You are on page 1of 142

,t&algru ruuvH

9TtYL€ V9
ssn Nor,tvr^v lvusNs9 uo,!I sTro,lurv Jo goTvrvc v
SIFOFIV VO

113IqTU ') L86T 1q6rr,{doC
^rfpH
.sTroJ,rrp prTE^ , alp suorf.rpa
Foo6 TTrls
snoT^aJd ffP lo sTTofjrrp aq,l .ubfsap lJe.rcJrp rreq:l raq:Iel u6rsep froI.rTE Jo uJaJ
-aq]
-uoc E {frrEurrJd sr sn{l .ro] , pezrururu ua€q sEq , pTftluol: 6e:p uq.f.l Jo uorlp^T
-.rap aq] pue ,6e:p uryrf ]o uorssrcsrp aqJ - 1)ra1 arfJ c, suorsrna: 1e:aua6 sapnTcur pup
'sfroJrTp (xx9-) p€raquJpc-q 6rq ar11 Jo uorlrppp ar{l qlr,.lrt ,ute6e 1ar( xTl}au Irolrrp !9
arl+ spupdxa uort.TpJ q:lxTs sfw . xfxlplu arIl 01 sfTol:Jrp a.rcrl pappe suorlr$ luanbas
-qns 'sTrof-rre gg dluo paurpfuo3 ,196T qc:q^t ,,,sfTol:rw !9,, l:o uor?Tps fs_rrd aqJ

'1ou alP sauPTdrrp peJ-d..od TE3rd f fnq
, stuanD! 6urqclrd qSTq
fo 1up-rafo1 ere saueldlreg 'sluaicru 6tmrceTd q6rq {1aar1e1a:
a:npo:d osle .{arp fnq '.r€qrec Jo luncrup lspaf aql qlr,.tr lfTI lscrn aLIf acnpo:d s1ro3
-.rTe pepEoT-pTl^l 'slroJ-rTe PePBoT-PIur rl:tr!\ f=4feq op saueldlres ssa.IErqA 'sluanD! 6uT
-r{clrd loT ecnpo:d ol p€peol p-rpA-rol fTe arp sTrol:Tp 99 'saueldl'res :o; aler:do:dde
lou trfqeqo:d osTp are f,aq1 'slro;::re luannr: 6urqclrd o:ez fETceds arrnber qcTqA Jo
qaoq . saueld:'ge 6ur,r.r 6ur.{1; :o sraldo:r1aq :o; aler:do:dde lou aJp sTTo}.rre \19
.
f JPrJf TP
pareaod JoJ sp6eu q9 g:o ,{1r:o[an et|f .:aAoJ pfnoqs xr.rlai attrl '6T-III arn6r] uo ur'.oqs
( E.9T9-0E \i9 pup , S'tT9-08 v9) aJdu Z snfd 'sTroJ.rrp 96 sr.lrE?uo3 xTrlEu aqf snql,
'.rdquec alerrdoJddp at{t EuTppp uaqf
, ssaulJTr{f pe-rrsap a({} crf u}rop :o dn uorSnql-Tlsrp ssauj{JTt{l atlf,
burTpJs Aq palelcdrelur aq .{an a6trer srt41 url;}r.'r sassau{JTql raqlo
'rp6uaT p.roq3 aq1 lo a6efuacrad P sE ' I3rq+ SgT puP 'tET 'XZT 'G@T -
' sr{f,ua1
ur fuarsr]l:s3 IJTT
ubtsap alanrrxo:dde aq1 6uy1eclpu1 ')(x9- pue 'xxt- ')o(E- 'xxz- 'sTaAaT J€qrPJ ?-
'(dsno ou) noftc< gre ' (ad ? dsn3) :o<x--xx 'Fffll -
'fiol€q 1)cal arFl uT passnssTp
suosEe.r roJ 'pasn aq 1ou pTnor-{s sTTo]rrp 1T6lf}-S \D\iN aqtr ',{larrrlcadsa:
'sfroJ:rE sar-res 99 pue 's€tJas t9 'sarJas e9 '1T6Ip-t \pVN eqf aJPTd
-aJ pue urcr; p€^Trap are .derL1 'p:oqc ]o luac .rad ur 'ssar{Jrql froJ.lTe
unmxEu Jo uorlrsod aq+ ol .r-a]3.r s:squJnu asaql ' 0t pue ' tt ' St ' 0E \19 'sar-:aa t -
I9TwE S -a1du:ere I :lo slsTsuGl )rlrlsJ rTof-rTE ,,v9,, aql
.,,aso uoTleT^v TE.rauac Jol: sTroJrTV 1o 6o1v1e;r e
-sTro].rTv 1l9,, sT lrnsal aql 'esn atreld:re TpnfsE :oJ 6urpue'fslno 1nq ' aTqs+rns uEq|
5ur1ar ,{1uo lou Jo asodrnd aql :o; sfroJJTe tDv!.I e(I} ,,dn ura1c,, ' spoltrta,l \l'Jvll aql
uD.rl: :eJ oo1 bur.{p.Ils 1ou aTTqA 'pup '{:o!r agl ur suorssruD puP salElsru ro[EUJ a({l
ssaf,ppe 01 p€ATosa: J 'acpfd oluT fTP] of u€6€q s6urtll rr€qf pue ',{af 6usl 17.Jvtrt :oJ
6urlJo,*r uaql spa oqr'r reeur6rre-:crFErluG) P Iq urrlEqrel au o? palonb seA aACCIe luau
aJaql letIl azrr€ef ol
-alsls egl '{:o{ TToJfrp vJvN alIl ur suorssruD puP $rPTf arar\ 3ruos-qns
ue@ 1 arrf agl lnoqe 'ltpl: uI 's,0E6T aql fo {-ro& TroJ-rr€ \DvN alF} fo
uorfe6rlsanur snor.ras trur 6uruut6eq ralllP os :o rsa,{ p '886I punorP srql azrrs€J o?
a rgc J 'enll ssaTa{Fauou sT 1I 'eq ol reedde .{eu: lua:e1e1s stldl se afqe^arfaqun
',,aJueurro]:ad fToJ-rrE uo s:alanre:ed fTolJTP snor.rE^
6ur6uEqc l:o slael:l:e aql a?e6Tlsalur 01 pesn ax€.r fRIl srranncads ls31 Tauun? pur^rr
{1a:ran a.::a.l anq 'asn aueld:te TenFe rol peu6lsap fou a.rarv\ sf rol:.rre \DvN aqJ,,
uoTlJnpo.TluT
il

{1t1tqv15 lJe:cJTv.o anbrltrg q" g r€qujnN 5TT .p€TlTTdxTs -.lorFlnv arr] ?noqv tET . ro] seloN u6tsaq...{-Si'T+*n z1 sTrolrrv lsvN sn€ueTra3sTw '8 ZI s3:g:l a6po 6urpeal 95r ' 4 OT ..rad l]:Ef3-Iw 'g OT faqunu spTou^au I ssalr){Jrq} ' reqljeJ 'sdsnJ 'sarJes lo ?€IlS I suortEJrTddv pup uorf3alas ffolrlv vD 't v luandoTalac Trol:-rrv vc J E sTroJ.{-raurng 'T 'oN aE-Ee SJNIJNOC CO g]gVT ilt .{pn1s asec 'saorlap a6pa Sutpeal 'saupTd:Te €3eJ.g-og aql :oJ aTrJo.rd--ag 6ur14 are.... T I .. T -r€qurnN Effi' t. slTX :OlEraua9 xalJo^. zeT ..SSIN of ?aaTqTu'H 'ra11a.7 ..tce:nr:g rllPf6o-rd -ra?nArrca ' g uorfJT-pe-rd ecuEuriro].s6ur.l eeT ...rre 1T6Ip-9 ' sf rol-rrE 1!6lp-t )t_:otq lsatr. z raqulnN e5 .L suorl€s 6uT. ? FquInN r0T .rre sar='s 9 'sf toJ..I 9 JaquInN t(.:ns reddn uv. rTofrlv !?vN Jr-rolsrH '7. I r€qur"lN 8Zr 966I/S/Z .. I -raqutni.TTofrw ETI0-(I)JnN vsldN er{l .M Jo ssrlsrJaFPrEqc crupuipo:av AI xrolEddv saTqeJ alPuTpfo rToffT-v III xlotlSddv 'E z9 sauTl ueat{ II xlq}Eddv 6n sruod ssaulcrrdl sTsEg I xICIMIddv 8r-87 1E-1 sa:n6rg LI sa3uaje]au ]o 1sT1 9T ldr-rJslsod .. e _reqrnN 66 .rns-€r{f ' spjptrpc 'sbur/'! 6urtrTl 'se6pe 6urTrErf lunfg spa[qng peleTaa '6 'T JtTto-(T)srN'J9TZ0-(I).g paredeg.TTofrTv dTotz VJVN 3t{? lo TTPIS d:eqs atn 6unue. sT ToJ:W 6utpuY1sJ-aPu1.

9751 ..suor1€S 6ur3 3o tr:oew.{TTensn 'anrrl ol aurl uD-rJ sTroJJrE pelpfosr urslr€J paqsrlqnd^qseq \6rdn 'srpe^d ?uea€-r eJcru uI 's-lTnsa.rrE .bllolr prp re^eu \f:)\d'I{ ecurs 'ra^a. oe a6pe1 --Jtto(I){ sTr{] asn prnoJ.rJnP :o.{s e 6unrnr:ra1ap fo po+tar 3rsspTc aq1 .mJ aql ua€q peq ItI4 urs'n aqt Aq suorlnq-lrf.aJ 6ursn pet.roJau 'fro]:Te p€r€q)lec p urslqo 01 ' ..{f aleuna.fE)p ralndrDJ qgrn 6uo1e SIToJJTP cruosqns .\i9.sTaoJ:rE t9 -:no olur se:nlseJ 1s€q el|] eurgllDc aar 1et{1 os ..Te vsd}..nfEs] ursfJEJ ssnJsrp puP 'p61sa1 seJnlPe] aql^uu a1e: uaql puE .dn q31eo.:r.sTroJrw \19..: peu6tsap F11ecr3:rcads sTrofrrP Jo s6o1e1ec qlrr1 l:orr ?.rod satrrSrra pue saueld:re ecua:.r paxTur rI+T.p.roJx€d peads-tto1s ra113q pu€ sTTsf s ral]os raf l:o sf roFrP .rl T-Nf sll.I.rP srroJJTe w ar+J 'sTlol:f.rP sffnsa: aql pue 'uJPJ6o:d Jalnd)Do 9 eJrra:tl.Jvl.{1uo aq1 'lJEf uT ! fualdoTanep uorlPrnE ur sar.FI 'esn ll€.a1. / sTroJ-rle vsvN. e^rF€dsfad fecrJolsrq p UDJJ lJc{'l lsal troJJTE vjrvN al|} azr.rpu€ddv puP ' sTro]rTe poJ€quJ€J atlt rof saTcIP:l alPurpJo al{f surE/luo3 III xTprraddv / (salrrofd reqllPc ) seuTr Lrseu aql sursauo3 II r|pJaddv 'su:o] ssau{crtff clsPq aq+ surs+uo3 I xT-puaddv : uratr1d sTtI+ s'4oTTof puE {Jo& 1sa1 TrofJtE vJvN al+l Jo {-rpurms e sr T eJue.v9. -qtnp srr+l lrarr:ano5 aso(n 01 peted.s...o3 sTTOlrrP asaw 'l{dl^l OoE 01 sF€€ds 1}E:3rrP :oJ ptrP r uorrrru ua1 01 auo utoJJ sr€qunu sptouxau lio a6up.pe1sa1 1ou ara.r .{q se/'r srqL 'q3fpas ..3...sTroJJrp.sa1 srln dn r.rre lsa1' asarp Jo Lr ronl lseq aql 'acueu:ogr:ad froJ-rrE uo ueJJe aqf auruuelap 01 sJelai -ered 1ro.q a!1 'stra:rrcads ?sa1 fauunl pur/'r se .{rfsnpur uorlET^e 'S'O ?uEJuT erp ftql sadoq aql t{lTA 'Ip.1oq ' . Feu6rsap-A1nau 96 J:o Eofels3 v IXV'{^IrIS ' T .0e6l-pTu aqf . )ruCU TSIJ 'IIOJTIIV \OVN CISOISIH 'E . aJuar.ITe?sa1JosaT.{f-reqq aqf pup r reure.e d11:oqs "dl-lsnput 's.iranorlnrone e. ro -f r€ -r-a11€q .rauec -roJ uraJaq paluasa:d sr e?sp uorFTEE:d acuan:o1:ad pa^r.rd a.${ Jo Era aql f...r aprA e pa1ca3:rad peq sarr+unq" raqlo alrqr'r 'aur6ua. fecrlnpuorae JTsEq frnpuoJ 01 u.r+Etx pelp:6a1ur ' TPcTfuT e ur pelr:asa:d er€ sTroJ.ral ue€q stq suorl3as TTe Jo a3ueuuoged pelcrpe:6 'su6rsap ad.n) A:o1e-:oqr1 fErrlnEuo -rav fprror€t{ Fa16ur1 ar{l 'E'rur6Jr 'IaT6usI le sarlrTroeJ lsal Tarrunt pura rrr€Fo! l:o uorpulsuoo aql set'l lJolfe qc:easar \iJvN sTt{+ 01 TPf.ran srroJ.r ut peluasa:d sfrofrrp \D\iN aqf ur peurErluoJ suorssruD pue 's6unn:1:oqs .v:1.uoJ TPJT+nsuorae luecr.Iaqle: . s .rad q6fq fo a6ue.!M uoTlErAE 's'o ?uefuT ar{f azrprsqns . s-ro:-r3 aq]' l€.r atp ur tr11eJarra6 suo-rl1puoJ rloff Jof 'sT feq:t 'suorlEf.auTT Lrpau.{S '(.^r 'saueTd:Te go a6ue: aprA E uo p€sn eq 01 ares sTroJ:re 1sa1 al.re sTTolfre v9 '{ aclr€r€la: ur pezT-rElrxns 's-relarErEd rToJ-Ire uTElxac 6uT6ueqa l:o slJelfe aqt €urulra1ap 01 sasal TaurJnl pura :taq1 Surr'ro110} ' alsl 10u plp lnq 'a eq pTnoqs v:MN qcrw dals lxau aq1 exe /taw 'peu6lsap r(laarlea"rasuoc are FxrP '.:ru6rs .41a1a1d:rc sfrolrrE asoql aceld -€J 01 p€ubrsap are puP 'sTro]-rrE Jruosqns Vsl/t{ ra?ET pue '.{rlceJtpur 01 'u. plrE uo=) .r6oJd lsaa TroJ:Tp c1lare1strs e dola.Iasels?sa1cTfEuIafstrsasaq1..rlunoc urapcru rarf+o purq=q pa66eT -s'n ewl lEt{} rHoqs pPq u.{1 r'ro13r reut -uref pup firaTnqJnf go aSue: apr$ E 6uruuds ).{:o1e:oqeT srqa 's.r6o. aq+ sp u l0ll){ aTn -peq.tap o1 spn dafs l:lau atll '6ur1sa1 uppuef arn?eu . .{q peqsrlqelsa serr srrlneuorev Jol a€1lrurcC TpuorfpN aqt ^JoGTAp.rre ursfJe3 6ut{:prl 'uJp.rd AI r.3:a de1.!d9 \6rdN aq+ epnf3ur saldueq 'uer11 rucr!: sfrofJTe aTgesn a{eu o? uorlEcrfTpon a^TsualxE} arrnba: UEI+I Jo TTE ptrE 'slfnsaf :ood peq TTp €^eq asaql 'sae{o1&e vsrat fenprnTpur uolJa leuosred e ..r€qlpc pau6rsap tr11n9:a:e: p t1trlr ..r srLFI ./\rw!i 6urpuodsa::o3 lecrdr{1 rprrr pe:edrnc pue paluasa.rfddE uoTlpTAV Te. 01 PePTcaP ssa:6uo3 'uossa.Iodm '[Jtrro-(T)JT{ pup'Jsreo -(T)gEr '(ST'O-(T)SI pue Lf?0-(T)fI] a-+rvp puP T-1. srql burA:nJ uaq} pue .{1rea ar51 ur ssa:6uc.. pau6ts -ep a.{Taxai 1ou 'saueTdJTe T€€}r uo asn :o.rrE saTras-g puP '1T6Tp E '1T6rp ? aq+ a.rcr^r 1sa1 snonp:e sTqt 'sTroJ..rd P pun.rEurtrts leou f IT.. 'uJa11d rPratla6 allPs srt8 enoTTol: .aarssa:d:rr sr palr€fToJ sea lpr{] sfpp lsa1 fo funque aql pue 'Illulr{ q6nol$ penurluoo I.{Eolouqcal E Fnpuoc 01 fnq 'sTau -un1 arlt a?'pJqrfpc 01 1ou 'pT:olr eq1 re^o Tfp uD:l: STToJJTe unou:{ burlsal ue@ ^fuo \Dvl{ pue 'auTT-uo sea.rcJ './\od!l ar11 o1 d:e-nuo3 'e5lrEurrol::ad peeds q6rq ur ' as€e-r€p ou qlfn slLrorJTJJaoJ luarn:u 6urq31rd :aool pue 'ssatralTlce. ss€${orlI} 3rs€q.'\ lprFl saf..r:o.uro.{q peu6rsap sE.roliun . 'slTnsaf lsa1 Tatrunl Purr|r aqf sfuasa.. uorlnqrgs1p ssau:{Jrrrl fecrr+anur.r.If.i1sTToJ.rs€sa..T aJueJ€Je.trIaJ '.&euor?n -To^ar uEr{f .

' so obtained 1"€re tesred.:r t of chorC.s feature. and tire rean line is perfeeCly straight frcxn . test airfoils. Fo]-lc'\ring the 4-di9i! airfoil r.l_5C to the trail.:ois x1 ) where t is tire rnaxjrnmr urickness expressed as a fraction of the chcrd.nbered airfoils had been achieved earJier by refleci. and chord. Accordrngly. zero p-itching nsnents on ca. NACA 241-2 indj-- cates a 12? thlck airfoil with 2? rnaximur camber l0cated at 40t of chorc.nbered air- foils)..BtC leadirg edge droop forward of the 15t chord posiiion. and since the advantages cf forr"erd loading had been demonstrated previously. lvhi-ch ptaiea ure *u*:-. The saqe faulty LIACA nethcd of ccrnbining tlr-i-ck* .|ls. and has l. a-nd then the ordinate schedule for the other t^hicknesses is deterrdned by scal- ing tie 0020 ordinates d:j-rectly up or do\. and Reynolds nurbers of 3. 30.:irg ei-rfoils.2 ai:foi1s. and 9 nrillion.'. and without q. For exanrple. with various thicknesses.ck section (0020) is detennined frcrn this fonn- ula.126 x -. t'he second d. lhe ordinate schedule for the 20t thi.j.351 x2 + . an orderly fanily of airfoils was ccnstructec alrd tested. and en in canbered a.i-gnaaaon systen was then devised. represented by the ubiquitous 230f2 airfoil. ktlerein the first digit inaicates the rax- inum canber j. without critically evaluati-ng the need for t-t. a family of paraboric curves mean l-ines) was develop€d.* canber at {09 af chord NACA x4xr).is- cussion of the relationshi"p betueen C1. such as Cessna (241-2). 6. The first step was to desigp a ca-reful-ly spcified rhickness distribution.2s69 x\ -. rather Lhan using a convent:i"on- al camber schedule. ( Read Addendum *1 below. and t}le last two dj. A des.s.'S-digit" ser.has no other cam- ber. and 70 per cenl chord position.es was sefected to cores- pond closely lo that for those wing sections.rristakes af th.usccnrie and Aeronca (4412).irrch is 12* t-!dck. such as the Gernran Go ttingen *398 and tie l. using leading edge droop al. mid-1oaded (55). The tii-ckness d:rst-ributi-on for ai-l of the 5digit airfoi-ls ( 0012 etc ) is the sane as for all" of lhe 4digit airfo.igit indicates the locaiion of naxj:nmr ca. }4ore on lhat later ' ]n a:]y event.d be acbj-eved on canbered ar:foils by using lead:-ng edge droop al-one. r*ere wide- ( ly used on popular airplanes of the day. the basic 5t mean lines are si-rply scal-ed do{dn dj-recl- ly t'o the new va1ue. canber levers.?-dicir Airfoils.: llAq{ resea:r:chers. with this systsn in place. etc.T in figure 111-l belcrvr. and alt toaced (66&57) nean Lj-nes. r"tri-ch turts out lo be a faulty rnetirod.ing edge. not incl-uded in t"!re designation systqn. }.d tutca. the thickness distributlon for the 4 digit serj.ic tllickress forms and the carnber schedules were cqnbined according to the "I'IACA" method. had the cnximum tbj-ckness at 30g of chord. included conditj..one.nber in lenalls of the chord length. "Understind.ons of "stardard roughness'. as j-n al-l of the 4 and 5 digit airfoils ( turbulent ) i is at 30? of chord.ies. NACA shared the general fascinatj"cn of t!:at era for zero pitching nsnent arrfoils. other va:iables that eiere tested.h-is was o'jle of the rajor . For less camb:r.:r the early 1930's to see j-f zero pitching rTn:rents coul. shcn^. the 4 digit "arrfoil-s. indicating that the maximun canber of 6t of chord was localed at the 20. bui this r€thod has :he d-isadvantage of reducing the na:<irnLrn rift toefficient. as on the M-6 and 2R11. in spite of tileir shortccrrlings.rork. 40. becalre knourr as the . This gave a selection of forward l0aded (52-64). T'ire ns. as deterndned by the gerieral t_hickness distrib-_ ution formula givea belcnn:. and t. 60.l1c'\ring equatj"on: t t =* (.- wlse position of raxjmr"nn canrber.ie the maximur.ng the airfoil trailing edge. The ai-rfoil. l. For the canber schedu]-e.gits inAnca.50. rn practice.esired thickness.. These airfoils. d.rantifying the effssts of dj-fferences in airfoil cln on ajrcraft per- fonnance.2843 xl -. the most prac- tical of lirese airfoils used the 64 mean llne.tote thal the naxj:nun tirickness of this airfoj-l.'tr !o the d. 2 . The |':AcA researchers noaed frcm earlier tests that ihe best airfoil-s. N. B. and is given by the fo. { designated as mean Lines 62 *]rough 67. The only airfoils of any conseguence i-n th-is series are th€ 230)c{ airfoils.{AsA conducted a test program i. r. for a d.nr tie ba:.l thick- ness of the airfoil as a tr=rcentage cf tlre chord length. and seabee (4415).] .liACA. In doing these tests. clark y. si:nulaled split flaps deflected 60 degrees. f.

-reqrE3.r \n)VN ' e. suortnqrrleirp ssaulcrrlt .rns do4 aq1 uo .-t alqeredrnc uet1+ ra?ea:6:o o1 lenba firarorJ.rrp \D\dI{ ar{+ Jo auou 'FEf uI 'TTsts aW} un:.IoJ s-luno33P auoTP doorp e6pe 6u1pea1 un:y 6ur..c eql ur .r€s-g aq1 ur 6ur11nsa: ..snrpe-r pup edoTs.reou laTnqrnl pup '6oTf reuTuel o:E scnrpqJ€ru pTnr} lo pTaTJ ar.Iaaoca: amssa:d.0E5T a4pT aqt lo lJortl floTI rpurureT arlf seA ltrandolarrap ulvN lup3rlru6rs lxau aq. TTE +s dr€qs aTgstdaJJEun up -e6elupAppsrp :ofE! p seq TroJ.rr1 Iuprx peles alpq pTnoc pue 'sTroJre 11e1sdrals Jo arnleu snorprsur al+l pefpr-lsnTTT a^eq pTnor! qJrr.^or} JeuTLIrEr suosE€-t asaql :oJ pue 'uorl3npsJ 6erp luecr.dtTcofa^ fustsuoo arl] q:lTA 6uo1e o6 ol.'1 r(laS.ro.4oTeq f.{erq ra11€q e sr a.a -oc 1JTT q6rq dlqeuosea: sE TTar..tpuoc oolg: :o[au o f aq. rpurulpT urEuF-r qI.loTJ arll . afqeuosEeJun 1ou st 6utlr. ^r€Aqu-Dc srlll pue r pex€qusc .r UT[+IT1'1 ' ({lTcora^ fus}suoc ) asrApJoq3 se ffar'l se tr11ecr3:an .ro:dun 01 ^lTcoTaA 'uoTlaes ...rf. oueda-r :Taql U. saueld:re uorlcnpo:d uo ue^a r sTTo]rrp esaq+ (Ilr^r I'roU JpuTurel Jo flr€1re aq? fprlt g aara.^'toT sfr .o€qJ. pa?erafaJJpun aq lsnu.n ur suorl'.sdsnJ.lraJal .ltJ 'ZTote \DVII uer{] ssaT tSZ sr frol-IrE ZTZ-.{1ag:es arp aprseq uosEa: rat1}ouv 'pe16au Tsururrf3 uo srap-rcq 'asn :ran{f lsure6p s6uru:en 6uor1s ansst 01 lsEeT ae :o ' aJT.. aq1 acelda: o? . arlf puP sTqf o? anp puP 'pasn osTe sPr'1 saf.Ipoq.{raloce: pellllalle ur sP ' panlcco sEq TTsfs d:eqs ar41 ralJe lcs+lE .:EJJoJilv sar.d1r -frqp aI'Fl lTqTWcd sedeqs asaqg. 'suorleJTTdde uorlprae le:. 'X1anr1:edsa: ..suoll ]o -ceg 6u144 fo s I lrJoquacq uo^ pue floqqv ur pessnosrp sT r{.arra6 ro3: alqe'ldanceun .s.reql leql sr sTToJr.IoJ p:oqc Jo tgt p{re .4of J rpuruJpT .refu.anrrxordde seq qcTqA .OJJ slToJ:Tp TTE?s-dJeqs afrururfa of vwt{ Jo a-rnTref aIdL 'To-rfuo3 TE-ralpT fnor{lrjrr tr1a1a1drnc sr 1Je-ro:T€ aql aTTlliru€ai 'acel:Is do1 lro]rre eq+ uo ftoTl: peqcsflE qsrTqslsa-a-r o? (apnfrtTp Jo ssoT luanbesuoc q+T/'i ) {lressacau sr {oe1tp lo aT6up Jo uorlJnpe-r aTqpraprs -uoc E ' F€:n3co ssq TTsls drpqs p ra1.r sP slueurau 6urg31rd orez 1eql perro:d slua:rrred -ra rro].ST ' lP aurT trE€ l aqf tlr (}iu'rJ{ ) xlrntrr3uocsSp arp ^dq pesnec.-tg aql .o a16ue E@ I{fra srnf. sJTf.. sedH{s . sea:6ap E snuru :o snld Xlalanrrxo:dde .a^a/qoH .. aAr?ceJJa atll 'snrpe-f a6pe 6u1pe'a1 arFt fno 6ur.tgt 01 p. sTTOf --rrE 'aoTJ JpururEf fo ' seT.tg.tr..ru6rs e st sr.{:olefoqeT uet{+ alou 6urtgou sP pep.snorr€s TTE rof lsnu p sr qJTr{q .:d pe^arT€q tr€€q psq Ueql :a1ee:6 sr .d1uo sr 7I3EZ \6rvl.ro 1 srrll 'saurT rJs€tu (tT6T'tr-' JTToqPred ) ^f.oJre fe{rtrp uo pesn aq crf 4ou .fa{onq :gunueT. sadpqs sar. iro . aTdle:€ :oJ .1.roq 1sal fro].r €q pf noqs sTroJ:rE 1T5T-p-E \P\dt{ 3ql . Jo] uorlonpe: 6e:p ' snt{L 'afqe:}s alrnb sr puE .. SurA aqf Jo Fed lsa1Jrrll aq1 puolaq {1eq6r1s p{rp 01 XJEq e:e.mo lJrf uruxrxeu p sEq ua^a TTo]irre aq.Lt .raE 1T6Tp-9 \D\iI{ elll 'f..roqr Jo t0€ uDfl ?Jp pe^su ssau1rlI1 ummxEru Jo uorlrsod at51 Euraeq puE . ar{+ tp noTf luafnq:n1 01 .l -rol: ..TafJe J'eUor{s ITTEJT -fTf..t'l p€ur. UoTIPTAP Te-raua6 ar+l pazTuoTlnro^al a^pr{ pTnoqs sIToJJTp r.ras-gg EJe .sTroJ:Te acuan:ogred -:aq6rq +e6 crl .X unpuapgg ur passncsrp uoueunuaqd lJTl..alqqnq uotle:edes.e alIf Wlr.=lfTEurs =)puaTs Tprc€ds pesrnap sJa -q3-r?As€.d1rco1an 4up1suoc. rTppJ aSpe 6urpe:1 prrp suorlcas asou .rEuTurpT se Serp t{cnu sp acr. truaTnqJnl JETTturs P o? pe:dua $gZ f o -Gp:o aq1 uo s5ur. 'r!!oTf .rap sluepn?s .cd uorfrsup.tot .rOJaJAql 'SfrtJrrT /noJ-rpu rExf+p..peo1 p-TeAJol: anFrf).d1anr1e1a: trq pazrretce:Eqc ..suTp-ro ( doo-Tp ) -Idqujec puP sssu I . 'anrlce[qo uSrsap aq1 Eurfaau 'u{).rrp aq+ ' r.{1rsee -raqlpf p€Aarq3p €q upc l.fur.sr ?prt+ ..rirr1 uo dlletcedsa 'sa..Jglsuoc Jo sarJ€s p [Esrnap osfE \DvN 'safp ?Er11 ur trcuarcr3:g:a a. Fs-9 vCvN 5 'AoTeq possn3sTp 'sanbTu{Jef reoT} -reurujpl 6ursn Iq ..so ?sr+ d@r srsa-ra1s.-99 '-Vg .rc1 dllercadsa sr Tro]:re ar{f 'snt1t 'Ctg'I trel4l raqler t?'T .Srra-u.T aoua.{p4a1d:m sr (sTTE+s ^I6urp-ro€ld dreqs 1 pred act:d arp lnq 'euofe doorp a6pe 6urpeal dq peaalqce €q pTnoo slustcr1.. sTToJ-rTp ser-l:rs-g asarl+ g:}TM .. ioTf aq1 a-:oJaq .{e1 :o3 poqla[ . erll 01 enp ' sTroJ:re 1T6fp.sdrrf.seTlT -sor:nJ . sauTT uEa! lr.ln 'slsal eqdle 6wsea:cap TTP"s-1sod qcns pepnTJur :1.raJer ut s1:oda: \i51tr1.0t6I pue s.9 \p\dlf ar{f ro] uorl3nEE-r 6e:p uorlcas aq1 .L . arI} sp utnrD{ sr a6ue: 6e:p-rrro1 srrdl 'lueTnqrnl o1 sdlr+ xoTf aql efo]aq oJ€z un:. asn osTp sadeqs asantr1 '. ErElcuoo .re 1T6fp-g aql 6uruopueqe .ra arlf..neuo...Aq aq1 apnrcur lou prp sTToJ:rre asetd+ uo E+sp ?sal \ovN a$I ?eq+ a?PunFolun sT fI '11€f.ATsnorna.l surr: rpurutpT 6uo1 rrreluruu o1 .:o a6ue: {cEl1p Jo a16ue ue qbnort..:g 'saueld:re atrr.1 '?cef uI '..

IACA 64-212. sho/rn on figr:re rrr-r belovr.eII as re]atively high pitching nErnent co€fficients. h. low Gn as wel.5) for the tip..ly favorable for lanrinar flow aj-rfoirs.s fascination with thinner airfoirs. as a funition of the air- foil thickness. and then the area swept by the rorling circle beccnres the airfoil shape. v. 4 industry. . the incorrect rnetir"a ccnbining ordinates frattens the initial slope of the rnean line.tethod. unfortunatety.rl see that this unfortunate situation has nothing at alr to do with the fact that these airfoirs are lanrinar flovrtype airfoils.l-s. Figure 2 shcnrs the beneficiar effect of using the correct rnethod of ordinate ccrnbination on a typicar }{AcA airfoir. use tl. un- fortunaLely. I'rost snarl light planes continue to use the 4-digit and s-digit turbutent airfoils. of the Model 2L0 . Cessna did just that. the ubiquitous }.. But NACA never investigated this effect.oPMNIT A. For anyone acquainted with the t{AcA airfoil design methods. l^lorse yet. by deriving and using the unpublished I'lAcA 64Mr5(a=0. it leads to a distortion at the read- ing edge.with ttre NACA . top and bottcm. . 3. redesignated 64-zrzc I the stall is softened appreciabry and the naxirnr. and even ccrmuter transports. this nlay explain McA. rierE-GEFgnd-5lEe-EIisEIE-EEtroa of ccrnbining a thickness distribution with a camber schedule to form a cambered airfoil. uut unf6rtunalely he does not indicate a clear preference for one or the other.e obsotete and dangerous 5-digit airfoils. IiACA sinply scre$ed up. especially for wing tips.. Figure rrr-r sho^'s an exanpre. The first (correctJ metrod is sinpry to add the ordinates together at each wing station. a well-proven technique that was used in the prior (turbuleni) airfoils. when tbe correct method is used to form the airfoil. As a result. see Mdendum Nurnber 2 belo^.r as ro^r drag corpared to the publisbed "base line" 6-series airfoi. and this detracts "r frun ine row-speed perfornance of the airfoil. The I. the thinner t. is quite curplicated mathernaticarly. and you wi. especially considering the fact that these aj-rp.hich is tben $rcthed by the so-carled "srope and radius" method for for- nting tbe reading edge . creating a new rnean line aborre the originar rean line. Furthernpre. with sharP stall characteristics and 1ow naximum lift coefficients. and then it tapers the J-oading linearly to zero at the trailing edge.Lanes are in a Reynokls nunr- ber range that is especial. CA AIRFOIL DE1/EI. ordinate ccrnltrination t'.line. There are trno wiys to do this. as shovrn by figure 5.anittrer nlistake. that is. a horrible mis-nntch considering the consequences of sharp-stall airfoils in an engine-out situation.nprk was the method used for ccxnbining the thickness distribution ord- inates with the camber ordj-nates.lAcA 6-ieries airfoils are often avoided.rhis taulty prccess is used on all l|AcA airfoils. AlL of the NACA airfoirs.rnputri=n. rrtlich ironi-calry nny be the reason that |lAcA picked it. spite of the potentiat l:erforrnance jmprovernent that could be nade by using lanirnr flo* wings. the right way and the wrong way. sunnrarized on figure 1. Read on.a naca 64A412(a=0. In fact.Centurion'. since they have gained a reputation of being "kilrer airfoils. this has the bad effect of super-erevating the leading edge above the originar chord rine. which is the practical lilrlt for larninar flo. with no drag penalty. circle of ever-changing radius aLong a curved nrean. and wirring to derive their onrn airfoirs. Tbis de-carnbers the airfoir.. ttris seerns to offer the "best of both r"orlds". than the thicker ones. and the great nrajority of light twins. von l'lises discusses both methcds in reference z. the constant velocity rnean lines devetoped by I'lAcA for these airfoil-s includes one (a=0. Ttris mean line is designed to hold constant pressure ( therefore constant verocity) back to only 50t of chord.'l-rich have relatively high On due to nid-loading. wing. the "dirdt addirion" rnethod of ordinate ccnrbinaLion is used airfoils.4ls-airfoir the leading edge is lifted .5) for the root.nd the .486c above the original chord line.lACA ail:foil-s have rDre camber. An obvious rnistake in t}Ie |IACA airfoil develogrent . The second ( incorrect ) nEthod.r anyway. and thus m3re lift. This method. as r.5 nean lj-ne) that produces lc'qler pitching ntrrrents tlrough forward loading. Accordingly. is akin to rolling a.rn lift coeffi-cient with and without flaps is raised ' srightl-yf ccnpared to the originar airfoil. they have never gained wide acceptance in the cA fierd. hthich for scnre unknorr'n reason appealed to NACA.

