20 animals. Due to conservation efforts by
the government, the the number has now increased to around 300
Among the main vegetation of the national park are the teak, Acacia and
Banyan trees. Being a mixed deciduous forest, the main species of trees found here include
Jambu, Karanj, Umro, Vad, Kalam, Charal, Sirus and Amli. These trees are mostly broad
leaved and evergreen, giving the area a cool shade and the moisture content.Gir National
Park is home to the famous Asiatic Lion s and one of the largest Leopard populations in any
park in India, and especially in the hotter seasonThe other animal residents of the Gir
national park are Sambar Deer, Chital Spotted Deer, Nilgai Antelope, Chowsingha Four-
Horned Antelope, Chinkara Gazelle, Wild Boar, Langur Monkey, Jackal, and Hyena and
numerous birds like Paradise Flycatcher, Bonneli's Eagle, Crested Serpent Eagle,
Woodpeckers Flamingo etc.

4)DANDELI NATIONAL PARK

The calm and peaceful Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary is reputed as the largest
wildlife sanctuary in Karnataka. Nestling some very rare animal and birds is an unspoilt,
untouched and unexplored treasure of wildlife.deli Wildlife Sanctuary abounds with a
richness of Flora and Fauna. Its richness and diversity offers ample opportunities to nature
lovers to enjoy the captivating landscape. The sanctuary is generally undulating with steep
slopes with picturesque deep river valleys and rich hilly forest terrain. The breathtaking
valleys, regal looking meandering rivers and the splendid scenic beauty of the syntheri rock
make it an awe inspiring experience. The forest in Dandeli is typical moist deciduous and
semi evergreen types, with pockets of every green.
The sanctuary is home of the barking, spotted and mouse deer, sloth bear,
panther, tiger, gaur, elephant, wild dog, civet cat, bison, jackal, langur and giant flying
squirrel, besides a variety of colourful birds and reptiles. The reptilian and amphibian fauna
of the region include a variety of ruffles and frog.
SANCTUARY
An animal sanctuary is a facility where animals are brought to
live and be protected for the rest of their lives. The mission of sanctuaries is generally to be
safe havens, where the animals receive the best care that the sanctuaries can provide.
Animals are not bought, sold, or traded, nor are they used for animal testing. The resident
animals are given the opportunity to behave as naturally as possible in a protective
environment.Sanctuaries act on behalf of the animals, and the caregivers work under the
notion that all animals in the sanctuary, human and non-human, are of equal importance.
A sanctuary is not open to the public in the sense of a zoo; that
is, the public is not allowed unescorted access to any part of the facility. A sanctuary tries
not to allow any activity that would place the animals in an unduly stressful situation.One of
the most important missions of sanctuaries, beyond caring for the animals, is educating the
public. The ultimate goal of a sanctuary should be to change the way that humans think of,
and treat, non-human animals.
Some of the important sanctuaries of India are:

1)PERIYAR WILDLIFE SANCTUARY

Situated within the confines of the western ghats in the southern Indian state of
Kerala, Periyar National Park and Tiger Reserve is one of the most captivating wildlife
parks in the world. Formed with the building of a dam in 1895, this reservoir meanders
around the contours of the wooded hills, providing a permanent source of water for the local
wildlife.
Apart from Elephants, the other animals to be seen in the Periyar sanctuary are gaur,
wild pigs, sambar, barking deer, mouse deer, dole or Indian wild dog and very rarely, a
tiger. There are, now, an estimated 40 tigers here. Four species of primates are found at
Periyar - the rare lion-tailed macaque, the Nilgiri Langur, common langur and bonnet
macaque. Periyar also happens to be the habitat of the elusive Nilgiri Tahr, which is rarely
to be seen.The bird life comprises of darters, cormorants, kingfishers, the great malabar
hornbill and racket-tailed drongoes. The reptilian population boasts of monitor lizards that
can be spotted basking in the sun, on the rocks along the lakeshore. Visitors who trek into
the Periyar national park often see a python and sometimes, even a king cobra.

