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Learning Goal: Understand how to apply the equations for 1-dimensional motion to the

y and x directions separately in order to derive standard formulae for the range and height

of a projectile.

A projectile is fired from ground level at time , at an angle with respect to the

horizontal. It has an initial speed . In this problem we are assuming that the ground is

level.

Part A

Find the time it takes the projectile to reach its maximum height.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

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MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

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to gravity).

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part B

Find , the time at which the projectile hits the ground.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part C

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part D

Find the total distance (often called the range) traveled in the x direction; in other

words, find where the projectile lands.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER:

=

Correct

1. Consider the x and y motion separately.

2. Find the time of flight from the y-motion

3. Find the x-position at the end of the flight - this is the range.

If you remember these steps, you can deal with many variants of the basic problem,

such as: a cannon on a hill that fires horizontally (i.e. the second half of the

trajectory), a projectile that lands on a hill, or a projectile that must hit a moving target.

Circular Launch

A ball is launched up a semicircular chute in such a way that at the top of the chute, just

before it goes into free fall, the ball has a centripetal acceleration of magnitude 2 .

Part A

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

How far from the bottom of the chute does the ball land?

How fast is the ball moving at the top of the chute?

speed and is its instantaneous radius of rotation.

ANSWER:

=

Answer

Requested

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Your answer for the distance the ball travels from the end of the chute

should contain .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Six baseball throws are shown below. In each case, the ball is thrown with speed at an

angle from the horizontal. In all cases, the baseball is thrown from the same height

above the ground. Assume for the basis of these rankings that the effects of air resistance

are negligible.

Part A

Rank these throws based on the maximum height reached by the ball.

A key insight in solving two-dimensional motion problems is the realization that motion in

the horizontal direction and motion in the vertical direction are independent. This means

that the position, velocity, and acceleration in one direction do not influence the position,

velocity, and acceleration in the other direction.

Given a vector magnitude and angle , the x and y components of the vector can be

determined using the equations and , as shown in the figure.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER:

View

Correct

Part B

Rank these throws based on the amount of time it takes the ball to hit the ground.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

View

Correct

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

A projectile is fired with speed at an angle from the horizontal as shown in the figure .

Part A

Find the highest point in the trajectory, .

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Express the highest point in terms of the magnitude of the acceleration due

to gravity , the initial velocity , and the angle .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part B

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Consider your advice to an artillery officer who has the following problem. From his current

postition, he must shoot over a hill of height at a target on the other side, which has the

same elevation as his gun. He knows from his accurate map both the bearing and the

distance to the target and also that the hill is halfway to the target. To shoot as

accurately as possible, he wants the projectile to just barely pass above the hill.

Part C

Find the angle above the horizontal at which the projectile should be fired.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

and

.

, you can

draw a right triangle with as

one of the angles, an

"opposite" side of length ,

and an "adjacent" side of

length . You can then use

this triangle to find and

, after you find the

length of the hypotenuse

using the Pythagorean

Theorem.

Part D

What is the initial speed?

Hint not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part E

Find , the flight time of the projectile.

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Speed of a Softball

A softball is hit over a third

baseman's head with speed and

at an angle from the horizontal.

Immediately after the ball is hit, the

third baseman turns around and

runs straight back at a constant

velocity , for a time

. He then catches the

ball at the same height at which it

left the bat. The third baseman was

initially from the

location where the ball was hit at

home plate.

Part A

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Express the initial speed in units of meters per second to four significant

figures.

ANSWER:

= 18.77

Correct

Part B

Find the angle in degrees.

ANSWER:

= 31.51

Correct

Part C

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Find a vector expression for the velocity of the softball 0.1 s before the ball is caught.

Hint C.1 vs

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Express your answer in units of meters per second to three significant

figures.

ANSWER:

= 16.0,-8.82

Correct

Part D

Find a vector expression for the position of the softball 0.1 s before the ball is caught.

Hint not displayed

where and are expressed in meters, as measured from the point where

the softball initially left the bat. Express your answer to three significant

figures.

ANSWER:

= 30.4,0.932

Correct

The Archerfish

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

The archerfish is a type of fish well known for its ability to catch resting insects by spitting a

jet of water at them. This spitting ability is enabled by the presence of a groove in the roof of

the mouth of the archerfish. The groove forms a long, narrow tube when the fish places its

tongue against it and propels drops of water along the tube by compressing its gill covers.

When an archerfish is hunting, its body shape allows it to swim very close to the water

surface and look upward without creating a disturbance. The fish can then bring the tip of its

mouth close to the surface and shoot the drops of water at the insects resting on overhead

vegetation or floating on the water surface.

Part A

At what speed should an archerfish spit the water to shoot down a floating insect located

at a distance 0.800 from the fish? Assume that the fish is located very close to the

surface of the pond and spits the water at an angle above the water surface.

Hint not displayed

Hint A.2 Find how long it takes the water drop to fall back into the

pond

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Hint A.3 Find how far from the fish the drop falls

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= 3.01

Correct

Some archerfish can "shoot" as far as 3.5 , hitting their targets with reasonable

accuracy as far as 1.2 . They have binocular vision, which helps them judge

distance.

Part B

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Now assume that the insect, instead of floating on the surface, is resting on a leaf above

the water surface at a horizontal distance 0.600 away from the fish. The archerfish

successfully shoots down the resting insect by spitting water drops at the same angle

above the surface and with the same initial speed as before. At what height above the

surface was the insect?

Hint not displayed

Hint B.2 Find the time it takes the water drop to hit the insect

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= 0.260

Correct

Experiments have shown that the archerfish can predict the point where the disabled

prey will fall and hit the water by simply looking at the initial trajectory of the dislodged

insect for only 10 . The archerfish then darts to the place where it has "calculated"

the insect will hit the water, planning to get there before another fish does.

from the top of a cliff. The cannon is

at height = 90.0 above ground

level, and the ball is fired with initial

horizontal speed . Assume

acceleration due to gravity to be

= 9.80 .

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Part A

Assume that the cannon is fired at time and that the cannonball hits the ground at

time . What is the y position of the cannonball at the time ?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint A.3 Determine which equation to use to find the height at the

requested time

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= 67.5

Correct

The same answer can be obtained more easily (perhaps you did it this way) if you

notice that . This means that the vertical displacement is given by

Part B

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Given that the projectile lands at a distance = 200 from the cliff, as shown in the

figure, find the initial speed of the projectile, .

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= 46.7

Correct

Part C

What is the y position of the cannonball when it is at distance from the hill? If you

need to, you can use the trajectory equation for this projectile, which gives in terms of

directly:

Express the position of the cannonball numerically in meters.