. The next step is to contror the i-nitiar slope of the r'l3an line. drag cefficient. and this had been established in general telms as a deiirable airfoiL charasteristic. ior a typi./4 position for satisfacLory r-or-speed pitch stai:irity. airfoils. the problen arises due to the fact that the center of pressure of cam- bered-eriefly. I{e have found t}rat the initial slope should ne a nLin:mum of 12 degrees for any airfoil.oaded ones (230pr) to aft-loaded ones (cAw-r'-2).. Ttlis additional increnrent of wing l-ift also creates an incre{rent of induced drag. ccnparing candidate airfoils for a given application.. Holi inportant is it to have lorr on.5)C.1 airfoiLs unsatis- factory. since it was kaown prior to 1930 that ion{ard loading produces lcw pitching nsrent coefficients.rrri. have selectd the IiACA (a=0. l. Hoirever. are curprcndsed.y 20 drag c€unts at cruise for an application having a design rift coefficient of 0.etely nr-issed in the ltAcA work. In splte of this.cient (cd) has never been studied nor guantified by NACA or NASA. th&efore the S-digit air- foiLs should not be used..j-ls wj-thout knc. while a1r the rest have tl:e exaccly rr_id_loaded (a=I) nean }ine. As a result of analyses Like this. and nnst impor- ' tantry' a 20t reducLion of pitcNng nrnent coefficient. sin6e the sunrnatj. thus our GA-2 nean line inccrlnrates .e have trim drag.ng nE rent coefficient (en) co(rF ryred to the drag coeffj.E investigated the drag that is caused by airfoil On.Tard-]oaded airfoils (five) rrrere incl-uded in ttre test program to confirm the effeses of that variable. F\..3* drop.. In short.ft in the taiL causes induced drag. Figure 2 shorr"s that this results in a wider larLilar bu!\9t srightr. !'lhy the contrad.5.see Appendix ir. tne wing must nole gener_ ate an add-rtionaf incrsrent of lj-ft equal to the taii doern-Ioad.eof only four canrber profiles for alI of the "GA. rde have concluded tfrat forward loading is necessity for general aviation airfoi-ls.D additional drag incie- rnents (wing and tail) togetber. an irportant parirEter for good slorspeed perfornEnce.see figure 7. or at least verlr disappointj-ng. hltren tri:n drag is added to the airfoj-l seqEj-on drag. and r. re obtain a correct- ed drag coefficient of 73 drag counts.calty .5 nean line.noi necessary to have zelo qlt. The a=.g the nExrmum camber unusuaIy far for^rard" ). turb_ urent as 'nell as laminar frovr type.aLthough scne later IIASA airfoils have lead"ing edge droop. l'lost of the popular llAcA 4-digit airfoils use npderatery forward-Load- ed nean ]ines (x4xx-see figure 1) with naximum carnber at 40t of cho. relative to @? rs it al-1-irportant.totlce frcrn figure g tlat the trim drag coefficient for the very high-on }{AsA GAw iirtoil= is approiirnateJ.id ( sharp stau) is unacceptabl-e.. with no oiher penalty. h'hich corrects ttlis oversi-ght. Remqnber that Lhe aj-rcraft cG rnust stay at or near the c. a formula ( figure 8) for calcuLating this '.. for this type of application. airfoil-s npves aft frcrn the c/4 position as the angle of attaci decreases. e-lso. or just a nicetyz Do he need zelo qn? ans\"€r these guestions.Lous extrenE of the ill-advised 5-digit airfoil test progran {. not designed for actua-l... .on of vertical forces on the airplane must be zero.ring this relationshipu For exanple figure 6 shorrs tiree airfoils with various crrnbinations of drag co"ific- ' ient and rnrrent coefficient. Ttris was ccrpl. it is not necessary to go to the a ridicu.0.tr:m arag. by! the price pa. h'hen substituted ln the NACA 64-2I2C airfoil.ess of the drmp . 5 B. from extre{nsLy forvrard-l.v. which can nc'$r be used directl-y for 'nle.This causes an.ai-rplane use. l"'lean Lines. the reLative inForbanc€ of the alrfoil pitchi.derived -Tb. ne effeceiv.rint at higher speeds that must be rea*ed b1r negative Iift in tie horizontal tail. and. aircraft nosedown pitching nc. Cd'..{AsA GA!.iction? Srnply because these aj-rfoils are n'erely test air- foi-rs. onry enough fon. Eigure 3 sha^is the wide variety of rnean rines that have been used in llAcA'/MsA airfoils. when this is added to the section &ag coefficient of 53 drag c€unts. it is.onfigured light p1ane.s' achj-eved 1"t9 Gn. But the negatj-ve li. Add these tr.6). rhe IrAcA S-digj-t airfoil. and the GA_3 rnean line has .airt6its f. nor is it necessary to reduce on to the point !^'l)ere other vital perfonrnnce characteristics of the airfoil.d.2t leading edge droop. arrivl at a icorrected.2.Horv can one intelligentty desigrn airfo.5) nean line to be the basis for the universal family_ '. produces 64-212(a=.y higher naximum lift clefficient with flaps.:rther. therefore. or drag associated with trirniring out the airfoi] pitching nErEnt. only 5 of t}le 52 6-series airfoil-s listed on figure I have forward loaded nEan lines (a=0. This renders the t.

price to pay for the wider bucket on the c"l-assic t'lACA shapes . Tae profil. W1th the point of nraxirm:m thickness ncved aft to the 403 chord position. Io/r On. ttotice that the basic thickness distribution for the c"1 thi-ckness distributions j-s I5S thick. The cA thicknes. This gives the deslred strucEural and control effectiveness advantages of a true no- cusp shape. h'hich affects aiLeron effecti-veness- see figure 9. For the turbul-ent airfoils (cA 30). For our ce arrfoils.ling edge angle. Since forHard loadj. we have generated an alternate tu-rbulent shape. For the cA 40A015 shap€. Further. but tbe drag bucket is crrrrespondingly wider.an l-arni.ve settl-ed on a reduced cusp shape by ncdifying the I'IACA 65-015 to fj-]] in approxlnately one-half of the cusp. The difference is very srnal. therefore ue have ignored it to si. Ho\^rever.ve.airfoils".r as practical. and these shapes are not guj-te exact nruJ-tiples of each other.:rslE cases. Therefore. Hot^rever. which has a poorl-y designed. with a drag penalty of . Hor- ever. 6 can be seen in the perfornance of airfoiL C. C.l- ever' is the change in the tlaj. lore-drag " lam:-nar thickness distrib- utj. This feature results in a profile drag penalty of perhaps on]. this strape has a slightLy convex.ght afterbcdy.lrr drag anatysrs may be advj.rEs critical.'slar3" shapes. while still renaini-ng "in the bucket". and a straight afterbody is no longer suitabLe. the trailing edge angLe rsrlains generous. an aircraft designer can be assu-red tlEt the pitching nsnent coefficient has been held as lc".I. Accordingly. hov. One concern here.E use the NACA 65-015 tiickness distribution as is. such as naking "fat" or even "crowned" ailerons. for $e do not reconrend the use of wing sections thinner than this for any application.Iess than 2 drag counts.l-s can be described as " pitching nsnent. straight afterbody (high drag ) and should not be used. the control- effectiveness nny be slightl-y }ess tlnn wj-th GA 30A015. and yet higher Clmax with flaps.for their landnar thj-ckness distributions. For the GA 35 and GA 37 larninar shapes. llotice tiat the ninjmun sestj-on thickness offered j-n "cA Airfoils" is 12?. For the GA 40-015 shape. the optjmrn airfoiL thickness rega. GA 30-01.ro dfag counts carpared to sqne other so-calJ-ed "superior.r. with no drag penalty. Hs. In fact.A j7.y one or tr. For this reason. short of degrading other perforrnance features of the airfoil. the critical Mach nunber fo! these airfoi-l-s is degraded slightly. ho^'ever. l.rding lift to .sable.ent less than . wherein unique syrnretrical shapes have been calculat- ed and published for eacb thickness. even for racing airplanes. Thj-s alloers airplanes with these thickness distrlbutions to op- erate over a wj-de range of flight conditaons. ard loading has one possible disadvantage. In fact. due to the unaccaptable drag penalty. for olErational flexibj_llty. and then the 12t and 18* thicknesses a-re scaled proportionately up or dorn frorn the 15t thick shape. no changes were nEde to the }IACA 63 alld 64 series shapes. ar even wider laminar bucket.ile drag frcrn 75 drag counts Lo 72 drag counts.rj. in ext. and does not affect a-irfoil perforTnance. Fort. thus for the rna jority of cases a trim drag analysis is not required.J-.ng increases the velocity ratio slightly in the forward half of the air- foil canpared to nrid-foading. there are better '. which has a much softer stall-.e drag coefficient of this shape is also slightly higher than recent NASA .15. with no structural disadvantage./.Eve. which are conservatj.2.nar sections.nplify the process of generating fan- il. with a strai. the GA 30A015 shape is ident- icaf to NACA 0015. far above our needs. all cA airfoi.res of airfoils. utilita. rrtrich is rather unusual. or "boat-tailed" after- bcdy. Thickness Distributions.. as shcl'Ir on figure 2. only ninor changes have been made to ffibutions. the design of the pressure recovery section krc.5. such as a very high perfornance application with the design l-ift coefficj.Eys to get effecLive ai-J-erons. this is a departure frcrn the NACA schen-. ard the drag penalty is a snrall. soft-stal-l.ons that have been develo@ since. a fornal ':ri. having wide lamrnar buckets. distributions are listed in Appendix I belcr. hence this is of no concern to us. this occurs in the 580 MPH range. descrj-bed on figure 10. which can then be used with the cA 30-)oor airfoils. r. that reduces the prof. we have carefully avoided the }IACA 65A015 shape. rTt3re]-y by selecting a GA air- lc'e/ foi. Since the trailing edge angl-e is reduced in cA 30-015.

and ia^culd rather select frcrn a good catalog of standardized designs rather th. the charac- teristics of the "cusp" t)pe sesLions are not sho^rn. hov. they are aLso usable for forrn-ing airfoils with th.cata- logs of airplane arrfoi. The aerodynaninc characterj-stics of each l-2t thick arld L5t thi. intangibles. if for no other reason than to serve as a standard to ccrnpare custcnFdesigned airfoils against. In other hDrds. then add col-unn *3 to obtain the desired aj-rfoil. This is.cusp'. for any airfoil systern.r "soft" is "soft". Cessna. one that "exacely fits the specificati-on for the ne\. corresponding approx-i:rateJ-y to stal1 conditions and cruise conditions re- spectively for tlpical light airplanes. unique solution to a particular airfoi-] design problern.r airplane".an take a chance on a custcm airfoil. and are o-ng thus incfipl"ete. sjnr-ilar]y. for Relmolds nunbers of 2 Irtillion and 6 ndLlion.IACA airfoils. MSA's official position i-s that a ccnprehensive catalog or " cookbook" of air- foil-s is not necessary. For example.tdch to choose. do not contain leading edge droop. r. of ccurse I nonsense.arge not airfoil designers. This is probabry t-trc reason that I. because of t{ACA's nrista.. and the readj-ng edge is j-nstead a curve defined by a series of discrete points. airplane designers are by-and-J. synnEtri-ca. ajld the corresFonding "no cusp" airfoi]-s at the bottcn of the page. The ordj-nate schedules generally follora the NACA forrnat.rere used directly. hc.}<en assum- tion that designers r^rould slmthesize "good" airfoil-s frcm the test data. The Procedure for this is to scal. The characteristics of the 188 thick wing sections are not shcrrn. unlike the !.uru''s #2 and Jl3 of the ordinate tables are the thickness distribution (sym- nEtrical shape ) and tbe nean rine. 7 drag ratio is probably closer to 13? or l4B thick. wi.IACA was content to publish test data a1one. For exanPLe.tience ) of the average designer'.st other airplanes. there j.e col-umn *2 frcrn I5t to the desired thickness. and suggests that a unigue airfoil. rather tllan to publish actual.ted in ttre table.should be custorn-designed for each and every nan airplane.s airfoils for the lbdel 210. co]. which is both rronic and unfortunate.icknesses other than the three li. ordinate Tables.IACA tabLes ( refer- ence I)' or they may be scaled dcrrn frcrn the corresponding C. For tail sections. IIACA assund tlnt a designer coul-d select a particular thickness distribution and a camber profile frcrn tlle text and then ccrnbine thern by the I'IACA rethod. since there are so rlany value judgenents.prt included in IIACA' s wind tunnel tests . liorse yet. Sree figure 14. The GA ordinate tables are arranged with the .stribution. horever: they are approxirnately the sare as the "no-cusp" shapes. offering the designer a ccmplete "cook book" of airfoils fron \. See fign:re 15. for a soft-stall airfoil? Therefore.A thickness dj.trile a step in the rj-ght direction. corunm #2 and +3 are listed for reference only.s no single. you lose nr3re than you gaj-n by using wing sections t-hinner than l2t thick.25tc. and the ordinates are ccrnbined incorrectly. . NACATS thj-nking. Ordinates for these shapes are l-isted in standard I. warts ard al}.n the desired custcrn airfoil. tiro styles (with and without cusps). but they are approxjrately the sarne as the 15t thick segtions. was that "custcrn" I{ACA air- foj-ls could be s)mthesized using l{ACA's data and nethods. Aerodvnandc Characteristics of winq Sections. there will always be a need for a good catalog of airfoils. respectivery. D.rever. four camber LeveLs. E. In contrast. tlpe airfoil-s at the top of each page. in four series. the GA airfoil ordinate tables. to obtaj.ever an additionai statj-on llas been added at .ls. to thus s)mthesize custam NACA airfoi-1s is a dauntj-ng task. Notice frcrn figure I tlEt the NACA "ordinate tables" are rnerely a-fGrino of-test sanples tJ:lat r. just ' as cessna did for the !'todeL 210 wing desigm. are given in Appendr-x rV. beyond the capabiJ-ity (or pa. witn 2lr drag counts addltiona] profile drag. Lhe test airfoils r.rs 1n each table are fornred. and perfonn- ance tlade-offs invofved. and tlree thicknesses. FlrCher. evident frcrn reading reference L. Appendix III| are a ccnplete matnx of 96 airfoj.l. Further r due to the nfstakes and onissions in the NACA work.ck "no cusp" type cA wing section. otherwise ttle lErforlnance of the nevr airplane will be ccnprqltised.shapes such as NACA 0009 or I.l-s. Hot.th 2 drag counts less drag. as detern[ned by the "EPpler" prcgran.. GA airfoil. on rrlf. the airfoils vDuld still be less than ideal. to herp define the leading edge. Sirply put. frcrn which the tirree airfoj.s do not have a tlrue reading edge radius.IACA 63A009 are ccrm- only used.

al "fat" aileron designs ttBt trave increased trailing edge angfes should be used. for slotted flaps 2. AccordingJ.ift coefficient achievabl.y. F\rrther.6.Like the thorp T-18.2. the Clrex with sirrple flaps coul-d be as higb as 2. with the "cusp" t)?e airfoils. and 40 series.. so the wing mrst be designed care- fu11y to insure tlEt tie airplane is olnrating witlr-in the laninar bucket Lrnder alf flight cuditions. for cA airfoj-ls. Pigure 18 shovrs the effect of surface roughness on the perforrnance of a tlpical GA airfoil. A.rp systens. and especially with thick- er airfoils. GA 37 airfoils are general. the t)p- ical drag i-ncrease (.re the estirnated nnxirnum values for the best fl. 37. and Fo/rler fl.brication. According to reference I' this is eguivalent to a wing ". ALso. high perfoFMnce designs. to obtain acceptable aileron effectiveness. Although both "cusp" ard "no-cusp" airfoiLs are presented herein. purtrDse lanLinar florr' airfoils. The GA 30 airfoils are tie rrc)st @nservative. that j-s. 4. and there is also scan-. However:.4. . the perfonnance degradation of GA airfoils due to surface rouglness is proba-b1y not as severe as with llACA airfoLls.0.\ppendix IV is for wings without f1aps. increase of nraximum lift co- efficient with a given flap system. except for figure 2. the concensus is that the ''standard rouglmess" lrrposed in the I{ACA tests is unusually severe. they a. GA AIRFDIL SE ECTICbI AlqD AppLICATTONS. cA 40 airfoils are for onl"y ttle nDst soplListicated.irfoi]-s have significantLy better fl-ap effectiveness. of afterbcdy susps ofl airfoil per- fornance.here nLinirm-un drag is ijrportant. GA 35 ai-rfoil-s are I'entry level" Larmnar flor airfoils. causing a substantial in- crease in profile drag. and is not likely to be encounlered in actual alrcraft service. and for Fc&vler flaps is 2. Figrr:re 14 sho{rg the effest. airfoils.ld patterns in the flap systsn. such as the Glassair or White Lightning. to be used on a wide lange of ajrplanes. 37A31-5.1ers. due to the ccrnplicated flc. due to the cumulative effect of the cA jjrprove- rpnts. whereas existing production flap systers probably fal1 seII shorL of these nunbers.5. where rninjmr. for tbe great majority of applications tlle "no-cusp" airfoils are preferred. they reguire the rcst accuracy in nEnufac- ture to reafize their lc^d drag potential. ltese are section (2 dilrensional ) coefficients. Ttre data r-s for roughness conditj-on !=4.section perfornence with flaps. the greatest expectable fac- tor of jrprovenEnt in section Clnax for sinple flaps is 1.e11 desi-gned f1aps. slotted flaps as high as 3. 8 Tbe characteristics at Reynolds nurnbers other than 2 miU-ion and 6 rRil-Ii-on rIEy be estuated by interpolation and extrapolation.aps as high as 4.e with flaps.0002) is usually insignificant. The data in Appendix IV j-s for the snDoth condition onJ. Figure 13 shc'vts the general performance differences betrr€en the tulbulent GA 30 series and the laninar cA 35. The prjjnary perf orrnance degradation is ]-oss of lajrlnar f J-o. Ttre main reason is to irrprove aileron effectiveness. and are suitable for airplanes .5. as liel-I as to si:rplify fa.cations such as sail- pl-anes and mtor-saj. which illustrates the principLe that cA a. thus. Ho+rever. b'trich is approxirnately equj-valent to the NACA " stEndald rouglmess" condition used in their tests. the "cusp" type a:-rfoils can be used. A]though rnuch experinentat raork has been done in wind tunnels with high-lift devices (see reference If chapter 8).Loss of nraxirm:rn 1j-ft coefficient as wel-l-.e11 contanrinated with bugs". at least when nndestly Fc ^rered as in the orig- inal desi. TLre perforrnance data in . the lanr-inar buckets on the cA 40 airfoils are the narroa€st of a-11 the C.un drag at high speed is a strong reguirenent. and appropriate reduction must be made for ttrree-dinensional effests. raE offer the folloering as a "ruLe of thunb" for estiratj-ng the naxj:num sestion l.. than thei! IIACA counterpart.0. Effect of Series. B. and by reference to figu-re 17. Effect of Cusps. For appU. specj. due to the super- j-or leading edge shape of the cA airfoils.r'. AIso. For large. very littl-e data is presented herein for GA wings with flaps. .y.A series. there is no readj-l-y available ccmputer program ttlat can accuratel"y predict airfoii. Ho\aever.grn. Figure lI presents the matrix of the GA airfoils in this book. cub type airplanes. and are atrPropriate for l-or-po\^rered. r. for a cA airfoil with a no-fIap C]JrEx of 1. arri offers scflE guidelines for selection of [Erticular airfoils for given applications.

nar bucket is bel. avoidr.both. see Adderdun *2 for a discussion of the effects 6f using airfoiLs that are too thin. less than I/2 tnillion.hEr laniinar buckets. and this leads to separatj. Afso. tn general. o! witi snaller or no f. effective flaps. for they Fernlit the use of 1c{. the cA 37A415 coufd be used. Effect of Reynolds Nunber. in r^hich case radical cusps are regui:ed for satisfactory pressure recovery. or better yet. and. andlor addi tj-onal thick- ness.y at tie wing tips. may occur. hcr^reve! the usual fji j-s to use " turbulator talEs " span-wise slightly foruard of the separation point to "trip" the flo* to normal attached turbul-ent flov'r. lf the design l_ift cEefficient is . and only as nuch carnber should be used as necessary to nEet the design reguire(ents.n increased drag. For this reason. Consideration nulst also be given to the design (cruise) Iift coefficient of the air- plane to make sure tftirt the bottcm edge of the lami. it is a trade-off. thus shou.Of c-ourse. @nversely. a phencnenon kncnn as " larrinar separation br:bbles " follcrqEd by turbuLent re-attachfiEnt near the erxi of the laminar run.Ld be used caut- iously' nrreherncre. the nrin n-rn arrfoil ttrickness to be used for npst laflLinar flcrvr apprications is l5t. In any event. ard is nornally not a problern for @ airfoils. especially the no-cusP shapes.ng the separation.ckl the Cldesign. and tiis reduces the curv- ature on the a-irfoil surfaces in the afterbody ccnpared to other sailplane aj-rfoils. j-f the curvature of the wing surface is too great at that Foint.a terribLe choice for such a lor Relmol-ds nwnber. resultj-ng il nany need- l-ess fataL accidents.Laps. "no-cusp" shaFes are better than "cusp" tlpe shapes regarding laninar separation bubbles. beyond . D./or nore wing area ftry be ne€ded ccfipared to a tligher Re)mol-ds nunber apP- lication. thus. referring to figure 15. . For exarpl-e. while the higher carnber IeveLs are used with rrcdestly pcrwered alrpLanes. for tdgher Reynolds nr. in spite of thickness is so srall. See Addendun #l for a discussion of the effects of increased On due to camber. the tiinner ai-rfoils have narrc. thus additional camber. tlre laninar separation bubbl-e probl€m is nagrnified as the point of rna:cirm-rn airfoil thickness is noved farther aft. See Mdendwn #4 beL*r for a re-profiling schenE for BD-S wings. @ sare perforrnanc. this concern is especially irrPortant with thinner ( lztthick) ai-rfoiJ-s. this results j.As stated above. and uses a DJACA 64-212 airfoil for the r@t sestion. for there a-re no GA airfoil-s with linax beyond .40c. Iherefore. "@" airfoils. the starl tends t be ress soft with the thinner airfoils. the main reason for using camber in the first pl-ace is to increase Clnax. ltle ajJfoil should have been thj-cker. I C. thick- er airfoils and/or lover canbered airfoils nay be nec. since l-arninar flol is tErder to ach-ieve as Re)nolds nunber increases. Accordingly I a good air- plane design shouLd star! with the fl-aps. but the resulting increase in On reduces top speed. do not have this problem. Any nEthod to reduce the curvatule of the wing sur- face at that point will help. at 1*/ Rqmolds ntmr bers. Ttris subject is beyond the scope of this book. the tcffer camber levels are used with high- er powered airplanes ard/or with large. For exars)le.on.essary to insure that tie air- plane is operating within the bucket at top sFed. the design Relmolds nunber can affest the choice of airfoil-.I5 shoe/s the effect of different camber levels on GA airfoiL perforlnance . For very Lc'u/ Reynolds nr. Effect of Ttrickness. especial]. Effect of Canber. or ftcre llighly cambered. the BD-5 has a stal1 Rey- nolds nunber of Less than 1 miuion.25. for the safiE take-off/Iandi-ng sIE€d. Fiqure . and then tJIe rest of the airplane shoutd be designed around the flaps. effestive flaps are the key to hi-gh aircraft lElforrnance. l-arge. but not the 37A61-5. such as in sailplanes. on the top anVor the bottdn surface.Er cambered sections and re- duced wing alea r ard tlds results in higher top speed. lifferences due to thickness . E. ' For exanple.40C. wing B thickness is prinrarily a structural consj-deration. cljnax drops off considerably. that is.mber applications. frcrn figure 17 notice t-Llat the lam-nar bucket narrc'vrs considerably at fligher Reynolds nunbers.rnlcer applications. ltdch are forrerard Ioaded and thus iEve littfe camber in the afterbody.

stj-c. cc.rfoif . deteqrline the angle of attack necessarl. Ttrus. that is. that have slrpoth. or . it gives inaccurate results. CEMPT'TER PROGFAM ACCURACY. lctw cam- bered.vner rrDdifj-ed). to make sure that the flctor over the enti-re rring is turbulent.Iike wind tunnel data. Tl're first }]ay is to try to prevent t}Ie separation frqn occur- ing in ttre first place. tJ. one-off. Frcrn figure Iv-13.1ite Lightning" ( bot. 0. roi porly desigrned ai-rfoiLs witi discontinuj. i-n our exanple v/ith tie cA 37A315 airfoi]. with the basic airfoil shape. 10 1n sunna.25. dependj-ng on the aspest ratio. thus it gives accu. and set the wing on the fuselage at ar algle of incidence of +L degree to the fuselage reference U-ne. 6. add I degree for three- dinensj-onal effects. in detenn-ining a suitabl-e angle of incidence for a particular alrfoil on a gj. rt is idealized data for a wing of infillite aspest ratio.2. so the alternate solution is to 90 ahead and use the needed thiak. See fi$Ees 19 and 20 for tlpical appJ-ications. to keep the flc'vi attached. . correstd for wing aspect ratio. high-canberd shapes with long laln-inar mns and shorts (cusp t)pe ) pressure rec-overy secLions.l. the f lc'vr is I00t l-anr-inar.Nov/.io-dfiEnsional data.. 5.nar separation bubble problant at lor^. the ccnputer program used to generate the Predj-cted performance data of APpen- d1x 1y is tni: eppfer program "profil". Ttris is a sfuple program' and does not iterate on itre tunOary tayer. -3. If these numbers do not have an approxjrate rnatch. and tben force the transition to turbufent flctut witi tur- bulator tapes located top and bottcrn near the end of the Lanrinar nrn.teut. that is.IANCE PREDIqIION Figures 2I afi. and a cruising speed of I50 MPH. Ttre drag of tJIe turbufator tapes is less than the drag that vnuld otherw. AIRCRAFT PERFORI. This requ. contj. A higher astEcts ratio ne€ds Iess correcLion.ires thin. wr-th ltnax forward of -40c.t \del1 enough wit.one is happy - ror exceedingly Io.ties in the n6an line.. small rubber bancl po"ered nndel-s . such as t]le !.4. such as with very slow. indoor. Relmolds nunbers. using nethods descrlbed in standard aeronautj-cal teJrts.ven airpJ.ise occur frcm the laminar separation bubbles ' so everl. 22 can be used in predicting aircraft perfornunce. for exanple. fte data rnay be clrrected for three-dlrensional. especially for Clrlax ' because .25. since an aspecE ratio of 5 is a fairly Lorr nwrber. As a double-check. or the estlnated cruising speed of the airplane rnay be opt]Jru.6. utith no cusps.nuous nean U5es. For exanple. either .e application.detenrLine a suitable angle of incidence. so this apl=ars to fi. Ttris nethcd should be accurate enough for rost ca5e5. published in Fortran in reference 5' and adapted tor perional 6c. use (itS-DOS ) by referenc€ 6. For exarple.n figure 22 deter- nine the thrcdiJrensional design lift coefficient as Cldes= . Frc. for a wing with an aspest ratio of 5 on an airplane with a wing loading of 15 fb/ft-. note that the fourch digit in the "GA" airfoi.l designation (as in the NACA designation systsn for the 5-series airfoils) indicates ttle approx- jrnate design lift coefficient of the airfoiL section.-y.ane. effests. c'\. this is not Prac- tical for sailplanes.J Relmolds numbels.is usually neans adding approxi:nately I to I degree angle of attack to obtain the design lj-ft coeffic- ient ( average ) over the entire wing. Producuion kitplanes using GA airfoils incl-ude the Skystar "K.itfox" and the Ultravia "Pelican". F..ever. Hoi". Applications. wlthout o(ception. in tentis.I. a:-rfoi]-s.3. tllat is.nputer pre- dicted perfonnance data is tr. Ib irprove l=rforflEnce. that is. usj-ng the cA GA 37A315 ai-rfoil.GA" ai-rfoils.rate results for only rrclldesigned airfoiLs such as . GA airfoils are currently being used on a wide range of applications Fron-a%I6Fl-rrestar" ultralite to a high-perf orrnance Nick Jones "Vl. there ajre tvJo ways to address the lamj. to obtain this lift coeffi-cient as zero de- grees. All experi:renters who have substituted cA ailfoils for the original aj-rfoils on their hq€builts have reported performance jrprovernents. the approxirrnte design lift c-oefficient of this airfoil is . the canber selection is probably not suitEble for tJ. a trip wire is often placed spanwise in fron! of the leading edge.IACA Z3-OIZ aj.the desigrn lift cceffici-ent needed for tjtat pa-rticul-ar airplane.

treaLing the airflorr as bei-ng inccnpressible. if a sirple flap systen yields a Clnax of 3. the program aplEars to overstate drag by at ]east 109. this effect is so nlinor as to be insignificant. j. due to the lijn-itaLions of wind tunnel testing. Eppler. separ- ation bubbles.tldckness for both airfoils being c. For thi-s reason.s a ccnpletely new. the tdlng ]oading of a Piper cub. Ilo€ver.]Ient. v.$ever. Ttrus. it will calcurate and print out pressure ratios across the air- foir.crpared. then arints these ve1- ocity ratios (Foint velocity divided by free stream verocity ) in tairurar and graphic form. ard to overstate.ude any correction for ctfi[)ressibility effects. Furtherlrl3re.re 16.hich tlpically shows negU.05 psi betr"Een the top and bottcrn surf- aces.res of typical-. and pitching nrcnr ent' the turburent area. thus. Ttris does not agree with wind tunnel data. as shGln on figure Z. drag. one shoul-d use the sanE airfoil. For higher perfonrEnce airplanes. In any event. In spite of this shortcurfng. Ho^rever. Another use for the flap routine is to predist On vs clnax for a given flap systern.fi on figure 2j. ho$€ver. wfien the flap chord and de- fl. drav. all tfrings considered. top and bottqr surfaces. even though it nay take a clonsiderably nDre elaborate flap confi. The program appea-rs to be especiarl-y accurate i-n predicting laninar/turbulent phencmena. the program is exc€. Note Chat the accurasy of the cdrputer data is guite good. lift by about 53. the assrnption tbat the flovi is ilccnrSrressi-b1e is not bad. .rfoil at each algle of attack. NACA 64-215. ltre Eppler program for perfornance a''alysis calcufates ve. for the flight regi.eqtion are inputted. especr-a]-l-y the change in the ratio of aijfoif cross-section area to the tunnel tlEoat size witi different ailfoil thicknesses.light general aviation air planes. rile did not spend nu:ch tirrE with the flap routine in this prcgram. reference (9).l-ocity ratios across the aj. tlre predicbed performanc€ is wildly opti-rdstic crcnpared to wind tunnel data.0 b}/ the prograrn. 11 it cannot fol. as shc.Lod the ccnplicated effests of premature setE-ration bubbles at higher angles of attick ccrnrpn in those aj-rfoiJ. For exanple.then. ard a gain of cJ. such as shqn'n on figure 2.fference of only 7 */ft-/L44 = . lrE suggest that \r. the Eppler prcgram has a routine for sirurlating the !=rforrnance of an aj-rfoi1 witi sjrpl-e flaps. ttre difference is sLill Iess than 1?. Dr.c pressure of 14.. But htro wants to use poorly-designed airfoils any/€y? A cqrParison of cdrputer resu]ts and wind tunnel data for a t!?ical airfoi]-. including coefficienls of 1ift. yields an aEerage pressure dj. the program catculates boundary layer data for each angle of attack at specified Reynolds numbers. this arEunts to a pressure difference of only 0. Ferhaps his qxrputer dat! is fipre accurate than wird tr. for ccnparative purposes. Ho. as absolute data.rnax as a function of airfoil thickness.hen ccf{Ering the perfornence of different airfoils with the cc(puter prcgram.gi-ble differenc€s of cl. AJ-ternativery.guration to achieve thatclnax in prachice. A salrple analysis print-out is shorr'n on figures 24-I thru 24-4. ltre program shqrs a considerab. t}le ccnputer re- sults shouLd be used cautiousLy. The program appears to be cal"ibrated for best accuracy for airfoil thi-cknesses of about L5t. etc. Ttrese values are also printed out in tabul-ar form. then the repDntd On will be reasonably acsurate for a flap systern with tbat CLlnax. btrich tbe program overstates by at least 30t.l-e loss of Cljnax for thinner (12t tnick ) airfoifs. The Eppler program al-so does not incl. the flap routine is valuable for predicting relative differences of flap trerfornunce betrcen sj:nilar airfoils.7 psia. The r€rst disagreenrent appears to be in ttle pitching nrnent coefficient. ani the separated a-rea. 1*/ft'. and suggests that. In other rnords. Ccc$Ered to the atjrDspherj.3t.vrn by figu.s. idealized airfoil tlrat is unreal- istically snEothed so that the nenesis of the prcglan ( prenature flc'gr separation ) will not occur.mnel data.s shcr. tlle program caffiot begix to sjmulate the cffplicated flo\^' patterns of npre elaborate flap systens such as sl-otted and F* er flaps. and is a credit to Dr. such as a Bonanza with a wing loading of 20 */ft'. Eppler cffrents on this iI his book. arld in a "boundary rayer swnary ptot". Ho\rEver.lrEx for tldcker (18t thick ) airfoils. because the program of necessi-ty.

12
Several- yea.rs ago Dr. Eppler brought out an "ifiproved" version of hj,s program.
Ho\^/ever, the ner^, program seems to understate section drag, and also reports lalninar
bucket width as j-ncreasing with an increase in Reynolds number, htrich is not the case.
F\.Ether, the resuLts appear to be overly sensitive to data point (ordinate) accuracy,
thus I still favor the old program.
Eoth prcgrarns include routines for desigrn of airfoils by the nrcdern, one-step
" inverse" rethod, whereby idealized velocity dj-agrams are first calculated, and then
airfoil top and bottcm surface ordinates are ca.l-sul,ated frcm the velocity data. That
is OK, but the Fossibil-ity exists of "creating a nonster", such as the very recent
NASA NLF(I)-OII5F alrfoi], discussed in Addendun No. 5 bel-or^r. lbis is less likely
to lEppen witb the "classic" nEthod used by },lAcA and "cA Airfoils". In any event,
neither the airplane, the wind tunnel, nor the ccrnputer kncrds or cares htlich n€tiod
was used to design the airfoil, and the final perfonrEnce figures a-re the only thing
that caunts. Thus both nEthods are valid. Any airfoil, even if hand-sketched, can be
broken dov'rn into a symrEtrical thickness distribution and a camber profile (nean
Iine). and much can be learned about the airfoil- by inspeccing and analizj-ng these
tllo ccmponents sepajately.
7 . GA CIJFFS FAR WING RE\.{CRK

As noted earj,ier , all of the NACA airfoils have Iffr nose prof i1es. due to the
faulty NACA design nethods -The result j"s poor slcvr-speed Perfonnance, i-n rEny cases.
me niCe 4-digit ( turbufent ) and NA6A 6-series ( laminar) airfoils can be irproved by
adding a leading edge cuff to the airfoil, which drops the center of the leading
edge ipproxirmtaly tt to 1? of chord length. The rpthod for designing these "drooped
leiOing- eages,,, shq,n-r on figwe 25 for the !{ACA 64-212 airfoil, is to design a neur
nean line iorward of 10SC to obtain at feast 12 degrees of initial nrean line slope,
necessary for a soft stalI. Then, usj.ng the existing toP surface and the revised nean
Iine, r,,e calculate the ordinates for the bottcm surface.
Ttre perfornrance analysis for this cuffed alrfoil shclts a draratic jnprovenpnt
in ttre stall ccrnpared tso the original 64-212, as r.vell- as a slightly wider lan.inar
bucket- see figure 26. A-Iso shorvn is the perforrnance of an uPIEr sulface nbdification
proFosed by Hicks et aL at NASA An€s. Ttlis cutes the sharp staff ' but it also reverts
the airfoil to a turbuLent sectsion, causing hj-gh drag ' The perfornunce of the GA
37-212 is also sholvn, for ccnpari son.
This cuff nndification should be used only as a "guick fix" on existing wings,
not for ne$, constructsion- use a GA airfoil instead. A.Iso ' it does not \'tork on the
NACA s-digit airfoils, like the ?3012' which already llave too much leadj-ng edge
droop, and a different stall nrechanism, than the 4-digi-t and 6-series airfoils. See
Addendum #3 belov;.
8. }4ISEIJANMUS AIASC AIRFOIIS
!,iitb the cun-ing of the slEce age, NACA'S naflE was changed to NASA, and the agen-
cy's responsibiiities were e4xnded !o include national space Projects as r"eII as
the old-line aeronautj.ca.l, Prolests. Ttre total budget is currently about 14 bi]lion
do.llars yearly, of whi-ch about 1.2 billion is refated tg "aeronautics" projects, a
fairly cpnstant arpunt yearLy. Ho$Ever, over the past Several decades, '.Jork related
to @nera1 Avj,ation projects has dwindled to nearly zero, due to "budget restlaints",
in NASA,S hDrds. Ttre only general aviation airfo.il r.ork, for exanple, has been the
sporadic release of several randcrn airfoils. These have usual-ly been the brain-child-
ren of particul-ar NASA individuals, rather than any c,oncerted effort, and have been
disappointmmts.
A. N;\SA GAI,t-j- . In l-974, the NASA GA!.J-I and GAVFz "Whitc6nb" airfoils ( later designated
EtlFb'qffi 15(I)-041-3) vere released. Ttrese airfoil-s are characterized by a large
Ieadrng edge radius. and a slab-shaped profite having the maximum thickness at .40c.
this pioduies a long Iaminar run, at the expense of lanr.inar bucket width. The leadrng
edge has a droop -
of about .75tC, npre than it ne€ds to give the airfoil its soft stalf
chiracceristic. Ttre 1c'vr profile drag i-s enhanced by the pronounced cusp in the afier-

13
body, and the blunt trailing edge, The brorst feature by far, hcturever, is the aft-
loaded camber profj-Ie- an outrageous nListake for an airfoil that was touted to be
a general avj-ation panacea. This gives the airfoil a pitching rTDrnent coeffic.rent
three tijnes as high as it ne€ds !o be for the alrpunt of canber in the airfoil-, and
this produces very high Lrjr drag, rendering the airfoil unsuitabLe for genera.l av-
iation use, In effect, the airfoil has t'nlo notches of flap perrnanently buil-t into rt.
Unbelievably, NASA chose this airfoj-l for their "ATLIT" project, described belo'v.
Figure 27 sholas the bizarre press release concerning the NASA "ATLIT" (Mvanced
TechnoLogy Light 1\,rin ) project in 1974, r"trlch turned out to be a disaster, perfor-
nance-wise. The project was dccrned to failure frcrn the beginningdue to the seLection
of the hj,gh-Gn NASA GAvl-I airfoil for the wing. the predicted perfornEnce figures
\^rere no doubt calculated without regard to the high On of the airfoil. a rna jor blun-
der. The spoj.lers for rol.l- controL \rere also unsatisfactory, experiencing control
reversal at ]ow and mediurn deflections. Nothing new was Learned by using a Longer
sPan. tapered wing- these effects had been kno\^'n for decades. This merely contam-
inated the data, making it impossible to ccnpare to the base-l-ine ( factory ) airplane.
I'IASA \das so ernbarrassed by the poor perfornnnce of this airplane that the pro]ect
engineer never even bothered to hrite a final report on the projecc, but he got pro-
ncted any,ray. He no, has a top position at NASA Langley. In retrospect, I.iA.sA forgot
that their function is to c.onduct basic aeronautical R&D, not to "shcwr the industry
that they are \,rrong, and this is the proper way to build a GA 1i9ht twin". Ttris is
an example of hhat can happen if R&D is not rnarket driven, bub is directed by irre-
sponsible bureaucrats. Ttre airplane was bougbt back by piper for salvage of engines.
instrulTEnts, etc, and \aras then sold to a technicar school for students to drill- hores
in it. with the proviso t-tlat it never fly again.
Figure 28 shc'v/s the lA\Si\ !'A'ILIT' airplane during wind tunnel tests at NASA l-ang-
J-ey. this j.s g! npney.
The cAli.l airfoil was also used on the Beech Skipper and the Piper Tcmahawk,
wj,th dj,sappointing resul,ts on both airplanes, parcicularly at high speed.
A ccnnnn revrork for this airfoil is to fill in the bottcrn side cusp, as shcun
on figure 6. This reduces the aft loading scmewhat. reducing Gn and trim drag, but
the airfoil refiEins a rrr-ish-nash.
B. MSA NLF(1)-02I5F Airfoil. This airfoil, due to Scnrers, and descriH in Reference
T was a$n- oilg'inaTlt as a sailplane airfoil. thus it has too much carnber in it
for typical porrered airplane applications. Accordingly, the trailing edge must. be
reflexed approxjrraCely l0 degrees as shc'vn on figure 29, for powered airplanes, Even
with the reflex, high aileron hinge rrnents (stiff ailerons ) renEin, so a ccnrncn re-
r^prk is to make the ailerons and f laps f lat-bottqned, as shc^,,'n on f i.gure 29 , to
salvage Che airfoil. Of course, the better solution to the problen j.s sjrply to de-
sign an airfoil witl- less camber in it in the first place.
Anothe! strange feature of this airfoil is the canber "diP' .60C, as shc'vzn
on fj-gure 3. This is an attefipt to move the trans.itj-on point aft, "a extendj-ng the larn-
inar run to reduce profi.Ie drag, which it does. Hcrvrever, the fallacy here is that the
negative carnber at .60C causes negative lift, and this causes nore ( induced ) drag
than is saved by the extended larninar run, reducing overall- airfoil efficiency.
Al-1 in all, MCA,/NA9C has never reached a concensus as to the best shape for carnber
profiles for general avj,ation airfoils, See the "GA" camber profiles in A5pendix II
for a conparison,
C. I{ASA NLF(1)-04I4F Airfoil. this airfoil, figure 30, due to viken, was envisioned
as a very lo* drag lamjnar flovr airfoil for high-pornrered, high perforrEnce general
aviation airplanes. the Foint of rnaxinum thickness on the airfoj-l is at .45C, and the
nraximum camber, c.entrally loaded, is approxirnately 2.53c. This makes the airfoil
ccnpa.rable to the }IACA 65-414 airfoil , Unlike the }IACA airfoil, hodever, the t\T,F air-
foil has enough J.eading edge droop, approxjrrately .353C, to give the airfoil decent
slc'vr speed perforfiEnce.
Realizing that the price pa..id for locating the nraxi:rn:m thickness so far aft is
a very nafrc'e, l-arninar b:cket, NASA fliSht tested the airfoil on a Cessna 2I0 with

14
narro^' chord (I2tC) "cruise fl,aps", reflexed upr,rards approxunately 7 degrees at cruise,
and adjustable. Thj-s was an effort to shift the faminar bucket verEically as needed,
to keep tbe airplane "in the bucket" under varj,ous flight conditlons, tirat is' at
valious typical v€ights and speeds encounterd in aircraft service. lttis Proved to be
difficult and jrpractical. and the net wlng drag turned out to be nlf,re than antic-
ipated. The scheme was t]"ug considered to be unsatisfactory for the intended appli-
cation. This is an example of a "single design point" airfoil.
ltotice frdn figure 30 that the -7 degree cruise flap setting, necessary to reduce
the rnaximum carnber frcnr 2\\C to IEC for Cruise. cleates a region of negative carnber
at .85C. This causes a dlag penalty, simil-ar to what hE have seen prevj'ously fron
ref)-exrng the tlailing edge of the NLF(1)-02L5 airfoil ( ccrnblned with the canber dj-P
at .60C). reducing the efficiency of the airfoil. As before, the better choice would
be to desj,gn the airfoil witlr less canrber (NLF(1)-02I4), to keep tJ-e airfoil clean at
cruise- in short, a conventioal design approach. Ho^Iever, the airfoil ltoufd still be
a single point design. Accordj.ngfy, our concLusion is tllat the point of maximum air-
foiL thickness should be no further aft chan .40ct for typical general aviation app-
Iications .
This airfoil has been nEdified. however, by Team Nsrxesis ' and j,s being used suc-
cessfully on the Nernesis Formula I racer. this is a very special application' a
"single point" airplane, and thj-s suPporEs our concLusion that the airfoil is un-
satisfactory for mcst general, aviat.ion aPplications.
It is interesting to note that I'JASA's Cessna 210 flight test progran for this
airfoil, repofted in liAsA Tl,1 85788, was simi.Iar to the Poorly designed "ATLIT" flight
test progran descrj-bed above. On the Cessna 2I0, the span Iras increased frdn 39 ft-
to 42ft, nraking it :mpossible to ccnpare the perfonnance of the nelJ airfoil to tire
"base line" airfoil. ltre inescapable conclusion is that NASA was here again trying to
shov,/ that they can design airplanes better than the priroe rnanufaceurer, ratber than
bej-ng satrsfied with doing Iegitirnate research r\,ork. At }east, in both cases, llAsA
proved hc)\d not to build a general avj-atiun airplane, and this j.s lvorth sonething-
I guess.
9. REIATED SIjBJECTS
A. Blunt Ttailing Edqes. Al-I GA airfoils r,ave LEen desigmed with sharp traibng
edges, for uniformrty. Hor,rever, sharp-edged airfoils, on wings and control surfaces,
'.Drk bet'te! if they are cut off as sguare as possible at approx1rnately 998 of chord.
Ttre reason for this is that the trailing edges have finite trailing edge angles,
and this causes the flow to selErate before reaching the t.raiJ-ing edge anyway. So
you might as weLl cut it off. Ttre airfoil will stilL acts as if it ',ere I00t 1ong,
B. Flyinc Winq Airplanes. Due to the lack of a tail, flying wj-ng airplanes must use
zero-o'o airfoils, thus GA airfoils are not suitabl-e. nlrttrer, due to pitch stability
concerns. flaps cannot be used on flying wings. Ttrus, due to these tr.rc design con-
straints, the perforrr€nce of any flying wing airplane wiU be nrediocre ccmpared to
an egually sophrsticated canventional airplane.
C. Canard Airplanes. This configuration has sinilar design constraints. Fl,aps cannot
be used on the nEin wing. llrther, the forward surface rl[l.rst al\.Jays be rll3re heavi].y
loaded than the main wing, so tlEt the carlard wilL alvays stall first. Since the
rnain wing can never be allo*ed to stall. it never reaches its nexjmum lift coeffic-
ient, and j-s thus relatively inefficient. Ttrerefore, due to these tlro design con-
straints (no flaps. no-sta1l nrain wing), t}Ie canard configuration can never be as
efficient as an equally sophisticated conventionaL ccnfiguration. Flrther, since
full--stall landings are not possible, landing sPeeds are relatively higher than for
canrlxrable conventional airplanes.
D, Three-surface lirplanes. control surfaces placed in the taiL have longer rsrent
arrns than those p)-aced in t]"e nose, tius .re npre effective. 5o htly bother with con-
t.ro] surfaces in the nose?
E. leadinq Edqe Devices, such as slots and slats. th1n airfoils, and other airfoj-ls

15 that are subject to leadlng edge separation. contributing to Pitch stabi-lity Prob- terns. lightly loaded nain wing. leading edge sl-ats contribute a positive (nose up) "r. however. offset the negative pitchj"ng nEnent due to large -traiung nterrent that can help of tiese pitching l-arge of leading devices. vrby? with such a 1ar9e. Accord.rrea I rrDre lift wil-l result srmply frcm the in- crease of iing Secondly. can benefit frsn these devices.wevlr. honEver.ingly. Ttre cAw-l airfoil. soft stall laminar flonr wing. in the case of novable slats that nDVe out fldn t]1e leading edge and increase the wing . .. htlich n*ans that lead-ing edge separation jfiprovement. I donrt have an ans!'. First.rith effective trailing edge f1aps. hc. Figure 3I sho\ns that Rutan used fhe GAwt-l airfoil scaled E 6TA{-rhick"==-?6.er to t]. is not a problern.nry effort at lift aug[rEntation should be \.e airioils. the natural choice Seenls tso be a fs"r Gn.u. the prir. Ho^'ever ' The Long-Eze airfoil is a turbufent airfoif. Io.rer c. GA aj-r- foils. F. edge flaps. Rutan chose a forward Ioaded ( 1q"er Gn.o exceplions. Case Study. tjcavel ) airfoil to j:nprove pitch stabil-ity.P. \^rith its high Gn. Rutan Canards. for the successor l-ong-Eze.is puzzle. In spite tDtential advantages edge with C. ajre soft-stall.-6-ari-Eze. has a considerable center of pressule travel. hence slots and slatsS cannot offer much Ttlere are tv.airfo1ls.

a nore basi-c. by the innEdlate Fost-I4MI era. and rnrst be hel-d in check by the realj. and we enjoy this nLmber one position to this day. Accordrngly. which aeronautics r. but fortunately this is an easy one. aviation industry is ncrvr undoubrtedly nlatu-re. philosophical concern exists.re industqr. and the U. Ttre rnilitary can cronduct thei-r crvn R&D. ho. For this reason. But U. the currently bocning air transport i-ndustry can easily absorb the "out-placed" 1=rsonnel resul-ting fron "dosm-sizing" f. NASA could have felt that there was little ne€d to do additional aviation R&D hDrk.S. they are unguestionably able to do their ovm R&D 'aork. nor to reviev the old lrork.vr nnny precious lives have been needlessly wasted. has rnade no effort sJmilar to "cA Aarfoifs"? Hovr fiuch valuable tjne and effort.lASA's furding cut off at that point? And why has their funding continued yearl-y to ttris day? After al-I. l.Ly. In a free society.ontinue to subsidize this industry with federal funds. so why dj-dn't they acc? vitry did they fail to put an end to the lrlaLh that the I. and ignores the reatities of li:rdted federal funds.S. and hc. in vielr of the astroncndcal budget tllat l.y those vrho !. R&D !$crk is a legitinate production expense.S.lo one will be hurt j-f the NAS|C aviation R&D shop is closed. and why didn't they admit that l. Let's not confuse the i-ssue by clairning that tIASA's rdork is vital for nati.S. rnakes no sense h'hatever. in the forty-odd years since the NACA airfoil uork was done. not subject. llreher.{ere never in- tended for astual airplane use. Accountability for governrEnt spending insists on th-is. the aviation R&D budget of NASA should be terninated ifinediately.ras in the 1920's. but it enjoys a runarrday position of $.SA failed to address this problernz They certain- ly must have recognized the need. in rhich decisions re- gardj-ng all-ocation of productj-on resources are nade by bureauclatic guesstinEtes. one must al\. Another possible er<planation is that. tJre original NACA airfoils \. TtEt is hard to believe. to politics and bureaucratic r^trjms.ize an infant industry. so they "lested on their oars". zurthenrcre. rather ttran econcrn-ic realities. and falls in this sarE category. "GA Airfoils" has been eritten to address this need.i/ever.Duld argue that it is necessar!.I defense.orld suprsrEcy ! To c. r{re must always be suspicious of gove!:rurEnt R&D as opposd to prj-vate seccor R&D.ona. Aviation R&D should be rnarket-driven bry Adam $nith's "invisible hand" of free enter- prise. in spite of the "good advice" frcrn NACA. in the norrnal course of their business. So then the question arises. under their q'm budget. aviation industry rnaintains its position of leadership. nor is a good tijrE to terninate this Fed- eral jobs prcgram. because llA. the United states had achieved undisputed rrcrld-wide suprsnacy in aviation affairs. Since the U. at the expense of starving deserving infant industries of the I990's.yer wi-l1 be eteFraLly grateful.ties of rnarket econcrnics - For this reason. avi- ation is no\^r not only a matu. And let's not be rlLisl-ead b. In fact. 16 Postscript As stated in the Introductsion above. to continue NASA's aviation R&D to insure tllat ttle U. has been lost. one must ask why NASA. . tn retrospect. Tax- pa. That is a specious argrLrrEnt. and. the agency was set up origj-nalJ-y to subsid. according.IAcA's mistakes and crnissions needed correctlon? It is trard to think of arr ans$er to these questions without beccnring cynical ' one possible explanation is ttlat NASA doesn't knctu hc'v/ !o do the job. ltard choices have to be made j-n washington.IACA airfoifs were astual airplane airfoils. Now is the tjjle to act.IAsA is bl-essed wi-th each year to pay for talent and facilities./ays be on guard against excessive centraL planning. lrhy wasn't f.lASA.