2)SARISKA WILDLIFE SANCTUARY

Declared a sanctuary in 1955 and later a National park in 1979, Sariska Wildlife
sanctuary is marked with dry deciduous forests.The landscape is dominated with sharp cliffs
of hills and narrow valleys of the Aravallis. The ruins of medieval temples of Garh-Rajor,
belonging to the 10th and 11th centuries are evident in the Sariska Wildlife
Sanctuary.Leopard, Wild Dog, Jungle Cat, Hyena, Jackal, and Tiger. form the wild wealth
of the Sariska park.
Sariska is also well known for its large population of Rhesus Monkeys, which are
found in large numbers around Talvriksh.
The avian world is also well represented with a rich and varied birdlife. These include
Peafowl, Grey Partridge, Bush Quail, Sand Grouse, Tree Pie, Golden backed Wood Pecker,
Crested Serpent Eagle and the Great Indian Horned Owl.
SACRED GROVES OF INDIA
Sacred groves in India refer to forest fragments of varying sizes,
which are communally protected, and which usually have a significant religious connotation
for the protecting community. Hunting and logging are usually strictly prohibited within
these patches. Other forms of forest usage like honey collection and deadwood collection
are sometimes allowed on a sustainable basis. Sacred groves did not enjoy protection via
federal legislation in India. Some NGOs work with local villagers to protect such groves.
Traditionally, and in some cases even today, members of the community take turns to
protect the grove. However, the introduction of the protected area category community
reserves under the Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act of 2002 has introduced legislation
for providing government protection to community held lands, which could include sacred
groves.
Indian sacred groves are sometimes associated with temples /
monasteries / shrines or with burial grounds Sacred groves may be loosely used to refer to
other natural habitat protected on religious grounds, such as Alpine Meadows. Historical
references to sacred groves can be obtained from ancient classics as far back as Kalidasa's
Vikramuurvashiiya.
Uses
• Traditional uses: One of the most important traditional uses of sacred groves was that
it acted as a repository for various Ayurvedic medicines. Other uses involved a
source of replenishable resources like fruits and honey. However, in most sacred
groves it was taboo to hunt or chop wood. The vegetation cover helps reduce soil
erosion and prevents desertification, as in Rajasthan. The groves are often associated
with ponds and streams, and meet water requirements of local communities. They
sometimes help in recharging aquifers as well.
• Modern uses: In modern times, sacred groves have become biodiversity hotspots, as
various species seek refuge in the areas due to progressive habitat destruction, and
hunting. Sacred groves often contain plant and animal species that have become
extinct in neighbouring areas. They therefore harbour great genetic diversity. Besides
this, sacred groves in urban landscapes act as "lungs" to the city as well, providing
much needed vegetation cover.
EX-SITU CONSERVATION
Ex-situ conservation means "off-site conservation. It is the
process of protecting an endangered species of plant and animals by removing part of the
population from a threatened habitat and placing it in a new location, which may be a wild
area or within the care of humans. While ex-situ conservation comprises some of the oldest
and best known conservation methods, it also involves newer, sometimes controversial
laboratory methods.
Ex situ conservation of germplasm takes place outside the
natural habitat or outside the production system, in facilities specifically created for this
purpose. Depending on the type of species to be conserved, different ex situ conservation
methods may be used. The importance of gene banks has increased significantly over the
last several decades. As commercial agriculture has expanded many farming systems that
preserved local agricultural diversity have been transformed and local varieties have been
lost. Controlling powerful social and economic forces so that they do not result in genetic
erosion is often not possible, certainly not in the short term. As a result, gene banks often
represent the only option for conserving biodiversity.
However, ex situ conservation is not just about conserving
biodiversity for its own sake. The main purpose of the collections is to ensure agricultural
growth and keep our options open for innovation. In genebanks, biodiversity is managed so
that breeders, farmers and researcher can use it in their work.
To make the genetic resources useful to farmers, breeders and
researchers, gene bank managers must carefully document the collected materials, make the
information available and establish a transparent and safe system for its distribution. They
should take all the steps to make the material they conserve, including germplasm
enhancement, is used by breeders and other researchers for agricultural development.
 Drawbacks

Ex-situ conservation, while helpful in man's efforts to sustain and


protect our environment, is rarely enough to save a species from extinction. It is to be used
as a last resort, or as a supplement to in-situ conservation because it cannot recreate the
habitat as a whole: the entire genetic variation of a species, its symbiotic counterparts, or
those elements which, over time, might help a species adapt to its changing surroundings.
Instead, ex-situ conservation removes the species from its natural ecological contexts,
preserving it under semi-isolated conditions whereby natural evolution and adaptation
processes are either temporarily halted or altered by introducing the specimen to an
unnatural habitat. In the case of cryogenic storage methods, the preserved specimen's
adaptation processes are frozen altogether. The downside to this is that, when re-released,
the species may lack the genetic adaptations and mutations which would allow it to thrive in
its ever-changing natural habitat.