ANSWER:

= 67.5

Correct

Not surprisingly, the answer to this part is the same as that in Part A because a

projectile travels equal horizontal distances in equal amounts of time.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Learning Goal: To understand the meaning and the basic applications of Newton's 1st

and 2nd laws.

Newton's laws are fundamental in mechanics. Their mathematical expressions are very

simple but conceptual understanding of Newton's laws, which is necessary for solving

nontrivial problems, is not simple at all.

The common textbook statement of Newton's 1st law may seem rather straightforward.

Here it is:

An object has a constant velocity (possibly zero) if and only if the net force acting on the

object is zero.

In other words, if the vector sum of the forces applied to the object is zero, the object

would be either at rest or at constant velocity (that is, the object would have zero

acceleration). If such a sum is not zero, the object cannot possibly be moving at a constant

velocity.

Frames of reference

The statement of Newton's 1st law becomes a bit more complicated in actual applications.

Imagine yourself in a car. To understand Newton's 1st law fully, we need the concept of a

frame of reference. A frame of reference is a set of coordinates used to measure distances

and times. In your frame of reference, any distance would be measured relative to you.

For example, the radio in the car is 0.75 m to the right of you. The radio is at rest in your

frame of reference, because the radio doesn't change its distance or direction from you.

In your frame of reference, the car is always at rest. It is entirely possible that the net force

acting on the car is not zero: The car may (in the frame of reference of an observer

standing on the ground) be accelerating, turning, or braking. Yet in your frame of

reference, the car would remain at rest because, relative to you, it is not moving at all. So,

the car is at rest or accelerating, depending upon who you ask.

It's tempting to ignore this difficulty by saying that the frame of reference attached to the

car is somehow wrong. The observer on the ground, in contrast, is right: The observer

sees the motion of the car as it really is. However, such a line of reasoning seems flawed,

because it raises the question of how to determine which frames of reference are "right"

and which ones are "wrong."

This is what Newton's 1st law settles. Newton established the concept of an inertial frame

of reference. An inertial frame of reference, by definiton, is one in which the statement of

Newton's 1st law is, in fact, true.

It is important to know that the frame of reference being used is, in fact, inertial. Only then

does Newton's 2nd law work in a simple and elegant form. Newton's 2nd law establishes

the relationship between the net force acting on an object, the mass of the object, and its

acceleration:

,

or

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Note that Newon's 2nd law allows one to find the magnitude of the object's acceleration. It

also establishes the fact that the acceleration of an object has the same direction as the

net force acting on the object.

If the frame of reference is not inertial, using Newton's 2nd law to calculate acceleration is

still possible but may be far more complicated. Objects that experience zero net force may

accelerate, and objects that move at constant velocity may experience a net force not

equal to zero. The important question is: Which frames of reference are inertial and which

ones are not? This also raises the following question: Are there any inertial frames of

reference in this universe?

Newton postulated that inertial frames of reference do exist. This statement, coupled with

the definition of inertial frames of reference, may be considered a more proper way to

state Newton's 1st law.

Only an experiment can establish whether a particular frame of reference is inertial (or, to

be precise, "inertial enough" for the purposes needed). Let us go back to the car example.

The frame of reference attached to the ground, we would usually say, is inertial. That is, if

we get an object and make sure that all external forces acting on it add up to zero, we can

then observe that the object is, in fact, moving at constant velocity (or, possibly, remaining

at rest). In most problems that we will be solving, the frame of reference of the earth will be

considered an inertial frame of reference. For all practical purposes, this means that

Newton's 2nd law will work in it.

However, it is instructive to understand that the earth provides a reference frame that is

less than "perfectly inertial." An observer on the sun, for instance, would notice that the

object in question does, in fact, have an acceleration: the centripetal acceleration

associated with the orbital motion of the earth around the sun! The best inertial frame of

reference is the one assoicated with distant stars and any other frame of reference that is

moving at a constant velocity relative to distant stars.

The conceptual questions that follow should help you learn to apply Newton's 1st and 2nd

laws properly. Note that, throughout this problem, we will assume that the frame of

reference associated with the earth is perfectly inertial.

Part A

Which object provides an inertial frame of reference?

a rock thrown vertically upward

a pendulum swinging with no air resistance

a skydiver falling at terminal velocity

Correct

Assuming that the earth provides an inertial frame of reference, an object moving at a

constant velocity relative to the earth would also provide an inertial frame of reference.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Part B

You are conducting an experiment inside an elevator that can move in a vertical shaft. A

load is hung vertically from the ceiling on a string, and is stationary with respect to you.

The tension in the string is measured to be 10% less than the weight of the load. No other

forces are acting on the load. Which of the following statements about the elevator are

correct?

Check all that apply.

✔ The elevator is not an inertial frame of reference.

The elevator may be at rest for the duration of the

entire experiment.

The elevator may be moving at a constant velocity

upward.

The elevator may be moving at a constant velocity

downward.

✔ The elevator must be accelerating.

Correct

Part C

You are conducting an experiment inside an elevator that can move in a vertical shaft. A

load is hung vertically from the ceiling on a string. The tension in the string is measured to

be exactly equal to the weight of the load. No other forces are acting on the load. Which of

the following statements about the elevator are correct?

Check all that apply.

The elevator is not an inertial frame of reference.

✔ The elevator may be at rest.

The elevator may be moving at a constant velocity

upward.

✔

downward.

✔

The elevator must be accelerating.

Correct

Part D

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

You are conducting an experiment inside a train car that may move horizontally along rail

tracks. A load is hung from the ceiling on a string. The load is not swinging, and the string

is observed to make a constant angle of with the horizontal. No other forces are acting

on the load. Which of the following statements are correct?

Check all that apply.

✔ The train is not an inertial frame of reference.

The train may be at rest.

The train may be moving at a constant speed in a

straight line.

✔

The train may be moving at a constant speed in a

circle.

The train must be speeding up.

The train must be slowing down.

✔ The train must be accelerating.

Correct

Since the tension and the weight are not directed opposite to each other, the net

force cannot possibly be zero--and yet the load is at rest relative to the train car.

Therefore, the car is not an inertial frame of reference. It must be accelerating relative

to the earth, although it is not clear exactly how.

Part E

Consider the train car described in the previous part. Another experiment is conducted in

it: A net force of is applied to an object of mass . Can you determine the

acceleration of the object with respect to the train, and, if so, what is its value?

ANSWER:

Yes; .

Yes; .

Yes; .

No; there is not enough information.

Correct

The train car is not an inertial frame of reference, so would not work here.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Part F

A 1000-kg car is moving along a straight road down a slope at a constant speed of

. What is the net force acting on the car?