Saners. R.C. Canton Cf 06019. 9. R... Airfoil II". Epp1er. 7.r Airfoil for General Aviation Applications.w. 1980. R. D. 1959. R. D. Eppler..ow speed Airfoil-s".C. .ovJ Speed and l4otorless Fli. "Helicopter Aerodynamics". June 1984. 2.C. "Theory of wing sections.. Abbott. Available fron the EAA b@kstore. |{YC. "Design arld ExperijTEntal Results for a Flapped Natural Lanrinar Flo. 5. 1985.. "Alrfoi] Design and Data'.. Publication +2I-37f77. 3. Ms. Oshkosh WI 54903-3086. von I'lises. of stuttgart. "t'latllral Lann-inar Flold ExperjjrEnts on i'4odern AirPlane Surf - aces"... Holmes. 17 LIST OF REFERE}JCES l.ght" ' NASA conference hrbLication +2085.. "science and Technology of l. NA. Prouty. and Von Doenhoff. u. springer-verlag NYC.A Langley R.. |IASA 1P #1865. 8. 'A Program for Designing and Analyzing Airfoils. Dover Publications. 1979. "Theory of F1ight'J Dover Publications.c.SA Iingfey R.. . 6. Box 295. 1959. and Scnprs. 1990. l.E. NASA Iangley R.. R. I. NASA lang- ley R. . Eppler. NYc. et al. A. Airware. !&qsA N80-29254. June 1981.o.H. Sawyer.D. 4.lASA 'IP #2256. ''A ccrnputer Program for the Design and Analysis of l. P.

ir. l-a t. a.f. 'a tlP. . o. t_.C.g Jg.6 oo o F ? ! c.'c' '. o. J. &6i. . ==&E(F i88 s:: R 3:i I1*i:i $ qRF F HR .-.i.< o!o }l(J l_. t t- (t uO >z r.Add o- { ree1Iss:r?:==1::3:::::::::::s:::E$ii$$ss$* o ? =r 5 ? t- o ? . '€' . . OA o. r.J 't o . >.t:.q' I9939ni6i Oi=qaqaqrT9+ "ittIt'i. '\}' . c-i-i 2 0 'arl Qd6 --d. :_.).l' nt a) + ? ? -6r i r ro {2 € oF r $ $ + v ! Y < t Y 18 = -6++ +=v+r = llr ' . .! .$$E$$cA.. o o _oo 6bl: .. . . q4. rl ? r_r.\L' k t( '' '.. 4 E c!.i*S** I )r lv -9 Fr e. .F a-6 dii6.i F F i! i{ A f 6i 5i .. lc'E . Y.i. .rr .<t l!- a rI a'f :5 . 2 d oo . . \.. \5. Vl ..s( to i. t.il. o EX iF l{! c& ... tl a rpe I'l F -'.. .0. . ). . .{ !r 2 lr.. €. aa. ''9 ((' . .(r-l.uR E I . j '.? q- 'c.s. .46(6 ('(r)ri 6 cA i6 ar ia.:. lu.j-s: 338333bFF Z66ddddd.=9:i==F6: aoQt99 <ss ()AJ ga*".

t 'il \ 1 Le --:lrl !l l "I il -1: il +YJ- .i ?l sl il -t :l l : q-Y l! I L \! 7 : 2 ') OJ . SJ ..\ d!l \D oa I 6 o o lJ> l! a 9:..Q >=o .-i po I '! :r 50 ii li +l I :.c ?l it .lil :& .' I ? !t- : -1 o \l I I rl .l : 1l-l i: d l Y ? q I -p lf !.TJ . 19 ! 1l ^= .!l t.qfl tt Fl OJ .

io c *.4\r 6Aao '- L€Lrl. l I II-1 ) ' -t -: -l l5 L€AD'Nc E CO^l5Tl. ( see epp.^'^'F.9g5 = 4 86' ?. =.todern rrEthod l.lO l.1 .oo1 : .t9 +! ' /YtFr*oo_ _ ..lAcA nEthcd.!.liE t.rp'*J "o.1_ro{ {n6r-*6! 5 .a .6€( -^ 14 ' /---^+ I 5rops.o eaoLr' ' ortc*€re fo t')i'l !nd*o i .* 40 bv2 l 6os lr (a. trI t1 ". Irlrls-qirEi "srore i^^.'-.

\' 44,
'' <
P. r,;8 (++i) \
L \,.--'-
_,-_r=-\:--
--? - \ rr\F^r{ L,{€
4411-
,+*
a
t'l A <4 j.f .A
4 r?1
q4-tL /,sb .Lo
-?-
+'!r I 2.+e
olo L 4-+re t.56

-!-
llSoctr
tl*l'iu
* le-
This shors that the a.'rount of canber in IiACA airfoils
varies with thickness. due to Lhe faulty "sl"ope and
radius" r€ttrod of leading edge design. Therefor, NAcA's
t'est datn rega-rding effect of thickness on airfoil per-
s. {an ( ei,tso,'l formance is invalid, or at leagt conf-anr-inated.
CA r({t €

rys4- t:r--&3r.r:: l+& Y'{ tlt! 4 4o'\
f.lcnunal cainber= 4 . 0?C )
{
l.f '7 ,,1L t.1t* 1,7 7

Actual t,€8% 3,7t.L 3 .zo 1.
L;t. {,PE^J€L€v4r.l,.,' . rra .44a ',ar/"
,3ro .174

il
I

;;.;n
"tl
_,;. = 3.49t1o
r

(4+rLT-
\l
1_l-
il t'
rl
*, f,r.i- ,l\
a

t'
3
|., (2

lY
t!, {lfl
2- --tl
E Jq)
'6
z
fi"
I
v,
t
I
oo
\ fi!
! ".t
10
t^
I c
I CE
(i!
I -o
I
+ -l
,t I
co
:
J
t.
t" Lrt <2
I 1l
1t
(x
o
l
(l ,gt
CJ
c {l <J
t ol \
I
vrl
€l
2l
I Io rE
g
fl
(t
o
(u
.-t z
o
) t1
o
6 l{
i!
*
t{ t4
rc,
'd
(.)
!
t v:
,
o
l', b
6
=
F
r.l
rd o
{.
_t (t'
c
I $10

) Io
d
H

)"
F,,.

23
(rrrei or Paq::grq Vt: tt
---.--.--.....-__ tSl r *r<r n,rro'Lr
c.f : ."tC - !'=
,A'
a
x
' -+iot'- I
.t€ -\- \1"-o-
z'
i
a'
<r'

lt<.Ix;-
.rt

?o, )9e?o
. ( llrtia aLrn^l

t.Z

F rouRE ?

T R\n D R^G Vs c'
lt t( lir( r A,tFo,g

\ - ._7
lor'
e"[-,"-r(ki#)] -. r[+-.t1ftgt

- T4'L Lcrr6tr ' jl, 4.x..4, , ar,,,.1^.,)
This sho,rrs that high Gn airfoils have high trj.m drag, wtLich
ilcreases as the lift clefficient
deseases.
\^
'-..- NAJa !s(rt- oats
'*..-^{ -Z-*_oo,r, a. Fr.ap

6Atd -aa$ i^).--.--"\\t\_-.\_,
__t- -_1to FLA
FLap
I qlll-l:is
t - _.t\_.._

NAcn 1la6 ^

6 -.-.
r.a 16

?rt'trtil]< b

---- ----\. deg.r.r__.ta tDE6 A t etu.4( 5<to slightly.9ro.ooa Rer . /q7{ ttrlgA /17.r Hs€vef .r.zo-ror 'z . Gaps sealed. Frl'rRF q Hlnge aranent parameters of plain 2-O ailerons rlth various chords and values of +. ahor\t 2^ L (. rron..mPil e( -.1o. .e e o. 0.refS the ar*t ** I [r.tl t14 7 -?^t ^{ q.G 7 .+ c-SFeED. *. U a eitical remi-ns lrell alove t€ raDge of nD6t s -ed - general.NA 5t 4 e. ) .. -!q ail zr ctt -o16 Ttris sho$rs rhat ai -eron fr ts ar..5)R4 I zsotE Nqcn y6nn ftr This shov .3o '4o 6s6sga to i Cu(o. ) L4Bs(a=.4Atl -!.-n[1)]i --=--I s. Ar9 .A 1. 24 ./c=al leron to ring chord raf !o. J lA-ar ?/t. .. (Sna l. rO20 o it a t2 t5 20 24 2a f:r . L5 . u tf4. cu.zt . I .'q--J ta. 4t4- ----------:---ll | . +. . i ^/A(A to4-4t{ NA.-. ?6?.tu.-^.] t.ooe ^h'P'es1u5 l. 36 6 lr mrE-€d3! enrlc. he rvy ai}. 1o tnotc."r{u loadins I :.3< tlttt(- 6 I la+'t lrs(4'. .-s >_l . aviation airl Ianes - I ti{L .J . =& o { SeA Levec.*r * l*ort u. ry..e angl l. .VAIz.Le. d+cn i I L .-. q- EP/ '/ '7 HinXz.zo . r a funr tion ol the trai Iinq ec .rclnfee r-\r.2- 4t-tr Nhat rN.^r.--.l 5. 0 R rrrc. ds) .l' n (@ ctloo'd'^r) PEP' Atl2Fatu t i -. . tz*{' t?lta.30 t8 4fii'u( -\ FowLr ln LaADCD A .

\ A./. -Vetv il rcr{ P€RFoe.t?- OE .s' C .1ooo l R= I €.** @ . Landnar flow.^F? '6eF! ' PugPost . s. (. !l rcn4 Pe nsae..r1^ (-. \D ar . C.-/ .la^ Fuo'."GA 35A315" . c< | +6Ne t/-. ' TuRdvtrtf Fq't 'La. {. \. Ay'r' o 3"r lrA ll .Jacos AJo. (^JCH€5 Fleune rl .<. !Fd.:cTrod (tr A{a ( 6A A rRF6rL rnATRrr) 25 6A 30 GA 3E aA ?1 CtA 40 .!5 r/e -t . -Llt rrAR FLou) .rpue 4rncl. 't. O. llo cusp.. camber./iQ'\ \2.eneral Purpose. l5t z.> 7 @ II-s. ltL 3tL ^< 3rt 3 ts 3t{ ?t{ urt 318 ?rE 3 tg 3tg E\.o Reqr.tt? Cu se Nt OuxP { .{ 6te 6t8 6t8 \J totg =. @. +o r/C A A A A )r.t o.s 3tL lt7.r6 ff-ra) Exanple.$ LtS zts zt5 ztt ztg ?tt 2tg zto t{ -.6lt =€' lU btg l. l 40x zl1- J F .Meo.uo c4 +o 50 7o FlrNo C *acp .l_lL ?ro ut '2-tL 2tL 1..7 { r.fi ... r elL Tarr.fo +r? {.Lhrrno^-ls'r-') "9 n D o J .o ?qtJ€ ALL OK lu {rC 3.5rr..LAmtvaA F!.5e.r . .rz 4rz 1tL OE 4t{ 4t€ 4r{ 4t{ lu 7w CE 4rB +tB +t8 4rE btL (ot3'r 6l't_ 6tL .3o t/c -t.515 xfg -trr..=i. C*naf ?o C*ono (er) t V(nPn) < . A r RForr.t .t 5 6tt 6ti {E 6 t6. OvsP No Cusp Cus P N.

c
t
o
.p
o
c
lrl
.-1
\o
o

! il
5 ( 6 dl
U' o
rJ +J
o I il
al
-a
\o f;l
I 4 .-r I
o
n
)
o
u
{
q
(
$

trtduq,E lL

{FEEcf oF 5€RrF5

l5Aitt | )At-t usr 4A'? A*mflE* PaosrcE
Al azA3ts-'
ol 4oA z t{
got.-* '-^nt';-
P"-R I od ea,^" I r^o.,.
'ArR,--o,c
/e-
Ej ) ,
47',-{

"
/''
3o-3 t{
-, t'/

/i
.'/

-'s 37 n 3t{
Lpi
ili
'lt
?Ar '.'
I + P.=Leb

. t/s q
t+-

lf, i:
ii, 'uJ,' '::!::
^o''- 't
:ll l- t<tzt<
ch
,*/'
c{
\-r---
,f]-c
i-L-ttez'{
to'tt
o
t i- otro
o( -- D e6a FFS,

I.l, -
{ ,0 to ,ot< oLo ,ot{ ,d!o 6t <-
'6o (o tt L- zh4 lqf
tx - 7rf A tAFo re S - {A Rrors !et,e5 fth r3

ErrEcT OF Cusps
*
PeR Gsps4 fdoo*-, ?tai r." (A,Rro;. ii)
t---t (tA 3?- jr5t ( qusP) l
+-{ 6n 37 4t t r ( rrlo C,"s cl
,1.y'',

'./'' ,,

LL
THtcx '
AtRio,r- D t<T re A- li1s.9]

3'l-3t{ no; t.tlo fes
9te3t{ 6+4 at{ t,t6t No

* 4J,6. i-A rs m 41 AC.o,r dY trc) p-
+---
11. 3 oms I) r r;6',1a nr.a=
,
I

c. f a* 2-LeL

,b 11 /'q
ii'
il -tiAlt(
/t')..
I

ii"
rl
I ln
J1-JttJ
it
ll
V=a
tr (cus p
tlors
! -, ./- 37 -g \

l{. ,r'ar,, 1^r"cJ4
o(: Dt6t,€E5

, Do{ - olo '
dt! t o7o , ot-f .63 o .6 3 f
dtl - 21-tc /q;
a-t 41 ,a t< .irrA -,J ti-

29 t.J . a jl4t-tf . -__-_-o 4. ztloa \..1.1 i.. AL /'b t. f..' -.olqJ" L^ lnlJt< A t{...' /" l.+t1.8 lL U . rL + 3 7A4tl +/.1--.t t. * __ g"+ .z / + .oJ!..' zl it - / A..ota o.o+37ALtt et -a 10.aro.+ . I @ato'.oLo n- Co 'o1'( ttR-il:.. .-t / lit( l' o' .\ .a .4. tt+ P€k E?PceA PRoaeA t l-A.' t._1_ tl t{ zl Azt{ So{l d= ..q-+-..tl p.J oF (a^ B6R *.0 . rg I 'fRo-." t.s' -T Aat{ t\ w ar.qA<t 3'' I I I FF€cT .--.tr . / + .a t(. I1 ') . . ..2' ..t+'7A2't ) t'f' t+ II I ta trt l.. rr Ar tS ?^c1 '-J- Lo I -.. *-'.l1-.ozf . / ..:t{r"j 7 Aott Ilr i1 / t.-a- tt t.L l{ .L t 37Aot{ .t\A tb . bx { I lA- OL 37 Aor{ rls tri* ha -1". - _l:!\ Ll v t' jj::---: i 6 De€' R€E5 .\ N ol/€ 3?A +tf ./ --a \_\ | a-a."'"!''' .L t.'-'-'-'-l*..t' .^ 1. .lDrr< VATtaus CAl'tg€1 L€r'515 F\a lf .L c. r -11_!3!t ..f .-. .1."t / ol" _. --J 4a-+-- . I .

".lL6wJ AlRfutL.' .u lA.t/ hA17 A t tt h A3'1 AT tL /zu i -J ? 6A31 A9tO ' (L lli'o=. k (ao€ feor'.lLo I ..6 EFFECT OF TI]ICKNEs5 LarvrrvcB.Pgr. D ec.e-o'. ioa - llrr.OL< .D GN 3-t A3l X ArRFotu5 .o tf LO .th lb . t\ $:.I I C".' -/o rv tt l/ t." !s QuesrtovAeL€ Y./ .i i) IL o =\ r'-'@ € .tARrarn*l ti Cu ^** o'/ 1'lat . Eppr-.L ./{ K\ ''tl \:l-.ot o (.. 30 t.to.+lzY/rr .eee s. ! .* lli' .r.-L AE.

Oro ..'[." tt tt 11= la "to .. _J...oo{ .i).-.dII ll. -- a Rr to1<r6b ---.. .L P€A E?lLtf!. . .- * A =6*too lruz' -"'.t r/i "/"' tr . .l ano r]./ t* . 1 zV { Or. 't7 /1 I ). L -t )i' .' . t? '.zl -..t I. t.oto 6 rt n . with Abbot' & Von Doenl tof r .0" t bo ) -R=ltIdL I Not€ Thi-s agree ./ 's' I a. t. .t / ''/ tt/ ...tL{ .l o.\".-'--._ oF RE or-nr /o. . il/ -t" . ?Aoaq 4 t* t (Arnr.8 rgure bu IIE)( V5.I -) o( = PEER€Es l./ o.+ o -t (' ../ o . + -t .i) i t! ./' . U '! L-o\.t rlllllll O . .L zo -5 6 t to tU lO I . K . F.i" 3 ? 1 to./ _!./ '\ l\ \ '\_f=.oro .r./ l\ t3 -/ .robi lrrpE. I /6 o R= Zx to.' ' -t T bucket wi and Cdtr-in vs. R).gure U ].' o X ' 6x /o-\ /\ /'.oSf \D lrA-zntlq{ hA 31 A 3ls 4rRFaru Ft6 I rl .L rt.L r . (.e . l\i L ct+ illr lrO I d --6 i/l a+o o llr ..-t ^. a..

A-zt< lou.6xlau.oe ra . 32 t.d I . ii ) I. r'-+ (Rouc.A-- -(T".gAr4 li rtt. A tD .6rrP-(-O g-.1o .zl|tl...1q__ r. r (A rc sor. y : + '* --- .o (s noor*) I .*\ ..t R.& lo rf zo a(= 9F6AE€5 o 'ott Co FR.1.r or fo'o"{"e" I I al .b f/c- ! n- t{' c P I Le 2. . -+. I ch cl+ I --o. . C'. -4..A 4i--A -Vt< A ''a'cor. r-. l'ao 2.*)- z* to6. --.

The Specdstcr refre\cnls aarl spo pe bnnrncc . Ribicq I arn intleed using thc GA 30ll-315 airf..r prirc r'rrr r. i corne up wlth o 15% ihicker oirioil lrom lcnd! muclr softer now.i didn'i need ta).nlc churacleri\ficr ard an fi{l hf Rot!t c) l: rigin3 l:j\. KII'FOX SPEEDSTER Wirh a look relrriniscenl ofrhe. crlljng il". it lol perfunnance.acen] 300-D Airport Rd. Chssic looks ud leadin! edge.dster xl O\hKosh 9l ard srve ll rale reriews. P. oilerinf ntarimunr 3OJ-i. 33 .tz- eiljcjcncy and sllcl-\'. climbs belter wlih lwo Horry Riblett ond I love ll. ii story). I $dnl onel ' ?e.'\ lrcrl jiltjr llj$hne.oil on lhe Peliean < ll" > and wo arc vcry happy l:ith ir- Jcan-Iicnf Lepage. l've sondboQced them down to I G's i.ling^ Presidont soN€{\Rl FLETCHER BURNS REPORTS ON HIS SONERAI II WITH RIBLETT AIRFOIT From lhe Soneror Newslefer ( '\e /.rcing fil:ine\ oftlre.ngrreeing xllo*\ il top sleed oi 5lintes ir\ rornxl rtlll \peed. . hh 31 fr3t5 JAt/ tqss' € A n Technicot counselor News 7 f t&uR€ l1 . Marcouche.! klin dcnto rtralcd thc Spe. Fl\'orah[: itA acrodynl]. Quebcc.!7K 3C1 Dear Mr. Thick€r ls strongerl This is o \ring on my woy lo Oshkosh (which ls onother generol oviotion oirfoll not o pylon roce oirfoll.rnd lnluL :r.l(l s. don't ihink it slowed me I cbocrd cnd lhe roll rcle reolly improved (oihough down ol qll. C'anada. the Killbx Spcedslers{ruls itstlrff. Worid renown lerobaljc pilorJinr F.rrr lflorrl.r' a7 uAci (l -ztz) 1 The wings ore thjcker thon normai ofter o beni stolic wiihoul a wrinkle.

. and that the handling characterislics are bettet at all spesds. and I made a perlormance slabilizer. a slight imorovement at {3€A 248-1a13. especially in 1450 Konnowac Pass Road. lsuggested we attack the top surface problem first by installing an array oi vorlex generators (VT) along lhe entire span al . These VGs are simple. or call him prodr..70 C. wing lips that I miqhinot be a good choice for the PT-2. Ken iell ihat in lhe long run it would be betler for he was disaopo nted with the perlo'mance ol his Subaru him lo invest his etions in a new wing so in October oi 1993 Leoacv oowered Protech PT'2 (see Conlacll isslre t11 ior he tore the old wings apart. HB in rate rn cl mb. and better handling at cruise speed. by 4 degrees- analvsis usino the NASA "Eppler' code (pR6f trt.ould be.-lrninglon 198t8 paz) 994 0479 ln Januarv oi 1993 Ken Fogers called me and iold me that however. ?1 t !t {+ A New Wing for the l'!5rlf Sibaetf 415 Ribtett Lane t€ Protech PT-z AirPlane W. especialiy concerning laminar.rcrng sl ghtly bener aileron control. since Ken new wing consiruction I suggest you contact Ken Rogers at reponed that the vGs helped only a little bit./zl%7774&7277721Vk CONTACT! lssue 2s pase 17 r'.5. you can simply reler to Contact! issue #'1 1. Overall.'. salvaged whai he colld and en. I assured him that sketched for Ken. Ken reports that the siall is vary genlle and predictable. This agreed with Ken s flight lest experience with the airplane. tldoils. lhey result in the wingspan being reduced it . ltLlu(x LU . An unexpected benelil is that the engine oil temperalure now run 15 degrees cooler. llow separation. Moxee WA 98936.s apptied ix it". com-nercialized for PC use as'Aidoil it" Tni. glued to the wing Ken Rogers' n€w rring undel ggnstruction in January ot 1994. t would be glad to furnish details oi the new airloil or io ths original wing to promote lurbulenl llow. but il qives e\cel'e4t resulls./722727t121T2fl.5 perseverance and "can do" atlitude. high landing speed' and poor rale of climb.{f{{/. ''lt it ain't-righl. there may be something that we could that of the old wing it was necessary to decrease lhe angle do to "patch . Accordingly. This airfoil is designed io be a replacement lor hio'r-li+t 'Cub" type applications and Ken wondered if it The new \ryings include a set of Hoerne. and also the existing horizontal details bf the old wing io me.ine rnstallalion oetails) ln thrs same issue of Contacll began bujlding a new set oi wings using the GA 30U-613. {t1 flAs. GA 30U-613.(A' A p{{t tqq. Ken flew the airplane in August 1994 and reported these results: Sefore After Cruise speed 85MPH 100MPH Top speed 90 11o Stall speed-no flaps 6tr65 45 St3ll speed-w/rlaps and power 50'55 35 Rat€ ol climb(FPM) 5m "betterl" In addition. The analvsis showed that the existrng airfoil has a separition problem on the botlom suriace near the nose at high speed and also a similar problem on the top sudace at 70 percent o{ the chord at allspeeds.trcle lhal I had written describing on of my airtorls airfoil. howeve.i/.turbuleni transition. but suggested that since his arrplane was by 16 inches. ir a simolecode. which showed a low cruise speed. which he did. Note lhe localion of the vortex generalo. He says. and can oflen cure separation probiems. Since the new airloil has a di{'lerent lift curve comDlere and {lying. sur{ace at a slight angle to the slipstream.5 wa"s an a.777717121711V. in an atiempi to'Yill in" the separation problem in the "low spot' there. small pieces 01 bent sheei metal. elc. For details of the Evidently the problem was quite severe.:p" the oid wtag Acco'dingly Ken sent the of incidence ot the new wing. due no doubt to the reduced drag of the new wing! Ken is alrue experimenter and is lo be congratuiated lor his Comparison ot the original PT-2 and new 6A 3oU-613. T//////{//////////"/.

f 2 S* V2 C. . Most data is takcn rrith a pcrfectly smoorh surface (r=0). Pcrformancc drops rapidly bclow R-n=5E5. wing chord flying at 100 MPH has a Rcynolds number of approrimately 3. fectlsccond C = wing MAC (avcragc chord). bclow which thc data should bc adjustcd in accordance with proccdurcs found in standard lcxt books.6 x 106 (3. so does Rn. fcer Thc tcrm p n Vz appears in all thrcc basic formulas. an airplanc with a 4 ft. No significalt crror is introduccd down to an aspect ratio of abour 7.85 for non-uniform span loading. and performance drops slightly. and pitching momcnt can bc calculated as follows: L = lifr = Clal Sw V2. Incrcasing dcgrccs of surface roughness degrade the pcrformancc significantly.m1928 @ 7000 fr. foot pounds wberc: p= mass dcnsity of standard air = -002378 @ sca lcvel .6 million). A ncgativc pitching moment is nosc dowl.6E6. Sw = wing arca. FrcuRe L l . ft) Thus. Usc a "wing cfficiency" factor =. for practical purposcs it can be approximated as follows: Rn = 90ffi (MPH) (wing chord. which wc will summarizc below. drag. pounds/ft2. Ccnter of Prcssurc = CI. Test rcsults are usually givcn for wings with iDfiDitc aspect ratios. somctimcs writtcn as 3. 35 Aircrrft Performance Prediction (see a_tso figure 2l) Aircraft pcrformancc can bc cstimated from wind tunncl (compurer) data using formulas from standard tcxlbooks. A surfacc faclor of r=4 approximalcs a wing surface wcll contaminaled with bugs. Thc flow coDdition (Rcynolds number = Rn) for cach wind tunncl tcst is mcasured and cootrollcd. As wing chord and spccd decrcase.m1756 @ 10000 ft. pounds M = pirching iooment = C. quantitative valucs of lifi.=Cl4-[Csr/Cr(C)]. q. Notc that thc pitching momcnt (in wind tunncl tcsts) could be mcasurcd about any refcrencc point. but for conveniencc and standardization the quaner-chord point (C/4) is used. square fcEt V = airspeed. Thcrs arc thrce dimensionlcss cocfficicnls of pcrformancc dctcrmincd for cach anglc of sltack as follows: Ct = wing lift coefficient Ca = winS drag cocfficicnt C6 = wing momenl cocflicient From thcse. pounds D = drag = ta* Sw v2. and is somctimcs known as "dyaamic pressurc". Although Rn can bc dctermincd cxactly. Laminar flow wings suffer nost.

a I I o ! q.) : C ..J z .>r C! ( 'l: q.r: Bdw i . <l t* t .) :l v . :uE 6 ? -r :<t r-< i= A 2 <J: t6 t.. i.! :''.:l 2 irr I tr i!l'l : i j J.ll ' 'I tt . q- )- 6 <. ! ) b.'l c : .i-.. .? :-l o '. : :li Ib .: ir.'i 'G. * ! L II € vo ttlw . -rt {J a t I rt U o s J c 5 2_ J '2 t 7 Ol 2l' : I'. a rll{ CT ( tl J$ra \t e U t jt tU ..ozrJg.o i \.:l to url J o t . ( '-f Ll J t o . I' '. "9t/r12 u o/ rl.

.) dl <ir *i 4.t 0) t) 5 o -rl\ -lt .tJ trr \u t- f. . \. J lc ( ro 31 u u & \U (f ! .-t J-l f .1 t J . q- E a \J rd rr 0rl cl 851 !ci6l O.1>t . f . AE 0) ).-l 3 f.-t lr J \5 t.tal ll-r-"t:l OJ . -G.l \l lf 5 .tJ Y o I . !l 'rt t .-t .i -lo luq) >5 t -tl ?'1 e o CJJ 0 t!: i:- (r d . I fl J TI .l AI I -. t tr al !t I I "l a cd lJ I ':l E <r . o d.1 a.-l ]J E b lJ v ol ..t' -r 3i q-i (.

r.JE TD THE CI'IORD I.lg(. r:)':. 16f..1(:r(:r 1.atr)al . AEc) .:. 176 1. r'l.?(l proqram for design and analysis o+ air+oi1s Fortions o+ this program are COFYFIGHT 1985. TH I CF::NESS i:)(lil FLAF .. ij(:i 7.t7 t} .':)i:' 1':'. 165 1. O(:) DEGREES 1 '. 985 .t1:ii:r . OO DEGREES DEFL. ' ::4 . 9{'1O .t7ii 1-(:)B(i 1.i-ii1 1. .1f.-111.64j-.i1trf. {:i8$ 1.tt7-j l. 1gB 1.IY36r .i i.15? 1. :ia4E|: I(:) -.5. t:)89 f .lETHBD RFOILnaSl5 CA = ?4499...14b 1.IT I NN]S FOR THE AET}VE ANGLFS OF ATTACI.14o L {:t54 t. 989 .I I. B.)5:51 1. {:)f 1:O . 7 l?7=6 ALF'HAr:) = 2.':r6:BF 1.?6rr: 1 -. 19Bb by A ] RWARE A1 I r-r ghf-s re=erved Ser I al l-rc-r . .IE (l 1.(:.8f. (:lI8 1. (:r48 l.r) .114 5 . B{_){:r1ti:) .. 46{184 7 *. i ji.ETT nl.-r FtauRt 4 L.17i:' 1..998 1 . {:r(:} 1. 154 1.?9 4 -./414.2 . 1.C = .75i:rr-)r-r . 14q 1.L. 'j(:' 1 4 .::a f .'!.+ 1.:11 l.g 1 .i:r19 f .1: l. 36f. :9 DEGREES .:.196 b . 1{:r7 1.189 1.J/ I -. 1.i5 :l .l'r 4 ..874 .11q 1.:1:)1 1. tr'Ii:).1li-r t. (:x:rl:)Q CH DEL-|A = . ELAT I I.457 .jc] 7 f. 1. r_'trE 1. i)(:) . L).r -1.l1 l: . (:r?: 1.ila..15161 Y 1:) --.845 .-. (j: 1 1 . -T 38 YP tcnr. 1.2 1.lL-t 1 6.(-r15 f . . 6..116 1.815 .)(:r(:ro Y/C = .{-)i.r-.. 1.r:'81 1. lt'.: .ar 7E 1. aii. t-rfr I 1.\) iija 1 .t .jil 1{3. l{t .:-r+ .\7 -.-rnt i nr-re 1'l 1F'ANEL I. . 1..94? L a{){:rl:)if . E5A ..1itA 1. '55\. S5B . 1B-1 I lr'ri 1 al? I :--' 7 . ERSIDnI 1.t)21 :i .i:)r:) l.: 1.?il r.::.1:: 1.. COilPUTER A ^JALYSIS ( Eppler program) A I RFIII L. (:i6? t.s94 . il99 1.1978 ?1 A I F:FO 1LA a._ _ 1.:li .__JJ t-i ._'-r .c7?r .gtrr .]f. | )1--ir' 1. HlN6E FOINT AT lr. ??951 1 -.71:)(:)i:)i-r .(_)11 1.i:i 6.851:irli:) -irtrl64 1 " r-i(:.r. i:r(l NIXY VELOC I'T'Y D I STF:I TJI..{:11:= Hi t RE Il-lRN to c.. B6{:)(-. 1:.-t76 L. i-. tJ77-=S 1.i)i-. ?5{)( . LLl.. ii 4.3(.(:.849 .

5 1Sir t74 l. I 1-O19 .64 1 A'1'7 r. 998 -9A4 . . O2B 1 .344 1 c)il C)f.44 1. 6 . . . 9Bi .11 r. 7 1 5{) . I 1. f. i. 1 6(:r l1 (j r:r 1 _t.f. c'95 1 () 1.(16 .4?t --l ? {t73 () J.814 .trB? \-4r/ 7 . 1.899 19 Cr 7= .. l. 896 1 .1. 9 I 1. . 1.97? . :5rl I . 427 I . 04=6{) I 1. r . {-11: . .El64 (-l(:)1 4f.1'{ )( I c)4465 1.49{l . 1. l.. (:r?2 l. .877 . {i66 . 4 I. 98Cl .767 4C) 4 {)(:} C)(r 13C) 1. i:)46 1. 6:{:) 1.79€l 1. J-t 1.61 1. 1. si:)a . 4?rJ 1. g{:)g l. :49 -L . 1. (J95 1-4t4 ?. 1.4o r .9c. eo B 6a) . ()59 I . 7 1 .4 1 .411. 1.47A r.44f. 6 4 1. {}61f. . 1- . 1. t. 1 . 56tl 1. :iib 7. .4 L.F 1. 1. rt47 4 l.969 . 1 1. 4 1 I 55r_)(:ri-' .460 . 1.418 7. ?47 . t .999 . :7:l 1. {:}8f.b . .61 1. 1. 8C)4 4. 1. 1 1 . 1.f.98f.54r 1. B I . 1l 45(:)(:)(:r 1.91(:| . . ?4 1 1.El62 764 989 .:.4. f. 1. I .O 1. I1 1{:)tl 1. 44 1 .9Q9 .:?4 1.98(J .€}59 . 59(:) 1."i6/.747 . f. BEl4 95()O{ ()C) . 47|-t 1 .f. 1.97t. 956 .87 6 .4=A 1. (:)(:r9 . . 4 ) .9(:) 1. 932 46 70cr()o Crl .478 4 1. 984 .91{r .424 1 .84 1. f.c)5f..f. t)74l= 1. -<) 1 1. 684 1. 499 . E7S .462 .l . 1. ?. 7 I 1.489 1.r:)g 1 t.-. 943 . 1. I :r .9C)7 743 . f. . (:)Cr:) .74C1 f. -971 . 1. .1-)6? B 1. 1.f.4 t BA . I 1. 162 1 . 1.14tr i t- 1.846 FthuRe t+'L . . :16 .3 .:i 1 1.923 . t. cr.9 r:r5{rC}6 1.i:)99:C) 1. .9=9 .69 1 . olf. 84f.7 19 f. ?: t. a_){:r9 . 1 4:1 . {:)BEB5 1.946 .C) 1.Jc' . . 94c) .:Etr 1C) 5(:)il(){:) . (-)f_rg - .7?C.lJ. I 45C)C)0 109 f .9Ct7 -B'92 5(r 9 C)(:xlC) c)tl -976 .l|/ u :. 9()f. r:l 1.914 ..45 1.978. B?Cr .9E}5 ?f.f.379 . r:r9(:r99 l.f.81 1 1.619 1. 1. f.. sB5 . 1 .9:? . t-t47 . {14 (:} 1. 894 c)49f. t. i7 1. 18 1 i)i:r .1?4 1 .679 1.944 . 1 . 11{) 1 . 1. 866 .= 1.6+- 806 .9t)1 .458 1i .9f9 . 91 5 .-tg 47 7 1.936 4B 8C)()cl0 c)l -915 .7 Bt:l a7 1. 5€4 () 1.9(r5 .94t-t . SCIO 1. 4 (:xl .7:. 678 -'. (-)f.4? 1. 893 . ict c| I.947 OTA 47 7gc)c)o o? . 1.489 1 1 . l. l.l t.94= . r7B (:)5 (:l l.O24 L (r{)? . g 1.f. i 1.9C)7 . (:.(r .Jo f.964 .9C)5 . (:r4f. 1. 469 1-6S7 1 .7 64 .998 . 5?5 1. 1. rl19 1.649 1. ?48 4: 5(:r{j(:r(l f-)85 773 1.467 1.939 .994 .674 . . al l .7 . 1. 1. A7 Cr 49 B5oc|o o1 .4f.9EB ..