Furthermore, ex-situ conservation techniques are often costly,


with cryogenic storage being economically infeasible in most cases since species stored in
this manner cannot provide a profit but instead slowly drain the financial resources of the
government or organization determined to operate them. Seedbanks are ineffective for
certain plant genera with recalcitrant seeds that do not remain fertile for long periods of
time. Diseases and pests foreign to the species, to which the species has no natural defense,
may also cripple crops of protected plants in ex-situ plantations and in animals living in ex-
situ breeding grounds. These factors, combined with the specific environmental needs of
many species, some of which are nearly impossible to recreate by man, make ex-situ
conservation impossible for a great number of the world's endangered flora and fauna.

 Strategies of Ex-situ conservation:

• Zoos - These may involve captive breeding programmes,

• Aquaria - research, public information and education

• Botanical Garden - breeding programmes and seed storage

• Bio Diversity Parks

• Gene banks
ZOOS
In the past, zoos were mainly display facilities for the purpose of
public enjoyment and education. As large numbers of the species traditionally on display
have become rarer in the wild, many zoos have taken on the additional role of building up
numbers through captive breeding programmes. Although comparatively far more
invertebrates than vertebrates face extinction, most captive breeding programmes in zoos
focus on vertebrates. Threats to vertebrate extinction tend to be well publicised (e.g.
Dormouse, Panda). People find it easier to relate to and have sympathy with animals which
are more similar to ourselves, particularly if they are cute and cuddly . Vertebrates therefore
serve as a focus for public interest. This can help to generate financial support for
conservation and extend public education to other issues. This is a very important
consideration, as conservation costs money and needs to be funded from somewhere.
Several species are now solely represented by animals in
captivity. Captive breeding programmes are in place for numerous species. At least 18
species have been reintroduced into the wild following such programs. In many cases the
species was actually extinct in the wild at the time of reintroduction (Arabian Oryx, Pere
David Deer, American Bison). In some cases, all remaining individuals of a species, whose
numbers are too low for survival in the wild, have been captured and the species has then
been reintroduced after captive breeding (California Condor).
The role of zoos in conservation is limited both by space and by
expense. At population sizes of roughly 100-150 individuals per species, it has been
estimated that world zoos could sustain roughly 900 species. Populations of this size are just
large enough to avoid inbreeding effects. However, zoos are now shifting their emphasis
from long-term holding of species, to returning animals to the wild after only a few
generations. This frees up space for the conservation of other species.
Research has led to great advances in technologies for captive
breeding. This includes techniques such as artificial insemination, embryo transfer and long-
term cryogenic (frozen) storage of embryos. These techniques are all valuable because they
allow new genetic lines to be introduced without having to transport the adults to new
locations. Therefore the animals are not even required to co-operate any longer. . The
success of zoos in maintaining populations of endangered species is limited. Only 26 of 274
species of rare mammals in captivity are maintaining self-sustaining populations
AQUARIA
The role of aquaria has largely been as display and educational
facilities. However, they are assuming new importance in captive breeding programmes.
Growing threats to freshwater species in particular, are leading to the development of ex situ
breeding programmes. The World Conservation Union (IUCN) is currently developing
captive breeding programmes for endangered fish. Initially this will cover those from Lake
Victoria in Africa, the desert fishes of N. America and Appalachian stream fishes. Natural
habitats will be restored as part of the programme.
Marine, as well as freshwater species are also the subject of
captive breeding programmes. For example, The National Marine Aquarium, in South West
England, is playing an important role in the conservation of sea horse species through their
captive breeding programme.