ANSWER:

Correct

The car has zero acceleration; therefore, it experiences zero net force. According to

Newton's 1st law, no net force is required to maintain a constant velocity (in an inertial

frame of reference, of course). The car has a constant veclocity relative to the earth;

therefore, the car is also an inertial frame of reference.

Part G

Consider two cars moving along the same straight road in opposite directions. Car A has a

mass of and has a constant speed of ; car B has a mass of and a

constant speed of . Whar can you say about the net forces on the cars?

Car B experiences greater net force than car A.

Both cars experience equal net forces.

Correct

Each car has zero acceleration; therefore, the net force on each car, according to

Newton's 1st law, is zero.

Part H

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

two or three forces are applied to an object. The magnitudes of these forces are given. No

other forces are acting on the object. In which cases may the object possibly remain at

rest?

The forces applied are as follows:

Hint not displayed

ANSWER: ✔ 2 N; 2 N

✔ 200 N; 200 N

200 N; 201 N

✔ 2 N; 2 N; 4 N

✔ 2 N; 2 N; 2 N

✔ 2 N; 2 N; 3 N

2 N; 2 N; 5 N

✔ 200 N; 200 N; 5 N

Correct

Part I

In an inertial frame of reference, a series of experiments is conducted. In each experiment,

two or three forces are applied to an object. The magnitudes of these forces are given. No

other forces are acting on the object. In which cases may the object possibly move at a

constant velocity of ?

The forces applied are as follows:

Hint not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER: ✔ 2 N; 2 N

✔ 200 N; 200 N

200 N; 201 N

✔ 2 N; 2 N; 4 N

✔ 2 N; 2 N; 2 N

✔ 2 N; 2 N; 3 N

2 N; 2 N; 5 N

✔ 200 N; 200 N; 5 N

Correct

You should have noticed that the sets of forces applied to the object are the same as

the ones in the prevous question. Newton's 1st law (and the 2nd law, too) makes no

distinction between the state of rest and the state of moving at a constant velocity

(even a high velocity). In both cases, the net force applied to the object must equal

zero.

Although some of the questions in this problem may have seemed tricky and unfair,

the subtleties here are important in improving conceptual understanding. That

understanding, in turn, will enable you to correctly solve complex computational

problems using Newton's laws.

When solving problems involving forces and Newton’s laws, the following summary of things

to do will start your mind thinking about getting involved in the problem at hand.

1. Draw a sketch of the situation.

2. Consider only one object (at a time), and draw a free-body diagram for that body,

showing all the forces acting on that body. Do not show any forces that the body exerts on

other bodies. If several bodies are involved, draw a free-body diagram for each body

separately, showing all the forces acting on that body.

3. Newton's second law involves vectors, and it is usually important to resolve vectors into

components. Choose an x and y axis in a way that simplifies the calculation.

4. For each body, Newton's second law can be applied to the x and y components

separately. That is the x component of the net force on that body will be related to the x

component of that body's acceleration: , and similarly for the y direction.

5. Solve the equation or equations for the unknown(s).

Use the steps outlined above to find the magnitude of the acceleration of a chair and the

magnitude of the normal force acting on the chair: Yusef pushes a chair of mass

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

at = 35.0 below the horizontal . The magnitude of the frictional force between

the carpet and the floor is

= 106 .

Part A

Identify and sketch all the external forces acting on the chair. Because the chair can be

represented as a point particle of mass , draw the forces with their tails centered on the

black dot in the middle of the chair. Be certain to draw your forces so that they have the

correct orientation.

Draw the vectors starting at the black dot. The location and orientation of

the vectors will be graded. The length of the vectors will not be graded.

ANSWER:

View

All attempts used; correct answer

displayed

Part B

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Which set of coordinate axes is the most convenient to use in this problem?

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

Correct

Now that you have selected a coordinate system, you should resolve the forces into x

and y components so that you can apply Newton's second law to each coordinate

direction independently.

Part C

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Use the component form of Newton's second law to write an expression for the x

component of the net force, .

Hint not displayed

and .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part D

Use the component form of Newton's second law to write an expression for the y

component of the net force, .

Hint not displayed

and .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

You have created two equations that describe the motion of the chair:

and

Part E

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the chair? What is the magnitude of the

normal force acting on the chair?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

squared and newtons to three significant figures.

ANSWER:

,

, = 0.328,626

Correct

A free-body diagram is a useful way to begin all problems involving forces. This

drawing will help you to easily identify the most appropriate coordinate axes and to

resolve any 2 dimensional vectors into components. Then you can apply Newton's

second law to each coordinate direction to set up equations which will allow you to

solve for any unknown quantities.

A binary star system consists of two stars of masses and . The stars, which

gravitationally attract each other, revolve around the center of mass of the system. The star

with mass has a centripetal acceleration of magnitude .

Note that you do not need to understand universal gravitation to solve this problem.

Part A

Find , the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration of the star with mass .

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Hint not displayed

introduction.

ANSWER:

=

Correct

To make sure you understand this result, consider the actual gravitational force acting

on each star. The magnitude of the gravitational force on either star due to the other

one is given by

,

Now, consider Newton's 2nd law for the star of mass . The net external force is

, so .

Now consider Newton's 2nd law applied to the star of mass . Once again, the net

external force acting on this star will be , so Newton's 2nd law for the star of mass

is .

You can see that the same force, , appears in both the equation for the star of

mass and that for the star of mass . (Think about how this relates to Newton's

3rd law.) You can therefore write . Solving for the acceleration

you find the equation . Note that you did not need to know the exact

form of the gravitational force, nor did you need to know or . Newton's 3rd law

allows you to realize that is the same for the two stars, and Newton's 2nd law

allows you to solve for in terms of , , and .

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Three blocks are stacked on top of each other inside an elevator as shown in the figure.

Answer the following questions with

reference to the eight forces defined

as follows.

● the force of the 3 block on the

2 block, ,

● the force of the 2 block on the

3 block, ,

● the force of the 3 block on the

1 block, ,

● the force of the 1 block on the

3 block, ,

● the force of the 2 block on the

1 block, ,

● the force of the 1 block on the 2 block, ,

● the force of the 1 block on the floor, , and

● the force of the floor on the 1 block, .

Part A

Assume the elevator is at rest. Rank the magnitude of the forces.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

View

Correct

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Part B

Now, assume the elevator is moving upward at increasing speed. Rank the magnitude of

the forces.

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

View

Correct

Below are birds-eye views of six identical toy cars moving to the right at 2 . Various

forces act on the cars with magnitudes and directions indicated below. All forces act in the

horizontal plane and are either parallel or at 45 or 90 degrees to the car's motion.