E49t .HA =1S_1_Cro DEGREES UF PEF TURET S SEP . r-)Ol1 TOTAL CL = . Bi9 ?4 I nurler I Drta . 0. OCIC)O . ()ClC)Cr .C)O{:| C){rr_x_r LEIIER . c)c)s8 CM = -. ol:t64 CL = .6Ct7t .25? CD = . O(r DEGREES l STURE S SEP CD ? S TURE S(J{rctr-) sEF CD UFFER . OOC.{tc).5865 . r_)(:){)a_){:} 5E -. NX Y VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR THE AEOVE ANGLES OF ATTACF ELATIVE TO THE CHORD LINE 52 1 .3772 . O696 Ftduae a4'3 . C)Cr DEGREES 1S TURB S SEP rJa_r46 CD ? 5 TURB 5 sEP CD UF'PER .692 CD = .362 CD = .INESS . {II1 DEGREES l STURB UF'PER . (-){rf. SASS .79 DEGREES ANGLE OF ATTACIT1 FELATM T0 THE trHORD LINE * ALFHAO INDICATES BLIBELE ANALOG LONGER THAN . .()C) ./. c\:t37 CH = -.3723 .(:.477 CD = .3734 . ()(:] 1. CrOC)tr . ()a-t65 CL = . o55O ALFHA = 4. r li:).B LOU]ER . (rO. TH I CI. ()(l :i. TURB 557f. C){)25 . Fgg1 StftEA.573f.549f. (i064 . OO(IO .=794 .424(.t67 . c)o22 TOTAL CL = . oo 1B ToTAL CL = .r\ Vo.5El2 CD = .CIOC)() . C)C)(-r(r .3777 . (:)tl7. OOOC) . OOC)tt . ctct17 Ctl = -. C)4r=5 t-OltEF .C. C)(r57 .(r[r .r sEP CD UFFER . (:lcx:r{:} . (:'(:) DEGREES DEFLEI UNA (:r{:r -1.t . (1559 cN = _.142 CD = .(:}(l 6.5f.692 CD = .=97t . oo45 LOWER .559 ALPHA = 1. C)681 ALFHA = 6.HA = ?.8r-)g A57 ._1589 CD = .all5 1 5. .142 CD . QC) l9 TOTAL CL = . (:)f_125 TOTAL CL = . C)1:r 1? ._)r)OC' .c) 1g .HA = . (tct?7 .FER . cxlB4 LOhIEF . oa-t64 CL=4?A . (:rcr4 (:) .2-?6-19!A hA t1 43tS y': Loca" \'/e uac-.CD = . (J{:r 18.{] R = ?OCICIC)OO HU =: R = 6l:)O(l{)C){:} MU =.445 .541C) . t (t97 Cl4 = --8t744 CM = -. .tfu V o.6?_.472_. 5944 .1:)619 CD = . OCI{-)C) .89? CD = .. LOWER . .3Ct77 . Q(r56 cM = -. .4-)O 1{:r.s x/c l.7 . .(:){r !.c)o12 _3756 ..('619 CM = ALF'HA = f. oQ40 LOWEF .9476 ..\ y'eLa. .5845 .Cr{' DEGREES r STURE S sEP CD 2 S TURE 5r-lOOCr SEP CD UF. {:)(:r{)()O .oof.517E1 S SEP CD 2 S TUREI S(jtlaj(-) SEF CD -O{)(){r . S SEP . 14 . c)o63 CL = . Ar5 858 . OC)OO . o(r4= . (rr_r DEGREES l STURE 5 SEF CD 2 S TURB S SEP CD UF'PER . ()il 1o . C){:r51 .f.. of-r49 .6t. C){rCrO . . FLAF' . oc)59 = CM CH = {:)69() = -.t)529 ALF. C)CtlS TOTAL CL = .{l=B? cM = ALF. {)O{iO . ('529 cH = -.o SUT4HARY AIRFOIL1 af.-){r . . Cr()OC) .l5 : 2. CrO?g .1 ALF. O(r DEGREES l STURE S SEP CD 2 S TURF S. CD .565C' .24:E .912 CD = cL = . (){:)(l{:l .() -.f. Cr(. oo2f. 5{j45 CD . il(:. c. 11 40 4IRFtrIL.(iC 8.49 . OOC){} . (r(r16 . (ittf.856 . C)C)64 Cl4 = --(t681 Cl4 = -. Qtr!4 TOTAL cL = . crr]34 ? 5.-166 CL = .5AA_.-)O 196 . {:x_} 4. {)f. 557r-) . .

CM = -.i -----.ER 9812 .t)797 .o9 O . C)699 ALFHA = 1(J. (rcr)(r .1E}6 .C):S5 ()o(:)f-) .lo . o.. .@< . (rE . (:.2545 . 1.f. C)?10 .7(l 6A 3-i A3t{ ^L Atlo KG !.PER 1. {Xr{:}S TOTAL CL CL = 1. 41 SUMI.296L .(]{:.(:r115 .IARY AIRFOIL af..=Z-?s-lr9{' -. O2f. (11 f. (lcr{]? DH 0 DetrCH.s to 6--9 to zo This rLrn made on At "-26-1994 1.at{ . 2081 .s .52? CD = .l5 ANGLE OF ATTACIi: RELATIVE TO THE CHORD LINE * ALFHA{I = ?. (._)86 CD = CM = -.(t299 . OEB6 ALFHA = 14. a-) 1 LONEF .-1169 CM = -. o3o . I c S TURE S(:)822 SEF CD UPPER 1. Ct297 LOWER TOTAL (lalt)o CL _ o{x)o CL = 1. f.77 Run tirne was f taueez4-+ .{_x:r .tro .Q?(:rl CM = -. C){] DE G 1 s TUFB ? 5 TURE S SEF CD UPFER 1. (:)4?6 ALFHA = 18. ()()r-'a-) .6 LOTJEF ..?52 CD = . C)5Of. LOUIEF . . C)CrC)7 TOTAL CL cL = 1. Cr23{r 1. (Ja-)oa-) .6z0 . I. Of.6€l? trD = .1gB(r . (r69C) .l2 .F'ER 1.f.os f LD *lc = o .o cL Ct'tr -a. Qcr 10 TOTAL CL cL = 1. :9 DEGREES INDICATES BUEELE ANALOG LONGE R THAN . Cr4L9 .Cr631 ALPHA = I 2 S TIJRB S SEF CD UF.t:r!97 LOUJEF .4(lO CD = . otlll? TtrTAL trL cL = 1.O R = 2(r{:)O(:.9 LONER .rf(j HU R = 6l:)(:)(:)0(-r( ) MU=3 ALPHA = 1 S TURE S SEF CD UPF. C)241 CM = -. R: 6x roe - l. O167 . 1 2 S TUREI S SEF CD UF. ALFHA = 16.3E: 48.619 CD = . O()(-)4 TOTAL CL cL = 1. c) 14f. C)16f.ol..1196 . I ? 5 TURE S SEF CD UF. (:r(rC)C) 1294 .PER 1. {)Orjrl .

| o oo ta | . ! -----.€ar "J ^/ ooo l' r' I a a c a o. U I tr o N o J €o q t) a o o o o o ]J ! ? +' t\ otr o +$: J x ?3i I ctL0l€ L€ .

.J -id 5-.l ilil .l Ia o o o 6 ) !F 0.]J +J 8 9 r.ts F " ri o :l t: ! !< El: I TJ C'l il :l 'i ia N ! . {J-+J lro : o.s. o it I r+ l.l ti: r€ ..1 {. 16 3\ () a '{i \i . .l{5 ii I 6 li ro tl sl l-c i .:i . LH !r0 rd C) 9l il:t !l .l ' ?r i .{ {.'Jl! I cOiEO u q-.{!O t' .'t I o 5t .rJ t.lc IE 3l i j t .r.l " il 3l :. J. J-l t -|-3- .-' ^r' !t lr( . 43 '1 <J3 t! E o t\ r.J 0) lo rJ l. I tF UFr T a J I z '* { .tJ . O'E a.r d\ '.':..-l 2 I !t *.

research facility after initial flights are completed in Florida. " AT u. Wind tunnel tests with models have indicated that the netv airfoil will provide inqqelq! of 90 oer cgnt in range. Section shape for NASA GA(w)-1 airfoil.- .7 .8 .t : I -/- U ><-- -. (r1% rr'rrc<J .. NASA spokesmen emphasired that the program is designed to provide a more efficient wing for a wide range of generil aviation aircralt.6. Fla. ...designated as the NASA GAW-!. not iust the Seneca.t I I -. The wing assembly for the air- craft . Although the rving is being built by Piper a.9 t. HHilH$ flUlf. r' fAcLtec- rruftG Ln .l . The low-speed airfoil features full-gan power flaps and spoilen for lateral control.E install€d on a Seneca.?.tl0ll Page 44 IRST FLIGHT OF SENECA WITH MODIFIED WING SCHEDULED . g9_gg. A full flight resr program will be conducted at NASA's Langley.is being built and installed on the aircraft 8t Piper's Lakeland. !q!.rre l. 44 NASn an (w)-l ArAtrarr.5. fus ('). c_elt-tgup and jgpzullt in cruise speed.5 __=i I j I ..National Aeronaulic: and l$ad-EAtnin-istrarion will supervis€ the {irst flight ol a Piper Seneca next month modified with a -Snew wing design that promises major performance improvemeflt3.3 A.o r/c lq'r4 Figr.{$ !.cent in the single+ngine-rate+f+limb. facility. 30 oer-ce?t in maximum lift.2 . Va..80 ocr-.. o+rrl t_ 2 CAr4B€A-'/.

rJ tu .-.j I Ic -.. c /} -!) :l1 .) o : t- J P !s! -- l' ILt L6 .1 a "!O -u I U io J.

-- va +.11.".' J x \h lr. J s 1 tt *)o '' {1 € . t- .t rd6 q" \ 5. k-1 at a0 !) tl + .1 () ? CJ tb !! CJ J 00 or .-3 o \3 UO a. . d^ !!r u --- .t J ort r0) I 7 )L .9 r0 u-.? 4 .. OX \r tc CJ Cr* * o. 16 1]U 6C o l'n! c.. .ltt '2 Ctr. t.".l '._:il uJ i'*q . x tJ -.r ']Jo .

e& o F lt ..1o tr lrO . \9 .J lz() e o $E U q{ otr J € !c =.1 \T lr J E ti q'l. o .i @' dFr jrc 3 .o otrk t rd .1 or lr l] OOJId !>> { l. OO cd . !oo ..- l'...l ._. t&uE€.{ id O E'A {d >.o-.{ '-{ ! O.dE f. 4C 'ocrr qc ll d- od)0)o rt > 0l rd cE . lJ 16 o 6-o-q u.t- ..-i l! rito o-c o{Jo . n J .. l.r '{-r O "Ef rd! _t.'..6CO L qr t a'c+l 0..1 ! r-l _c rlJ o'sFr w o0J.. 47 o c N d tlo t\ - o o. .cr'd o!6 JIC Erd lO. 30 .a 5 u) q) I F tlt J) EOd .. . \-. / L a ]4 G OF+ !|.!tt .-rl{o "l It (u-. u|r ..lJ _-l t{ : . t-- |-\ I' ---' I 4 .i'4C c o.d o.1_E t. :t.t lr o.-l lr .

O I s I I Lor':cr .rr.o'r'el) ..-o I /C_ .( iJA cA 4 D'611.d?r5 F l Lo!6_E+€ fie (r/6 ^J 4.o t.ANp t g|Air ArrFcret oLD-E_L_AgEqlr : JE of6 t ao&> NLF(') . EtA . 48 t'l-'1o T*. 6?5 ( 'l'L ge-\ I L( I'o NASA L!(t)-6+18 VARr E+F ( crau-r .

49 T . {lncn al-ors) - o lo ?.ro go qo nc llote. QA 31.shapes ( .APPnDIX I .84stL a*rc<lveSS Foems synretrical. these sba[Es nEy be sca]ed d-irectly up or dcnnr to the desired thickness. Bas. l5t thick) A ' "cusp' TrPe 7 Atc<+v€ss D tsrRrgurrorts GA 30 Aotl (nrRca oors)' GA 3s-Ots INACA Ll-ot5) .rc Thickness Forms.615 (.o go ao ta Lo .For thicknesses other tllan l5t.vncn 6+ -arr) GA 4o-ots . f I6LJAE -L-I .

otsTRtgullarJs Y = TRANsttT ror'). PREFe-RR 1-.For thicknesses otier tjlan l'5t' these shapes up or do.BAsrc THrcKt. R =6xtoL 6A 30-o rs GA 35AOl5 (ueca ut aors) 6A 37nots (NAcn 61 Ao rs) CrA 4oAots may be scaled directfy ttote. 158 thick ) B.7 'fuo Cus P TF tc <ru Es s.rn to the desired thickness ' Frh T'L .]gsl FoRmS ( symrEtrical shapes. 50 a .

600 4 .240 3.000 o. 00 7. ooo 0.693 6.942 5.172 6 .518 6.755 5.453 5.000 0.00 o.00 7.172 5.810 7 .600 n .558 1.250 4 .976 7.00 L .00 7 .443 3.527 I .008 o.540 4.158 o.655 6.090 0. o0 4.442 15.42I 7 .356 1 .472 2.463 7 .502 7 .600 75.321 2.874 r.266 6.427 4 .496 7 .168 55.436 t_.000 o -25 1.L24 u. oo 4.00 6 .264 2. o00 0.090 o.000 0.817 3.084 2.264 2 .785 5.290 95.a75 0.744 80.681 6 .820 5. 35-' 37-' 40-) Feb 94 0 015 63-015 54-01-5 65-015 sta Ord ord ord ord 0.O99 7 .950 1.250 4 .830 0.055 4 .00 3.795 0.72I 4.00 0.356 L . 494 45.l-93 I. o0 7 .223 25.853 4.895 5.065 90. o0 6.500 7.702 2 .245 7 . o00 0.855 0.190 5.427 7.853 5.oo 6. ta 1.50 5.753 o -772 o.934 4.00 4 .950 3.203 1.99L 3.858 6.00 4.73I 3 . 40A) Feb 94 30-o15 63AO15 644015 4 04015 sta ord ord ord ord 0.00 7.566 1.477 3 -245 7.665 6.508 2 -324 5.00 5.00 5.518 J.423 6 -223 25.053 2 .885 85.44S 1.865 o.5L7 6 -720 60.2L5 7.974 7 .00 7.442 7 -396 40.224 7 .815 I -702 2.00 o.977 90.00 7.240 6 .764 30.443 3.997 4 -799 4 .856 1.732 5.324 5.168 55.O91.00 2.265 7.300 0.50 I .487 7.619 6 .310 2.956 6.427 7. ctrso Tv.o?? n.436 7.L73 5. 51 APPNDIX rA .49A 45.25 2-367 I .75 1.610 2 .279 2.119 3 -296 3.252 2 .118 65.18 65.011 5.724 o.50 r . 25 1.810 0.541 L.00 5.858 85.311 5.764 30.926 6.648 3.580 3.00 0.704 5.403 70. OO 3. s04 20.579 2.468 4.435 7 .844 r.427 50.3A2 4 .50 5.847 3.000 0.50 3 .856 L452 1.O0 2 . 37A.00 7 .959 10.108 6 .830 0.473 7.959 10.427 50.166 4 .Io Cuspltlickness Distributions (GA 30-.504 3.387 5 .00 6.379 35.00 6.502 7.5L2 1.25 2 .50 3 .00 3.OO 7.00 5.000 0.a75 0. ie1 6.00 7 .456 1.313 7 .527 L .581 5. 35A.OO 5.852 0.403 70.744 80.290 2.504 20.144 95. 1.00 6.000 7 .oo 6.L52 35.600 75.367 1.L55 6 .620 6 .344 7 -270 7.000 APPENDTX rB .00 1.396 40.555 L5.442 r.346 7.OO 7.00 1.440 7 .528 2. o00 0.480 6 .677 L .346 o-42A 100.720 60.202 3.204 1.208 L . I. 6.00 5.pe Thickness Distributions (GA 30A.00 3.13 4. nnn Ft6 T-3 .1.945 6.

991 95.663 2 .420 1.00 o.065 4.|at!.010 4.__.e-z tlliA (^.595 0. 3 GA-4 GA-6 0.00 r.958 ?.25 0. L23 1.494 50..234 4.458 45. o00 o. o0 t-.737 2.75 0.991 t .c. o82 0.00 r .372 25.473 3. A. ooo 9.060 0.307 L.|CA.r4 t"E D16' t .487 90.000 o.00 o.000 o. o0 L .5t9 3.335 L.00 I .180 2.1.410 55.7 fyk bA .\r65 arvD TJACA t^€A^f Lt'|/et .244 1. tL8 1.L 2.a1..7A2 L0.090 L .00 L .764 2. I .792 2.557 2-r73 2. t.J L.00 0.363 0.es c L .892 1.cAt oEA ?2.00 1.715 0.441 2-50 0..368 3.2L3 o .c ?.'5' -" As:*A \\r Fta x/L ro .450 0.323 0.524 J.672 2.843 1.(lc 7-S't'q.APPENDIX II .207 o.50 o .396 o.Le t /ec.tah. ooo o.281 o.50 0.1 :L C .454 1.29L r.500 o.!75 4 . oo 0.843 65.00 1.1 52 o .00 r. 404 L .970 r .000 0.597 2-17A 15.973 75.562 o-727 0.982 85.00 I .Zb9 4.04 35.000 0.457 3.1.169 o.00 0.496 lo0.296 4.537 2-L7a 2.685 2.776 3 -7A6 30..00 0.00 1.340 3.L?9 50. t-20 0.189 1.543 3 .570 o.323 7. e .00 1.(tc- .nla*.852 o.ao oh e.275 0.023 1.1. o00 o .'.444 20.777 5.793 1.374 I -947 2 . Co'Jaa'1ttt1- .00 L.435 70. F.25 o -263 o.329 40.116 o.8L7 2-474 80.198 0. e.770 o. l4ean Lines ( camber profiles) 52 Feb 94 canber Camber Camber camber sta GA-2 GA.063 0.00 0.818 3.Q46 2. UE^tt r-J trocr-@ '2t*L r.683 2.00 o.780 2 .to :1.L12 0.499 3.

-l llct o .l !.r B tli ..g jlel #u ln s Ec oi !h at I . '. d OF E lr I rt88 i I= E Er ol.l h \l +l t o OJ \!.. g ! . E 2 sl' a[c /1.ri k t J- I +l ]Jlr . :6 ai f._a \ E iE +J .l 9t{ -9 CO 1*u I I II I I a 5ig=i gifrE= 0.9 E d c:4 !Jtr _o . 53 APPmDIX rII . o I i 0) .9o -u: -.-i tr I L.i tlJl o p zz \o e !-! s >r <'a s'. E[e 3 glt tFSFB EI F{'5'o!Il. Cl-r.€ T . o .E= i fc 1) 9 = so a a l -Elr F .P rJl !' 1 3 I ql 11 Hl s t ele E 4 iE Ili dsl.i I . c iz 2 2 I +) .li' rfd U z sEe g 5i 9 o< E . EEEE.iFtReda -..-l .t lg o8 8.i a !t . i g dHiS: !U)-t o Bl ol ^Fit) tu ri \' OG 'z gigi II If f I E F o> .l . .r I rJ c . x 5. .1 6* 6 f L) ! J 6J I ?g : !. 5S5t8 ]J |! 2 zii- !llo o 3^ tlrrl .ii .. 5 6 0-. .E.r o ulc c fl'.-t Fl ?. EI ..f o c< lu (. Ia. t! | aZE' A Idjtc tJIO U c) ii I l! !. t*[He EI -. F=rq3x g!! !r-O of. ot rl l3$ a StEEB nlo r. E !o zl l c) d.r !+ 4 r.ll'' . \ _-. eta fr-I ..i )Ll cl dl 6 Oo t e333: . :: 5 c€..Airfoil.-r (to lJ o ' dd .. a.r o :t I ) ^'HY' .€Es. EE€ E: I F a$ E:r r 8gle E EI E \' I a!t t 4cl'n !!t i i s:.1 a lE II oo ..o.ordinates.c.I irrd +J ..) s8.lJ o I .3t t i:I E Eii:€ n lo c Irl-c . El p t'> + \ I PilFE !J l. :' f t- t cl r 8.

t) 1 o o ) tl o 6 $ ( I o 0) _c . E 4 -.lJ 2 \i\ r\ Fnf.l q IJ Itr U o . l{t ! +J o o OJ c u' rtt lr) a6 ct a.l-.) c a a rd 0) ! 0) ol 16 o 1 o a o rd u.-l . E E -c U U) t) * -c +.1 3 a \t ]J t1 v o v I a !n c F 0. q .-7 .t oI u') o .1 6 o -c o ..t l[ U ( o ]J ll I t 8 I I 0) .u OJ r-..lJ |! o o LN ! -1 ro o l.

557 7 .75 r.757 60.279 o.876 -4.158 -O.948 -!.8 4. o0 6.81-2 1 .00 o.543 -1.O5A -3.984 -5.443 5.808 -O .250 o.426 1.419 -4.00 3.343 -2.1.665 -7.339 9.240 L.25 1.560 8. L58 o.320 7.26L -6.382 -5.072 -2.281 7.189 4.000 Feb 94 0 015 camber 3042r2 3 0A2 t-5 3 0A218 sta Ord GA.?2e -1.396 -2.839 10.810 0.374 5.427 -l -237 2. O01 L5.870 10 .443 o.00 6.268 0. ?44 0.A63 -4.408 10.437 9.339 35.208 10.2 upper lower upper lower upper lower 0.26L -6.573 -4 .625 -3.991 4.L69 4.925 -5.LA6 40.540 1.750 -6 .24r -4.391 6. O34 -5.450 3 .583 -4 -O23 9.382 -4.649 3.458 3.0s8 L .373 -3.153 90.592 -4.659 6.358 7.164 3 . o0 4.530 8. OL2 100.oo 5.090 0. 026 7 .408 10.925 45.263 ?.338 -1.718 100.618 -O.97L 3.372 -3.81-7 0.369 5.2 upper lower upper lower upper lower 0.00 o.00 7 .892 5.706 -6.374 5.00 4 . O00 L. 768 -5 .045 -5.172 1.259 75.367 0. o00 o .592 -5.000 0.608 50.681 L-244 6.00 0.643 -1.499 -4.088 -3.000 0.oo 7.769 -3.290 0.485 10.659 6.792 7.O47 -4 .106 1.338 -1.443 0. o90 0.00 R ?na ! .a76 -4.339 9.853 1.263 2-L57 -l-. 001 15.00 7. 318 8.81.103 -2 .235 -1 .718 -2.000 t-. o00 0.844 -L.116 1.976 1.158 0.674 -2.244 o-50 0.961 -0.?80 7.792 -5.00 7.O47 .150 -L.705 -3.rsa -4 .665 -7 .444 90.436 r -737 7.660 -7 .703 10.436 95. 608 1.502 1.9L2 -4.o0 5.47 4 10.?92 ?.00 3.00 5.82L -2.793 3.r92 -5.O25 -1.023 5.6A6 -4 -2r2 9.737 7.689 -4.191 L.060 o -9J2 -0.780 7.892 5.131 2.595 2.000 0. 358 7.537 6.631 2.420 ?.?63 0. so7 -2.617 7 -50 5 . o0 1.269 -2 .]-73 -5.190 L.71S -2.426 5.396 1.57 9 50.839 10.77i 20 .308 65.699 10.I72 L .891 9.351 6.026 -7 .058 2 .672 6.004 -o .169 r-.469 -7.163 -6 .000 0.126 -0.307 75.846 -2. o0 0.592 -5.589 -4.00 6.2I4 8.665 -7. 064 -2.655 L.687 2.250 0.000 0. o0 6.450 3. s89 -4.654 -1.16? 8.685 -4 . OO 4.396 1. 870 t 0.126 o.101 7.00 1.165 -5.269 -2.923 -1.764 7.938 45.000 0.265 1.681 L -244 6.L92 -5.7L6 o -75 L.222 55.00 7.178 55.000 0.856 0. oo 7 .103 -2.687 2.830 LO47 -6.427 1 .580 1.411 1.000 0.654 -1.443 -5.672 6.469 -7 .04 3.16 1.50 3 .1.792 7..485 -6.355 30.729 -3.565 -4. L86 25.715 4.537 6. 3.663 7.602 -4.000 0.308 6.008 0.292 -4.925 -5.101 -5.759 6.472 5.254 1.752 10.412 o.705 -3.L47 -3.950 0.030 1.50 5.101 7.724 6.385 8.7L6 o.O92 -3.045 -2.420 7.4 .339 35.368 -L.25 2 .A39 5.000 0.00 7.589 80.557 7.367 0.o47 -6.000 0.158 -4.1o4 3. Sl.316 2.853 1. 427 1.16L -L.7A9 I .00 7 .854 65.026 -7.830 a.498 -6.372 -3.57r -3.-3 .190 -0.499 -4.00 4. 151 -2.160 -5.959 5.064 -2.150 -1.808 a.577 2.793 3.260 4 -457 -2.991 4.063 4.r42 85.023 5.L42 -4.984 -5 .749 80.158 -1 -7 2a 6.00 s.854 9.392 -3.1.190 Fta f.830 4.368 -r .166 L.816 7 .00 L -527 0.00 o.169 1.L57 -1.L77 -5.000 0. 100 -3 .00 3.318 8.114 -0.385 8.316 2. o00 0. 184 10.O52 2. 540 -3. O0 70.885 -1 695.00 6 .00 7.64A -1.565 1.r9L 40. 55 Feb 94 30-015 Camber 30-2L2 30-215 30-21-8 sta ord GA.000 0.773 20.000 0.631.731 -3.630 -2.50 0.617 7.665 -4.752 10.396 -2.000 0.65 -5.1. O0 2-566 0.0 1.414 2.206 -1 .663 7.440 r.568 -I .O32 9.415 -1.816 60.053 o.411 1.564 9.O0 6.472 5.630 -2.00 7 . 158 -3.94r -2. A25 70.774 6.198 1.526 -2.808 -2.856 0.La6 25. r98 0.519 9.000 o.637 -4.000 0.564 -3.308 6 -t42 -4.853 -2-475 5.L64 3.77 6 95.268 0.o00 0.00 6.932 -0.595 2.437 9.408 -1.446 4.664 -3.O92 -3.50 3. 2.2r5 9.72a -3.O25 -1.A7r 85.755 1.000 0.764 7 .818 4. 355 30.000 o.839 5.89 4.192 -6.106 1.030 1.618 I.067 7.812 1.577 2 .715 4.206 -0. o0 7 .OO 3.060 0.948 -L.00 2 .502 1.

7AO 9.181 45.000 o.856 0.406 -2. O27 L. O80 -2 . o0 7 . o0 o.O28 -3.404 4.342 -6 .47L 40.372 -I .842 -5.00 0.000 2-543 8.443 0.500 3.950 1.A96 -1.r32 7 .591 6.404 4.499 7.780 9. O0 3.25 2 .407 1.00 5.823 9 -797 -5.279 1.118 5.364 -4.933 -3.577 9.126 0.872 9.281 1.082 6.739 30. 648 25.000 0. 06 t- 50.275 2.063 0.491 -O.441 -5 -443 55.L76 -1.789 -4.!L4 3.436 2.406 -2.619 2.290 0. O0 2 .000 0 .r97 -0.249 -O .562 2. oo0 0.L31 -3.340 4.115 -2 .895 7 .359 -5.998 9.500 4 .194 45.364 7.102 L.334 20.00 7.647 -r .22r -2.315 2. 354 -2.642 -2 -O92 3.565 -1. 063 0.270 95.853 1.897 -4. 385 -6.00 0.37L -L. o00 0.368 7.930 4.00 2.686 2.564 -6.rL4 3.00 r-527 0.608 -3.642 -2.7L2 o.524 8.943 -5 .427 2.51-8 8.000 0.087 -O.686 2-397 -2 .75 1.543 -4 .610 95. O0 7.426 7 .144 -4.162 LL.085 -6.00 7 .591 6.119 10.25 1.010 -o. 190 -0.480 7 .120 I.4L3 5.184 -4.342 -6 .778 -4.Or7 -3.519 -4.170 1.958 7.120 r.619 2.952 -L -712 0.662 35.LL7 -4.565 2.l-20 60.422 -3.242 -6.00 7 .00 1.811 75. o00 0.00 7.247 70.7 4r -2.3r7 -r .000 0.952 -L. o0 7.685 5.793 -2.662 8.191 2.696 -3.565 2.l-88 -4.823 -2 .425 9.769 9.115 -3.123 3 .250 1.681 1.319 4.406 -3 .443 o.158 0.2L4 L0.855 7 .265 -2.017 -3.580 t-.115 -2.281 0.817 1. Oa2 6.133 -r-447 3.000 o.566 0. 371 -L .176 80.318 -3.828 50.085 -5.AA2 -3.00 3.00 6.000 0.74L rr.853 1.480 7.240 2.368 -4.422 5.?63 75.7a4 -0.000 0.466 40 . OO 2 .763 0.158 -O.689 15.334 20.935 -0.50 3.000 o.485 -5 .00 6 .O0 ?.88 -4.1. oo0 0.843 2.422 -3.L23 3.702 5.190 FrE trr -4 . s18 8.114 -2.?54 11.000 0.409 -3.210 3.102 r.756 5.340 a.205 7.008 o.50 5.349 -L.843 2.50 3 -26a 0.245 0.L72 1.O2A -3 .564 -L.265 2 .154 -4.170 1.559 -3.153 -L .795 9.250 1.O57 9 .318 -3.O92 3.696 -3.248 2. OO 3.ver upper lower upper lower 0.809 1.]-8I -3.487 55.000 0.288 9.700 -6.4]-4 -5.O0 6.038 9.058 -2. OO 6.130 -5 -2L4 10.r73 8.440 2-457 8.583 7.499 7.360 -2.143 -3.527 0. 540 1.947 6.00 3.397 -2.500 3.L74 6 . 385 7 .225 -2.2 30A315 3 0A318 Sta ord GA-3 upper lor.702 5.852 4.958 7 .683 7 .367 o.492 9.335 6.053 L.175 -4 .090 0. 182 10 .891 -O.t69 -1.L32 7 .254 2 .000 0. O99 -2.50 L .581 1.9'79 6.130 -5 .7 23 3.648 25.965 2.2t9 8.O27 1.739 30.026 -1.25 1.L24 -3.905 90.342 -1.667 65.3l-5 2.856 0.600 -5.747 -2.54I 85.r74 6 . O57 L .00 4.146 -4 -252 70.502 ?.000 0. O0 6.044 -0.L73 8.812 85.295 -3.245 0.367 o.000 0.994 9.809 1.50 | .336 80.00 6.142 -3 .00 1.458 -1. o00 0.407 r.229 -6.675 -0.768 -2 -7 6e 4.000 0.00 5.662 9.00 7.979 11.156 10.190 L .268 0.347 7.685 5.165 L .585 8.!62 11 .935 -0. O90 0.114 -2.546 6 -L44 -3.026 -1.153 -L.084 -4 -7 28 65.00 o.457 8.00 7 -502 2.364 -4. t 58 o.555 2 .984 -3.562 r.734 -1 .525 L.591 -1. ooo 0.457 10.50 s.782 -2.647 -I. 186 7.O23 -4.482 L.75 1. o0 5.564 -6 .00 4.402 -2.730 IL.769 9.655 -1 .243 8.922 -2.914 -5.275 2 -169 -1.624 8.o0 7 .329 t.7 27 1.394 -1.947 6.983 11.42? 2.600 -5.764 -? -768 4.336 -3.295 -3.113 -3. . o0 5.J42 -3.000 Feb 96 0 015 canber 3 0A31. 18 2 10. OO 4.433 10.525 9.7 46 -1. 156 s. OO 4 . 857 50.662 35.364 -4.886 2.L37 -3.893 -4.655 -1.335 6.115 -3. O57 2 .000 0.172 1.359 -5.989 3.700 -6.852 4 .527 0.635 loo .32:I -2.4I8 -5.929 100.618 2.495 9 .347 7. t l-8 5.810 0.856 -5.662 8.660 2.380 -6.689 15.279 9.000 o . 56 Feb 96 30-015 Camber 30-312 30-315 30-318 sta Ord GA-3 upper lower upper lotrer upper Iower 0.650 5. O0 o.342 -1.236 90.976 2-543 a.842 -5. oo 6.126 -0.254 11.409 -L.662 9.947 6 .422 5. oo0 0.524 8.704 2.J27 -3.089 -O.00 5.

891 6.553 -4 . O70 1.50 3.000 0.825 5. o00 o .103 -5. o0 o.360 7 . O85 7 .000 0.254 3 .680 70.534 -3.853 L .00 3.553 l-o0.00 6.362 7 -50 5.1. 000 0.272 2.524 -2.211 -3 .963 3 . r. o0 7.2 -L.473 8.00 7 .250 1.64 3 2.556 1.245 LO .000 0.081 -2 -543 10.1.105 95.690 -2.899 -1.O69 -l-.133 25.709 70.323 2.698 4.943 7 . O57 -L.440 -2 . o00 0.856 o.00 7.977 -1.656 -I.o0 4.62r -5.000 0.27 2 -3. 00 7 .992 35.265 9. L69 -0.527 0.988 4. oo o.? 52 55.180 5.268 75.559 -1. 57 Feb 94 30-o15 carnber 30-412 30-415 3 0-418 Sta ord GA.688 -6..690 -2.380 -1.718 -3.000 o.676 -3_316 75. o0 6. O0 3.658 90.817 1.937 9.279 -0.265 12.37I.570 3.557 -2.4? 6 4 .704 11.27 2 2.000 0 .597 6.443 o.046 7 .777 10.268 0.422 -I.440 -2.755 2.136 30.O44 3 .397 -2 -7 63 80.514 7.LZ4 -2 .671 B-747 -3. O83 2.090 o.B38 -1.175 9 . 615 -4 .375 1.175 10.810 o.3AL -L .5?7 o.495 2.4J6 3 -r75 9 .302 -4.OO 7. -O.302 -4.698 4 -492 -3. o00 0.352 5.852 -3.512 -4 .652 -1.5L7 2 .136 30.886 9. oo L.84 -2.580 2.000 o.00 7.943 7 .2I7 -1 .452 6.237 5.307 5-507 -2.927 9.044 3.790 L.440 3. 599 5.618 3.25 1. OO 6.Ot2 -5.570 3 . o0 5.133 6.767 -4.279 1.724 -4.492 -3 .261 12.492 L2 -OL? -5 .00 4.454 3.203 -4.098 -5.352 s. O08 1.484 6.265 3 -269 9.931 20.103 -5 -753 40.000 0.2l-3 1.523 -3.949 -O.00 5. 060 9.5L9 6.595 10.786 s.557 -3.427 2.688 -6.537 -t.776 8.00 6.718 -3.r52 L.50 5.984 -1.000 0.367 0. 265 9.176 -4 .000 0.413 -3. 512 -4 .522 -2 .166 2 .607 -4.607 -4. S .776 8.413 -3.158 0.557 -3.645 -4.818 7 .00 3.544 5.226 0.992 10.647 8.651 11.494 -4.088 65.l_65 10.645 -2.-L26 -0. 126 -O.000 0.680 Lr.364 60.800 2.699 1I.679 -1. 8t.01-0 9.163 -2.000 Feb 94 0 015 canber 30A412 3 044 15 30A418 sta ord GA-4 upper lower upper Lower upper Iower o.427 15.00 2 .290 r. 268 0.296 8.595 10. 0I4 L .507 -L.247 ).279 -3.767 -4.81-7 4.103 -5.323 2.449 45. O0 o. o00 0.363 o .931 20.234 I .079 -6.090 0.971 -O . o0 5.534 -2.67L -1.065 8.2L3 1.681 2. o0 1.645 -4.473 6.180 5.847 100.305 -3.524 -2 .390 -t.856 o.733 -1.679 -L .090 9.450 -4.2t7 -1.42t rL. BB9 -3 .220 -4 .008 1.158 o. 651 11.269 9.000 0.0t 2 -2 .211 -3 .443 1. o00 0.727 2-I75 -O.4 upper lower upper lower upper lower 0.1-33 25.7 42 3.954 -O .473 6.681 2.844 -1.070 1.43L -3.718 -3. OO 6 -240 3.296 a -477 -2.O90 3.L7? -1.698 -r .343 5.082 o.502 3 . O0 5.375 1.571 2.985 IL.065 8.400 7.68O o. 621 -5.374 -1.534 l0.423 60.923 80.O27 65.086 7 .57r 2.633 7-709 -2.5I7 2.970 4.698 -r.767 -2.O0 1. 07s 50.256 -3 .9A7 -5.367 0. o00 o.A93 6.528 -2 .390 -I.663 -4.853 L.077 -1.8 3B -2 .o0 7 .L27 -2.974 -5.817 4 -A7 L -L .50 L .7 45 8. O0 4-44J 0.507 -2 .259 4.436 45. OO 3.989 90.389 -2.304 10.00 7.118 -2.3S4 11.000 0.200 3.790 r.259 8.25 1.363 1.o0 7 .84 -2.069 -1.169 4.708 55.996 LL.696 -5.5L9 6.191 3.984 -1.720 -2.000 3. 044 3 .970 4.573 -2. t 69 -1.362 7.172 -1.450 -4.760 -2.256 8.502 3.234 8.?5 1.573 -0.62a -3.126 10.085 7 .090 2.152 L-374 -1.667 -5.172 2.00 o.77 4 10.481 85.256 8.454 4.158 -0.190 2 .993 10.50 3.226 0. O0 6 -976 3 .763 0.8r-8 7.492 12.680 o.079 -6.00 6.00 2.699 r.O72 -2.053 1.643 2.99 2 35.922 -O.72! 2.00 o.008 0.954 -0.748 40.540 2.896 -2.203 -4 .838 -2.126 0.166 10.527 o.888 9.50 r .611 -4.190 Fl41 [l. 558 -2. o0 5.296 -3.655 3.993 10.307 5.000 0.000 0.704 2. oo 5.010 9.597 6 -279 -3 .172 2-473 8. OO 2 .000 6.445 95.O44 3 .o00 0.250 I .190 -o.75 1.254 -0.950 1.645 1.082 o.210 85.143 -0.427 15.400 t.727 1.Or2 -2 -992 l-o. 163 -2.43L -3 .104 50.25 2.544 5. oo0 0.896 -0.018 -1.014 2.00 4.O0 7.

370 -2.163 -4.856 o -29L r.156 11.110 -2 -366 10.106 -0 .00 2.00 1.470 -2.250 L. 58 Feb 94 30-0ls camber 30-6r2 30-61s 30-518 sta Ord GA-6 upper fow€r upper lower upper lower o.00 5.777 3.176 -4.205 1't 'lq1 -1 R11 55. 114 1.000 4.O0 7.525 -3.501 9.257 -4 .655 4.925 3 .110 -2.86L -5.523 75.00 5.991 2.354 tr-72f -2 -ao7 13.270 -1.547 -1.447 3.? 34 -1.682 85.329 10.106 1 1.000 0.819 3.618 4.439 -O .973 6.000 0.000 0.898 11.681 2.898 11.437 10.532 -O -576 6.071 5.O0 7.845 15.000 0.2 31 2.443 1.469 -2 .00 6.691 7. OO 5.262 80.250 r.460 5.008 o.766 -3.410 9 -7 34 -O. O58 -2 -LO2 80.207 r.978 L.213 -3.641 L2.000 0.079 4.090 0. 2.50 5. L.L79 9-L7L -O.950 2 .202 -O.427 3.112 o.800 11.000 0.777 -0 . r20 6.112 o .4'75 75.279 1.527 o.793 70. 009 5.453 2. o0 7.000 0..264 o. 504 8.391 -I.L47 -1.75 l-.906 50.234 25.329 1o.158 o.704 -O.637 -O.278 -r. 9.594 40.7L4 100 .163 -1 .00 4.865 -J -a77 50.320 2.843 8.00 2.763 0.104 10.240 4.281 -L -623 LL.429 -1.00 7 . 598 -I -9I2 IO.894 -3 .496 1.398 13.447 -O.620 1.424 -O.458 to.914 11.746 9-72A -2.441 2.309 60.760 I.420 -1 .502 4.76r 9.106 -1.111 13 .502 4.518 -1.00 7 .26 -0.898 35.494 -2. o0 3 .982 -2 ..367 0.853 ?. 082 -4 . 12 6 0.320 2. O0 6 . O0 4.457 2.566 4.568 -0.O39 -L.755 3.634 -2 -764 70.953 85.681 2.712 -2.982 4.L79 9.472 7 -2tA -2.527 0.601 -\.544 -3 .698 -5.843 8.706 -O.290 L.75 1.o0 7 .031 -3 .541 5.565 2.482 12 .699 -3 .663 -2.435 7 -587 -O .00 6. 406 -O -720 9.837 4.194 2.424 -!.031 -3.].801 -0.786 9 -724 -2.813 10 .553 -!.00 7 .860 -2.335 -1.606 -3.667 -3.035 -1.73L 9.260 45.458 10. 391 -L.189 -2.50 7 .!72 3 -372 9.028 -2.00 o. O82 -4. 345 3.00 5.087 11.00 o.075 -1.00 3. 310 1.191 4.000 0.453 2.196 0.936 2 .4!8 7 .984 -O.323 4.000 0.000 0.L74 6.000 0.50 |-527 o .698 8. s99 40.000 0.190 -0.776 -1.518 -1.646 -1.126 30.978 -5.474 5.335 -1.518 -0.592 90.436 4 .688 -3 .638 -O-682 6.00 7 -L72 3 -372 9.8L0 0.L73 20.1 .447 3. 291.053 -1.202 -4.742 5.a77 -2.345 rI.O90 0.50].00 5.884 11.L47 -1.053 r.000 1.00 r .837 10.2L3 -3.252 -4.106 -4.982 4 .410 9 .518 10.536 2.015 ).926 3.158 -O.000 Feb 94 0 015 camber 3 0A612 30A515 3 04618 sta ord GA-6 upper lower upper loerer upper lower o.00 6.776 -1.443 1.420 -1.039 -t -625 o. s40 -0.978 -5 -234 25.421 -2.254 4.50 3.207 L.506 L2.860 -2 .245 12.366 10.267 r -4L2 -O.749 -3.281 -2 -399 2 .OO 3. O0 6.268 o.00 6.625 -L755 9.976 4.015 1_.-261 90.063 65.202 -O.261 -1. oo o. .419 -2.145 5.o00 o .494 10.525 -3. 803 4-235 -1.L78 6.675 9.808 -L .567 8.045 -2.00 0.444 8. oo0 0.094 -1. oo0 0.675 9 -202 -4.7az 5.984 -O.000 0.608 -3.000 0.173 20. ?50 60 .936 2 .339 7.31-9 -O. o0 5.00 6.145 5. 765 -3 .396 -3 .565 2.861 10.23t 5. 281 -2 .000 0. 00 4. 605 -O.190 Ftq fft -{.606 -3.50 3.231 5.655 -4 .853 2.513 -r.800 11.24'l 45.766 -3 .57 6 55.399 2 .625 0 .297 5.474 5.00 3.659 7.861 -5.808 -L. O0 7.000 o.566 L .605 -0.973 6. ooo 0. 009 7 .7 t7 8.494 10.440 4 .991.2r3 -0.065 -2.49L 4.002 65.769 -3.132 -O-774 1"o.544 -3.265 4.468 8.49I 4 -699 -3.00 2 .A46 15. 841 95.607 8.540 2.398 13.000 0.120 6.9A2 -2 -4L8 7 -O32 -3.O6L lL.9L7 -1.641 12 .261 -]-.566 -r-.L56 LI.t26 30.694 -5.000 0.504 8. 158 o. 196 0.105 -1.877 -2.194 2.796 13.oL2 11.655 -4 . 856 o .00 7.000 o.25 1.496 1.898 35.734 -1.844 8.104 10.323 4.777 3.1-89 -2. o0 o.A37 4.o0 4.429 -1 .760 L.259 -O .518 10.420 100.190 3.181 95.367 0.302 -0 .468 8.441 2.704 3.O32 -3 .512 1.504 -0.045 -2.106 -4.166 7.295 -l-.978 1.00 1.423 -0. LO7 L3.580 2.