BOTANICAL GARDEN
Populations of plant species are much easier than animals to maintain
artificially. They need less care and their requirements for particular habitat conditions can
be provided more readily. It is also much easier to breed and propagate plant species in
captivity. There are roughly 1,500 botanic gardens world-wide, holding 35,000 plant
species (more than 15% of the world’s flora). The Royal Botanic Gardens of England (Kew
Gardens) contains an estimated 25,000 species. IUCN classifies 2,700 of these as rare,
threatened or endangered. Many botanic gardens house collections of particular taxa which
are of major conservation value. There is however, a general geographic imbalance. Only
230 of the world’s 1,500 gardens are in the tropics. Considering the greater species richness
of the tropics, this is an imbalance that needs to be addressed.
Plant genetic diversity can also be preserved ex situ through the use of seed
banks. Seeds are small but tough and have evolved to survive all manner of adverse
conditions and a host of attackers. Seeds can be divided into two main types, orthodox and
recalcitrant. Orthodox seeds can be dried and stored at temperatures of -20oC. Almost all
species in a temperate flora can be stored in this way. Surprisingly, many tropical seeds are
also orthodox. Recalcitrant seeds, in contrast, die when dried and frozen in this manner.
Acorns of oaks are recalcitrant and it is believed that so are the seeds of most tropical rain
forest trees.
The result of storing seeds under frozen conditions is to slow
down the rate at which they lose their ability to germinate. Seeds of crop plants such as
maize and barley could probably survive thousands of years in such conditions, but for most
plants, centuries is probably the norm. This makes seed banking an attractive conservation
option, particularly when all others have failed. It offers an insurance technique for other
methods of conservation.
GENEBANKS
Gene banks are a means of preserving genetic material, be it
plant or animal. In plants, this could be by freezing cuts from the plant, or stocking the
seeds. In animals, this is the freezing of sperm and eggs in zoological freezers until further
need. With corals, fragments are taken which are stored in water tanks under controlled
conditions. In plants, it is possible to unfreeze the material and propagate it, however, in
animals, a living female is required for artificial insemination. While it is often difficult to
utilize frozen animal sperm and eggs, there are many examples of it being done
successfully. In an effort to conserve agricultural biodiversity, gene banks are used to store
and conserve the plant genetic resources of major crop plants and their crop wild relatives.
There are many gene banks all over the world, with the Svalbard Global Seed Vault being
probably the most famous one.
A seedbank stores seeds as a source for planting in case seed
reserves elsewhere are destroyed. It is a type of gene bank. The seeds stored may be food
crops, or those of rare species to protect biodiversity. The reasons for storing seeds may be
varied. In the case of food crops, many useful plants that were developed over centuries are
now no longer used for commercial agricultural production and are becoming rare. Storing
seeds also guards against catastrophic events like natural disasters, outbreaks of disease, or
war.
Cryopreservation is a process where cells or whole tissues are
preserved by cooling to low sub-zero temperatures, such as (typically) 77 K or −196 °C (the
boiling point of liquid nitrogen). At these low temperatures, any biological activity,
including the biochemical reactions that would lead to cell death, is effectively stopped.
However, when vitrification solutions are not used, the cells being preserved are often
damaged due to freezing during the approach to low temperatures or warming to room
temperature.
Freezable tissues :In general, cryopreservation is easier for thin samples and small
clumps of individual cells, because these can be cooled more quickly and so require lower
doses of toxic cryoprotectants. Therefore, the goal of cryopreserving human livers and
hearts for storage and transplant is still some distance away.
Nevertheless, suitable combinations of cryoprotectants and
regimes of cooling and rinsing during warming often allow the successful cryopreservation
of biological materials, particularly cell suspensions or thin tissue samples. Examples
include:
 Semen (which can be used successfully almost indefinitely after cryopreservation),
 Blood (special cells for transfusion, or stem cells)
 Tissue samples like tumours and histological cross sections
 Human eggs (oocytes)
 Human embryos that are 2, 4 or 8 cells when frozen
In addition, efforts are underway to preserve humans
cryogenically, known as cryonics. In such efforts either the brain within the head or the
entire body may undergo the above process. Cryonics is in a different category from the
aforementioned examples, however, for while countless cryopreserved cells, vaccines, tissue
and other biologial samples have been thawed and successfully used, this has not yet been
the case at all for cryopreserved brains or bodies. At issue are the criteria for defining
"success". Proponents of cryonics make a case that cryopreservation using present
technology, particularly vitrification of the brain, may be sufficient to preserve people in an
"information theoretic" sense so that they could be revived and made whole by vastly
advanced future technology.
Tissue culture is the growth of tissues and/or cells separate from
the organism. This is typically facilitated via use of a liquid, semi-solid, or solid growth
medium, such as broth or agar. Tissue culture commonly refers to the culture of animal cells
and tissues, while the more specific term plant tissue culture is used for plants.
CONCLUSION

Growth managment and land use planning enabling laws adopted in states
across the country provide authority for local government and states to protect bio
diversity.In general the terms and concepts related to the biodiversity protection are
common and tend to be more detailed in growth management laws han in state land use
planning enabling laws . A large number of land use planning enabling laws however also
contain authorities that could be used to support biodiversity protection. All of the growth
management laws and many of the land use enabling laws contain provisions that provide
localities with the authority or duty to consider biodiversity related factors and concepts
Such factors include but are not limited to local comprehensive plan requirements for
natural resources, open spaces ,wildlife habitat, critical and sensitive areas.In some states,
local governmental entities also may have authorities or duties in addition to those
associated with developing comprehensive plans that could be usedto substain biodiversity
protection, including reporting , review and study requirements .
Futher all of the growth managment laws and some of the land use planning
enabling laws provide authorities or impose duties indirectly or directly on state
governments that could support biodiversity protection .These authorities vary from state to
state butinclude consideration of biodiversity related factors in developing statewide
development plans,goals and programs.