Part A

Rank these cars on the basis of their speed a short time after the forces are applied.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER:

View

Correct

A chair of weight 150 lies atop a horizontal floor; the floor is not frictionless. You push on

the chair with a force of = 35.0 directed at an angle of 42.0 below the horizontal and

the chair slides along the floor.

Part A

Using Newton's laws, calculate , the magnitude of the normal force that the floor exerts

on the chair.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint A.4 Find the vertical component of the force that you exert on

the chair

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= 173

Correct

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Learning Goal: To understand that centripetal acceleration is the acceleration that

causes motion in a circle.

Acceleration is the time derivative of velocity. Because velocity is a vector, it can change in

two ways: the length (magnitude) can change and/or the direction can change. The latter

type of change has a special name, the centripetal acceleration. In this problem we consider

a mass moving in a circle of radius with angular velocity ,

.

The main point of the problem is to compute the acceleration using geometric arguments.

Part A

What is the velocity of the mass at a time ? You can work this out geometrically with the

help of the hints, or by differentiating the expression for given in the introduction.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Assume that the mass has been moving along its circular path for some time. You start

timing its motion with a stopwatch when it crosses the positive x axis, an instant that

corresponds to . [Notice that when , .] For the remainder of this

problem, assume that the time is measured from the moment you start timing the

motion. Then the time refers to the moment a time before you start your stopwatch.

Part B

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part C

What is the average acceleration of the mass during the time interval from to ?

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part D

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

What is the magnitude of this acceleration in the limit of small ? In this limit, the average

acceleration becomes the instantaneous acceleration.

For small times (or more precisely when ), what is the first term in the Taylor

series expansion for ?

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= Answer not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part E

Consider the following statements:

a. The centripetal acceleration might better be expressed as because it is a

vector.

b. The magnitude of the centripetal acceleration is .

d. A particle that is going along a path with local radius of curvature at speed

experiences a centripetal acceleration .

e. If you are in a car turning left, the force you feel pushing you to the right is the force that

causes the centripetal acceleration.

In these statements refers to the component of the velocity of an object in the

direction toward or away from the origin of the coordinate system or the rotation axis.

Conversely, refers to the component of the velocity perpendicular to .

Identify the statement or statements that are false.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER: a only

b only

c only

d only

e only

b and e

c and e

d and e

Correct

● a. The centripetal acceleration might better be expressed as because it is a

vector.

● c. The magnitude of the centripetal acceleration is .

● d. A particle that is going along a path with local radius of curvature at speed

experiences an acceleration .

There is so much confusion about centripetal force that you should probably ban this

term from your vocabulary and thought processes. If you are in a car turning left, your

centripetal acceleration is to the left (i.e., inward) and some real force must be applied

to you to give you this acceleration--typically this would be provided by friction with

the seat. The force you "feel" pushing you to the right is not a real force but rather a

"fictitious force" that is present if you are in an accelerating coordinate system (in this

case the car). It is best to stick to inertial (i.e., nonaccelerating) coordinate systems

when doing kinematics and dynamics (i.e., calculations).

Pushing a Block

Learning Goal: To understand kinetic and static friction.

A block of mass lies on a horizontal table. The coefficient of static friction between the

block and the table is . The coefficient of kinetic friction is , with .

Part A

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

If the block is at rest (and the only forces acting on the block are the force due to gravity

and the normal force from the table), what is the magnitude of the force due to friction?

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=0

Correct

Part B

Suppose you want to move the block, but you want to push it with the least force possible

to get it moving. With what force must you be pushing the block just before the block

begins to move?

Hint not displayed

variables , , and , as well as the acceleration due to gravity .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part C

Suppose you push horizontally with half the force needed to just make the block move.

What is the magnitude of the friction force?

Hint not displayed

as well as the acceleration due to gravity .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Part D

Suppose you push horizontally with precisely enough force to make the block start to

move, and you continue to apply the same amount of force even after it starts moving.

Find the acceleration of the block after it begins to move.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

as well as the acceleration due to gravity .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

You want to test the grip of the tires on your new race car. You decide to take the race car

to a small test track to experimentally determine the coefficient of friction. The racetrack

consists of a flat, circular road with a radius of 45 . The applet shows the result of driving

the car around the track at various speeds.

Part A

What is , the coefficient of static friction between the tires and the track?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER:

= 0.91

Correct

A woman rides on a Ferris wheel of radius 16 that maintains the same speed throughout

its motion. To better understand physics, she takes along a digital bathroom scale (with

memory) and sits on it. When she gets off the ride, she uploads the scale readings to a

computer and creates a graph of scale reading versus time. Note that the graph has a

minimum value of 510 and a

maximum value of 666 .

Part A

What is the woman's mass?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER:

= 60

Correct

A wedge with an inclination of angle rests next to a wall. A block of mass is sliding

down the plane, as shown. There is no friction between the wedge and the block or between

the wedge and the horizontal surface.

Part A

Find the magnitude, , of the sum of all forces acting on the block.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint A.3 Find the magnitude of the force acting along the direction of

motion

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part B

Find the magnitude, , of the force that the wall exerts on the wedge.

Hint B.1 The force between the wall and the wedge

Hint not displayed

Hint B.2 Find the normal force between the block and the wedge

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

either or . In either form, we see that as gets very

small or as approaches 90 degrees ( radians), the contact force between the

wall and the wedge goes to zero. This is what we should expect; in the first limit (

small), the block is accelerating very slowly, and all horizontal forces are small. In the

second limit ( about 90 degrees), the block simply falls vertically and exerts no

horizontal force on the wedge.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

A small box of mass is sitting on a board of mass and length . The board rests on

a frictionless horizontal surface. The

coefficient of static friction between

the board and the box is . The

coefficient of kinetic friction between

the board and the box is, as usual,

less than .

Throughout the problem, use for

the magnitude of the acceleration

due to gravity. In the hints, use

for the magnitude of the friction

force between the board and the

box.

Part A

Find , the constant force with the least magnitude that must be applied to the board in

order to pull the board out from under the the box (which will then fall off of the opposite

end of the board).

Hint A.1 Condition for the board sliding out from under the box

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Hint not displayed

and . Do not include in your answer.

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Conical Pendulum I

A bob of mass is suspended from

a fixed point with a massless string

of length (i.e., it is a pendulum).

You are to investigate the motion in

which the string moves in a cone

with half-angle .

Part A

What tangential speed, , must the bob have so that it moves in a horizontal circle with

the string always making an angle from the vertical?

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

constant.

The tension in the string is less than .

A component of the tension causes acceleration of

the bob.

If the tension in the string would be greater than

.

Correct

What is , the vertical component of the acceleration of the bob?

ANSWER:

=0

Correct

Find the magnitude, , of the tension force in the string.