Otg -4.815 1 .273 9.000 0.283 8.339 -1. OO2 -5.760 -o.759 LO.00 2.000 0.815 t-.772 o.737 7.50 1.2L4 7 -7AO -4.547 -3.7!5 9.702 -7 .t24 4.418 -O .992 60.000 0. O43 15. 990 0.934 8. 151 -2.663 7 .00 I -5!2 o. O59 -4 .060 -2 .055 3.989 I.OO 3. O0 5.204 0.468 1.640 o.564 -3.991 o -793 3.31-0 o.991 3 .067 -3.450 2.997 1.25A 40.998 -3.609 -2.119 0. 486 80.75 I-462 0.545 -2 -645 5. o32 o .078 -o.193 -3. o00 0.l-os 1_.847 -L.569 1.47L -3 -887 8.230 -4 .L6? a -7L2 -5. oo o.000 o.475 0.452 -6 -6t2 25.254 90.934 1.935 -0.I24 -O.980 9.780 7 .00 7 -O99 t -?92 7.oo0 o.657 3.763 -2.7 40 5-468 -3 .7 52 80.O32 7.O47 -5.7L5 3.103 -1.00 2.255 -4 .Iower upper lower 0.011 r .038 -0 .078 -0.799 7.384 1.421 1.665 1.00 3.023 5.244 5.638 3 .738 -L.946 2.90L 9 -762 -6.00 3. o0 6.613 3.581 2 .990 -3.765 -1.61-8 o -7L5 3.000 0.517 3 .524 -7.991 2.72A -4.648 o.979 85.203 0.O0 3.6 8.561 -t.000 0.903 5 -O57 -3.796 85.490 6.438 -0.2 3542r5 3 542L8 sta ord GA-2 upper lower upper lower upper lower 0.466 55.186 -1 . o0 0.000 Feb 94 63A015 caltrber 3 5A21.00 6.000 o .994 4.663 7 .457 -5.72L 10.648 -5 .00 o.50 1.00 4.215 -5.I71 r-374 5. oo 7.510 7 .263 r.990 0.2IO -1.396 1.844 o -263 1. oo0 o. O88 l-.521 -5.110 -o.663 7 .565 -r.655 10.498 -0. o0 5.374 5.198 0.o38 trt6 IIf --7 .11-5 r.060 0.OO7 -5.363 -6 -523 25.450 2.396 1.828 -0.486 -1.173 75.055 1.496 t.7 67 8 .916 8.878 o . 899 -2.568 I .447 1.793 2.204 -4.363 -2.000 o.00 1.o0 7. -1.6A2 5.693 1.760 -0.5I7 -1.168 9.615 2.319 -1.50 2. 066 -6 .958 5.234 55.o0 7.820 r . 1l.307 10.942 r .734 -2 .742 -3.I42 4s.560 -1.198 4.6A9 -4.950 2..198 o.319 -3.631 -7 .598 10.169 1.610 0.933 5.434 -2.IO7 90.032 0.952 30.976 -1.00 4.00 7 .722 a -622 -5.020 -3.994 -6.737 -4.875 0.420 6.000 0.zAL -4.119 7 .504 4.600 -4 .418 95.1_86 -4 .447 65.456 1.846 1. 336 -1.50 4.000 0.00 0.116 2.732 -7 .116 1.438 8.162 100.534 70.722 -2 .582 -4.907 -1.246 L.627 7 .021 -2. 534 10 . OO ) )qa o-595 2-397 -r.242 35.910 -3 .969 20.089 -5.001 1.279 1.o79 -O.420 o-970 -o. t-o2 0. O0 5.311 -6 -7 27 50 .025 o.198 35.233 -5.764 6.00 o-300 0.672 6.199 9.00 7.619 L.000 0. 698 4.263 9 -237 -5 .448 0.595 1.453 r-537 5.0S6 -3.542 -2.244 9.436 9.886 20.974 7 .975 6. 558 60.866 50. oo 6.814 1.585 1.087 1.420 6.429 -4.007 55. o0 0.764 7 .643 -7.328 o.638 2 -t36 -O.633 -2.25 o.O21 6.579 0.558 -0.875 8.512 -2.000 0.626 95.858 r.029 -2.260 9.537 6.27 4 9.093 -3.2r2 2 -to7 -1.423 10 .50 2.189 4. oo 5.935 -0.081 -5.538 -1.420 10.OJg -4.00 7 -O9L 7 .640 0.342 0.731 0.?O3 4. 026 -0.780 7..150 -4 -366 10.6L7 -t.00 7.00 6 . 59 Feb 94 63-015 Camber 35-212 35-215 35-218 Sta ord GA-2 upper l-ower upper .75 1. 000 0. 657 -3 -279 6-551 -4.00 7.398 -2.000 0. o0 ? -3A6 1.29r 70.297 -2.25 1.50 4.000 0. OO 6.0 -0.110 -2.248 -0.71_5 -3.123 -2 -7 45 5. 3.570 -4.169 L -327 -0.435 1.25 o.6t4 5-274 -3.450 -6.565 7.558 -3 .189 4. 427 o.094 9.244 6.574 I.250 -3.I50 3.053 -3.892 4.000 0. 04 2 o.083 45.I4).606 10.600 3.000 0. .3A5 5.476 -1.923 -1.032 -0.357 -4.774 -3.00 0.000 0.734 -4.00 6. r79 4.7 63 LO -737 -7 -263 40.672 6.991.333 -2.113 -5.336 -5.403 6.143 -7 -O29 30.568 -7.382 -2.L29 9 .21 5 L -792 7.00 4 . O0 5 .084 -5 -754 10.329 o.320 -1.650 5.606 -O.64r -1.72I r.53s 6. 166 -5.000 0.L29 3 .852 0.5L3 -1.764 ? .293 l_.239 2 .000 0.541 0.000 0.1r.095 -3 -347 7.00 3.891 -5.816 -O.078 -4.425 6.444 -t.039 -5.532 75.00 5.892 4.?84 -2.728 100.387 L .374 -5.023 5.908 -1.500 r-737 ? .973 15.060 o.207 2.

404 3.27a 1.832 -L.563 3 .499 55.538 40.357 -4.519 -2.545 -1.545 -0.530 20. o00 0.063 o. 000 0.325 o. o0 7 .O74 -0.000 0.677 75.324 -1.275 L.O99 2 .50 2.3L2 -3.457 8.556 11.545 -3.00 6.?5 L.346 2 .772 -0.281 0.000 o.50 2. 000 0.084 1.924 -1.524 8.663 6.462 0. o00 o.843 L.340 a -247 -3.00 7.660 -2.?45 -6..153 -1.448 -1.562 L.584 -0.LL9 -1.000 1.079 -2.187 3 .390 2.577 -4.899 -1 . o0 o.083 1.173 t.665 t aao ?.524 8.987 o.00 7 .497 -5.170 L-328 -0.692 -1.00 1.565 -1.074 25.344 2.50 4.649 85.858 2 .563 -l-.000 0.335 5-379 -2. 000 0.612 -3. o00 0.119 1.491 L.032 -0.958 7 .a3L -2.661 9 .568 1.347 2.610 0.496 2 .521 0..595 -2.595 5.724 -!.947 6.324 -4.500 2.852 0.252 0. 118 4.00 7.462 11 .r44 7 .296 60.L94 l-0.337 4.624 -2.77 4 7 . t 53 -2 -743 7 .00 7.959 -4 .41.430 -4.729 -5.682 -6.433 -3.000 0.126 7.454 -3 .662 7 .00 3. 079 100 .000 0.63L -3.039 11. OO 0.632 5.987 o.462 5.4 -0.466 85.447 20.844 4. 113 -O.118 4.00 3.683 6. lo .735 9.275 4.041 0. O0 5.668 -2 .259 -1.720 7 .645 100.336 30.685 5.842 L.259 8. o0 3.281 0..l-13 -0.9A2 10. 413 30.J23 -1.452 -6..OO 7 .452 f -746 -2.812 r.551 9.) 1 C 35-318 Sta ord GA-3 upper logrer upper lower upper lower 0.777 -r.264 -4.490 7 .446 -6.7 5.813 -5.252 95.698 -4.277 -3 .000 0.672 11.453 2-r78 6.698 2.389 -1 .O47 -3 . o0 7 .478 7.976 50.569 2.201.97L -O.820 2-17A 6.r47 -2.A97 -3.091 4.725 3.053 -0 .588 -1.083 -0.00 5.499 7. OO 6 .500 9.42r 2.859 90.472 -3 .292 r.222 -3.988 1.554 -r.588 3.036 75.00 3.O0 7.468 1.382 1.618 -r.3LO r-r23 ?.957 -5.908 -1.25 o.875 o.2L5 2 . 290 1 .7 42 8.543 8 .7L2 -2.26I 70.332 -3 .953 -5.055 1.843 2.457 8.979 ? .66L 15.335 5.76r -5.275 I.543 40.858 4. oo 7 .938 2 .115 50.693 1.895 -1. o32 -5. O06 90.958 7 .108 2.123 3 .376 -I .724 -5.140 10.500 -2.962 60.406 -3.938 -O. 368 7 .227 2.00 5.340 -1.000 0.026 0.000 0. 387 -6.000 o.000 0. O62 -5.500 2.000 o.918 10.253 -3.475 o.565 35.427 l.081 Lr.00 6.830 6.852 3. o32 o. o00 0.r73 7.114 -r.73r 15. 3 upper lower upper lower upper lower o.398 45. O85 -2.339 80.942 1-.079 3.543 a.985 -2.110 3.834 -2 .896 -5.770 -2. O0 3.910 -4.095 -1 .40r -4.000 0.457 -6.1"64 -4.755 -4.A33 9. 911 11.120 1. o0 0.934 1.632 -r .478 -2 . o0 6.750 -1.071 7 . -6-52I 35.846 -3. 201 -6. O0 4.7I4 70.433 -t.685 4.3A4 -O.33r -4.476 -3 -7 40 9.523 -1 .155 -4.642 9 -L62 -4.136 9.00 L. 038 Fta fr.618 o .492 -3.194 -3.457 -3 .25 l-.694 -4 -328 8.651 -4.203 0. O0 2 .772 0.207 -o.000 o.722 -4.73L 55.50 L .L55 2-L73 7 .120 1.O42 4.r9r 7 .390 -3. 3 t2 16_. 540 9.333 -2.300 0.470 -2.72I L. 019 0.I20 -3.L66 . 348 5. o0 5.518 a. 315 -3 .00 6.076 -0.00 5.947 5.032 0.959 3.038 -0 .584 1.229 9.597 9.991 1.000 0.603 2-529 -L.889 6.376 -4.526 7 ..t.619 1.00 7 . oo 2.448 o.366 65.881 -3.579 0.642 -4.548 2. 60 Feb 96 63-01-5 camber 35.324 o -75 1.?54 -4.000 Feb 96 63A015 camber 3 5A312 3 5A315 35A318 sta ord GA. g .637 0.230 -3. 00 0.00 0.806 65. 543 9 .249 5.715 5.409 3.082 -O .339 45.000 0.063 o -763 -O .759 -6 . s4t 0.641 -0.901 -5.763 -O .512 o .796 5.226 8.044 t-1.204 o.709 6.00 4 -997 1.120 1. o0 5.00 6.309 6.073 80.73L 1.25 1.170 1.244 -0.899 -O -337 1.648 0.066 4.581 -O .25 0.O9r 2.985 25.938 -O.50 4 .437 -3.637 0.632 -2.812 1 .460 95.000 o.404 4.200 2. 581 E 1 'r A -1 1.019 l-0.424 9.99A -3 . oo 0.385 9.340 a.683 6.950 2.878 o . 110 -2.359 IO.625 -4.500 2.435 2 .026 -0.00 2 .843 2.264 6.562 )-.540 -2.254 -2.396 8.424 5.990 -6.o0 4.947 9.00 o.f64 7.515 -L -270 4.766 5.000 o.567 9.043 rL.500 -3. O11 1.50 r .

919 11.776 8.945 1.562 5.409 1.524 L .II7 L2.956 1.00 3.00 6.167 -L.618 0.00 1.252 10.91 5 -5 .641 -2.7a2 -0.500 -?.379 L1. 970 3 .000 o-oo0 0.930 2 .174 -2.720 -2. ooo 0.948 4.588 -2 -644 --r 1_rl 7 .638 -3.r23 0.180 5.727 1. oo0 0.258 7.612 90.a26 -L -I?9 2.1 . 595 -2.657 -1.00 7 -2L5 3 .991 I.704 -4.394 3 -764 -0. 168 5.296 95.575 -r.293 o.548 -1.00 0. .8L2 -2 .75 L -462 0.055 r .431 tr.362 -5.000 Feb 94 6 3A015 camber 35A412 35A4L5 3 5A418 Sta ord GA-4 upper lower upper lower upper loster 0.226 -1 .00 0.20L -1.665 3 -234 8.810 30.512 o.473 7.541 L .42r 3.00 0.785 2 -54r -L .448 0.000 u-z> 0.968 -1.000 0.t-55 2.00 5.322 LO -729 -4.O0 1. 395 -3.416 -5. oo 6.00 7.203 0.939 4.051 1.108 3 .090 2.006 10.997 I-597 5.135 85.00 3.899 -3.851 35.560 -r.296 -L.856 9 .223 50.559 25.624 rL.302 5.344 3.000 0.541.315 11.355 -1. ooo 0.002 9.940 -O.555 2.618 o.292 o-75 L.232 -4.00 2.951 -L.652 -3 .435 3 .65s -4.000 0.449 -2.394 6.372 -0.2L7 .848 -2.327 -o.412 35-415 35-418 sta Ord GA-4 upper lower upper lower upper ]ov.032 o.rer 0.2L6 -5.318 85.504 -5.383 -0.50 1.323 r.451 2.299 -5. 181 -L.764 55.901 -2.661 -r -235 1.000 0.o0 r .496 9.711 3 -342 -I -L62 3.?93 -1 .400 7 .570 2.OO 5.411 11.644 -2 -248 7 .00 0.678 5.4t7 4.654 8.000 0.075 6.092 -3 .043 -2.032 o.286 -5.346 3 .733 30. O45 20.948 9. oo0 0..734 -3.307 4.892 -0.362 -3.61S 0.870 -5. 814 -5 .269 9.120 6.00 7 .152 r.42L 40.811 1.577 -1.00 7 .234 8. OO 7.7 49 -O.310 l--454 3.633 -1.O99 J .619 7 -692 -2.50 1.128 20.O9'1.663 0.675 -4.594 -3 .090 2. L42 2 -63r -0 .00 6.422 10.878 o .344 .166 65.50 2.400 6.865 -r.L19 7 .925 9.026 0.300 0.325 12-1_75 -5.727 1.045 9. o00 0.975 -2.00 3 .468 2. 086 6.658 -1.000 0.249 1.500 3-1-75 9.957 -O.671 -4.968 0.sZL 2-536 -1.827 -2.065 8.-2 .458 7 -663 -4.755 -1 .445 -r -537 5.95L -r -8?2 9. 356 -l-.483 2-239 -0.032 -0.3 94 -4 .936 -0.967 6.723 0.660 80.544 a.L73 2.166 -4.50 4.25 1. ooo 0.914 6.856 4.408 0.678 4.618 -2.852 o.269 9.702 -2 .000 o.00 o -772 0.640 10.296 9.811 l-.759 90.563 100.063 o.00 5.098 9.3A7 3.010 8.942 2.374 11.8L8 7.21-3 .240 -2.926 80.820 2. o0 4.565 -3 -952 10.44? 6.00 6 .2.957 -O.689 70.L7L -2.202 8.L75 -2.474 -1.363 o.54L 75.454 3.889 -1.052 t.000 0.793 L -I32 -0.323 -O .76A -2.L66 12.L73 -3 .00 0.754 6.220 10. O65 7.125 r.476 10.469 15.431 -4.082 o.427 1.00 2 .464 -4.894 -2.149 -2 -OO9 3 .296 a.000 0.723 a.r7a -2 .00 3.597 -L .946 -2.644 0.600 60.3r2 -0.802 -4.00 7 .085 6.184 -3.776 8.838 8.542 -3.825 r.579 0.t.180 -2.00 5.519 6.254 1.O43 10.635 9.954 -5. 6L0 o.619 2.00 7.000 0.970 3.894 L0. 61 Peb 94 63-015 Canber 35.146 70.858 3 .518 3 .003 1 00.493 3.802 -1 .068 -2.875 0. O10 8.556 -2.452 -3.570 2.9L7 -2 .689 -3 .00 6.011 2.181 75-00 L .oo0 0.r32 -0. 896 35.653 45.1 0.294 -2 .839 -2.996 55.407 7 .213 1.470 25.32L L2.026 -0. 362 50.O40 3.191 -5.822 9 -O92 -4.8I7 4. o0 6.00 4. 348 -3 .302 -0. 1.307 4.082 o.00 7.00 4 .363 0.665 -2.525 5.793 ].088 95.146 10.924 4 .782 -0.038 -0.496 3.235 5.114 -O.50 r .72r 2.t70 -5.818 7.936 -1.875 0.725 65.597 5.000 0. oo 0. O0 6.842 9.000 0.00 7 .114 -L.511 -3.L32 -5. L99 5.323 ).847 -0.204 o -152 l-. o0 5.. O45 t.135 -0.519 6.595 -L.l-15 -0.594 45.028 -3.453 2.799 -r -I52 2.61"9 -4.038 Fh ltr-c .727 -3.927 10. oo 7.175 9.931 -4.0.679 10.803 l.693 2-473 7.8a9 2.000 o .594 -4.664 8.o97 -3.27L -2.844 0.467 -4.934 2-180 5.394 -4.603 0. 825 40.25 0.290 -0.579 -0.265 60.981 -O . 968 0.399 15.25 1.000 o.

176 -1.017 5.387 -2 -707 65.51O -1. 62 JUI 94 63-015 cam.000 o.453 3.329 10.458 10 . 318 5.772 2 .L55 3.97? LO.000 0.032 -0.519 9.57t 4. 026 0.4LO -O. 668 11.A27 -3 .000 0.829 -3..410 9.746 9.461 -0. 280 t2.323 4.1.673 0.52L 2.119 2-478 4. o0 0.268 -O .934 2.973 -O.2a7 -\.855 -3.00 7 .00 7.640 -3.00 7 . O0 3.00 7 .435 4.346 4. 328 4.459 -1.?r2 -O .595 4.L67 10.694 -l .2L7 -L.928 13.00 5.4 .59A -1.329 -4.726 -L.820 55.032 o.464 45. O0 o.494 LO.3L7 13.104 10.773 70.315 -4.923 9 .942 10 .50 o.O29 -r.938 o.907 -O.112 0.879 1.404 -4 .813 9.888 10.844 o.000 0.347 4.000 0.000 o. oo 5.801 35.323 4 -24L -1 . o0 4 .422 -0.000 0.O9r 3.369 L2.r73 -1.00 4.490 11 001 -1 01t 13.931 10-566 -2 -204 11.286 9.852 0.r22 1.009 -4.447 1.000 o.909 -2.573 -0.o0 5.938 I -204 o .288 -r.509 -3.666 40.760 6.019 7 .041 -1.411 -O -997 r.449 -O.382 t -742 5.430 100 .645 7 -O94 -3.112 0.757 35.oo0 0 .o0 7.000 0.00 3.818 l-5 .to .7a2 5 -324 -L.057 -4.00 5.9 a.463 -0.724 6.701 -3 .843 8.108 4.94L -2 .7 48 70.265 80.00 0.00 2 .285 -1. o0 0.843 0.000 JUI 94 63A015 camber 3 5461 2 354615 35A618 Sta ord GA-6 upper lower upper l-oeter upper lower 0.997 2. 055 -1.189 -1. o00 o .00 6.987 -O.309 1. o0 o.389 75.. o00 0. O09 5.833 3 .812 -O.r79 9.9?4 .356 -1 .22L -r .485 60.496 1.335 -2.L57 2.81. 406 -1. OO 3.742 -o.955 -1.451 11.858 4.O45 -1.000 0.820 3. 588 55.054 3.663 -L.991 2. 660 25.856 0.982 4.427 t.000 0.289 -0.929 11.878 0.463 L.11-4 -O.746 9.495 8. 326 -1 .135 100.605 13.2s3 6.295 -4.651 -L.723 30.991 -3.321 -4.97L -2.693 3.922 11.410 9 .843 L205 -0.296 -1.875 0.843 -3.67r 40.028 -0.100 -2 . 000 0.185 11.295 5.2A6 20.72L 3.00 o.00 o.641 6.311 3.800 30.875 0.247 1t-.O0 7.238 o.038 Frt:l GL.244 -3.031 95.209 -1.618 1.448 o. 065 -O.329 10.178 6.209 -2.50 4. 000 0.99L 1.7 53 -1.665 4.134 4.813 2.342 8.833 r.494 10.171 2.643 -2.408 -3 .7a6 -3.916 -L. oo 5 .441 t-.034 2.032 0.237 o -75 1.812 -0.887 LO.00 2 .ber 35-6t2 35 -615 35-618 Sta ord GA-6 upper Iower upper lower upper Iower 0.380 -4.943 -1.866 7.266 -L.961 7 .588 0. 00 6.619 8.965 8.435 7.355 2.00 6.319 -1 .695 -1.00 6.222 -1.011 -1.435 7. o00 0.278 L1.162 -0.00 75.011 2.000 0. 196 o. O0 6 .896 -r -076 LL.L74 6.571_ 25.233 -2.403 2.405 45.652 -1.665 -3. OO 7 -O99 4 .500 4.601 7.458 10.00 2 .162 -O.499 -0.L79 9.73L 2.496 4 .844 7.7 2L L3.3A7 -1.709 -2 .503 -O.169 -O -755 1 .219 2.098 9.965 -4.50 8.805 -O-823 95.25 1.877 15.772 0.372 -4.987 -O -763 L.075 -2.156 -1.026 -0.369 20.3rA r-942 3.593 -2.996 1.64 -2.A40 -L .468 2.367 -1.104 10.607 85.654 -I .171 13.L73 3.973 6.O1-3 -4-O25 50.844 7 .941 -3.541 I .00 6.653 -1.203 o .777 2.44r -1.437 2. 802 3 -A72 -2 .803 11.29I I.J.739 -r.300 0.o40 -3 -476 10.139 2.790 85.255 12.167 13 -324 -4.000 0.478 5. oo0 0.252 L .756 1. 038 -o.336 -0.362 90.648 L.938 10.055 2.825 -3.B77 -3.256 o-796 0.15L 60.50 2.375 -0.061 2. S20 7 -r75 -2.547 -0.75 r-462 I-.608 -1.000 o.44r 1.496 o -736 0.999 80.174 -3.325 5.754 -0.055 4.207 1 .174 6.315 3. O0 1.70? to.305 12.763 1.571 -I .329 -L-67L 11.20r -0.610 o -777 5.667 -L.141 65.50 1.588 o.738 9.720 A -254 3 .207 t-. o0 o.164 50.411 4 -973 -1.27 6 t.268 -2 .321 11 .447 3 -289 -0.530 7.610 10.000 0.OL3 -0.r20 -0.I52 -4.292 -0.703 8.942 2 .488 -3 .246 3.447 2.830 0.00 7.00 6.600 ? .991 L.344 4.00 4.910 a.973 6.865 -1.00 4 .230 3.215 90.372 8.597 -0.000 o.00 4.844 -2.000 0. O0 3.525 -3.739 -O -765 4 . 170 -o.507 6.867 r.448 12.

270 1.5r7 r.193 0.346 -3.046 9.196 -6 .558 -3.428 9 -939 -6.420 6. 71s -1 .759 -2.202 o .47 4 95.438 0.00 I .480 1 .098 -3 .595 2.098 -O.O23 4.726 10.483 -5 .934 -4 .25 0.964 80.887 -3 .7 47 2.97A -2.o0 6.249 9.138 -6.780 7 .493 -4.792 7.634 20.67 4 3.500 5.O47 4.L32 -3.116 1.579 2.947 2.605 -L.850 t -954 -1.566 -1. 038 -o.452 -r. .29I 4.745 L -244 5.7 37 7 .198 o.O74 3 .058 9.886 -3.600 1.032 -o.787 15.00 4.384 7 .542 -5.7 44 95. 984 8.00 o.838 -2.632 o.21_O 9.45].O79 o.266 -L.186 -5.490 7.460 -2.r25 -3 . .544 -0.302 -3.2L4 r0.736 15.477 50.00 7 -224 r.795 0.537 6.717 7 .6?7 0.856 5.982 -s.5 3 .25 L.504 0 .937 7.L?A -6. o0 3. o0 7.000 0.189 4.936 -6.00 0.060 9.50 1.855 0.698 20.219 -5.49L 5-7a9 -3.266 L.269 -3.475 6.737 -L.805 1.74A -7.749 4.2r7 100.993 -O.148 60.A72 -3.877 -2.915 -0. O03 9.265 -L .756 100.305 4.81-9 6. 189 4-479 -2.374 5.965 0. q08 85.207 65.684 8. 71.475 -O.744 -O -624 0.00 0.834 -0.937 -O . O94 -3 . o0 0.747 -4.550 5.189 -4.663 7.463 L .4L7 90. o0 4.833 -4.31-O 5.000 0.000 o. 518 -2.610 55.000 0.302 -2.00 6 .996 L.00 6.316 o-75 1.974 0. r92 8.81.985 r .324 -L .000 0.00 2-472 o.233 9.81s 0.9a7 9 .000 0.L57 -4.842 o .00 4 .000 0.482 1.607 -3 .000 0.477 0.O29 -4.313 L. 346 o.083 8.895 L-3?4 5.033 -2.00 2 -32r 0.934 -4. O92 1.2L2 -3.341.52I 7 .396 I.00 1.709 -4.810 r. o00 0.00 7.461...148 0.00 o.038 Ftq ][-rr .000 Feb 94 644015 carnber 37 A2L2 37 A2J.607 -r.859 -2. s0 2 .959 7 .318 -0 .2r9 40.50 1.240 o .715 3. o00 0.9L6 -r.457 7.456 0.5 37 A2rA sta Ord GA-2 upper lower upper lower upper lower o.718 7 -443 -5.672 6.792 7 .497 -2.346 -0. 568 -6.000 o .707 -4.752 -O.847 0.50 2.196 l"0.169 1.976 -4.000 0.288 25.105 -L.450 2. o26 -o.228 7.1-88 45.247 -2.450 2.845 9.557 7 -r45 -4.500 70.189 2-O78 -1 .455 -1.991 3.026 0.830 -3.578 r .868 -6.348 5.620 ! .432 10.57L -3. 016 -5.00 0.169 1.933 -5.2lL 2.862 -2 -8L6 5.031 8.408 55.572 2.613 -O.542 8. 63 Feb 94 64-01-5 camber 37 -2I2 37 -215 Jt-zL6 sta ord cA.557 7.380 -2-190 90.492 -6.060 o. O0 3 .726 3.865 0.00 7.925 -0.42J L .032 o.I20 35.838 1.685 -3.521 10 .267 -5.t 62 2.309 -L -O77 1.528 0.625 80. 5.764 -7 .000 0.000 0.r22 -5.070 -0.OO 3 . oo0 o.000 0.999 70.272 -1.924 6.334 o.198 9 -253 -5.00 4. 7 .L52 -O.082 2.19r -5 .537 6.244 5.470 5.865 -3. 200 -5.684 -5.956 r.770 -4.693 LO.267 r -492 -r. o0 5.764 7 .00 6.472 -I.411 6.926 L .764 7 . 369 9.3t9 l.6s6 10.082 -0.290 -2.422 -3 .518 -4 .574 -5. o0 0. o0 6.153 8.000 0.101 5.342 6.198 0. f56 25.00 7.642 -0.991 4.50 4. O88 4.847 60.77L -1 .62A -1.920 -3.492 4.000 0 .646 4.7 47 75 -OO 3 . o00 0. O0 7.2r9 -2.446 -7 .387 -7 -O6L 35.00 0.47 9 -4.287 1.364 1.672 6.0 65.597 r.799 1.331 75.607 t 0.50 4 .825 30.625 -l .494 -2.754 30.685 -3.764 7 .311 !.436 0.554 1.604 -3.248 -4.980 t.488 4.296 0.558 o.915 2.. 552 2.208 0.281 -5 .556 2-958 -2.715 -7 -241 40.023 4.000 0.?a4 -2.492 4-254 -2.594 9.693 -7 .00 6 .260 -r .r73 85-00 I .75 1.742 -5 .723 -4.8s0 L.584 5.262 2.542 6.000 0.642 -4.000 0.707 10.536 -O.793 2.742 -4.523 -2.263 1 .77 6 6.447 1.o0 6.946 -2.974 t.980 -4.A97 -2.113 1.508 0.25 0.150 10.334 -0.916 -L.61. -6.069 -2.105 -5.554 1.00 7 .058 3.00 5.473 -l .396 1.000 0.116 1.420 6.900 -5.263 1.185 3.793 3.060 o.663 7 . O0 6 . o0 1.204 45.780 7 .44r -1.842 t-.950 o.758 -4.2 upper Iorter upper lower upper lower 0.54L 8.oo 4 .00 5 .086 -0.156 -0.984 50.067 4-r92 -2 -762 4.795 1.4A4 -2.8 a.745 10.032 0.595 r.67 9 3.548 -1 .000 0. O0 5.4L9 8.

r45 -4.620 2. 03I Fta fl.266 1.753 10.951 4.652 5.322 -0. o00 0.843 2.000 o . OO 7 .00 6.684 2 .081 -3.970 10.818 25.O0 7. 365 -1 .570 -1.666 -5.963 0.233 4.655 -1.824 -2.810 2.590 -1.472 1.62L -3.514 -3.089 -O.903 7 -4L5 -4.170 1.808 -0.995 1.629 0.702 -O.606 -r. o0 1.778 9.011 -4.123 3.320 7 . 156 -3 .562 I.1.542 -2.25 1 .499 40.587 8.956 2-778 6.625 s.120 L.443 35.969 65.975 -1.307 9.51-0 -2.032 -0. 558 0.349 4.212 80. 506 3.00 3 .475 15.L49 10.915 7 .041 -L.120 l-.L73 7 -7 6L -3.206 -3.000 0.329 -2.00 7. o00 0.795 0.202 1.L77 2.281 o. O84 1. 529 9.561 -5.875 55.979 11.464 7 .442 a.000 0.924 10.46A -4.236 9.032 o.997 -4.903 2.014 3.465 10.076 -0. o00 0.207 -1.855 3.000 0 .5 o.00 4.151 60.524 8. O2a 3.A2L -3. t.942 90.621 o.438 -4.274 5. o0 3.508 -6.364 8.193 o.553 L .895 r .855 o.L78 6.006 11.94? 5.856 -4.596 -0.335 5.683 6.625 -5 -259 20.L73 7 .205 -3.01 -o.524 8.534 5.958 7.520 -O.852 3 . o0 5.57A 85.792 1.344 4.296 r-404 4 .1.275 L.476 9.499 2.34 -3.?75 r.244 5.000 0.358 -3 .322 -3.985 2.677 0.477 o.885 -4.368 7.o0 7 .3 upper lower upper Iower upper lower o.240 1.685 4.436 0.443 -3 .510 -2.634 -1. 346 0.00 2.539 6. o32 0.. o0 5. L26 50.3 upper lower upper lower upper I o$ter 0.480 -2 .846 8.6?7 -O.927 70.25 t .000 0. o00 o.732 1.AL2 10.000 0.00 I .920 -5.049 8. O89 -1.552 -1.843 2-700 -1 .3L9 2.50 1.404 4 -442 -L . O0 3.1 70 1.846 L.460 45-O0 7 .685 5.506 -1 .209 -2.522 -r -522 3.577 1. O0 4.123 -6. o26 0.926 2. 681 r1_.00 4 .714 -3.749 -1.543 8.004 o.415 9.863 -1.054 -6.930 l-1.269 -2 .320 -3.865 0.251 75.75 1.020 -3. O0 6 .424 r.444 45-00 7 .lO2 8.113 1.ras -0. OO 3 .785 1.000 0 .522 9.312 0.898 9.566 65.158 -4.000 o.5 .551- 80.057 -3.463 2-457 a -427 -3. 50? 7 .975 0.319 -6 .42A 6.963 1.A47 1".00 5.00 tr.887 -5.514 r.843 85.543 a.578 95-O0 0.00 7 .634 -3. 540 2.123 3. 038 -o.L77 -3 .00 o.38L -2 . oo0 0. O88 1.00 6. O0 6 .313 -1-073 1.096 -3.t? .465 9.755 -O.595 -1.325 -4.O94 -4.939 -5.169 90.50 4 .090 -1 .67 3 55.558 o -562 1.319 -O -979 1.028 -2 .605 5 -79A -2. 81.000 0.4A5 -l-.O83 9. O08 3.961 4. o0 2. 384 35.212 -6 .4A2 2.l-74 -2 .3L3 2 .959 6 -442 -2.195 -3. ooo o.388 L.456 0.949 9.950 o.79A -3 . o00 feb 96 644015 Carnber 37 A3L2 37A315 3 7A3 18 sta ord GA.235 -O -673 100 .512 -0.00 o.oo 2 .935 2.447 2 .368 7.674 -2.000 0.134 100.381 -4.671 -5 .484 -6.945 7 .443 6.335 -0. o0 6.510 -4.770 11. 996 2.628 -I .442 o.000 0.555 -6.101 -A.196 -2.208 0. L60 -3 .499 7 .32L o.454 9.20 -0 .949 II .45? 8.835 75 -OO 3.r17 -L567 2.164 -!.o0 0.180 8.958 7 .5L7 2. 504 6.026 -0.508 0.063 o.799 r.474 3.086 -o. o0 0.000 0.1.025 1l-.767 -4 .50 4 . 195 20.07 4 -0.000 0. o0 4.75 1.138 30.286 L9L7 -L .502 -3.625 -l-.943 -2. o0 6.198 1.31-1 L -947 6.000 0.359 -2.918 -o.118 4 .9 47 -2.233 50.423 1.435 -6. 64 Feb 96 64-015 camber 37 -3L2 37-315 37-318 Sta ord GA.802 1.413 -6. 308 95.356 -2.o0 4 .25 0.318 7 .500 2.928 -0.855 -1.700 -1.944 7 .302 7 -25a -3.922 -4.00 5.510 5.281 0 .25 0.209 30. 492 -6 .324 -1. O84 6.9r7 -0. 355 1.426 70.340 8.099 -4.479 10.055 0.442 t-.118 4.000 0.134 -3.50 2 .600 1.452 50.534 -2 .000 0.432 -1 .199 2.750 25.978 2-499 8.285 -2.453 -1.320 -4 .521 40.683 6. o0 0.224 2 .024 -3 . ltrt) 2.513 9. O08 -2.734 -5.368 9.88 -5.309 -4.834 1.393 -3.524 o.477 -4.873 -5.893 -1. o0 0.251 -2.892 5.063 o.I22 6.00 6.311 10.995 6.834 2.930 4.67 4 5.335 5.270 2 -340 8.].50 2.L42 -3 -226 8.747 -0.727 -r..515 9.353 7.659 -4. O0 5.852 3.480 1.330 o.504 0.50 1.311 -2. o00 0.500 2.645 8.

296 1.8r2 9.259 -2 .964 -5 .o77 -l-.00 4.950 10.2IA L?.000 0.473 7.412 3? .818 7. oo0 0.454 3.110 6.947 -0.434 -?.699 9.587 3.492 2.601 -r .7 rr 8. 435 -L.090 2.471 -2 .855 0.815 L.00 3.933 6 .854 70.O75 -2.649 -L. 584 -4 .947 8.000 0 .47 4 -2 .240 L.158 -O .280 -4 .294 o.830 -2.L53 -5.007 10.138 9.50 1.00 6.699 -2.4 .950 o -727 L.444 10.354 -2.4!4 -2 .698 45.204 12.344 10.086 6.501 -1.266 3.1 80 -5.032 0.108 -0.355 70.985 2.817 4 .280 o.085 6.411 -1. o0 6-423 2.609 -4 .756 .00 6. 2. 895 -L.520 -3 -924 11.842 t.2J4 8. o0 3 .245 -0.454 3 .175 9.138 -L .223 L.249 -5 .150 11.000 0..065 a.00 0.420 -1 .951.948 9.270 3.677 1.00 o.510 I .937 -O.436 0.000 0.25 1. OO 5 -732 2.664 -2.000 0. 000 0. 395 -3 .010 8.103 -O -922 90.00 5.017 L2.715 45.028 -4.138 80.3r3 3 .781 40.792 8. 65 Feb 94 64-01-5 canber 37 . 145 -2 .755 75.500 2.331 -3.7L4 -2.234 8.055 5.363 o.032 -0.296 9.340 75.792 -5.]-62 15.602 o.76A -1.362 -0.000 0.776 8.970 3.000 0.o00 0.76r -4.oo 7 .A46 10.562 -3.27 3 1.130 -5. oo 7. o38 Flq -S-r3 .288 12. L49 9. O0 7 .00 6.797 -1.00 0.773 -1.155 -2 -24'l 85.453 J .7!4 35.935 r.926 -1. o0 5.591 100.030 6.2r4 10.000 0.251.736 10.213 !.50 4 .799 1 .476 -1 .867 -O.938 3 .944 0.000 0.143 95.547 -2 .640 0. 81.00 6. 1s8 -5.440 5. o0 4.8 7.806 10.783 l-.542 ? -a?1 -3 .7 20 10.413 95. O52 100.180 5.IL6 -2.826 -2.000 0.534 1.456 1.439 -3.113 2.730 7 .?74 -O.75 1.032 0.50 1.349 -3.323 !.638 -4.92L -1.317 -0.40A -4 .455 60.345 -1.772 -2.000 0.140 55.620 2 .810 3 .752 .558 o.O0 7.O7L -5.25 1 .152 1.52e 0.780 -2.A47 1.668 -2.895 6.865 -?.796 1o.887 2.37 3 50.3? 6 8.811 10.776 8.000 Feb 94 6 4A015 Camber 37 A4L2 3 74415 37A418 sta ord GA-4 upper lower upper Iower upper lower 0.775 -1.235 7 -50 4 .432 -O.964 -4.67r -2 .464 5.269 9.106 -0.534 5 -175 -3.078 -t-.223 1.212 -3 .329 -4 .734 -5.75 L.378 -0.208 0.OO 7 .248 -2.000 o.781 10.597 5.000 0.606 30.504 0.818 -3.974 3.406 -4 .702 -4.090 2 -947 -A.452 10.842 o.831 2.583 -t-.1L3 -L.311 2 .346 0.303 25.799 80.657 -2 .774 -3 .129 2.538 -1.087 o. o17 o -779 -O. O0 5.431 -O -524 3.00 o.767 -0.4r5 37 .50 2.487 3 .00 4.00 3.202 7 .473 -7 .630 5.000 0.820 5.7 44 11.038 -o.082 o.235 25.507 5.397 7. 1.041 1.608 -5.926 65.646 8.47r -1. L50 2.010 s.4O2 9.3r9 3.317 -2 -7 64 9.00 I .965 -4 -329 65.454 -0.00 r.603 -2 .892 -3.202 1.245 7 . O0 6 .25 0.082 o.956 2.773 35-OO 7 . 309 LI .519 2.00 5.213 r5.6Lr -2 -666 8. o44 -3 .146 -2 .00 4.000 o.269 9.065 a. 938 55.583 -!.766 -O.202 7 .420 7 -700 -3.958 3.143 -3 .973 -O -520 2.224 3.970 3 .895 2.s35 30.804 40.453 3.953 -4.570 2 .000 0.254 -5.307 4.160 -2.307 4.937 -1.582 -3 .695 90.00 1.?96 9.479 5.000 o.000 0.961 -1".098 -1.084 I .120 -0.482 3.4A7 -0.766 3.o0 4.013 4.677 -O .396 -3.231 3. 1.00 7 . 026 -o.956 0.432 1.180 5.307 L2.508 0.152 1.088 *s.555 10. O56 1.579 -2.610 o .243 1.201 10. o0 5.43'7 3 .393 -3.709 0.00 2-32r 1.436 -2.209 11 .57 6 11.557 -4.709 to.260 rI.00 o.000 o .742 -4.793 20.447 -2.592 -1.237 -5. 513 85.795 0.57 6 -r .833 4. o0 o.01-8 4.669 -L .242 5. o0 0. 500 7.25 o.363 0. 000 0.596 -1.817 4.816 -2 .773 1. 360 -1.4L8 sta ord GA-4 upper lower upper Iower upper lower 0.085 5. 811 4.480 2.865 0.500 6.00 7 -473 3 .597 s.00 3 .165 -1.815 t.264 5.025 0.27a -2 . 509 -2.480 50.118 -0.7 5 9.293 -1.570 2.885 -4 .00 3-477 o.00 6 -926 2.896 -3.7 56 60.727 1.27 6 6.855 2 . 438 -2.033 L.5L9 6.l.517 3.785 2. L93 0.803 1.519 5.6A2 -2 .314 -L674 8.933 7.50 2 .860 -1 .856 20.999 -O .534 -1.000 o .356 -4.