Hint not displayed

as well as the acceleration due to gravity .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Find a general expression for , the magnitude of the bob's centripetal acceleration, as a

function of the tangential speed of the bob.

Hint not displayed

and .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Find the magnitude, , of the inward radial force on the bob in the horizontal plane.

as well as the acceleration due to gravity .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

well as the acceleration due to gravity .

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

How long does it take the bob to make one full revolution (one complete trip around the

circle)?

Since the speed of the bob is constant, this is a relatively simple kinematics problem.

You know the speed, which you found in the previous part, and you can calculate the

distance traveled in one revolution (i.e., the circumference of the circle). From these two

you can calculate the time required to travel that distance.

well as the acceleration due to gravity .

ANSWER:

Correct

Hanging Chandelier

A chandelier with mass is

attached to the ceiling of a large

concert hall by two cables. Because

the ceiling is covered with intricate

architectural decorations (not

indicated in the figure, which uses a

humbler depiction), the workers who

hung the chandelier couldn't attach

the cables to the ceiling directly

above the chandelier. Instead, they

attached the cables to the ceiling

near the walls. Cable 1 has tension

and makes an angle of with

the ceiling. Cable 2 has tension

and makes an angle of with the

ceiling.

Part A

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Find an expression for , the tension in cable 1, that does not depend on .

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

as well as the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Consider the system shown in the figure . Block A has weight and block B has weight

. Once block B is set into downward

motion, it descends at a constant

speed. Assume that the mass and

friction of the pulley are negligible.

Part A

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Calculate the coefficient of kinetic friction between block A and the table top.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

(the acceleration due to gravity).

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part B

A cat, also of weight , falls asleep on top of block A. If block B is now set into

downward motion, what is the magnitude of its acceleration?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint B.3 Find the net force on block A and the cat

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

(the acceleration due to gravity).

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Below are eight crates of different mass. The crates are attached to massless ropes, as

indicated in the picture, where the

ropes are marked by letters. Each

crate is being pulled to the right at

the same constant speed. The

coefficient of kinetic friction between

each crate and the surface on which

it slides is the same for all eight

crates.

Part A

Rank the ropes on the basis of the force each exerts on the crate immediately to its left.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER:

View

Correct

Pushing a Lawnmower

Consider a lawnmower of weight which can slide across a horizontal surface with a

coefficient of friction . In this problem the lawnmower is pushed using a massless handle,

which makes an angle with the horizontal. Assume that , the force exerted by the

handle, is parallel to the handle.

Take the positive x direction to be to the right and the postive y direction to be upward.

Part A

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Find the magnitude, , of the force required to slide the lawnmower over the ground at

constant speed by pushing the handle.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part B

The solution for has a singularity (that is, becomes infinitely large) at a certain angle

. For any angle , the expression for will be negative. However, a

negative applied force would reverse the direction of friction acting on the lawnmower,

and thus this is not a physically acceptable solution. In fact, the increased normal force at

these large angles makes the force of friction too large to move the lawnmower at all.

Find an expression for .

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

You should have found that , the force required to push the lawnmower at constant

speed, was

.

Note that this expression becomes infinite when the denominator equals zero:

,

or

.

(The phrase " has a singularity at angle " means that " goes to infinity at

a certain angle .")

It's not too hard to understand what this means. Suppose you were pushing straight

down on the lawnmower ( degrees). It obviously wouldn't move. But, according

to the equation for , when you plug in degrees, you get a negative force

(which doesn't make sense).

The more vertical you push, the harder it gets to move the lawnmower. At

, it gets impossible to move it. The force required to move it goes to

infinity; you have to push infinitely hard.

Below are six crates at rest on level surfaces. The crates have different masses and the

frictional coefficients [given as ] between the crates and the surfaces differ. The

same external force is applied to each crate, but none of the crates move.

Part A

Rank the crates on the basis of the frictional force acting on them.

Hint not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER:

View

Correct

A window washer of mass is sitting on a platform suspended by a system of cables and

pulleys as shown . He is pulling on the cable with a force of magnitude . The cables and

pulleys are ideal (massless and

frictionless), and the platform has

negligible mass.

Part A

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Find the magnitude of the minimum force that allows the window washer to move

upward.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Express your answer in terms of the mass and the magnitude of the

acceleration due to gravity .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

A block of mass is attached to a massless, ideal string. This string wraps around a

massless pulley and then wraps around a second pulley that is attached to a block of mass

that is free to slide on a frictionless table. The string is firmly anchored to a wall and the

whole system is frictionless.

Use the coordinate system indicated in the figure when solving this problem.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Part A

Assuming that is the magnitude of the horizontal acceleration of the block of mass ,

what is , the tension in the string?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part B

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Given , the tension in the string, calculate , the magnitude of the vertical acceleration

of the block of mass .

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part C

Given the magnitude of the acceleration of the block of mass , find , the

magnitude of the horizontal acceleration of the block of mass .

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Express in terms of .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part D

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Using the result of Part C in the formula for that you previously obtained in Part A,

express as a function of .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part E

Having solved the previous parts, you have all the pieces needed to calculate , the

magnitude of the acceleration of the block of mass . Write an expression for .

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Block 1, of mass , is connected

over an ideal (massless and

frictionless) pulley to block 2, of

mass , as shown. Assume that

the blocks accelerate as shown with

an acceleration of magnitude and

that the coefficient of kinetic friction

between block 2 and the plane is .

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Part A

Find the ratio of the masses .

Hint not displayed

Hint A.2 Apply Newton's 2nd law to block 2 in the direction parallel to

the incline

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint A.5 Apply Newton's 2nd law to block 1 in the vertical direction

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

well as the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Six roller-coaster carts pass over the same semicircular "bump." The mass of each cart

(including passenger) and the

normal force of the track on the

cart at the top of each bump are

given in the figures.

Part A

Rank the speeds of the different carts as each passes over the top of the bump.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

View

Correct

Taking the expressions for the net force on the cart and the centripetal acceleration of

the cart and substituting into Newton's 2nd law,

,

results in

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Since the radius is the same for every cart, we can ignore and write

But is simply so

or

.

The lubrication of bone joints is a subject of ongoing medical research. Two bones

connected at a joint do not touch. The bones are covered in articular cartilage, and are

surrounded by lubricating synovial fluid. Rheumatoid arthritis results in overproduction of

synovial fluid, swollen joints, and difficult and painful movement. Other joint disorders

degrade the synovial fluid, directly increasing the friction between the bones, resulting in

painful motion.

Part A

To measure the effective coefficient of friction in a bone joint, a healthy joint (and its

immediate surroundings) can be removed from a fresh cadaver. The joint is inverted, and

a weight is used to apply a downward force on the head of the femur into the hip

socket. Then, a horizontal force is applied and increased in magnitude until the femur

head rotates clockwise in the socket. The joint is mounted in such a way that will cause

clockwise rotation, not straight-line motion to the right. The friction force will point in a

direction to oppose this rotation.

Draw vectors indicating the normal force (magnitude and direction) and the frictional

force (direction only) acting on the femur head at point A.

Assume that the weight of the femur is negligible compared to the applied downward force.

Hint not displayed

Draw the vectors starting at the black dot. The location, orientation and

relative length of the vectors will be graded.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER:

View

All attempts used; correct answer

displayed

Part B

The horizontal force would rotate the femur head clockwise in the hip socket, but the

frictional force acts to prevent this clockwise rotation. The apparatus is designed such

that when , the femur head rotates clockwise. A sample of data collected at

impending slippage of the femur is shown in the figure.

Based on these data, what is the

approximate coefficient of static

friction between the femur head

and the hip socket?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER:

= 0.009

Correct

A car of mass = 1500 traveling at 40.0 enters a banked turn covered with

ice. The road is banked at an angle , and there is no friction between the road and the

car's tires.

Part A

What is the radius of the turn if = 20.0 (assuming the car continues in uniform circular

motion around the turn)?

You need to apply Newton's 2nd law to the car. Because you do not want the car to slip

as it goes around the curve, the car needs to have a net acceleration of magnitude

pointing radially inward (toward the center of the curve).

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Which of the following diagrams represents the forces acting on the car and the most

appropriate choice of coordinate axes?

ANSWER: Figure A

Figure B

Figure C

Correct

The choice of coordinate system shown in this free-body diagram is the most

appropriate for this problem. The car must have a net acceleration toward the

center of the curve to maintain its motion and not slip. This implies that the net force

must be along the x axis.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Find , the magnitude of the normal force between the car and the road. Take the

positive x axis to point horizontally toward the center of the curve and the positive y axis

to point vertically upward.

The only forces acting on the car are the normal force and gravity. There must be a net

acceleration in the horizontal direction, but because the car does not slip, the net

acceleration in the vertical direction must be zero. Use this fact to find .

Hint A.3.2 Apply Newton's 2nd law to the car in the y direction

Which equation accurately describes the equation for the net force acting on the car in

the y direction?

ANSWER:

Correct

ANSWER:

= Answer not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= 34.6

Correct

Part B

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Now, suppose that the curve is level ( ) and that the ice has melted, so that there is a

coefficient of static friction between the road and the car's tires. What is , the

minimum value of the coefficient of

static friction between the tires and

the road required to prevent the

car from slipping? Assume that the

car's speed is still 40.0

and that the radius of the curve is

given by the value you found for

in Part A.

You need to apply Newton's 2nd law to the car. Because you do not want the car to slip

as it goes around the curve, the car needs to have a net acceleration of magnitude

pointing radially inward (toward the center of the curve).

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= 0.364

Correct

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Two bicycle tires are set rolling with the same initial speed of 4.00 along a long, straight

road, and the distance each travels before its speed is reduced by half is measured. One

tire is inflated to a pressure of 40 and goes a distance of 17.3 ; the other is at 105

and goes a distance of 92.6 . Assume that the net horizontal force is due to rolling friction

only and take the free-fall acceleration to be = 9.80 .

Part A

What is the coefficient of rolling friction for the tire under low pressure?

There are two main parts to this problem:

1. Use what you know about rolling friction and the normal force to find an expression

for the acceleration that involves .

2. Find an equation that allows you to relate the bike's acceleration to its initial velocity,

its final velocity, and the distance it travels.

To solve for the acceleration , use the following equations:

, , and ,

where is the mass of the object and is the normal force.

You should now be able to find an expression for that does not depend on the bike's

mass.

The best kinematic equation to use in this problem is

,

since it relates acceleration to quantities given in the problem. Solve this equation for

in terms of the distance traveled and the initial and final velocities of the bike.

ANSWER: 3.54×10−2

= Answer

Requested

Part B

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

What is the coefficient of rolling friction for the second tire (the one inflated to 105 )?

You should solve this part using the same steps you used in Part A.

ANSWER: 6.61×10−3

= Answer

Requested

Suspending a Speaker

A loudspeaker of mass 15.0 is suspended a distance of = 1.40 below the ceiling by

two cables that make equal angles with the ceiling. Each cable has a length of = 3.50 .

Part A

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= 184

Correct

The pulley in the figure represents different pulleys with outer radius and inner radius

indicated in the table. The horizontal

rope is pulled to the right at a

constant speed that is the same in

each case, and none of the ropes

slips in its contact with the pulley.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Part A

Rank these scenarios on the basis of the speed of the block.

By pulling the horizontal rope at constant speed, the pulley is given a constant angular

velocity. This angular velocity in turn causes the rope attached to the block to wind up at

a constant speed. Since both ropes are attached to the same pulley, each of their

speeds must satisfy the relationship

,

where is the angular velocity of the pulley and is the radius for the rope.

ANSWER:

View

Correct

Several points on the pulley are indicated in the figure. Each letter designates a point on

either the pulley or one of the two

ropes. The horizontal rope is

pulled to the right at a constant

speed, and neither rope slips in its

contact with the pulley.

Part B

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Since each point is located on the same pulley (or is located on a rope attached to the

same pulley), each point’s speed is determined by its radial distance from the rotation

axis via

.

ANSWER:

View

All attempts used; correct answer

displayed

Part C

Rank the designated points on the basis of the magnitude of their acceleration.

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

View

All attempts used; correct answer

displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Four children are playing in a field. The children form a line, holding hands. The player at the

front of the line starts to spin around faster and faster, causing the others to run in circle, as

shown in the figure.

Part A

While the line of children is rotating, which of the following statements are correct?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER: The player at the front of the line has the smallest

angular acceleration.

The player at the front of the line has the smallest

linear velocity.

✔

All the children have the same linear velocity.

Correct

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Part B

Now consider the children's linear accelerations. Which of the following statements are

correct?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER: The last child in the line has the greatest tangential

✔

acceleration.

✔

The last child in the line has the greatest radial

acceleration.

All the children have the same tangential acceleration.

All the children have the same radial acceleration.

The last child in the line, being the farthest away from the axis of rotation, has the

greatest radial acceleration. The force needed to produce this acceleration is

provided by the pull of the rest of the children in the line. It won't take long before this

acceleration becomes too high, especially for the final two children in the line. At this

point, those children will not be able to apply enough force to hold on and will have to

let go.

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

versus time graphs for six different

objects.