75I O.a42 0.L26 -1.to 3.327 -r.525 90.986 1. 102 5.243 o-75 r.888 9.499 -0.242 50.080 -4. oo 0. o00 0.4 -t .31-7 7.77l -3.827 -2 .504 t .032 o.00 4 .lll- . o0 7.L75 50.629 -2. Lo4 9.00 6.865 0.573 -L.2A3 -1. O0 6 -266 4.920 -r.148 -4.401 2.926 0. 388 -2.870 -3.041 2.950 0.115 -0.aa? -4 .834 10. OO 4.131 -0.415 -1.270 4.984 85.493 -2.193 o .90r 65.661 6.207 1.960 0 .000 0.769 2 . r40 1.436 -1.084 t -942 4.785 2.580 o.7L2 rL.482 7.00 5.587 -2. o0 4.313 4.5L7 4 -r79 9-393 -1. 596 30.338 11.834 4.991 r. O0 3.945 -1 .272 -1 .510 45.525 30.015 L3 -426 -4.319 4.567 2.50 2 .00 6.792 -3. 1.00 6 -974 4.00 4.311 3.3?9 10.742 5.481 8.00 4.755 LO.973 6.00 7.164 -O.641 rr.931 -3.6s3 -O -7 07 7 .610 6 -O22 -2 .000 0.454 6.306 l-0. 984 -2 .309 -2 .852 -3.730 13.7A6 -4.696 -2.459 4.742 5.145 2 .2L9 o.344 -0. oo 2.784 a.000 0. O0 5.580 5 .O04 4.00 0.011 2-256 -r .150 -0.480 4.91 4 0.442 6.173 -O.108 11.00 o.442 -4. o25 -O .600 2.4L9 11 -270 -4.051 11.L92 -0.00 7 .25 0.323 4 .985 3.448 -1.038 -0.620 35.285 t-1.727 -1.973 6.472 -L.26f -o.370 3.442 0.00 o.941 0.00 l-.153 13.796 -O.982 3.547 75-00 3.620 3. 495 -2 -849 7 .424 -3 .260 10.7 4? 1.37 4 -1.556 -0.50 2.632 15.967 -O.000 0.7L2 -3.150 0.528 o.879 95.786 9 .112 o.991 2.033 2.759 1.273 -1.330 -1 .o0 6.807 -2.161 -O.325 -1.336 25.824 -4 .75J 1.000 0. O87 1l-.964 55.572 o.526 45. 298 90.959 -r -75r 1_L .576 -2.00 2 .400 12-542 -3. L40 12.458 100.800 -2.305 -L-75r 3.255 2.7 66 9.433 -L.50 4 .619 -L -? 37 2 .458 10.000 0.199 12.815 0.657 -L.00 3. 423 -3 .977 -0.445 -2 .098 20.291 1.86L -0.795 o.00 5..777 2.911 0.285 -4.307 -4 -649 40.992 -l -17 2 11 .144 -1.485 5. 181 5.A29 0.112 0.25 I .8t 0 4.7 47 -1 .000 0.00 0.208 o .O0 3 . O38 -1.50 1.75 L.001 r.441 1. 291 1-440 -0.627 8.165 2.696 7.O3s 10.895 3.00 7.00 5.811 -2-257 5.L54 5.00 7.549 -O.000 0.944 -0.558 0.410 9.166 L2.240 r. O0 3.444 7.683 -L.369 7.372 8.909 -1. O0 0.802 LO.858 -1.51_0 -L .722 -4.L74 -1.477 1.444 7.344 -1 . 460 9.7l_8 -2.50 4 .494 10.938 70.000 o .990 -3 .65L -I .73r 3.113 10.7L9 85.447 5.o00 o.346 o ..296 2.454 -O.017 -1.026 o.104 9.000 0. 032 -o.000 0.44r.81"2 9 .132 -0 .23L 1 .400 -0.423 8.41-0 9.786 9 .814 4.915 -1.000 0..L79 9.600 6.532 11.808 -O.134 13.168 -4 .o97 -4.963 75.653 9 -463 -L.50 1.7 43 1.799 2-17A 6.00 6 .430 -! .145 3 .855 0. 086 -1 .698 -3.528 -2.456 0.977 -2 .777 10.420 6.374 -3.639 -L -225 o.799 -2. 482 4 .677 r.00 2 .323 4.490 4.00 7.477 80.6 upper lower upper lolter upper lower 0.487 4.081 l-00.926 3.62L 7.777 -1 1'.O94 -2.000 0.94L 9 .568 L2.804 -0.37 4 2.474 5.339 -0.937 -3.105 -r.329 10.000 0.O52 -1.245 3. 000 0. oo0 0.463 4 .876 9.480 3.999 -3.436 0.473 4.496 o.356 11.207 1.456 -O .000 0. o32 0.47 4 I .149 95.799 -r .038 LL. 66 Feb 94 64-O15 c arnbe r 31-612 37-6L5 37-618 sta ord GA.956 3.220 -2 .138 80.487 3.315 -r -657 l"i-.00 7 .224 4. O'1. 304 55.000 0.190 3.404 25.843 8.818 6. 00 0. OO L .843 8.138 -0.35! -0.299 -1.233 5. 140 7.858 L.00 7.435 7.450 -O.664 7.00 6.000 0.439 70.508 o.988 -3.6A4 -0.435 7 .795 -3.066 -1 .893 -1.556 -1.520 t-1.773 0.163 -4.7A4 -3.494 LO.O29 13.747 -2.746 -r.762 55.627 40.449 -0.456 L .159 5.00 6.472 1.432 1.O34 20.2L5 t2.000 0.774 -O.237 -O .O20 -2.458 10. oo0 0.581 15.000 0.4a7 2.285 -L.299 1.67 9 35.808 -2 .7 42 a.496 1.32r r .291 -O.038 FtLl f:f.641 60.113 2.340 60.811 -3. 608 -O -922 9.202 L.000 Feb 94 64AO15 Canber 37 A6t2 37A615 3 7A6l-8 Sta ord GA-6 upper lower upper lower upper lower 0.

L79 7.067 5. 6. 854 a .00 1.489 -4 .888 -6.309 -1 .674 -6.067 5.116 1.402 0.411.77A -7 -2LB 45.663 7 .000 0.991 3.A49 -5.398 -3.321 -5.AA5 o.50 2 .609 -3. o60 o. O0 2 -065 0.015 -0.000 0.667 -2.000 0.735 -2. 000 0.263 L .245 0.331 75 -OO 3 .00 6 -764 1.00 0.881 3 .000 0. 5 -57a -3. O59 -2.357 7 .403 L.116 l-.919 35.398 -3.00 6 -223 L-420 6. O0 6.00 6.702 o .985 -2.532 6. 3 31 75.581 8.000 Frcr 5x-tr .9'77 0.604 0 .159 6.431 -3.612 -7. O0 7 .356 o.62L 5.000 Feb 94 4 04015 canber 40}. 6l.339 5.600 1.918 -O .685 -0 .169 I.977 95.00 6.439 2.133 -5. 540 -o..770 1 .?48 -4 -260 ? .932 -5.50 9.744 0.805 65.736 -6 -392 60.000 o.753 5.715 1.494 L.647 -3.484 -3 .000 0.572 -L.789 -3.187 L. o0 4.7 53 5. 960 -Z.450 2.00 7 .00 7 .780 7 .361 20. 056 -0.49L 5.796 -l-.321 -5.502 80.49L 5.560 30.4 Sta Ord GA-2 upper lower upper Iower upper lower 0-00 0 .233 o-75 1.859 -5.532 6.851 -3.47 4 3 -219 -2.959 o .555 1.138 40.443 15.057 2 .411 6.'7 44 0.2L9 -5.404 l-0.470 3.015 -0.110 70.968 -3.959 0.718 LO. oo 2 .596 -2.881 3.056 -0.31L -1-.609 -3 .678 -2.50 1.OO4 4.245 -6.636 1. o0 0.783 L.]-79 7 .830 0.793 3. o0 6.779 2.311 -0.793 3.396 1.643 -3.792 7.351 20.00 7.936 0.9r9 35.LA7 L.883 90.77a -7 .702 o.J74 5.960 -2.704 -7 .110 70.3e5 -4.77A -4. O59 8.008 1.240 -1.75 1.O92 4.50 3.498 -3.635 10.655 -4.169 t.000 o.260 7 .737 7.254 -0.595 2.420 6. 409 2 .324 0.986 -2.4s8 T.704 -7.869 -2.774 -L.720 I-672 7 -O48 -3.27a -5.50 0.530 4.465 -1.77 4 -t.892 4.735 -2.428 -O.316 100.678 -O.000 0.87 4 3 .803 8.968 -3 .600 1.936 0 .647 -3.l-38 40.396 I.525 -1 .888 -6.709 -4.00 3. 659 10.150 9 .838 55.2r9 -5.00 7.374 5.522 100 .06s 4.663 7 .987 2.494 1.504 L.444 -3 .783 r.000 0.27 5 4.124 0.396 r.218 9.263 L.525 -T.000 0 . .654 -4.O0 3.l-l-8 L . 048 25.240 -1.357 7.O29 7.247 -1 .000 0.50 3.890 -o .244 5.81s -5. 67 Feb 94 65-O15 camber 40-2I2 40-2L5 40-2).2f9 -2.159 6.493 3.311 -1.595 2..869 -2.789 -3.720 L.635 10.048 25.489 -4 .500 o.L?O 50.27A -5.890 -o.404 10.245 -6.000 0.77A -4.192 60.144 0.517 6.858 -5.356 0. 540 -0. o0 4.180 9. O0 0.2r4 9.965 -1.805 65.?44 -4.242 o.948 6.764 7 .558 7.650 -t .101 -1.409 2.207 9.00 4.7AO 7.099 1. oo 4.777 -4.403 L.004 4.000 0.245 0.519 l.099 r.o00 0.223 -2 .854 8. O0 5.000 0.L68 I.7L2 -0.67 4 -6.764 7 .396 I .000 0.048 9 .892 4.428 0. )-24 o.16A r. O23 4.667 -2.07X -1.427 L.916 1.779 2 . 385 -4.427 L.654 -4.560 30.00 5.830 0.000 0.737 7 .643 -4. 366 -6.696 -2.777 90.00 t .655 -4.1S0 9.059 I . 152 95. O0 5. OO I .62).894 r.724 -0.625 -r.489 10.000 0. 502 80.342 2.366 -6.515 3.944 -1 .530 4.254 -0.189 4.769 -O .290 0.643 -4.O4A -3.023 4.851 -3.504 r .000 0.392 -5.736 -6 .L?7 -O.50 I . O0 7.L20 50.00 0.465 -1.00 1.838 55.803 8. o0 6-223 L. s81 LA79 -5.965 -1 .991 3.r52 1.255 -2 -669 85.651 -2.305 -L.431 -3.637 85.2 -7. o0 2.00 7 .O0 3 .O79 -1.000 0.557 6.309 -1.118 1.709 -4.439 2.2r2 4042l-5 4 0A218 Sta ord GA-2 upper lower upper lower upper lower o.724 -0.443 15. 198 0 .00 7 .7 4A L.4 45. 23 3 o.555 1.25 0.008 1.626 -0.00 7 .000 0. 458 !.815 -5.207 9 .849 -5.970 8 -932 -5.O29 7.25 0.537 6.970 8.00 0.578 -3.625 -1. o00 0.704 8.643 -3 .000 o.450 2.305 -!.048 9.244 5.133 -5 .916 1.00 5.198 0 .796 -1.557 6.189 4 .798 -0.715 3.734 -4.859 10.275 4.144 o.339 5.659 10.00 6-764 L .000 0.49A -3.770 1.704 a.392 -5.059 -2.000 0..858 0.558 7 .792 7 -734 -4.489 ro.672 7.000 0 .7I8 to.777 -4.967 -L.944 6.2).1. 604 0. o00 0.230 o.A79 -5.000 0.000 0. 859 10.050 o.

O97 -2.716 4. O0 7.448 -t.526 -1.00 L.000 0.244 -1. 68 Feb 95 65-Or5 camber 40.633 10.00 6. 000 0.418 40.399 9.474 LO.118 4.059 -0. A4L 5.404 4.403 L .97 4 rr.594 -0. 995 6.2A9 5.L52 2 .00 7 .290 -s.457 a.455 -6 .591 10.908 -L.281 o. O0 5.000 0.249 -2.242 35.420 -1.290 -5.492 .537 70.215 -L .744 -3.235 9.164 65.455 -6.50 2 .591 5.843 2.7 67 2.947 6.000 o. 019 -O.584 -3.185 4.399 -1.457 r .915 7.852 3 .492 -4.500 2.427 8.801 -4.426 -5.977 -I . ooo 0.637 -1.7 20 7.7 02 o. oo0 0. O0 7. O49 5.242 35.427 2 -3L7 -L.223 1.562 I -477 -0.762 4.936 -3.81t 95.797 -L .853 -4.500 0.939 LL.683 6. -4.404 4.227 o.356 0. O89 80.393 4-746 -3. oo0 0.47 4 45.063 o.369 50.335 4.335 4.118 ?-17A 7.O22 -4.937 -4.275 L. oo 4.591. 101 -6.7 44 4 -O97 -2.535 90.797 -r.524 a.IA7 -3.000 0.76L -0.409 -1.265 9.00 7.830 0.432 -5.543 8. oo0 0.940 9.50 3.353 L.933 0.555 1.199 0.396 2 .460 9.809 2.00 6-720 2 .086 -2.669 11.352 l-0.7I 7.144 o .843 2.00 3 .485 -3.020 8.936 -3 .427 2.922 20.522 -3-474 LO.O42 7 .131 15.50 |.265 9 .004 1.o63 o.469 -1.332 -6.00 2 .591 t 0. 4 31 -4 .220 6.238 4.600 1.00 7.00 5.3 r2 40-315 40-318 ord GA.062 -3 .285 -2.977 -t.520 -5.382 9 .000 o.255 -0.835 75. 5.852 3 .131 15.959 1.?45 o.1.979 -2 -309 5 .696 60 .47I -r .?35 4. o00 0.000 FlCr E. .00 2.356 0.2A9 -2 . O87 L.669 11.746 -3. 510 25.457 I .220 6.757 1.460 9.087 L.008 9.000 0 .000 0.233 100.00 5.959 1.118 2 .00 4.75 1.001.470 1.275 L.233 -3.000 0.884 1L.522 -6 .456 8 .088 -4 . 890 -3 . o0 4.897 -3. oo o. 4 .495 -0. O0 3.269 -2 .424 1. 801 -4.7 44 1.724 2.399 9.764 2.101 -6.944 30.970 -4.456 8.32L -t-.000 0.944 30.00 6.r24 0. o00 0. 812 ro.915 L-526 -1. 020 8. o0 0.L68 2.8I2 LO.939 11.683 6.r24 o.359 2.269 -2-375 7 .47 4 45.685 5.359 -1.524 a.r22 t.981 -L.7 44 4.553 -2 .000 0.350 -3.970 -4.767 2.062 -3. ooo o .134 3.499 a.830 o.727 -0.3L7 -L .601 0.296 -3.000 0.50 7.OO 3.884 11. L63 3.000 0.458 r-.289 5.000 0.70 L.418 40.382 9.403 L .042 7 .885 1. 359 2-424 -L.533 10.958 6.821 8.915 7 -205 -3.000 0.448 -L.000 0.059 -0.1. 3 upper Lower upper lower upper lower 0.lb .522 -3.5L0 25.00 6.00 5.940 9.000 n ?q 0.727 -O.937 -4 .123 3.170 L.290 o .o0 6.667 -4.53'l 70.086 -2 .853 -4. 089 80.281 0. O0 o.00 7.061 o.432 -5.118 4-285 -2 -O49 5.222 3.522 -6.00 7.123 3.915 7 .O77 -2 .935 -0.L73 7 .181 -4.504 1. o0 6 .706 -O.852 -O.00 3 .00 o.164 65. O0 6 -764 2.979 -2 .255 -0.365 -1.835 75.50 2.000 Feb 96 404015 canber 4 0A312 4 04315 4 0A318 sta ord GA-3 upper lower upper lorrer upper 1o$rer 0.958 6.103 55.702 o.288 -4.374 -3.582 1.088 -4 -352 10.?23 1.600 1.637 -1.324 o.995 6.I52 ?-340 8.7J9 2.340 5-897 -3 .285 -2.933 0.520 -5.2A5 -2 .O72 -2.25 J.893 -O.120 1.977 0.072 -2 -7 L6 4.296 -3. o0 o.426 -5.25 t.777 L. 148 -2 -340 5. o0 0.245 0.562 1.25 o.869 -3.824 -r.720 2 .o0 7.324 0.186 I.148 -2.821 8.002 L.922 -6.529 90.368 7 .O77 -2.168 7.457 8. A4L 5.427 2 .922 -6 .767 t-. oo0 0. 000 0.1L0 -0 .393 4.893 -O.947 6.424 0.709 -o -L47 o -?95 -0.238 a.5A4 -3.00 .233 -3 .585 -2 -139 85.186 L.399 -1.396 ? .J59 -1.229 o.000 o.601 0.340 8.319 1.00 1. 500 2.720 7 -LA7 -3. O08 9.685 5.008 -r.744 -3.246 -1. 439 1.881 -0.103 55.L68 ? -rL OO 8.00 1.50 3.00 6. 021 -o .288 -4 -922 20.30? 85. O0 7 .744 1.431 -4.235 9 -667 -4.431 -1.000 0.974 LL.696 60.205 -3..494 2 .779 r.75 1.332 -6.869 -3.309 5.374 -3.000 0.425 -O.498 2 .485 -3.623 -0.890 -3 .17 5 7 -350 -3.t81.065 0.L73 7 . o0 7.000 0.O22 -4. 986 95. o0 1.00 2.-0 .824 3.504 1. 369 50.365 -1 .

000 0 .830 0.67 6 80.9a8 10.00 0.600 2..427 3. o00 0.958 7 .008 85.ooo 0.2L9 5.720 3.038 2.r75 9.501 -1.841 -1.22L 12.50 2.000 Fth E-rl .00 1.00 6.o00 o.276 -O.523 65.00 7 .063 -3.269 9.7]-2 10.237 -2.414 )-.204 -5.00 0.501 -L .841 -r.970 3.87t 1.091 -2.O0 2.090 2.078 -0.143 1.597 5.213 L.359 -2.296 9 -2J7 -2 .959 1.441 -2. o00 0.00 L.785 -3.883 -t .9 20.922 -2.150 100.590 -3.388 90. ooo Feb 94 4 04015 camber 4 0A4 12 40A415 404418 Sta ord GA-4 upper lower upper lower upper losrer 0.00 3.566 -L.571 -4.310 -2 .143 1.887 3.936 -3.7L3 -2 .7r9 0.504 2.927 6. 000 0.830 0.L52 3.25 o.082 o.396 3. s0 L.940 -4 .152 -2.213 1. 988 r0.000 0.131 12.000 0.065 8.922 -2.754 3.038 2-O25 -L .893 -5.340 30.597 5. 078 -0.7 42 10.494 -L.877 -0.570 2.995 25.727 r.642 -0.000 0.4L2 -L.833 4.7L9 2.506 8. 500 6.474 -L.742 -O .864 -2.418 8.197 o.229 12.566 -L.884 9.97 2 1.965 70.50 3.427 3.927 6.050 -5 .144 o.223 7.429 -L. 188 -2.00 o.635 9.803 7 . 000 0.07 6 8.403 2-5r9 6.065 1.O0 7 .914 0. o0 0.000 0.021 o.A12 -1 .429 -1 .396 3.700 -3.428 0.I42 11.086 6.5J. s82 o.723 -4.310 -2 .764 2.s23 65.208 -5.000 0.871 -O.555 L.713 -2. 296 9.00 6.672 -0.050 -5. OO3 -3 .180 5. -2.000 0.57t -4.298 -0.404 4.276 -O .67 6 s0.275 -0.359 -2 .995 25.086 6.444 10.000 o .22r 12.617 50.573 35. o00 0. 051 -o.131 t2.45r -2.7 47 L.24L -2.368 55.282 90.50 3.083 -0.860 -1 .999 60.731 -2.00 5.592 -5. Ol-0 8.869 15.924 7.000 0.441 -2.00 4.858 r.506 8.744 1.936 -3.00 2.569 -1 .562 3 .754 3.696 -3.058 -3 .AA4 9.860 5.817 4.r52 3.266 -2.7?8 45.759 -O..747 7.091 -2.762 -0.065 o.T24 0.000 0.323 1.818 7.160 -4 .188 -2 .740 -O.117 0.118 2.780 -2.968 -2.685 -1.178 5 .7 48 1.3LL 9.750 9.l-52 1.234 8.368 55.836 -5.7 02 0.473 7 .Or7 -0.590 -3. r97 o-75 1.000 o. o0 t oaR 3.O47 6 .7L2 10.958 7 . O0 6.489 -2.000 0.568 -1.356 o.47 4 -1.706 0.t-29 -4 -999 60.97 6 85.764 2.690 -4. 500 6.000 0.00 6.OO 7.118 2.702 0.000 0.L6A 3 .860 -1 .75 1.356 o.843 -0.573 35.1.010 8 . oo0 0.540 -3 . .49r 3 .129 -4.727 L.871 1.290 o.646 95.357 100.420 7. o0 7 .00 6.175 9. O0 0.696 -3.914 0.968 -2.340 75.O76 8.646 LO.720 3.00 4.340 75.818 7 .6L7 50 .7 42 10.00 5.188 1 .690 -4.23 1.L52 1 .489 -2. oo 4.311 9.178 5.701- 40.25 0.r52 -2.268 -? -729 to -767 -4 -229 L2.162 -4.000 0-ooo o. oo0 0.841 -1.307 4 .50 L.652 6.803 7.237 1.940 -4.893 -5.73t -2.776 8.000 0.I42 11.3L2 -1.00 0.300 10.559 -1.339 -1.O25 -1. O5a -3 .24L -2.324 0. O51 -O . l-55 -O .000 0 .869 15.854 4.977 1.00 0.444 L0. L24 o. 69 Feb 94 65-01s canber 40.289 2.646 LO.934 11.00 7.431 4.363 0.626 4. o0 6 .701 40.570 2.30s 2.323 1.655 11.00 1.582 o-9I2 -O.836 -5.924 7.402 -3.561 -L .249 2 -894 -t.498 3 .860 5.767 -4.626 4 -2L5 -2.841 -1.00 7 .090 2.403 2 .275 4 .934 11.082 o.592 -5.600 2.9?0 3 .4]-2 40-415 40-418 ord GA-4 upper lower upper lower upper lower 0.68 8.298 -O.414 L .561 -I.912 -O .817 4.746 -0.723 -4.25 L.100 -0.067 -0.418 8. O0 7.655 11.318 7.267 -5.003 -3.97 5 3 . OO 3.776 8.454 3.O47 6.746 -0.7AO -2.5L9 6.000 0.79L -0.652 6.959 1.379 2 -366 -r.635 9. OO 2.463 -]-.4I7 2.45).916 -2..379 2-366 -L.700 -3.2r9 5.300 10.180 5.267 -5 -7 2A 45.000 o.2I5 -2 -275 4 -864 -2 .000 0.00 7.49A 3-269 9-268 -2.729 IO.162 -4.340 30.965 70.685 -1.O0 5.160 -4 .00 3 .402 -3.7 48 1.51 9 20.963 -O.063 -3.600 o.972 1.00 7 .750 9. O0 7.500 10.744 1.363 o. 065 8.266 -2 .00 L.245 o.00 2.3L8 ?.420 7.745 -3.500 10.307 4.540 -3 . 563 2.82L 95. o0 6.

.794 7.015 80. o00 0.959 L.101 -L .441 l-.7 02 0.448 11.7 4I -2. 921 -2.I42 o.903 5.686 -4.245 1.290 0.924 0.803 -O. 70 Jul 94 6 5.00 6.4LO 10.885 60.858 1.899 -2.97I -2.069 -0.466 6.015 canber 40-6L2 4 0.00 7.903 -4.376 -O.588 tL.222 -L .50 3. o00 Ftq ff-t9 . 096 -0.256 -3.74L -2.456 -4.040 13 .324 11.444 -1.051 9.436 -1.L97 -L. 068 1.725 -3 -067 13.618 l.323 3.76I 20.517 5.00 7.00 7 .826 -1 . O0 6.? I .625 10.299 2.168 4.559 8.00 3. 065 L-4A7 3-139 -O.449 -3.75 1.000 0.I78 5.246 -1.50 o.644 -3.9).443 -1.144 o.720 4 . o0 7. ).578 -2.493 -2 -547 75.546 40. 968 9.153 2. -0.595 -2.s55 -L -L97 10.600 0.424 0.606 9.10t -I.L43 -1.499 65.559 8.112 o.0.041 2. o00 0.385 5.919 -3. 9.60L 2.959 I.921 2.595 -2.6 upper lower upper lo(rer upper lower 0.499 65.627 8.851 10.291 t.552 o.L79 9.00 3.76\ 20.00 6.933 t3.207 1.7A2 4.47A 35.000 0.840 -O.372 8.550 -2.000 0.304 4.OI2 5.884 0.57 r 7 .47A 5.539 -0.00 2. o0 o.50 2.636 -1.546 40. 348 -2 -660 9.382 95.843 B -73? -1.568 -I .000 0.096 25.744 2.104 1.557 95.7A2 4.885 r.00 4.288 15.843 8.396 4 .26r 2.00 6.887 8.552 o.99L 2.222 -L.356 o .885 60.204 -4.8 1.185 -3.600 2 -973 6. 403 3.L43 -t .653 -O.154 o.048 12. O82 3. o00 o -25 0.71.288 15.O23 -0.921 -2.ooo o.1L8 3. o0 7.556 -I.00 4.844 7.707 7.54L L2 -243 -3 .982 4 .942 -0.733 -2.L24 o.095 3.A22 -1.00 6.725 -3.885 90.108 -0.991 1.786 9 .406 -4.720 4.oo0 0.588 II .454 -0.498 4.803 -O.978 11. -2.653 -O -707 7 -573 -t.350 -1.9?2 5.00 7 -396 4.899 -2.540 45.977 L-487 3.104 9.356 0 .961 -2 .466 6.00 4 -494 10. s1g -1 .533 -2.000 0.9?r 2.331 30.41"8 50.00 7 .456 -1.27 5 11.L97 10.600 2.106 -O.494 4.331.00 o.000 0.00 2.051.000 JUI 94 40AOl-5 Carnber 40A612 4 0A51.917 1. 91.076 2.00 0.733 -2.067 13.838 0.29L 7. r77 6.480 85.777 2 .246 -1.331 30.o00 0.9 -L . oo0 o-ooo 0.065 1.2r7 -? .443 -1.965 -0.418 50.266 6 .540 45.830 0.973 6.142 o.547 3.490 3.547 3.00 1.550 -2.26a -0.458 10.261 2.0l-8 1.493 -2.840 -4.50 L.00 7 -]-52 4.O]-2 5. 650 9.I92 55.000 0.718 1.884 0.636 -1.555 -L.049 70.329 rO. O0 2.216 -O . 256 -3. 015 80.t6A 4.647 -1.247 -1.082 3.555 2.118 3.06s 1.377 7 .919 -3.496 0 .552 -O.326 4.97A 11.403 3.449 -3.458 10.000 o.144 -L.737 -1.324 11 .00 4.777 2.00 3.243 -3.867 -0.474 35.207 1.942 -0.903 -4.010 -0.456 -t .961. 3 31 -O .859 -0.625 10.922 7.918 -1.568 -L.764 3. 000 0.376 -O.441 1.108 -0.427 4.794 7.5 4 0A61S Sta Ord cA-6 upper lower upper lower upper Iovrer 0.24r -0.838 -1.273 4.540 11 . ooo 0.104 9.275 11.00 6.000 0.876 5.969 10.27 3 4.7a6 9.969 10.692 1 . o00 0.372 8.601 2.00 3.494 10.533 -2 .410 10.566 -2.106 -O.000 0.00 6 .556 -1.224 100.830 0.00 2.00 5. .776 -0.t.25 1.204 -4. OO 5.00.I24 o. 618 11 .435 7.955 -3.976 0.9a2 4.692 1.00 1.348 -2 .016 1.949 -1.000 0.919 -1-.385 5.968 9.906 0.329 IO.97I -2.112 0 -776 -0.496 0.647 -1.00 0.517 6.000 0. O48 12-646 -4 .L92 55.247 -1.096 25. oo0 0.040 13.840 -4.578 -2 -75A 13-O12 -4.606 9.504 2.933 13.702 0.135 -0.615 40-618 Sta ord GA.851 1.887 8.324 o .573 -r -627 8.00 5.144 -L.336 r .00 4.266 6.A22 -1.185 -3.757 -0.A44 ?.A26 -1.012 -4. O0 0.50 3.323 3 .oo0 0.435 7.75 J-.97 -L .000 0 . o0 0.165 3.472 -1.758 t 3.436 -1.54r 12.000 0.364 -0.448 85.547 75.540 11.473 -0.336 1.290 -O.474 5 -473 -0.455 -4 .000 o.757 -0.049 70.?45 1.991 90.00 2.578 3. O0 3.406 -4.223 1.566 -2.L79 9 .377 7 -644 -3.448 11.350 -1 .r77 6.764 3.r7a 5.838 -1 . 956 -3.000 0.o0 1.o00 0.949 -1.744 2.50 T .

O23 -L.540 2.763 0.000 4.853 2. r05 r tao 3.083 10.000 0.000 o.533 45.365 -0.259 -O -267 1.329 11.887 -L.3?9 -1.5 NACA 4415 ( I93I ) .419 -2. o0 5. lll 1A)) 3. 14 NACA 4412 ( 1931) .973 7 -O59 -1.337 9 .398 12.L64 4.07 clark Y (1924 ) .857 -3.061 11.0071 --114 -.625 -r.00 6. for curparison only ) Cd rnin On c/4 CI max-no flaPs Cl max-Vf laPs* R=2H lirfoil R=61'{ R=6M .245 lL. ooo o.I44 -2 . OO 7. 148 35.236 8.598 -).090 8.843 9.75 1".777 -O.261 -4.25 1.982 4.00 7 .00 7.0070 - r .795 -L .323 5. ooo Table l .335 -0.000 0.169 9.00 4.193 -4.544 -3.655 4. O0 o.7L8 -2.641 11.580 11.343 100.505 20.473 2. 506 12.615 -4 .5 Sta Ord GA.5 30-515 30-616.00 4.015 canber 30-61-3.367 0.844 8.213 -3 .255 4.367 L1 -7 69 -3 .734 -1 .206 50.290 I .383 2.043 -2 .00 o.677 -r .730 -O -766 5.339 6.677 3.447 3. deflecci.494 ao -794 -1.837 10.786 LO .808 -t.006 -1.507 -2.565 -1 r .606 -3. 427 3.00 r .6? 6 5-766 -3 -120 5.O32 -3.L72 3 -372 9 -A27 -3 .956 -4.689 95.27 4 70.l-91 r.00 3.295 -1. 320 1.496 1.689 2.681.527 0. HIGH LIFT AIRFOII.57 4 3.818 5.311 -1. 855 40.978 l-.|1 .000 0.080 Lt-723 -2. 065 -2.57L -1.807 12.376 85.L47 ?(1 0.00 7.50 5.957 6.573 -I . o00 o.125 .000 0.469 L. OO 6.000 0.525 -3.000 0.450 -3 .961 -L.0073 -.446 -3. 190 3-435 8.6 upper lower upper lower upper Iower o.488 65.-9r2 IO.993 10.0s3 L.t* 1'ra r.527 o .0072 *Flap condition: Cflag.926 3.207 1 .913 -O.093 -0 .440 4.000 0.5L7 25. 340 -t.00 2 .00 0.437 10.08? 0.090 O.478 5.458 7 -557 -3. o00 o.00 5.260 15.62 cA30 -613.'707 3.322 -2 . 443 r .73! -2.458 10.991 2.104 l-o. 11r.470 -2 .513 -3 .755 9.536 2.02 usA 35B (1923 ) .25 2.856 0.071 5.384 30.0058 -. 20 .on=25 degrees FIAUR€ fi.911 55.943 7 .L74 -2.400 -1.L94 -3.49L 4.O2r 75.494 -2 .035 -1.250 I -742 6.997 -2.898 l-r. Predicted Performance Sumarv ( ccfiputer anafysis.031 -1 .50 1 . ooo 0.000 0.856 -2 -644 11.803 4. L63 2 . t-2.41-0 10.032 90.202 -O.000 o .183 -O.LI2 1.967 -2.777 3 . 581 -'t .00 7.106 -r.356 -4.240 4 -r79 9.00 6 . OO 3 -AL7 2.548 -O .1 13 7 .67L -0.56? 7 .00 5.675 a.50 1-264 o.291 1.755 3.L74 7. O25 -2.000 0.S ( see also fi-gure III-6) 71 Feb 94 3 0.00 7 -502 4.045 -2 .O45 -2.564 7.7 2L 80.441 2. 167 L.518 -0.210 -3. 2.806 11.372 -2.800 11.645 60.

€ fl. LA55r( * rCrF{.--zo . (o ^^?ARtso N a^iry) NA CA 4 4I' FlQvP. LrFr A rRFatLS 72 C ( F oa.

t) & 6 o U IJ q.-l c oc fd --lr c{ L -t o q ltt (! C a6 !{ qJ .9t 0rl !l di 'dr Ft(19-l .t t o q) (J : ":l 3rl Yl o g 4 :.r*! .r 9!ltJ < :l N. Aerodynanric Characteristics of wing Sections ' 73 A FPelv olx U' a 8.t (l I 5! i! "ol 6 I !. iltt o q-] _ .sl I 'l E . rd -c U) O q !\i . APPENDIX IV .. i.lJ st O .il t{ 0.

l l 5l t 'g ="t "{/ t -.. ..19-? . II El :.J".t "l rl sl il 11 *l !l . JJTS Yc(:-: !J* r.

o s c* tt :I r"Y I t_ el ' "t o ol I ol \_! i ol l.-?. o U *l !:o' a .!I €: g .=: t:il :r.ll 5l tl . 75 o b J . << ft .l .'"\. - ".ib l-i I o .""--..

* .x 'rL e1 6-ai- 1<' \9 9+' t. c .<a.l :.e ll o aE !.i -\t 6 u . .-'I cv.r -t I n. i2 ) . 10 \5 9 . 76 /4 .

r l ..1 C t o 6 -----+ f lr_ "o €l: .l i..!l oc H i .i. :l il hl i:o ? I ..':!$.r" i o il .<i _9 .

j . -$ i ! o q a .o -<( o -oO x! i.a1 'ti :l >l tl (' u_ Il : "l OI al sl _- r. !{ { !" : l . -l c-u 9Jq :q F 'l .ls ltc.fl'b .

ra ! e ! .t "!l "il i . 'e It i <i r13 li cr .2v'i.6 **€ o?.-g <id L< ."i .l . 79 : b e JI fl o .** ..14 \' -it{ l: 9 lJ^ .

+o: I t+ LI lt 1q q t\ o o art i J .) X r.. 80 \' il 9 :.t .= "l 1G- .. t g i-r ''t'-^' i ( . \.0 { 9Y - . < gh -.-. ( .

81 :l -j ".I \n ! v{b : -a s ! Y a \5 tl rl J^ NJ J t .

t ul JJ sl o' + A . \5 I -'\ - li . )-: l! -l U-e ..t./ .r---. vlrr ! -s t_ { i \5 e€ cJ .s Ir 6 :3<. . 6 \r \] F------.. $ .l ._ "-'.-i \'- 1i . 82 e t : \6 A i.5 o(( ^\-Elr .

.lOs.. .5 . g .. . t.9 H -.._ s tl I .: 9-r it }.9 f Y UJ l :r : l '/l .83 _9 . FJ . -! <t . i ! t !: 1( P ) 6 tt !. s q1 6 d 1.'l t- E t 4 o t- I .

1 a tt cl !-r 1 ..rr i s.t o ^ {l dl oa 1"1 Fl \- :l. ar ti \..: Y JI al U I I ql.l >r ._ tl q'i . : \' I o :i! .. t_ -' : <l si\l zt= . t'l o .

5 .yS tj- i 'J i 1 q r d v<f 5 -{ tt ':'l i5 '+ ir . 8s {=.lal \t'.l :J cl // JI ? ht I\ ) -l .ro. (! ul \ cl .

- 9r o ) o o ! { t ( .-l :TI 'fl . 86 ! I t c " rl .ri .l T :.q *- 'e--{- J- .

l .:r. .ir -'l ! I 6.. 87 { !L t) dl tJ al tl ol jl :r"l . cr(u< -tr \t-tb .cl : Ft -t $t r-e u: -Jl ..S _:t_9 j.!l * il .

l -" r^l -t I :.l I :l.! .l -ql ol t :l tsl "" { u9 F1 i: i i .l S : :l .tJ 5 H ! . fj -l tl { .+J i rl 5l ol E { Io o .

-r <i ---- h q a 1': ! ! tll . : ath tv' l a .l ) ! d 4_ a {'l i. 89 .Yt **.

: l :3i f )-o- .51 . J 5 v. o 5 .". .u '{l !6 \' JI a at : il ql s f ''-l o <l -l-.1n-ta .t I aJ r.5 + 9 t ..

i : r< ! .Js -! o \3 .+ \' :l ro'9s. i q(s!E r!g . a .cl ". .9 tf -ldl ! 1 a :1 o :tl .'a i . c€ U6 .' '.. t c_< ! {l cl -?i o a.-9 .!: .i5w.