Part A

Rank these graphs on the basis of the angular velocity of each object. Rank positive

angular velocities as larger than negative angular velocities.

time graph

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

View

All attempts used; correct answer

displayed

Part B

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Rank these graphs on the basis of the angular acceleration of the object. Rank positive

angular accelerations as larger than negative angular accelerations.

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

View

Correct

As you finish listening to your favorite compact disc (CD), the CD in the player slows down

to a stop. Assume that the CD spins down with a constant angular acceleration.

Part A

If the CD rotates at 500 (revolutions per minute) while the last song is playing, and

then spins down to zero angular speed in 2.60 with constant angular acceleration, what

is , the magnitude of the angular acceleration of the CD, as it spins to a stop?

Since the CD spins down with a constant angular acceleration, the instantaneous

angular acceleration is equal to the average angular acceleration. Thus, the change in

angular speed of the CD measured in a time interval divided by the length of the time

interval yields the acceleration of the CD as it spins to a stop.

ANSWER:

= 20.1

Correct

Part B

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Consider a point P on the CD and take its angular coordinate to be zero when the CD

reaches the end of the last song. What is the angular displacement undergone by point

P as the CD spins to a stop?

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

Answer not displayed

ANSWER: 10.0

Correct

revolutions

At time a grinding wheel has an angular velocity of 22.0 . It has a constant

angular acceleration of 34.0 until a circuit breaker trips at time = 1.60 . From then

on, the wheel turns through an angle of 437 as it coasts to a stop at constant angular

deceleration.

Part A

Through what total angle did the wheel turn between and the time it stopped?

Hint not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Choose the most appropriate kinematic equation to use to determine the angle through

which the wheel turns during the period of constant acceleration. Note that all of these

equations are correct for the case of constant angular acceleration.

Hint not displayed

velocity), (initial angular velocity), (constant angular acceleration),

and (time).

ANSWER:

Correct

ANSWER:

516

Correct

Part B

At what time does the wheel stop?

Hint B.1 What is the angular velocity when the wheel begins to slow

down?

Calculate the angular velocity of the wheel when the circuit breaker trips.

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

Answer not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

After the initial time 1.60 , the wheel begins to decelerate at a constant rate, say .

One can solve for the additional amount of time that it takes for the wheel to slow down

to zero by looking at both the equation for angular velocity and the

equation as a function of time. We know that during deceleration

the wheel passes through the angle 437 and that the final angular velocity is .

With these two equations, we can solve for the two unknowns (time and deceleration).

Remember to set the initial velocity to the velocity when the circuit breaker trips.

ANSWER: 13.0

Answer

Requested

Part C

What was the wheel's angular acceleration as it slowed down?

In solving Part B you had to use the angular velocity of the wheel when the circuit

breaker tripped. To find the deceleration (which is a constant), just divide by the total

time it took for the wheel to stop spinning. Remember that deceleration here is a

negative acceleration.

ANSWER: -6.68

Answer

Requested

Acceleration in an Ultracentrifuge

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Part A

Find the required angular speed, , of an ultracentrifuge for the radial acceleration of a

point 1.80 from the axis to equal 5.00×105 g (where is the acceleration due to

gravity).

Find the tangential speed of a point at radius 1.80 from the axis.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= Answer not displayed

To find the number of revolutions per second from the tangential speed, one just has to

divide by the distance traveled in a single revolution ( ).

ANSWER: 1.58×105

= Answer

Requested

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

An electric ceiling fan is rotating about a fixed axis with an initial angular velocity of 0.280

. The angular acceleration is 0.917 . Its blades form a circle of diameter 0.700

.

Part A

Compute the angular velocity of the fan after time 0.201 has passed.

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

0.464

Correct

Part B

Through how many revolutions has the blade turned in the time interval 0.201 from Part

A?

Hint not displayed

ANSWER: 7.48×10−2

Correct

Part C

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

What is the tangential speed of a point on the tip of the blade at time = 0.201 ?

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER: 1.02

= All attempts used; correct answer

displayed

Part D

What is the magnitude of the resultant acceleration of a point on the tip of the blade at

time = 0.201 ?

Since the fan blade is both moving in a circle and speeding up, the tip of the blade must

have both tangential and radial acceleration. Add them to find the total acceleration.

Keep in mind that acceleration is a vector, and in order to find the total acceleration, one

must use vector addtion (that is, one may not simply add the magnitudes).

Calculate the magnitude of the instantaneous centripetal acceleration of the point

at the end of the fan blade. This is the acceleration perpendicular to the direction of

motion.

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= Answer not displayed

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

direction of motion) of a point on the tip of the blade at time 0.201 .

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= Answer not displayed

Notice that the centripetal and tangential accelerations are perpendicular. Thus, you can

think of them as the two components of the total acceleration . This makes the

magnitude of the total acceleration , where is the magnitude of

the tangential acceleration and is the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration.

ANSWER: 3.60

= Answer

Requested

Acceleration of a Pulley

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

A string is wrapped around a uniform solid cylinder of radius , as shown in the figure . The

cylinder can rotate freely about its

axis. The loose end of the string is

attached to a block. The block and

cylinder each have mass . Note

that the positive y direction is

downward and counterclockwise

torques are positive.

Part A

Find the magnitude of the angular acceleration of the cylinder as the block descends.

1. The block does not rotate. To analyze its motion, you should use Newton's second

law in its linear form: .

2. The pulley rotates. To analyze its motion, you should use Newton's second law in its

angular form: .

3. Using the geometry of the situation, you need to find the relationship between and

.

4. Finally, solve the system of three equations to obtain an expression for .

The block has two forces acting on it: the tension of the string and its own weight. What

is the net force acting on the block? Use the coordinate system shown in the figure.

due to gravity), and (the tension in the string).

ANSWER:

Correct

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

The tension in the string produces a torque that acts on the pulley. What is the torque?

Hint not displayed

Express your answer in terms of the cylinder's radius and the tension

in the string.

ANSWER:

Correct

.

The string does not stretch. Therefore, there is a geometric constraint between the linear

acceleration and the angular acceleration . What is the cylinder's angular

acceleration in terms of the linear acceleration of the block?

Express your answer in terms of and . Be careful with your signs.

ANSWER:

=

Correct

From this equation, . Substitute for in the force equation for the block.

Hint not displayed

Express your answer in terms of the cylinder's radius and the magnitude

of the acceleration due to gravity .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Note that the magnitude of the linear acceleration of the block is , which does not

A sign is to be hung from the end of a thin pole, and the pole supported by a single cable.

Your design firm brainstorms the six scenarios shown below. In scenarios A, B, and D, the

cable is attached halfway between the midpoint and end of the pole. In C, the cable is

attached to the mid-point of the pole. In E and F, the cable is attached to the end of the pole.

Part A

Rank the design scenarios (A through F) on the basis of the tension in the supporting

cable.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

View

Correct

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

a seesaw. These consist of a plank/

rod of mass and length

allowed to pivot freely about its

center (or central axis), as shown in

the diagram. A small sphere of mass

is attached to the left end of the

rod, and a small sphere of mass

is attached to the right end. The

spheres are small enough that they

can be considered point particles.

The gravitational force acts

downward. The magnitude of the

acceleration due to gravity is equal

to .

Part A

What is the moment of inertia of this assembly about the axis through which it is pivoted?

The moment of inertia of the assembly about the pivot is equal to the sum of the

moments of inertia of each of the components of the assembly about the pivot point.

That is, the total moment of inertia is equal to the moment of inertia of the rod plus the

moment of inertia of the particle of mass plus the moment of inertia of the particle of

mass , all measured with respect to the pivot point.

Hint A.2 Find the moment of inertia due to the sphere of mass

What is the moment of inertia of the particle of mass measured about the pivot

point?

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Hint A.3 Find the moment of inertia due to the sphere of mass

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

What is the moment of inertia of the particle of mass measured about the pivot

point?

Express your answer in terms of given quantities.

ANSWER:

=

Correct

What is the moment of inertia of the rod about the pivot point?

Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

=

Correct

that the length of the rod is , not .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part B

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Suppose that the rod is held at rest horizontally and then released. (Throughout the

remainder of this problem, your answer may include the symbol , the moment of inertia

of the assembly, whether or not you have answered the first part correctly.)

The forces acting on the system (spheres and rod) are the weights of the spheres and

the rod, and the reaction force from the pivot. Find the torque due to each of these forces

about the pivot point and add them with the correct signs. Finally, use Newton's second

law for rotational motion: .

Hint not displayed

Find the torque about the pivot due to the particle of mass .

Express your answer in terms of given quantities. Keep in mind that the

positive direction is counterclockwise.

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Hint not displayed

Let the net torque acting on the system about the pivot point be denoted by . Find

an expression for .

Express your answer in terms of the system's moment of inertia and its

resulting angular acceleration . (Use in your answer, not the

expression for you found in Part A.)

ANSWER:

=

Correct

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

some or all of the variables , , , , , and .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

the connecting rod light and short (since both and appear in the denominator of

the expression for ). For a seesaw, on the other hand, and are usually chosen

to be as large as possible, while making sure that the "rod" does not get too heavy

and unwieldy. This ensures that the angular acceleration is quite low.

You are to find the coordinates of a pebble stuck in the tread of a rolling tire that is rotating

counterclockwise (i.e., in the positive sense) with angular velocity . The tire rolls without

slipping on the ground (which is at ). The outer radius of the tire is . At time ,

the pebble is at the top of the tire, as shown.

Part A

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Find the velocity of the axle of the tire relative to a fixed point on the ground, . Note

the order of the subscripts: velocity of axle measured relative to the ground.

For a wheel of radius that is rolling without slipping, there is a relationship between

the speed of its center of mass ( ) and the angular speed . Find in terms

of and .

ANSWER:

. = Answer

Requested

The pebble and tire have now rolled as shown in the figure. Answer the following

questions for .

Part B

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Find the position vector of the pebble relative to the initial point of contact between the

wheel and ground at a time , .

This is a relative motion problem. You can find the position of the pebble relative to the

ground by adding vectorially the following two vectors: (i) the position vector of the

pebble relative to the axle and (ii) the position vector of the axle relative to the ground. In

other words,

.

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Express the position vector of the pebble in terms of , , , and the unit

vectors and/or of the xy coordinate system shown.

ANSWER:

=

Answer Requested

Part C

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Find , the velocity vector of the pebble with respect to a fixed point on the ground, in

terms of the unit vectors and of the xy coordinate system shown.

The velocity vector is the time derivative of the position vector, i.e. . To take

the derivative of a vector means to differentiate its x and y components, so for example

ANSWER:

=

Answer Requested

Part D

Now find , the acceleration vector of the pebble with respect to a fixed point on the

ground.

The acceleration vector is the derivative of the velocity vector.

system shown.

ANSWER:

=

Answer Requested

Part E

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

The magnitude of a vector is the square root of the sum of the squares of its x and y

components. For example, if the vector is , then the magnitude of the

in simplifying your answer.

ANSWER:

Answer

Requested

This is the centripetal acceleration of the pebble. Any object moving in uniform

circular motion will always experience centripetal acceleration, as given by your

answer here.

Hoop on a Ramp

A circular hoop of mass , radius , and infinitesimal thickness rolls without slipping down

a ramp inclined at an angle with the horizontal.

Part A

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Draw a diagram showing the forces and torques on the hoop. Write the corresponding

force and torque equations. Consider the condition for no slipping. Finally, solve this

system of equations for .

Write an expression for the total torque on the hoop about its center of mass. (By

convention, a positive torque produces a counterclockwise rotation, and a negative

torque produces a clockwise rotation.)

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Express the torque in terms of given quantities and the force of friction

.

Complete the general equation of rotational dynamics relating an object's moment of

inertia and angular acceleration to the total torque acting on the object.

acceleration .

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Using Newton's second law to relate the forces acting on the hoop to the hoop's

acceleration, find an expression for the force of friction .

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

If you've answered the previous parts, the only missing link is the relationship between

linear acceleration and angular acceleration. Find the linear acceleration in terms of

the angular acceleration . Use a coordinate system in which the positive x axis points

down the ramp, and keep in mind that counterclockwise angular acceleration is positive.

Express your answer in terms of and .

Hint not displayed

the quantities , , and .

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

ANSWER:

=

Correct

So the acceleration is independent of the hoop characteristics, that is, the mass and

size (radius) of the hoop. This is quite generally true for objects freely rolling down a

ramp; the acceleration depends only on the distribution of mass, for example,

whether the object is a disk or a sphere, but within each class the acceleration is the

same. For example, all spheres will accelerate at the same rate, though this rate is

different from the rate for (all) disks.

Part B

What is the minimum coefficient of (static) friction needed for the hoop to roll without

slipping? Note that it is static and not kinetic friction that is relevant here, since the bottom

point on the wheel is not moving relative to the ground (this is the meaning of no slipping).

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

Hint not displayed

given quantities , , and .

ANSWER:

=

Correct

Part C

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View

Imagine that the above hoop is a tire. The coefficient of static friction between rubber and

concrete is typically at least 0.9. What is the maximum angle you could ride down

without worrying about skidding?

Express your answer numerically, in degrees, to two significant figures.

ANSWER:

= 61

Correct

When roads are wet or icy though, the coefficient of friction between rubber and

concrete drops to about 0.3 (or less), making skidding likely at much smaller angles.

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