:.j\ t 'i.: (g s l\. "92 : \.. i? i? tl li \: 1 rl ?/ -.--.. ) \: \D { l r- lf H \' d. --.. -. -.tji "rc('!{ Frt's'-10 . t ! ho JI d !l :l i i-./- I 9..r: r{!8 .. . a d t \: I oo a o \. dJ..Dl 99." F -l {l Jo <l ol +l <l .? {..i3 -s :=:-.

ho^Jever. and then nDunt then (one at a tinE ) in a wind turlnel such that tbey are free to pivot on this ax1e. consi-dering t}Ie wing area. in layers. the "center of pressure" may be sdrF distanc€ forward or aft of the guarter-chord point.rn on figure 1.rrve is sFnr€trical about alfa = 0. ADDE 'Jl-. causing further loss of lift.s landnar f. is always at the quarL- er-chord point.e plot the p. ra.. SwrrEtrical Airf oil Perfornance. by convention.rnd us in FnaturiFinraisturbed staie is laninar.there are scme confusing aspecLs about airfoil perfonrErce. The airfoil is then tested at various angl-es of attack (C ) frcrn zero to about 18 or 20 degrees. NACA 0015. air density. the center of l-ift center of pressure ) passes directly through the guarter-chord ( point. The }ift and drag values at each angle of attack are nohr converted to dirrensionLess perfomance coefficients. and ai-r speed. since the airfoil itself is s1'nnetrical. holizontally. that is. Ttre reguirerent for . qn^ /d vs alfa (figure 3) for these tvro syrrr€trical airfoils.Larnj-nar flo\^' is that the flcrvr over the surface should not be accelerated beyond cerbain lirn-its in any d. '' nverythj-ng you always wanted to knolr about airfoils but \. l. On. the pitch-ing ncnent cefficient about the guarter-chord Foint for any synrnstrical airfoil is always zero. due to "induced" drag.rere afraid to ask'r. sideways. Ianiner F1crd. CJ. As tie angle of attack increases bq/orld about 15 degrees. the lift begins to decrease as f 1ov. and drag is nEasured parallel to the air stream. a negative pitchj-ng firctrent. Tlr-is is knorn as " la. ttris area of separated flonr progresses forward frcn ttle trailing edge as the angle of attack increases. and tlre airfoil terds to rotate about the pivot point. this point has special sig- nificance. lrAcA 5rtA0I5. we see tiat ttre On is zei6'for any angle of attack up to the sta]. The ai-r alf aror. rneas- ured in pounds. and the total drag increases as angle of attack increases. r*rhere Cl. separation occurs on ttle top surface. by considering the wing area. I5s thj-ck. If you rrpve your hand rapidly enough.ie ' 1l start r. sho. is a "la$inar flovi" type shape. Regaldless. or verticalLy. @inrling at tie trailing edge. or drag due to lift./.= 0. the explarEtion for this phenc. 9're will point out a ferr of these.ie are not finished with or:r !.so nrcunt a sprjng scale at the trailing edge of the airfoil (see figr:re 1) to neasure the pitclling nrnent in foot-pounds about the quareer-chord point.l a hole in each of these at the guarter-chord Foint to receive an axle. and a surprising nw cer of stupid airfoil design mistakes have been rnade in the past by people who should have knoarr better. Inde€d. in one degree j-ncrenents.rind turnel fieasurenEnts. lie nexts plot cl versus Cd to obtain tne "Iift curves " sho.r". air density.75c) at each angle of attack to a ( di:rensionless croefficient. or if your hald is rough enough. on scarE arrforls the lift and drag are not exasll-y centered on the guarter-chold point. and your hand passes ttrrough snrcQy with mimmun drag.fore and aft. while the second. which is anotler my of saying tbat I don ' t kncr^. Lift is neasured perp€ndicular to the air strean. tire flow over your hand wil-L "trip" to turbulent flor*.ace.tlEt is. aqtsj-ng at the pivot point.ndinq lirf oils Or. rrE [ust al.ie nc'v.ly in fron\ of you. r*rich is the reason tbat we picked it for the ncunting point for wind tunnel tests in the first p]. is considered a "turbulent flor^r" shape./ith a sinpl-e case of b^'o syllnEtrical ( uncambered ) airfoi.ri'r LrUi'rEER l 93 Underst€. rf you ncve your hand slor.itching mcflEnt coefficient curve. the center of Iift for anv s}'nretrical airfoil. the next thing to look at j. without disturbing the layers. we need c\onstant velocj-ty . we dril.l-or. ltrus. for fear of feeling stupid.and cd. the zero-lift drag is called "profile" cf " form" drag. t}lat is. rrrhich has rpre than twice as m uch drag as lanjrnr flow. developed later.irestion. regardless of tie angle of attack. but the prirnary purtrEse of this artsicle is to "get back to basics" so that you can better understand the nain causes and effests of subsonic airfoiL trErfol:IrEnce. plus and minus. convert the pitching roxrEnt sprillg scale reading tj:res .in on figure 3. vihen r.. and then bLcn on thern. and large increases of drag. and also chord lengrttr.Is. The first of these "basic thick" ness foms". A nosedorrrn pitching tendency is. For this reason. ttEt is. until- the airfoil evenlual-Iy "stalls".rLinar flor.hy it j-s . Lift and drag are easy to visualize.rEnon is beyond the scolE of this article. the Cl vs Cd cr. ai-r velocity. tie air renains in layers. and lift and drag are recErded at each angle of attack.l point. sirnilar to Cl and Cd. !. i. Donrt feel bad. perhaps.

ScnE recent ients than the I{ACA 6-series shaFes. AII other a.e " Ia. that is.irplanes olErate above this point: for exajrPle.runar" shapes have been desigrned for constant velocity flov. and lift continues to be developed at higher angles of attack than with the uncanbered airfoils.rc obtain the tvp canrnerea airfoils "!o"e. Beyond I 4 deqrees. r.I5.r-drag region is knov. '] .fficult to maintain an!4Jay. and the thick- est part of the wing llas been IIEved as far aft as prasticable. the bottcrn edge of the bucket is at Cl-=0 .perforrnance curves. tbe NrcA 6-series tllickness distrj-butions are not bad.iscussed in the nr-idd. i. to maxjrize the ]-arn- inar run. with no change in crui-se drag. The perfonnance curves for these tlrtc airfoils is shornn on figure 4.rn a1l "GA' airfoiLs. an irn- portant paraleter for good sloH-speed performance.rEs softer.\Er with these airfoils. ""E. t]. Ttlus. a pitchijlg nsrEnt is ttre prj.40C. cl"jjnb at relatively slo. wtrich rnakes ti€fn jjrpractical for nrany applications. 94 fl-op over the surface. cambered Airfoil Performance.rnid-point.3) instead of being centered on Cf=0. and it requires us to invesligate tie effects of On on airpJ-ane perforrnanc. !€ se€ that the 64A015 shape has a region of lovr drag betvJeen -4 and +4 de- grees angle of attack.Ie. Second.4. perndtti-ng wing twist if desrred. The net resuLt is that the laninar section has approxirnately 20t less drag at cnise tllan the ccnparable turbulent sestion.e so that ue c€n design our airfoils intelligentl-y. Accordingly. are nohr centered vertlcally on ttre desigrn lift coefficient (C1=.. correcting an unfortun- ate crnission in the NACA r€rk.ls. If rre take t-ire tr€ synrEtrical shapes d.eight ratj. so ttle bucket becqres even narrcr. ho\rever. and tl. tfie stafl becc. turbulent ard lan$-rtar. ltrere is one big disadvantage caused by the camber. rr)St of the laninar flow is lost.r. having a ccmfortable bucket width and depth. I€ see tiat our cambered aj-rfoil. renainhg ccnfortably belov. Irpst Iight GA airplanes operate at cruise lift coeffj. They camot tolerate nuch change in angle of attack without tripping to turbul-ent flc'r.ffi'EA-ij@ shonn in figure 2. Iaminar flovr is easiest to maintain near the front of the air- foil vtrrere tie pressure gradient is highest ( "ncst favorable" ) . |lexb ccrrEs canrber. The camber schedule is carefully designed. Ttre third thing that we notice is ttrat canrbering Iifts the vrhole performance curve (Cl vs cd) vertically upmrds into a nrre usable range of CI. Airfoil perfornance is neaningless belo* C1=.15.05 for both airfoj. the top of t}le lift curve is flatter. and the fLc'vr will once agaj-n revert jrnrEdiately to tanr-inar.cients betrreen c1=.2 and . tie lo. Increasing the camber.25tC).er. thus the top edge of the larnina-r bucket is raised to nearly C1=. and especial"Iy the lan-inar bucket. withouC running out of the bucket. Cc. The canber schedule for GA37A3I5 is a nr:dification of another nean l-ine frcrn reference (A). tlctice that the pitch-ing nsrcnt coefficient is no longer zero. and is hardest to maintain beyond the thj-ckest part of the wing.os. and is especially designed for lanr-inar flctor.r over the wing at cruise.ard of the airfoiJ. \. the first thing we notice is that canber produces a sigmficant in- crease of naximum 1ift. If the flov/ has tripped to turbulent. At higher Reynolds nunbers (higher speeds. this lo. that is. except for a few ve-ry high performance airplanes with extrenely high pcner to v. or wing curvature. both result in an increase in cln. but is Or=-. This is prirnarily a function of the inj-tial slope of the rEan line ( slope at .r speed.ce lie pay for carbering tie airfoi]. The maxjjrrlrn canlcer in each ai-rfoil i-s about tl:le saIIE.Tparing with fi$Ee 3.leratj-on lirlits are not exceeded. a sigrmficant FerforlrEnce advantage. A11 good stuff.'n as the lanr-inar bucket.€f I into the cljjlib range.bout . at a. but tleir larlinar buckets are carrespondingly narroi.vre need only to slct/ doh/n to the point h'here the acce. this inj-tial nrgan line slope has been optirlized at about 15 degrees .e ftor over the entire wing beocrrEs turbulent. or rpving the loading aft.8. So nuJch for synrretrical shapes. both ajrfoils are forwarded loaded. the maximrm camber is located forh. Also. larger airplanes ) larninar florr is npre dj."est operating CI nrini:rn:rn of C1=. with no increase irt drag. and is called the reference (A). A1l in all. etc.

the center of lift IIEves reandard. at or near the stall c. the wing lift vector at cruise f or carnbered airf oi... follcwirg the C. wilrLington DE 19808 302/994-0479 3 .10 is h-igh.. But thr-s is not always tj€ case. provided that the nuny olher factors affecting horizont-al stability contribute in a favorable (stabilizing) direst:-on. such as using a long tail length.Iane will drop at the stall.Ieast lot i. vse also see that it behooves us. which are aft loaded I an j-nexcusable mistake.Eight vesEor.Is is af t of the r.the induced drag of the tail. 95 Ttjfi Draq. should be used for csrnon subsonic C.Jorth it.On on airplane performance mtst be quantified and not neglected in desigrning airfoils. But since ne must always locate tie aircraft C. has trrc cc([Dnents. and addl-tive to it. Don't use thern.E canbered airfoils.e airfoil On cc(pletely to zero. to rnillinrize Gr.G. and the airplane has a nose-dc'rrn pitching tendency.lity. but as the angle of attack decreases. negative l-ift in ttre tail surface produces induced drag' *hich adds to the wing d!ag. Disclaj-ner. fi-gure 5 shcr*s that the trim drag at cruise is appro). the center of pressure of any airfoil approaches tne C/4 point. at least three wj.ijnate1y 5-8 drag counts.rith trjJrrLing out the pitchlng nEnent of a canbered airfoil. Using srmth. for satisfactory horizontal aircraft stability.onclusions presented herein regarding "trjm drag" or drag associated with trinning out t]. surface also helps.ASA GAI. It is not necessarl' to reduce t]. conclusion? Unless e€ can shctur at . and tie infanpus N&sA GAIAI (I^5-1) airfoils. Hou.e wing Qn. especially with aft-loaded 3irfoils. an additional pound of li-ft must be generatd by the wing so tllat the swnnation of vertical.CI. but onl. This is a rrErjor critj-cism of the l|A6A 6-series air- foils. The fix? I. above hhat rapuld be required for our sl4flretrical airfoil. wind tunnel force neasursnents are now ccnnrcnly taken with pressure rakes rather than old-fashioned spring scales.rjm drag. forward-loaded nean lines.rry Riblett. airfoils (npre than -. For exarple. other things being equal. . which are nid-loaded.Al-so. so t}te bigger lesson j-s that r*e should always consider the effect of oj fferences in on on airpJ-ane perfornance when ccrnparing airfoils. also creates induced drag..A airfo.ireigls 1000# and the tail do^.€rd-loaded nean lines. shift to the rear.P. For our tr. and Cm. CrF-. at slo\^' ftight. and using only as rnuch camber as necessary.. are not invalid. Cd. to keep the On as lcnr as possi-ble.. Retrernber also that for every pound of negative lift in the tail. It does so at the stal]".fe put a horizontal taj. such as the NACA (0.equaUy jnportant.P.s done with the }.forces rernains zero. But as tle l-eamed earlier.ncrease in rnaximum lift frdll cambering the airfoil. so that tie nose of the airp. Revised 5/I7 /95 Ha. other things belng egual. the wing must generate 1040* total lift. Ifappi]-y. so vte see that t.a.il de- signs. and the additional drag of the wing in producing an increnent of lift egual to tie tail doum-load. or t}le drag associated r. and tie c. ratio horizontal tail. As shovrn on fj-gure 5. orrly forr. Ttris additional 40+ of fift.eight shift to the rear at cruise. ltrere are thre€ crefficients of airfoil lErfolnEnce.05 is lovr. when designing subsonic (1ight cA) airfoi-ls.y to keep the On as lcnr as praclicable.n. the effect of airfoil. rrrhich r. OrF-. so kle have a balgain.ng chord lengths long.5) nean line of reference (A). the center of lift (center of pressure ) for carnbered airfoils does not alr^rays remain at the nragic guarter-chord point. which is about I0S of the sectsion drag coeffici-ent. 416 Rilelett Iane. as on tie Iancair rV and the Cessna 210. For ccnparison. the increase in Clnax for our airfoils is about 30t. holding the tail dcr. it is not necessary tiat the taiL lift coefficient be negaLive.n-load is 40*.ever. Sunnarv. A high aspeqt.l surface on the airplane to react the pitching nE(IEnt. does ttris. nelely ttlat it be l"ess than the wing l-ift cefficient.at tlle unfortunate cost of degrad"ing safety. Anot-Ller effestive technigue is to have a r. Ttrere are other th-ings that can be done to ninirtrize trim drag.lAcA sdigit (230rc<) airfoils. if the airplane r. Retracting the landing gear to the rear does this.I5) is outrageous. For exafiple. it isn't r. considelably greater thEn the drag increase of 10t. and the Gn of the f. which is norrnally the lrrcst crit- ical conditron for longitudinal stabj. Ttris paper is adnittedly a sfuplified explanation of airfoil lnrformance and design.

'1. q sa4rE ( I L..r.Fa..o< Ru."..JG o{.< -y_' ranrn4fl' Ruv e Crurrr.te'b Retca* v.o'.r-vt 6!'!€Ji iy€ .EF fl< _ LrnrN^q Tvti Lrlsjg6__&:af ) 5 f. tt.vr) Y Y<_ )1 .oe {/ t- LA'NI'\.r ae *. 5Y--c'.O A rr. 481. -lL = 10. D ilr.h..LS.tt* 96 -". .AA 'YP' € jr. BuL E*r ' -9r'€ 4u." ?th1- .r..Rio..L rtrr. R.16Ed (nre". A.16r (. o. r'5 NA1A (./ r-t. cid! to.L5 .\L s.4 Aott il\.'trL Fl(t C rr..'41 .^ Laa.rri(..

.l 3la l <U x il il ! s.rl rl rt it r43 *l ..l .t i r. F ol r! .. !l >ll- . .: br .r! r E :tol F 9 rq :l ilEI {l .1 3l rl :il . 97 :a € q '.

oo | .------l- -l no r.fl {s c- 4.'.-{ 1.^l{.i 7...o.oQ...'l A'R' = 6 ---i | searv = NtNl. .f.-FrCreUi = C F[q 5 '-- i Il-.5PA^r c( l_r -\o' ..:f{.- .4'-i)l- = ___. x I '+( = "-(+) Acq 2-{rl I Sro N I 8< '{ Jt o 3o rt l- r?5 r! Qu a ereA.r ) .j v L D .' i:-.o . V..Lo c. air. oool I i-_. | ll .'j* I |t. Lerare' Jq .-.+ l.6 )...F. .'''rN. P.Sa ( .il I rA'.c -'["... r'f-c.rr..o t.'l *Dr + 'r ltt.:.q . cf.= cF'i-.z 't-.' rlt_l 1- t! .'.. 98 .062D ll.o L)tT CO€.t1' r/.+ I.\:rl\.A z4tt I Il..A l..o-o'--- "n / i-.* .. i l.rl-'r\ '..t z.il\ I -tA''- € [\\"' f NA.b t.:+.60 tO ( \\ '.4 ..-c.?..\c-r.ti-^l II..D P't^!T L0 .}\^riIrl"lq'- t. t.t-r .

l. to ccrnbat these "bad tip sta1l characteristics" of tapered wings.e 22 specj:rens tested. in addition to the planform taper. a r. including: 1. in spite of the fact. thus. follcrvring NACA'S psr exarple. ADDSNDUM NLD4BER 2- 99 Deslgn ltotes for Tapered wings !. but used 12t tip sestions.lote a.hoLe generation of tapered wing airplanes was built with wing tips that r^.lhat airfoil secbions should be used for the root and tip sections.l-y. Neverthel-ess. for both the 24>o< and the 23olo( sections.ere t@ thin. htrich has an odd planform that further contaninates the data.per PA-2+ cc. 1940's.ontrol tlEoughout the stall? 3. IZt.rings stall ' first at tl-e wing tips". of t]. D/pj-cal performance curves are a. !. onl-y ( the l-ast specirren has the sanE per cent thickness at the root and tip. the spanwise location of the rnitial stal1 j-s pri:narily a function ot the per cent thickness change frcrn root to tip. desigrned i. Flrther. the designer is faced with certain choiees.l-so that the Pi. that is. a1I but tLlc tEve a t thickness taper frsn a r@t thj. Prmf of thrs is shor*n on figures 2 and 3. and is not due to the planform taper.€pt- back wings". the mlst efficient 'secLion thickness in tenns of naximum L/D is LzZ.lACA ( erroneously ) assurEd that the preferred way to build a tapered wing is to taper both the pladorm and the per cent thickness.d have found tllat the initial. or use of sections with rore camber at the tips.Lso sholnm on figr:re I. they rrculd have seen the locaLion of the illilral stalf shrft to the wj-ng tips. Incredulous.rist (washout ) should be put in the wing to protect the wingtips frcrn prenEture stall. 18t. is a partial listing of representative planes frcn the I930's. This sketch is especially botherscme. OK. rather drastic llEilsures are needed.hence.ion of the strEcurEns used during these tests. or 20t to a tip tiickness of only 91.ficant airpfane. c€urtesy of I'lr.IACATS reccnnendation.statl.ra variables ccrnlcined. !.n 1954. Evidently. root ard tip. as shom by figure 7. benign. l. generations of aeronaut- ical. that twist reduces t}le overalL efficiency of ttle wing. of tie nore sucessful air- planes (P-38.nunEntal mistake.Iote the sketch of the initiat stalf dlstributions predicted by l.all t}. supposedly. Further. Fign:re 4. and sr. that il nrrre canrber at the thinner ) tip. since it il. tapered. Hctur much t\.ckness of l5t. distribution is the sane]for a straight rectangular Hing. except for sarple #22. It is curj-ous (and unexplained' tllat NACA never dj. especial-Iy concernj-ng [Er cent thickness? 2.nscrre aspect is that the planform differences betrnteen the straight and tapered wilgs are not so great as to account logically for the n'Erked differences in the location of initial stall reported by I{ACA. with 2/I planform _taper ratio.l-d be used? Hj-storically. Figure I sho\ds a tabulat. !et's look a Iittle cJ. but it uses an odd (eUiptical) planform. ltre ccnnonly acceptd washout recqrrrEndation is about 3 degrees. Eonanza ) did not fall for the trap of using 9t thict( tj-p sec- tions. P-5I.ustrates the NACA con- cl-usion that "rectangular wings stall first at the wing roots and tapered !. with . ceorge Copland of Duncan. In fact. and then even nrcre uashout. Itote that the thj-n (9t) tip sestions stall about 3 degrees ear.ontrary to NACA'S conclusj-on. l.lhen designing a taperd wing airplane. The bothe. if they had tested a straj-ght pLanform wing with a per cent thick- ness change frcm root to tip. and the tabulated test results . casting considerabfe doubt on the conclusions. hodever. The nexc to last specimen uses a 23013/43010 ccnbination.oser at the test s1=cimens used in the IiACA tests. designers have teen guided (at least partj-ally ) by a series of taP- ered wing tests conductsed on turbulent secti-ons at NACA I-angley in the rn-id-1930's. Dc-3. f68. Note tJee ill-advised use of 9t thick tip sections on nany of tlrese ccnrrDn airplanes.students have been conditioned to accept these resuLts as gospel. and NACA'S design of the tapered sestions was a rnf. such as use of considerabl-e rrrashout.e rest have the same canlDer. It is also interesting to note that a fe!e. there is absolutely no reason ever to use a tip thickness Iess than 12*. and 1950's. contrar)' to I. they reoul. for it "broke the ncld" by using only planform taFer with no [E! cent thickness taper. Therefore.l-ier than the thicker /raot) sections.d test the tHo variables separately.. rrras a historically si-gnj.lhat taper ratio and what aspest ratio sbou. and to desigin accordingly.lACA for "restangular. UnforEunately. c. l.manche. if they had tested a 2415/2415 sampLe for exanple. and unfortunately the test results are contarninated by the effest of these tr. and to preserve ail-eron c.

hor"ever. ( sharp stalfi.r into an even rpre frl-gUy ca. resulling in a separation bubbl-e on the top sLrrface. Regarding planform taper ratio. and high-perfornEnce E€ech ncdels (see frgure 6) continue to be buj-lt with thln wing tips.wn on fign:re 6. and if nrcdern sections such as GA airfoi. the cips should not be Less than lzt thick. thus r5t thick tip sections are preferred. uproving safety. Unfortunately.Llably into the dead engine.thout tlrc disadvantage of the bubbl. At lc. to herp the engine-5ut situafion.se speed due to the srnall. at higher angles of attack. AsIEct.. This slrcirnen has the Lrighest CLmax (I. As the angl-e of attack increases further.nnal trailing edge separation.l-etns and ccrnprcrnising safety. the optimun thi-ckness in terms of best L/D. Of course a higher taper ratio (2/l) alsi tras a structural advantage since it pernLits a greater spar depttr at the root for a given per cent root thickness. I{ote. 100 no washout in the wi-ngs. Fig 5 del) Recent1y..anrcunt of drag frcrn the vc's' but overal'L this is a very good guick fix.Le frcrn formrng.s is done.v. as shc. This is bad enough on singre engine airplanes. vortex gen. and the section leverts to its lop--drag profile.rators have been used to rmprove this situation.r was touted as "lnving the best of both r. of course the bette.8I) of any tested. wi. the hj. dangerous sLalJ-. In vierrr of this. if the speed drops tcrl lorr- (King Air crash € l. ho^rever. such as the Venture.rorlds". 'Itle 23015/23009 cc.cal planform is justified. The added thickness of this separation bubbfe on the top of the wing causes the wing to act as if it were thicker and nrere ir-ighly canbered (high li-ft) at high angles of attack. Figure 3 sholrs the mechanisn of this sharp. too rnany nndern airpJ-anes. preventing ttie ation bubb. Ttre Price is a slightly ]-orarer cruj. but also lq. Alternativery. the vc's are instaued at l-0t of chord just before the discontinuity at 158 of chord. unnecessarily causing control prob. with the erliptical plan- form.rre ccnnErn for porered. For many years thj-s airfoj. is to use nDdern soft-sta}l airfoils not subiecL to the separation bubbl-e probl€rn. angles of attack. but ttre disadvantage is a dangerously sharp stall.' other things being equa1.zD beer*een ]2t and l5t thick sections.l-s are used that have forward road-ing and lead:-ng edge dr@p.filmington 5/2/93.e have seen. l-2s.file around.. the tip sta11 probrsn is eurrlinated. htlich is.4/I8/I994 . ana tfris in itsel. due to the additional problsn of sha-rp statl cha-racterj-stics of the 230)0( airfoil-s.€r ttn. Ijnlited only by structural. notice that uEre is litt1e difference in L.reen 6 and l0 . The resul-t was a very docile ai4ll-ane. or at least. as r. the bubble disappears.lift c-onditions are unlikely to develop. rf thj. resufting in a sudden toss of lift. to selErate at that point. that this specijnen enjoyi tro distj-nct advan- tages over the other specjrEns.f provides pro- tegtion against tip stall-s.c&r Re)mords nurnbers. as stated above.Tl-ris causes the airfLsd. ttarry Riblett . cccntcn taper ratios go frcm about 3/2 to 2/I. next ti. Snal-Ier tip chords rEan $naller tip losses.aiforan".l-atively lovr gecnEtIic camber of the section. foU-c'\^Ed by reattach(Ent before the no. i-n spite of the re. Regarding aspect ratio. Ttrj-s forces the flo. particularly with regard to the use of soft staLl airfoils. For Laminar wings. rn sunnary I for turbul-ent wings. and is aclordingiy often cited as proof of tlle " inherentLy superiority" of the Lltiptical planform over t-l-re uni- forrnly tapered planforms. use of additional canber at the tips is not needed. a higher taper iatio may permit use of a lo"rer per cent root thi. the above recqlnEndations are especially applicable.nbination is especially j-11-advised.nereO=epar- snape (nore lift) than with the bubble. we vDnder if the legenda-qr rnystique of the ellipti. ratios betr. the Pattached sec- tion gets shorter and shorter unti. Also rerernber that the vc's are not a parurcea for aI} air- foils' but rather a sg=cific crutch for the poor features of the 230>o< airfoiLs. but on twin engine airplanes with one engine out the airprane miy slap-ro1l suddenly and unc€ntro. so tllat assynretrical.it has a unique high-fift secLion (4412). nor is vring twist. The 230xx carnber profil-e has a discontinuity (ki-nk) in at at 158 chord. and in addition it has the same per cent ttrickness root and tip. is greatly reduced. and ai-rfoil section performanci drops ofi at J.r solution. Malibl.ckness (15t vs lgt) for letter i/n**. it is r+et1 to renrenrber tllat a ve4/ short tip chord reans a 1on' Reynords nlrnber at tlre tip.gher the better. A flapped section starls at a loler angle of attack than the sanE sesti-on unflapped. For twin engine airplanes.consid_ eraLions . They function by creati-ng a thi-ck ' turbulent ( energj-zed ) boundary layer i-nrnediately aft of ttre VG's.. ltlus it i-s best not to taper the wings tcro much. one finaL ccflnrent is needed regarding l{AcA sarple *22.I the separation bubbl-e suddenly expands to cover the entire top surface.

l G'9 F tt -aei iotzl r. a oul o r.r!i."Ncr-vs rou s ( 3) Na. I-.06 i @?:.= 6 ft-Fpr&n u4 LA TF {7L a" 5 uC-€? O.[!..ull al. \rid.t' r . ata.! l.L. Rrl ZO9QW|' 1rut . '. !. trF d c. Gnrlnt.-o-o.a tt y'rml zo .In Dttlr1iD11on. J.r r-btrrttr t t..rlt..? g -.6 Sz !F >.ldblrro tor Er.d Do?rl-o@ oororo.Jt^aora t &. Et/tt/t .0r . rppdtmtlo.tQ. Fllt .- o6.2a 5z ..r .r.0 €.b.t-rr.rrrhtrFt. 74on11/ .n- od.!nod t..D.4u*. t^Ffd.. btrl.5l e -c\. b. 0 ootd-o or! o od o oc.i-o orr r o!.ILTS..r '!. L D 'AZDPa .d ldr9.{PrcA\ TFsr Rfsucr5 -L+15 Aoo7.6t9l lsn t*-Feco.oui re :e ..- : .o. i. o'r o oo.(e.L E-rl- 1c*ccpa tor t*r-a. o orol 06-dq.l tbll @tlrl . tl 5!F1.E.)J' T. rtro..frtt d:Ltt. TEISITT-IIJIOIEL TlsT RESI.l o orr ! n odq-od' 0onl0ir o6ri-o@ oor.r }teu-f. 2 .i.etl t6 m z.'l Ft6uRE . *.Ot.u dl.. rg- e o a u.. l..a. lntttrl . .E o..€F. !l:lo.L.. o.1-0 o{ +o @ iF o04t]-ot1-o'!oI o d. 101 NA CA TRP€(t:D uJlA/6 Tesrj CEAXTCTIRISIICS OF TIPERED hTNCS.. Lc.t TAPeA. (2)rEry. rr:to..a.. (l)S. tb. t.<t to tut ctt'tt ' t- . s9.t a-d.a t}..CAAFY D€'16. IR. o r. -llEnf! si*tu .L.K.:F I .'ad. Lt uQf tt73'. AI\.r Nr'r lx 96' r9'o." i .- ) /Et6t Q.d' Ed dm r. VTRIAE..p.r B. t..o. a .F.ft.cl- t.i D..t od_o$.. vlt. IIJOOI.o'eL q '"!-ii4 .. G_ .tn wtptbct o @'l-o e.tp !t!r.t nr. .-.t.t o .t trd .l-odl .. e^ .r. t{.. 7l ..l vwr.o n Dr.

:: i-- l.1 .l -{l rl ll rl + o rl d -. t' :iul e ./ L'.t :.q t-t at .+/ .\ >l . .{J \ S :. q |l. ry\ e .. re .' o \ lo F .F :G . q .rl . st". z .v J l^ ri lll { t- l^) oj si / ..$. i . { .{ -l 9.] ! ^o -o i1 { \r I !lit ql ti ai rrt t. I t.o$ 'v .../ .'f%.s(r 1."2' '-. 102 0 i I .. l |./' \j{ ". J U^ a -.: € !i 1 t q ' t. .\s \l Fl{ Fr Ll- qIJ-./ -t 2. o\ ././ ..) ii ]. Yi1"''^. x urr. l- 5 $ d tlg t r.t.l<r 'l=l I Qo " .! s-: {./-"-/ /' ./ . 'nf r-. zt' "' ' $r.1 I F- . i tli { .t N + .. d 'ul :j : aY a.

ane Root IiP l4ilitarv Lockhe€d P-38 Lightninq 230J5 44L2 BeIl P-39 Aircobra 00I5 23009 Cureis P-40 l. wheeler D(press.5 ) 64A412(3=a.5 Douglas c-47. 103 Airfoil. no twist Piper fA -?t ch€rokee 65-415 Piper /d -rg runairar"t GAI^I-I l4ilsubishi MU-2 6/lA4t5 63A2L2 Gnnnan Goose .!) Cessna 310 23018 23009 Cessna 337 Skymaster 24L2 2409 Cessna 402 23018 2300 9 Cessna 500 Citati-on I 23014 23012 Piper PA-2$ ccnrmnche 54A215 SanE.' l.lcdif ied Lancair.sna 210 64A215(a=0. 23015 23009 Hcnpbuil-ts Fal-cp F-8 64-272 54-210 Questair Venture frcrn t4alibu ( ) 23017 23010 I-ake Buccaneer 4415 4409 Bushby I{idget Mustang 64}'.l.2 64A210 wittrrEn Tailwind 4309 top. DC-3 2?L5 44L2 Ccrrnerci-a1 culver Cadet 34L4 3408 plus sJ-ots Ryan Navion 4415 6410 Beech tdel 35 Bonarza 23016.yi-ng ForEress 00L8 0010 Consol idated B-24 Liberator Davis Davis ctlrtis-Vgright c-46 23017 4410.lalrhavrk 2209 l{orth Arnerican P-51 Mustang 63-215 plus strake 66-2r2 Chance Vought F4U Corsair 23018 23009 Boeing B-17 FJ.Appl-ications Airpl.5 23AL2 B€€ch Skipper GAlr-l Ces.A!{-. Prescott Pusher NLF( I ) -0215F l.4odif ied Pul-sar lrs ( 1)-0313 Jones lihite Lightning 66-21s 66-215 lhorp T-I8 53-412 lbdified trtGUAe 4- .0005 bottcrn classair C.

this is all done with a kit thar mpft adds less than one pound !o the weight of the aircraft. Handling characreristics are dramaticaiiy Kits are available for rhe Cassna: 310. $'hich increases the angle of attack of the vefiical fia. the saall is deiayed alld actually becomes much more dociie Inslallation of the kit can reduce Vmc bv as much as 20 when it does occur.n organization thar has dirccr conuct with over 7000 This "re-energizing" causes the airflow to remain attacbed thus twin Cessna opemtors. development of new products. improved.2tool YtP Boundary l-ayer Research and The Twin Cessna Flyers have fact. while it pisces the marketing cnft yaws./ ts TAUKC (a {. !p bo& sides The Twb Cessna Flyers came to an a€reement granring The Twin of the venical fin.r. A)ecry. and whefl the air. and there are two srrakes which are atlached Cessna Flyers the €xclusiye marketing rights for the kits. iiii?sby inodel. 310A. oo the outtroard side ofthe ergine raceiles. BLR aad are attached to the lpper lading edge of &e wings.ol sur. For more information regarding these tendency for the controls to become mushy is eiiminared. the rclationship is vonex generators "re-energize" &e airflow over the con0.3i08. Over simpiified. the According to Bob Desroche. Low speeds conrol response remains positi\'c. 104 clssNA3l0voRIEXGENrRAToRs tJAcA tsatg R'k. VC equipped aircralt rnaintain full aileron control teamed up tro bftig e3rly model Cessns 310 ownels the advaltages response all the way *uough a stall. efforts witi a. . 3108. ArR &oaR€st AUGUST 1SS4 27 . "a perfect rnarch" in that it allows BLR ro concentrale on the faces at low speeds aod high angles ofattack. vodex generaton afford. Amazingly. In kjls conract: Th6 Twin Cessna Ryen ar (800) 825-5310. PrcSidenr of BLR. 310C. Afier Boundary Layer Research @LR) The kits consist of a series of small aluminum exrusioos rhat developed the kits for the Cessna 3 1 0 &rough the 3 i 0F. and 310F. rhe 310D.

.t.to -'r-lrc'l'11- lfF -. uu*@ (4.a*U-t. . .Zq-X\ AAJtr zjdkx DArA riAcn ag 631 * 6p.lP-P 1 l8 .rta.72^I*::rr. ?es r& gSl .. te. {or.r J5 .L*-zxx DATA f:p.eerc. 105 L /o Rorra: S etE(TEo . La €..l y'ar Doeelrlar=F.1rlA€A F rAFarLs t'g 6la THI6K^JES5 3oo a tr L ID Rnlo Loo . Ptr' cePr AlRFor TH.l O ig= 6r/oc .3rror.(.am Ae6orr + ':.

Ft p.r...l /l-.i -o d ! |- il 1 F 1 :l c o .r 9.? g -! I i ! { 3l J 'rb t- t : .'l 5l lr tl ll t.f t !rr.. . 106 :l i: ! 'e4rM r.r 'r 'r'r r-! llli ': 4 4rr lt.e l .a 1.t9 )'. !rvd rrt. /! $l l T ]-: I : o )? (a I i: *.ttrrryl.t)rr. il t^l !l 'l 2l tl I { .r.I.. ) !n crI ! o F i'" ..r.1 r-l 2 \ .i. -rortn'ot @ -r. s.11tr.1 L tl t..ltr! -. o .trrLF rt. il F a :l g c F t I c ! ! .l I J (.J :l Y i l- a -t ) t! 3 :.l . 1 tr GI . rt .a to rlrY F.y'ttant ! :l t I '.

with Peak camber of 1.tt. and they can usually G-i-pt"""O by adding a sITEIl anpun! of leading edge d"rmP ' Arrf oils of the second .ls are bad enough on single engine airplanes. with soft-stal. In the mid-I930 ' s.rere designed ana esiea. In fasE.8tc Iocated at the l-5tc position. and reccnnended its wide usage in glorn'ing telrn5.. IIO.mward5 (lc:ding edge droop ) approxirrrately 1-8t. vtlc is much ]o$.driven twins are ljjrlited by Iateral cont. or alter- nativeJ-y an upper surface build-up (reprofiling). Fr:rther.irfoil Wilmington. Iartdch is not a necessity for conventional. very lol Gn. rrie can describe the airfoil as bejlg the DiACA 0012 sYrlretrical secaion wj. So IIACA knevr of the existence of the sha-rp staU.lling the nosedcnn pitching nE(Ient by applying a dcarnload on the trail- ing edge of the airfoil ( figure 9). this. the airfoil has a terrible sh. ho/. SlErp sta11 airfoj.ever the fact renains that the camber profi.le of this airfoiL consists of leading edge drmp only. the carnber profile of the !F6 in the first 60tC is conventional ' ho\^r- ever. Knq. thrs was noted briefly in Table II Airfoil Data of IR #537. as long as the GIl is kept reasonably lcrhr by nEderately fo4rard loading. these " zero on" airfoils !. 3 nar"v niurett 1 07 ADDn{DUI'1 /il6 Rib'en Lane (Irl/JtlI995)Tandnq trre sharp stal] of Lhe NACA 23012 A.rFstall characEeristic.e get rid of these sharp-sta1I airfoils.I airfoils. ProP. Based on the faets ttlat 2301-2 shc.60c to the trailing edge.e knod today ' 'e realize tlEt NACA. sudden unccnmanded and uncontrollabl-e upsets occur at relatively high vlo'lc. and reduces Clnax.er.rol authority near vtIE due to the effect of a "blovtn surface" aft of the operating engine .l-es of tJre fj-rst group incluae nDSt synrnetrical sections. but with the rnaxjmum camber placed unusually far forward. sirtce there is no negative canber jn the air- foil. effectj. that is. shoul-d have terafnated the project.with near-zero Pitch- ing nErrcnt coefficient (Gn). the result of tJris is an airfoil. use of vortex generators. wtlich MCA TR#537 failed to d.prk on the 4digit airfoif series . and in addition the roll tendency is control.'/ing wllat r. and explain wlly additional leading edge droop is ineffect- tive for i:rproving the stall on this airfoi-I..th the first 15t bent do. NACA aducted a series of tests on airfoils related to the 4-di-git airfoils ( salre thickness distribution). separation frcm the very leading edge at the stall-.with shatp-stal-l airfoils.I5c is a straight 1ine.LEd a nEderately high Clmdx.l-ater 11gcA 64-212.l's . l'4ax ltur)l('s 1924 |+6. rather ttEn tl]e usual 40tC Fosieion us€d on nDst of the pozufax 4-digit airfoi-ls Q4I2. Accordingly. airplares any'\r'Jay. DE 19808 30?934-0479 Srnnnarv. as soon as they learned of the bad stalL characteristic of the sdlgit airfoils. Discussion. but on prop driven twini with one engine out these aj-rfoils are especially letha1. Actually. ard chose to ignore it.l-e camber in t-ire Ieading edge. 23012' are sr..'cefficient Eemains high and the induced drag is loi^r. Accepting the sharp stall rnerely to achieve zero Gn was a Poor trade-off.vely kj. [. the nEximun lift c. Anyhc'vr.4t due to the faulty "slope and radius" nrethod of leadil]g edge design used on all of tjte I'IACA airfoi. Exarp. It is l2t thick. the effective drmp is only about l. These airfoils experience ccnPlete and suoa* rlo'.issuss. and those with too much cafiber in the leading edge.le will not achieve true twin-engine reliability in prop-dri-ven twins untit h. with no conventional camber. the nean line aft of .lable. soft stall- wind tunnel. NACA pronounced this airfoil to be "markedly superior to l€ll-knovm and cc6rpnLy uSed sectj-ons'. cdrpared to the best knorvn previous zermn airfoil-. thus the only camber in tl:-is airfoil is in the first 15t of the chord length.ras to see if the aj-rfoil Gn cDuld be reduced to zero." zero-on ai-rfoit. and Cd no greater than the 0012 syrnetrical section. There are t\^D tl/pes of airfoils that have sharp statlsr tllose with too u.test results of the "ns^. etc-). This paper discusses t'.r) methods tllat carl be used to soften the notoriousl-y l-narpstaff of the neCA 23012 airfoil. l€ also discuss the nechani-sm of the stail on ttris airfoil. The ob ject of the tests r.nrnarized in t{AcA IR *537 of l{Ey 7 . and the nrcst widely used of these 5digit airfoils is the ubiqui- tous and infanrcus I'IACA 23012 airfoiL. and l-olv-carnbered air- ioi:"! such as ttre. HouJever. sharp stall airfoils are the rnaior reason that cA light twin fatality rates ironically exceed the fatality rates of GA ]ight singles. follorn'ing tie r. The [&-6 achieved zero cln by reflexing ( negative carrber ) the nean line frcrn . causing accidents such as described in figure 2. 44L2.. so the M-6 des have a nice.4415. 1935 (see figure I). hokever increases total induc€d drag. and that i-s its domfall.

F-gn. As stated above. holrever on this arrplane the elevator travel. at about . Furttrer. the 4301x airfoils are rarely used. and should be reguired on all twin-engine prop cqnnuters using 5-digit airfoil-s. and aLso raises the ]anding speed of the airplane. the 43013 was a strange choice for this airplane. and use a rndern lol. and 6 describe this nethod. nor the problan. is nrerely a bandage. uncontrollable roll-over and irrec'cverabl. The stall is as bad as.en. the zero-lift Gn renains about the saITE. a direct result of the NACA 4301X airfoj. for the basic probJ-ern rguins. usually acccnpanj-ed by loss of lateral control. in spite of ttre increased sestj-on thickness. Ttris nerr profi-le could also be used to nlcdj-fy existing t@. I suspect that any jjrprovenent of the stall in this case is nereJ-y the result of the consj-derable aerodlmaruc twist that was introdticed into the wing by this fix. and a hysteresis loop reguiring a substantial decrease of angle of attack ( wrth considerable altitude Ioss ) before attached flc'vr can be re-established. Still. l. since they al-ready have too much droop. horever. This is quite cqrrrDn on experinental (hcnebuilt ) aj.09c. one exception is Fred l^Jeike's " Etcoupe" ( NACA 43013). delered). which is the nrajority of the fle€t.characteristics as bad as or vrorse t-lnn the 23012. Horever. so top speed is unaffected. the resul-t is the sane. tius the tlc State/l{AsA fj:< on the "Venture" airplane (figure 8) is a poor solution lo the prob. so it is not a good solution to the problsn. Ivlodern c-onstant- velocity airfoils do not have this suction peak. (Fiq. Ttris fix is cheap and effective.I'itut is re- quired is to ease the cransition frcrn the leading edge droop to the rest of the rlean Iine. that is. reducing the discontinuity in the nean line at tbat point. the I{ACA s-digit sestions cannot be inproved by adding leading edge droop. but with twice as rm:ch leading edge droop ( figure 9). longer de-icer bcots. Arrfoils of tfre second group cannot be irnproved by adai ng leading edge drrcp. Of c-ourse. and these have stall. filling rn tie lor. 108 group. wi-th both nptal and ccrPosite wj-ngs. Conculsions.rplanes.rfoils.r sFot aft of the leading edge droop on the top surface with soli-d materj. is ljrnited so that the stall angle of attack can never be reached. delaying the tip stal-l. don't forget that that single enging airplanes with 5-digit airfoils can benefit frcrn tj:-is as rrell. the 230IX airfoils.<".on drag astuafly decreases. Anotier airplane that uses the 4301X airfoiLs is the Ftench ATR-72 twin turbo"- prop c:cnmuter. The NACA 4301X airfoils are the sarrE as the 2301x airfoi.a shaq) loss of 1ift. Ttrese interirn fixes should be used until the t'IAcA 5-diqit ai-rfoil-s cbn .Ling on production airplanes./4 inch high j-ce ridge forms on the top surface at . 3. forfidng a very effective' spoiler.nt near the end of the leading edge droop.e dive.Len.\rtrere a pronouncd suction peak exists ( figure 7). AIso. As confirned by sub- sequent in-flight spray tests a 3.ration on t}re toP su-rface at the stall. vffren ccrnbined with the already terrible stall charactseristic of the airfoil. frcm a poj. soft-stall airfoil.l-y. and tlEt story does not tEve such a happy ending. experj-ence ccnpl-ete flo* sepa. tll]is causes a considerable loss of efficiency at high spce d. frcm wird tunnel data ( check it out).10c. For exanple ' adding npre droop to the 230]2 airfoil results in t}Ie 33012 or 43012 ai. Another possi-ble way of acccrplishing ttrc sane fix is to reprofile the wings.Is used on that airplane ( figure I0). this caused an unccnnanded. 4301X Airfoil-s. Fign:res 4. due to the prcnption of Iaminar flovr. Fortunately.one effecLive and proven rrEthod is to install a cqnplete span-wise array of vortex generators on the top surface at alout . ircluding ?3OI2. or tanrse thar. The "fi. discouraging flol separation. Indiana kitling a1I 68 people on board. The ice ridge is aggravated by tlre strange ptacglrent of the vortsex generators on the ATR 72 wing. Ttlese function by fi11in9 in the "low sFot" on the wing dch/nstrean of the vcrs with a thickened boundary layer of energized turbulent ai-r. In october 1994 a crash occurred at Roselar. such as a "cA" airfoj-l.al such as foam and glass.l2C in the case of the 23012. Ttre ice ridge forms at the very spot on the airfoil. since here the tsrperature depression frcm adr-abatic expansion and cooling is the greatest.Is.lotice that the secej. 5. t}le better soluti"on aerodlmarnically is to discard the ?3012 airfoil crcrTplete.

. -{. 0012.n.H ill ift ii ii. altbouqh co[rDlr.rict. . the niainum drng is BotI the rueasured aod theorelicsj curves for tle procticrll_v o. A. moheDt. .-{. t3cror a 2 6t .).D tb. -- -. 1-e. 2912 i-Ddicates the differea""s'tba.u. -{.. _- TJre anolysis of ihese chorts o'Dd the" dstr of toble I!gre.rlro! ".D. lhrs clo.I(BEA ST-OSI]ALI.t0 .the theorelical vaiues bss€d on the mear 1".Furrbermore.. JTobs.cno dl|tllr&BE I "* -o. 2.1''2. lo"r"""r. gste erceptioDolly lor+. ? g . ig jlfi .t .i'ilt"i 'iu I Tubul. 460.g . \o.r..{..m. soElesb!.ittr the \.r!. attributed to tb€ dif€r€nce betweeD th€ forms.-'-_j_ \-A.itb otber ref ered airfoiis. to! E!'./ /u/. pitcbiag DoDeDts. C.s los as thst of tbe correspondiag simple mean-line air{oi.i. N.6 .r. 2lOt2 aad 29012 baringL e. ''i .wiFii $pir itrii +i :lg:x :miit i: *a*il imllr tl fij i-lStSli::: :l St/i t$ til i.ri.a. .af. J^cob6.ltD..@iJ 3r . T.o8 !!. C. '-* ---- .1 6. Jrcobs..I iii \ :ii #.r used s. A.d i! r r.t9 6..I.er firr.sucb IJ shor that tbe reflesed !-irfoils. ( }IACA TR 537 ) r. the r*.l|t . The angle of zero lift and the pitchirg moment. rsr N loJ-3 ro r. A.A.dt !9 O . ''.'-c.Ccc! EtAt)Qc I . ntrtel_v tbe same lift and drag characteristics.rFtcl.r: _.rd ^r'. ifr . i: i 4 f f tS :H it$ lI il l" ..li-ue foras possess aooroxi- N.rr wur *r.:rotr-e.Y FI.A-.!r lula n. TABIJ II.ls are given in fgrLre t6. Vtiable'Deo:ity lfild Truael.XITU){ C.< .lc. or r!.m ! I rrb or hlr{urr..!.cr./r jtrj:ff"crr'srdcadod 4-n'e h. C.oa 16 rol. .cn loou.a.H :Sl j.^:tnri ^ ^-. .9e^neraU5.irfoils o.--.-rrP6 "gP. l.rr'!bn d-I!. -applicarions . 24 012 .l D€r! ior ljr. I $ 1 .llv notevrortby is AEFENENCES the ven r0uch loEer pitchiag moment produced b-.rbl-r s. liae.!! arr. C. Iult- *dl I'erirble-Dcasitr Tuoaele.-_tio" LexcLsr ME}ronl. qrblilh.@i5 r0 ir ro _-.lt. Lesonaron):.u. t t-or ot i-r.il :lj iil iil ii . I Clrg-6at:nn r De r---r tl irr lbdrE a!.* ii i * i l* . 1933. i. C.irs . y.1'. despo calcu. -rrEi! * .:' . -{./ / . tloD but difl'erent Des'!.b.. C..ffijgr6 t!'r Ert !' I _ p.. tt.uring"a ot Dormal positions possess improved characreristics. pitching moment thllc tbe g30l?."usi@ b.. -\-..1311..n. tbe airfoils 1.. 3. J..q) .rcba.A.Irted -Urfoii ScctioD! froE T€srs i-b rbc !'t!iEble".. lDd _{bbott. Ir hos a hish ma_rimum hft and a lor l9*".unoraurrcs. A.' Ler.!rir...'1. the N.eooerb E. c. Easroao \.i$*-._AIRFOII. th. rrccr o l-afi. TO. SJO.ir. as fnror.. ol!d.t t. t935. reported herein._l :iB :.o"r1il" need..r" ! =.risticr of tbe N. T.d &5 r i. C.1 ?r\ .26 12 z.ss.!a d. cr. : _ ! i ' t j < < dl*r: i i c' . f $i.'l AERoliAvrrcal..Ir. li. of 'nan5 foils corerirg r range of carn ber locations lorro.No. sji.Dord 1. : --:. ilg... rr d.ristics ot ?g R... r-o. E-!riD. rDd pi. These airlofu harbg rhe same -. other secrions of tbis gtoup. : a . ETlDel li.: Tbr Cbr.A l2 2i itif .Deasit-" Wiaa tumd..b ]"El 15 _1.r. R.. R.i$f.er_. a. E. A.2 a5 0. rod Cl.rpDu.!ts i. uJ.Especio. -(') i . lou pitchiDg EoDeDt- -{ con:parison of tbe N.: Tbe . Tb. f. A. Itard.- Betrjcal oirJoil. Ira. Robert trt.rr !!. LstEaD li. are quite di{fereut. trlay 7.6i --..''"t{r .co.J3"f.. C. ro.R FORW. R.\. sbo'uld supply thc the simple meaali-oc uitt"ils_ f*tf.t r.5o. ""-tJ.Etrenon.J.0 .ND <.'. DAT-A.230f2 Airfoil from T. -{.latioos.C. !. 416."q"fiog a "figl.t. Tbe simple meenJi_oc rirloils terlstics over well-knorrn and commonl. 109 ITRTOILS ILII'L\G ?EX I.r. :'.iJ-"'cam_ bered section of modernte thicl:ness f. \fillirm C. c.: Ch.ApvtsorI Conyrrrrr ron _A.25 Il u 23 ao i:i:s:itlli:: ... 1932. . rrlb rb.

":dg $I ie's iiij. =: l=t= E l. \..g:i.' F tr::Ec€bE'Eb4:i:g.e . tl EeE:$iEi?iesi€ T'8.lE --! i! <.:: :1. (.vlg o zo) E A.li=. i. 4-zE+ia:cc i E *'-: *: o t- \l lb J fl il.2 =J :.)_ (6 = (! c f :ecri..:ii..Ji .iiiff sg€Ei?cii " J 0 \J.lJ = J c( (- TE 0 { ? () d 0 U t E:iiiiff iiiiitiEiiii* o d.iri*l.r.fE.c.1_ t F 3 ft Y IEAS.r.H \ J iff iiii.{. s' iiel*i.fii* *(! E E co ... Ti ::. I/'.: E' I -.iz: l+: li:-. c) o) c'r (D o..E>.EEIatqFe fu. € 'JJ ':.3fri ffiiEi$l.tr 7- .il.. ....- 110 o . ! i - Ii iE a..?iE=fi.:..EH":€ tI ). :i a.E5TAE=EP3 z: L_. ul S ig!i{+..= .i.*cli!'.o I < . : l..E o r.t U J t- 0 q. E O 5l . o q- l.ii A z.f: F*€.Flii k. ftiSEs=fE'is."t .9 a.ii : td .) o) ot ot c E ic +f iietl'E:il1i .ifl -g€er I ll -r.!.. a o { !r -.=ii.gi?i3Fi ed i .t ..HEE Ctt"rt R.sil I f :.€t 2 UJ . E: gE:*ifiq!*. v E iititi =:ei5E'ertii*..ii (U u an t Eii..AEi+i:.

+ - . 4:r{:) 7. O(:r l : over (-lr:) 1? tap ord l: LrF €rd lop ord lop ord top ord 4 .?9f. i)i:t I .I91 1(1.tA)it4'4 B"'. 94? .. (1(:) 3.r{)i-r 6.: L.r V G. l cri:) {-r. 644 11-611 45.767 1rl.1 4. (_i r:) 6 . ?60 7. 15.c.i](l 5.911 8. 8. 628 7.814 9. c.D-u/ = t.: . (-)59 !I.'t Ra. + ttpqEk 3oaFA. O' t. 564 1 . (:) r:) 3.9BO 1 {:) .6 I t.-../E Xd.11{.. {-r r-..rfC v N€ u. 45i:r a. qgr i 4. P.) 1 .-3hal9t ^JAcA llar 95 NACA Reprof i I e ?f.(:) 1 O-UF if.91f.421 _:Cff) 1r:) .li.668 11. I h'/ 6.9u{} 5 .t..) 6i:1.. 4?1. (-) (:J 5.478 4(:).. 4Lt7 a 11.. t. I E(.46t s. 5.()q' 2.to.4?1 9. 954 9. 5(:){) a. 69r:) Fth..i 51:).l . {_lr:) 4. i:rl) f. ijTi 1r:r. ?? I f.1tZ ( faP SezeAce. {.1- z._. 581 :.477 7 -7rtj B. i.i . 6A: L97t-) s. 9l(:) /.).181 I (:). rl?f.5 75-t)ti .(118-LJF:. g9(:l 6.. {19{:) 7(l) . 99 I 55.-J-:'/ ?5. 4. -i41 c.e^ A L. f.oprd!.e< vo s ---=- o.ao. . 949 .91.C .195 6.lL At.) i. 1 . {:r ij trl 1aa ( 1{1. .ar) .5 _ i:.:.44 9. i_)(:.^.9?5 7 .. /tt A. 2?..6i. 111 UPPFR SURFACE REPRO TIUFl ?'3oxK Ar(F-orLs A3.r.658 trr_).518 ?{-i. 4?{:r 8.{l1 :-uF if.wa [2to'z.(J 1 5-UP ?:(i l7-LtF :f. boE 1 I . B.47i 6.O54 4..841 ll. ?4{ ) 8.J .LE 'llcA zto. 668 I i:) _ 55(_r 1(.c R€t.de 4 qte I 2a*.

e'rr-i tlnll( ' -l-\ L c.Le __ (onFu7t4 AtfrLY'tS . .a._-. . \\ . :'-.of d.' l{o ul er'a\-J AAPG' oP o.=. t..j. f^ EE1'.R. -.tr v'.A .lracL q f. 1.\ I 11 .. .-._6.tl L y' \ fiuda-4 1.--SEaarN S xacP \ 7z sre" Z-50tz -U P 4E lAoF. Dftaa 4oc:-rF<tt:atr I=*une 6 .llJ€ I 5 StaNtFteA^'7 -l l ?tTcll tttt t /lo evlT CoEFcxre{ c. NAC4 13otz-'ArRFott-- F= 3 < toL.

--.4.u p tl 4 Vo l. :ai* .er ?.OOZ FLAF' .i- . y(t6 .o.' . NAcn LSorL Ar&Fott y'e.NE9atttE ?rE rsure cA/s€s r<t^'6 OEAI< @ . oe C ous io Aqr.THrct{NESs .6J '.#+---iffi (43o.. AIRFOIL lzl-rp hnaRati 13.p. 'EHI'uF.^a B!.937.. DEGREES DEFLET $.hil.a1' {5:'.o o //c LSo tz.u P A tR rorc (Repaae. L. or r 36 .^ 113 .n.n.-|rF tr j :: ._. oo oO 3.* t. .Fr_ t.? :i ''o-t l"te'-"iilrz-rs94 _r Ar.lg. t fi.:.i-ol: iiu*l.r yJo RrE) V -7" t.3o.. oo s.O.__. .ceo .: z3ot1- i -.17 Dr ec.ff FRS"I4ce) l/€uc rrz.. OO E. !..e *lc ._r... ?Ol ABOVE ANGLES OF ATTACF: 7.a4rrc cea.t . oC.

.j:..: .:!i = a €::.i.::. rai:. .=.F!:a.i:r: t.i=i:iiiriijiiff q.i: "-1{=} :i i:: lj:= !:.1=!1i. .: r!i:+:.\ ii iliii!lff i iiif . = ::.! !r... 114 _!r i: .iiE..:... : t- j jEif iFiiF:..iij=.:! iiii.. clq c) I ! I cn g o -tt a- = N 3 { l-- --t O N g t 16 ii('F E-\ .i ii . \' x :!::.. i r : i€ ii . isi.iE:i. ..iiiliit.i! .^r-:. * EF.i..:g...iit. i: )- {(.

E - LE. - . 115 Ttris is qarbage NORTH CAROLINA .'tt. t'.j" to rt J inconsistencies in rhs grow{h ot irs muttipL ti' r+' cells. Droop net result ii increased stall Leadlrp Rtge Orcop Aorodynamics departur€ rssistanc€ due to the improv€d. siil . the r€sutting aircraft pitch_do*n firiis th€ useable litt ot the wing. and predictable pitch break . This is achieved by th€ introduction ot increas€d leading edge camb€r and augmentation ol the energy within the boundary layer crealed by a vortex which torms at the discontinuous the wing/droop intsrs€ctiori. Stall Pattem w h hboaftf Sla[ Strips . the higfi aspect ratio wing .r:a : ENHANCED WING DESIGN FOR STALL DEPARTURE RESISTANCE I THE HIGH ..ASPECT RANO WIiIG While prcviding significant bsn€fits in cruis€ and climb. roll damping . STALL STFIPS Stall strips ar€ widsly us€d to force inboard separation b€tors the stall celts fully develop.' ta' tfri' However. Th6 ffi Basic Wi._:r -: STATE UNIVERSITY @."qrir"i *i" design considaralion at stali ol.tlo= (t-- .. THE LEADING EOGE OBOOP The design philosophy behind rh€ NaSh teading edge droop is to provid€ a 'passive" davice which Vonex delays th€ outboad separation well beycnd the point at which it would Separated Flor normally occur.

iterat€. and optimize a leading' edge €xtension ot lhe ctrnent airloil s€ction.Ct ALPHA .5 t.5 05 0.ps .tennh.5 oloops E Slotr -+ -1.0 0to2030ao Fl. O THE VENTURE DROOP/SLOT DESIGN Designed at North Carolina State University ancl wind tunn€l tested at NASA Langtey.{1.o d. Fla9s .5 * 8:sclinr . Wnd Tunnd Rquhr Ct Ltto=4 . TEST FESULTS Wind tunnel data indicat€s that the adclition ot lh€se wing enhancements provides more useable litt lhan the industry-standard stall strips while draslically softening tho slall break Subsequent flight tosts Modiflad V€nturo Stall Pattem have further demonstrated th€ departure r€sistanco ol ths conti 't. Thus. '. A conservative droop is coupled with a pair of chordwise leading edge slots.tt. Minimizing the cruisedrag Pcrcenl rxienrion penalty whil€ increasing tho stall anglo ot lorer anach point attack ar€ the primary design Liadirg Edg.1. the combination of stots and droops allow more ol the wing to attain anached flow to high€r angtes of anack Ouestair Venlura Droop/Slol D€siEn .0 1.d math. 116 O THE LEADING EDGE DROOP DESIGN PFOCESS Sinca l€ading edge droops are rctrcFtitted.5 1. The slots gonerate additional vortices which act to provent the progr€ssion of the primary sta cell. 15 d.0 -0. the Ouestair Venture modifications reprssent a uniqu€ blending ot a€rodynarnic concepts. .0 0.nt dtoop e[ach tloinl mathemalically defina.0 0. A Cut}r til d.0 -t-0 . Olaop oesbn O.gr. th€ design process musl accout tor th€ aerodynamics of the €xisling wing.fndi:d cquarbn comput€r codg was developed to Porc.scriprbn considerations.

.>l .c1i r't..l € '' -t ! (l<l r! ---+---* \0 t r ---- " / J .9 J -' U t{ 6ar llJ 0e Y o_ Frq -+- q utt ru u v U ef tJ'J tl -S-/o .1l i . + av AJ I :l (f-lt^ ql / t- Hl * / t / \ . A Y II 7 / l.l\'s t ..-.- Hl .. 5l xl : n / s (l ol^. / 4 Cl rr .1 s I lt F. --..tr --l . ?l l/ I\ :j . '.rt- \it /-A 1---\J--.^. t.l -s I . Gl -' ? 0 / 'l : / / 6 r& : .i f a | / / :i It / $ 2 "l .9 r\ + r .t'. .*' v \I i / II I. 117 -.

fitting new wing deicers on ATR42s ond prepr:ring progroms to conduct the ex" rober.----r.worthinss5 dir€c- \ live iniended rc) inpose rew .lot in ffe€z- rno dflzzla 0r rdrn '10c . retofitted by June l. rhis mon$ indicob ihe deicer preventr formo- oo olon ice ridge forword of the cilerons..ing conditions.lortfi Arnericqn seryice crl c.l1t dce. 118 U. by tho FAA in Jonuory. tunoels. Thot oircroft wos llying o holding ATRZ2s byJune l ---. With the new doicer.dgc ol rce is su.S. lo. regionol oircroh. roin. I Requi. :ponsible for solecting test poro.^r^ Atv\^ A t(ta)v the limitotions o$er $e deicers ore fited N rFF . lho FAA losl week refvsed lo removo reshjclions trnposed in Jonuof/ of{eciing fligtrt operotions of the ATR42 ond Alt72.s up to i 2..ing pilob b moniitr cackpit 5ido windows for o r. Solvono soid. In oddition to $ese reshicfions.. no odve. A U. ihen the oc. Toilplone icing olso will csmber ond ogotn this month.Pa'.e.e qtrcroh. llose doit iicluded flight tssts in nq$ urol ond orrificiol j. colly.t . At $ot 5eting. A similor r. spociolorsis- icat or FAA's Aircroft C6dificotion S€rvico. g(4s5. Despiie tho .t--f I q of floos when holoing 6 u ec 5€paa' "t.rh flops or l5 deg.rnique ice occr€rion thot irr 74oue t dicdres Feezing roin hos been encounJered.--o setiing normolly chonging oileron hing6 moment dromdti.'.c.rgh n-fl. Ths deicers funcioned proF doicar. r.b.zzle o. eorl. occording to Solvono. H6 expeds fh€ t 5r rended ro l5 deg. APPROVES (A1R72 uses NACA 430fX airfoils ) Lorgcr deicer prevcnts fiorrnotion ol icc NEW ATR DEICER forwond of the oilerons. As o resvh ol $e ATR occident.qC tight operc ons wj'h'ne reoesigned do- CaSR€'ttt's 7o icers. soid.hod- EDWARD I-I.oft Dir€crorots hove coused o loss of loteroi conrrol thor ond SmollAirplone Directorsts will be . lhese include: -. Aiiho.n {reoz.5% of lhe wing's meon oerodynomic chord- oeorly twice the oreo lornerly protocled ogoinsl ic6 occumulotion. a AVIAi]ON WIEK & SPACE T€CllNOtOCY.wq <to 1./March 27.n w.rpected to fects occurred becouse rhe ice ridga foiled IHE FAA'S IR NSpOIT Airc. PiloB musr continee b observe .ew deicer ond pleos from AIR officiols. Flight t6sts co+ ducted or Edwords AFB.S.rg. FAA of. with lhe ffop5 ot l5 deg. Cedifjcotion of 6e deicer lqst week oc- curred bllowing four montirs of FAA 9ud/ ond evoluotion of "oll ovoiloble lechnicol doto" by tho ogoncy ond it: French coun- terpod.neiors and ATR72-21A naor Roselown.Ti- pore. :one tests con b€ done in wind During the testr ot Edwords AFB in De.o. Colif.'. fhe FAA t . The enlorged deicer cove. PI"I'LTIPSAVASHINGTON uled to b. Solvono soid. forned.-ee) is preporiog o.-^.€ R'oa€ g. oirflow obove the wing wqr disruptcd. Alt aORCE KC-135 tqnksr equipped wifi wobr sproy equipmenl del otlention wss poid lo ice occuhulotion this yeo'lo iest oiher turboproppoworod uged th6 ATRZ2 ir q series ol rosrs rhor in. the to tho effects of freezing drizzle ond freez- erly with ffops retrocted ond with flops ex. o t Leoving flops oep oyed lf . Neorly 20O oir crafi in l. porticulor lrome monu{octurers t"qr Ae ogenc/ pions ba explorod os porl of o seporoie but key progroo. 1995 35 . J5e 'n/oo^o.a ' t. ing to be compleied before the stqrt of ic" {rsod in holding pott6hs. ond foreign oir.". in 5c.{s ?64< rective to be irsued this rnon$. lo thot or Edworos AFB wjli be p6r- cident occurred. he soid. ing roio.o deodline esbblirhed penm€nrs.tk . f he FAA hos oooroved o new deic6r for I ATR honspods ond plqns ro begin irF vasligoting icing chorocteristics of other turboprop reglonol oircroit lqter tilis year.A... Doniol Solvono. o[ ourop. He expecls the di" iJ6&. When *e flcps wore rekocted. lnd.se eF lng seosoa.othe.ng dr.ghl r€siing s.esnoinis uplon y' c At en e1€N€t<A|te' t. rn rctng condttrons ond rBquirirg inm€_ 3eP aa ar r oil diore disengogonen.hey ore ex- teoded . oi.4 to tl.e led to tho crosh of on Americoo Eogle ATR officiols expect io cornpleto ret. The chiel gool will bo to cluded wotar dropleb vp io 200 microns ice wos qble lc occrete oft of tho originol determine their susceptibiliry ond reoction in diomet€r. I proh.ols ho'e norilied U. rhe Djreclor Genemie de l'Avio- lion Civile.

separation has occured.mm lif t cef f icient with ajld h'j-thout f laps . a re-profi.s appU. NACA 64-218. many of thern fatal.j-on j-s sirnply to assernble the wings as designed. aJld ti-is h3s been fl-yjjlg for several.e tenplate j-s furnished for tJre wing root only. In addj. undesirable sharp stall characLeristic that has caused nlrnerous accidents. various nEtnods are availa-ble to irqxove the BD-5 staLL lErfornence. is I inch additiona-l ttrickness. folloled by a hysteresis loop during stall recover. I offer a ful-l-size tsrplate drawing tori lq1o to crf. BD l"Licro Technologies offer dr@ped leading edge nose ribs and ot-|rer cqQonents ) for wings tbat are still under cronstruction.y. Ttlis ai-rfoil is l-ow-cambered and onty 12t thick. or for any airplane using the IrAcA 64-212 airfoil. Seti Arderson has nodified hrs rel-l--knom BD-5 with an ulper forl ard surface re-profile of his crldn desigrn.. That is. and the re-profil-e br:ild-up feathers out to nothing at the wing Lip.le of attack mlst be decreased considerably in order to obtaln fl-c.ver the cost of printing and naiting.tion. ho. I . Texas. Al-so. Short. the ang.ngton DE 19808 302/994-O479 Note.Lrli.elL docunented. CG l-ijltits for the ai. the stalf is often acsc. arld at the }eading edge ard at the flaplaileron r+e1l lip.v/ re-attach'1ent after stall.l. such as the extrenely lc'v/ Relnolds nunber of this ajrplane at the stal-l. seve-ral. Another option for BD-5 projects under eonstrucb. I'4a)dnu. and. less then Il mil]ion. and is of lj-tlle conceln. 8/16/1995 Harry Rr. higher nraxi. stiffens the upper skin to prevent wrink-Iing.In this schenE the cqpl"ete up[Er surface is built up frcrn the lead- ing edge to the flap. this partial re-profiling essential-Iy reverts tt. 'Ihis npdrfication is mini-rral and relatively s jrrpfe. preserving larn-irnr flqr ( ard lcrvr drag). of a ccnplete tring re-design. For eJ{anE)l-e. A typical exanple is the attached report frcrn Bobble Parcr of Odessa.bleft. Other f actois cutri-bute to the probletn. The "GA" re-profile irproves tne alJ--i-nportant leading edge prof iJ-e. resulting in a wild delErture .[n hrild-up. Anothe. dalLed II/20/92.e wing pro- file to a turbulent seceion./ai. hordever.ontrof. adds a Slnall amcunt of thrckness and camber.rFanied by loss 6f lateral c. and then re-profile the top surface befor€ ffigbt- In the interest of rrProving flight safety. hrldle inprovable.r schene for utr4=r surface re-profiJ-ing is shown on the attached sketch. and a wider larninar bucket.eron yELI lip. Iike otfler upper surface build-up schenes.tever. at approxjratefy 80t of chord. this is only a nr-inor orsadvantage.years with excellent results. has acceptable stal} perforrnance due to its I88 thickness.cation I and this is inexcusable. wtrich largeJ-y accounts for its lcrw naximr. 1trus. at the root. considering the nnrked inprove<rent in flight safety tllat results. The flaps and ail.lts.erons regui-re no nadrfication and are re-used as j. Flight experienc-e with this nrcdification has been excelLent.rpl-ane are not affected.rn lj-ft ccefficient and aLso the the sharp loss of l-ift at the stall. the new profi-le has been designed to nailltain c-onstant velocity flcw to approxlrately nid-chord.s. the rEin cause of the problem is the use of the infanous IIACA 64-212 airfoil section at the wing root. resufting in a slight drag increase. tie airfoal selection was especially pcor for thj.ADDM{DUM NLIMBER 4 119 An Upper Surface winq Re-profile for the BD-5 the BtF5 airplanes as originally designed have a. A-lso. ltre result is a softer stall. AII.in all-.l. the exrsting tip sest- ion. usually with a cqsiderabfe loss of altitude. nEticds of re'profiling the wing shatrE have been used witn good resu. For ( ccnpleted airplanes. The attached standard table of ordinates can be used to generate the profile for-Tle BD-5 root terq)late ( 31 inch chord) . extsending back to approxirrately 40t of chord on the top surface. Unfortunately. EAA *29576 4I5 RibLett Iane wi. and mcves the loading fonsard slightly so that tl€ pitching nEnEnt coefficien! is not affecced.

" Ls JI . OJ c o t- c( v.!J .Jl 'r rl $l z \. sl . \. . Q.J . -t q. JI ut 6 ol 0 \jdl @ rrl t (o r(l ) tr g o q a I v c rJ llt + 7 s J \ o ? c L1 q \ IIJ A o z o r_lJ J 0 l 1I o -{t II o f\ \. J I 'E o 0l q.l<l . -j c ro ]J (E \5 U \\ a \a . : ac :i / J a = . !J lJ l.

'l l ic U { t $n i i rl ''=1--'*---.i \5 j. 'i* if ui- '".C.:. \D 2 . <t I I t::l:! i:r:+ .:.:. + I I I s & F.- i\ \ :! t-.l. i'. r.:. *':._ L .r1' .i -.* '-..-. 12'l \-v ri v o '-z rJ . gl .a -1v'0 J ->\>o <.l( 0 c( .r-*-T ^0 IIt .{) l.a N. ..) . -> ) L- l'. I .a|xa.. '!: !l -aa.. ''.-: ': { a: c t:qlia $ 5. ql< d "r l. iF :.N..j * iil aC :cr \ !: ir-r .1 o \. !l a ii: € i: N trGOF.a-.-.A \U ho c- t1 g\ \_y ". UJ b u- o. I lfr I I qr a o :s( o I _t J '!- !q ..'-..::.3 2 t 5-t-. -4.q. tL I :.i5. 't ( d f.l **. I I] 'I I o i' n .. a.: a IU q.:.o :.l | /. i.1 iI . +:ifa-': .

r about 1600 ft. It has Matco wheels and disc brakes. I novJ notice that the acceleration is guicker frcrn 60 to 85 MPH tban it used to be.L together.S. It has the standald ( non-stretched ) body fength. kind of "mushing" like. The stal-I . 122 R. '. t"ly ship is a BD-SBDH. HcrA. I \"pu. and finished off with tr. the s'aflE.rork. It lceEred nv stall sFed f rcm 80 MpH to 67MPH. staggered. Thanks again.l-ike an ErcoulE. I used 2 l-b. and it t@k re 44 hours to put it al. .00 frdn wicks Aircraft.n is 2L\ ft. (Eobby ) Farner P -lJ. B. I then reinforced the leading edge with t\nlc layers of fine hre-ave 3-inch glass tape.no loss there. and cleaaed the top surface of the wing of aII paint. N-6782F.]-s t|as $105. cqvered with tr. TjnE to rotatj-on is nour only 16 seconds e 1600 ft. I also riirote to Rich Perki-ns and gave him aU the i. density altitude 6200 ft. to the bare ah:nr-inun.ro layels of glass cloth. I put on the first layer lengthwise.ures for ttle ED-5 neb. so the rebork added only 4 lbs to the enpty . The airplane enpty Height was 467 lbs.ASL.ever.rtrich I built myself. The warm day take-off d"istance was 2500 ft. dersi-ty fcElrjl. lbp end. Our airport is at 3000 ft. It has a non-turbo Honda engine wi-t]. and is no.€rk n€rJsletter. and the seoond layer 90 degrees to the first.rfo and pish.is nq^. the wing spa. s/N 19. Etlb FarnEr P.l-d let you kno\^' ho^'the (top surface ) scahr-on wing air- foil re{iork calrE out (on my BD-58). sc(ethj-ng . a 46x66 H€y prop. and scrubbed this with APX.rcX LZLtb ( Ret!"ped ) Odessa Texas 79768 915/563-2732 8/LL/s{ Harry Riblett 416 Rr-blett I-ane wikilington DE 19808 Dear }tarry: Like I told you. with OAT € 86 degrees. I stiU hold it dcldn until I get about 85 MPH. For the rer.reight. wtdch extended back about 2 inches frcrn the leading edge on the loler surface. thus the take--off ro11 is shoruer. ard is ncr^' 471 lbs.D coats of polyester. ltarry. probably because the wing is no$/ generating nrcre lift on tlle take-off ro11 than before. ard then lift off. Itle tota. I left t}le wings on the ship.L cost of all Irlateria. I/2 in thrck.

vrhich has a sharp stal] due to excessive J-eading edge droop. Eppler does not tike 1t. After plotting these. hoerever ( the negative lift produced by the camber dip resufts in a loss of efficiency. including a soft stall rather than a sharp sta.so due to Eppler.15 is poorly designed. and Sc(rers.60C.1. is the sane. a wider laminar bucket.w ). in an attenpt to track dob/n the cause of the por performance. As hE have seen previously. the airfoil.was designed by Herr Doktor Richard Eppler. since both airfoils use tie sanre thj. This should give us a direct cdnparison of the efficacy of the Eppler mean line versus the GA-2 nean 1ine. although the point of rnaximun utickness I-s relatively far aft at '42C.IASA NL!'( 1) -0]. A canputer perforrnance analysis confirned ny fea. a point that I suspect Dr. I suspected that NLF(1)-0115 nEy have a siJrdlar sharp sta1I.F(I)-0115 eirfoi] The Ju. c.t. Dr. sinr-ilar to the NLF(I)-0215F air- forl. Ttre airfoil and its nrean l-ine ( canber profile) are shotnn on figure 1. If an even wj-der laminar bucket is desired for oFerational flexibility.ckness dis- tribution. Harry Riblett 416 Riblett Iane wilnlington DE 19808 2/L4/r996 . and a 30-401 reduction of pitching nr:nr=nt coefficient.42C rather th. but I was concerned about ttrree things in the nean li-ne: .rs about this airfoil.IBER 5 123 A critique of the I\ASA N'I. and cqnbines it with the proven GA-2 rean l-ine frcrn "GA Airfoils". Ttris new airfoil looks like cA 40A21.r. ADDE{DI}I II\J}. except the point of naxj. al. but the tlade-off is a slightly higher profile drag coefficient. You be the judge. See. I saw notiing frightening about the thickness dis- tribution.A 42E-215. ltle nose of the airfoil contains excessive leading edge droop.for ccnpar:ison.F(I)-01f5. 3.Duld prob- abfy cause high aileron hinge lrErents (stiff ailerons). Therefore. a.rr-inar Flovr AirfoiL for General Aviation Applications".Ithough thj-s rould probably be hard to prove without flight tests. airfoil. GA 4OA2I5 rnay be used.L of Aircraft" (AIAA) contains an article by SeJ-ig. As it turns out. scnewhat l-ike the NACA 230L5 airfoil. ' Ttre obvj-ous concLusion is thac the rean Iine of D.an . Pronounced aft camber appears in the airfoil fran . Eppl"er has not c. figure 2. because it was not designed by the rEdern "inverse" rnethod for designing air- foifs. a "Natural l-a. A dj-p appears in the canrber profile at . NLF(f)- 0II5. the new airfoil uses the un- offensive Eppler thickness distribution frcrn M.40C. 2. that presents a unew NASA" arrfoil.65C rearward. The pro- file drag as expested.F(1)-0115.rn:m thickness is at .5 on figure 1.l-y. and I suspected a rel"atively high pltching lrraftEnt coefficient (Gn) as a resu]. and I have corres- ponded with hjil about it. I designed a ner. this area of negative lift ex- tends the lan:inar n:n slightly hence the npniker "natural " Iaminar flc. In spite of the ind-icated superiority of GA 42E-2I5.I1.onsidered. I{aughfiEr. fj-g- ure 3. Ttris also'. accordingly.August 1995 issue of the "Journa. espec- j"ally the sharp staU at 13 degrees ang]-e of attack. Figure 3 shcrys that the perfornunce of GA 42E-2I5 is indeed superior to che IErforrEnce of NASA Nf.

-. o '4.-! . ___+ o -l ll 2 .1 fo O I tL !l z o-'' f il/ o a df a.. o.A ? R t\ u..) o\ ) J (n _. .t v =l i1 rl I >. 124 i -:!-- 'l.t o \ { a s!f_H s\ .o .i\ . t :l ol ... r:. I I ..1 .t ...

005 -2.IO7 -5.991 4.540 5.750 -0.180 9.656 60. 2.241 2.630 100.524 55.000 0..50 2.919 -2 . " /c- hA +zE -z-re ^L t' v r0 i<: ------4=q<ro" I' t&f .00 1.090 -5. 492 I.450 -1 550 .00 3.22L 8.770 1.atf LD .890 -1.825 -r.500 0. fI7 4.867 a-337 -5 -22f 9.436 -1.) .380 0.159 9.6 -O ..95O -2.L77 2.076 9 ..00 0.340 70.063 -L.21.536 10.000 o.169 L.557 6.25 0.LO7 40. o00 0.663 7.764 -4.204 o.992 -6 .815 4. oo0 o.040 -4. EPPLER 125 oct 95 4 2E-015 calber 428-2I2 428-?L5 42E-218 sta ord GA-2 upp€r lower upper Lorter upper lower 0.o00 0.549 -1.000 Airfoi I nurbe! 0 Drtr .62A 7 .602 20.O23 4.00 7.257 -5 .931 -2.o0 0.290 o.102 6. OO 6.805 0.202 45.939 85.367 -4.398 6.423 -r .530 o.00 7.780 L .00 0.' 6A 4?-E -'Ll5 EFct--r2- t.026 -O.808 -3 . ooo o. o00 o.818 9.981 -3. 633 -4.89? 2 .891 -1 .00 7 -370 L .800 1.163 -6.041 8.000 0.91-3 -4. 6.762 -7 .949 5.850 -3.A92 -4.793 3.62r -3.595 2. 354 0.256 10.627 5.026 -Q . O89 65.547 7.130 L . 000 -6 .?44 s.693 -6.I9O -1 .906 0.\'.695 3.oto A . OO 3.'7 45 L.892 4.000 0.300 I.959 -3.705 l.o00 0.3t 0 L.320 6.loo 0.4A7 | .867 -4 . oo 5.396 1.143 -2.46? 10. o0 7.00 3 .110 o.537 2.355 6.064 -5.67 3 10. 21.633 10.949 -4.996 6 -940 r.764 L .6L2 -5.890 a.099 2.nn*.7L5 3. 19-?6-1995 I\. s81 -7.00 4.208 9 .704 -o.525 -2.324 -2.000 0.00 4.903 -2 .75 1. 865 -O .060 o .437 -1 .182 -3.893 35.940 0. 800 o .730 -4.737 7. oo 7.o00 0.161 4.951 -3 .996 -O. 109 4.oo 6.893 -3.847 6.690 0.L59 90.604 -4.450 2.672 -3.592 -0.935 1.703 -).000 o.521 7./o /D .189 5.198 0.088 -5.468 -7.969 -4.374 s. oo 7 .495 0.000 o .166 50.465 L.873 5.539 -2.9 -5.263 1.4A5 1.7L9 -3.579 30."t t' trth 7 .25 1.A70 L. L52 25.oL.. ' :.( PLoc.245 -2. 550 5.420 6.00 5. O5O 3.595 I.211 L. o0 6.780 7 -768 -4.?73 -0.265 -5.224 -6.880 8. 888 -O .984 1.268 10.792 7.450 -2.700 3.00 2-295 0. s35 75.115 o.281 -1 .461 8. 705 10.73'7 80.A21 L5.50 4 . 50 1.764 7 . 398 95.349 -2.000 0.584 o .793 -5.581.750 -7.

-. _.4oe "ll:'-A\f -( r "--*-dacn "!: 11 7-y"* 4eoeo Fe| . ()osr Stn'.={r}-o.: i| P iu (5o-.\ 4zL:-Lfr I 1. -": I __ 6A to*t-r( \i c( .'l -a .r\ J.rr. a [i...o7o ^ ot { ^ .) et Tqt<RN€ra rr.t.tofusllt +*-u{ U tlA.* .1\'rlqr -. ?--64 l-:::r::::_.F r o::L- '.t<^rFl o.rl< /"'.I9 / tl -' ------ ll !' o .AARP 5TI? --t u-o--j/ Z tru.. srA'-!.L .. { !-A ut'l i)et-o'or I R''lrS t I ...u .. Sec1'ttt) c4aa4tte|tsrtcT Nh<A 23ori.t).. I .-.: ^r€ J 0 \L I -.. 126 t.so/ otr'rA€oa-€ rrc-Ac..( (onQi. _.1 _. L..t- *+Eb ) *. At'to Q4 j!j4 Lsoer s ra. II Er ). *rtrt---- --. NAsA NLtr ul -orrf .

as anticipated. -ATR (AIR). confj. that is. The ice ridge forms at the negative pressure peak (. r*rich caused the accident. }IACA 430)0( airfoils used on this airpLane. Chief. further conjecture as to the exact effect the ice ridge had on wing performance. and ccm- pares it to a rbre conventionaL. Ttrerefore. t}re accident r.dent ) is indeed loev. therefo.rms the predicted profiJ-es. shol't€ a pronounced Feak at .ever tested by NACA. irperialistic. the theorcical pressure profiles predicced by I{ACA for these airfoils. unusual. is unaccepta-ble. shoh/ that the arrfoiL ncnent coeffici. a-re rrDot. figure G. John Clark. used on the Fokker F-27 'Friendship". the IIACA 430)0( airfoil is at fault. . wtrich was t-lle jfiediate cause of loss of contro.l . Etcrn that point onrrrar:ds. Harry Riblett 127 ADDSIDUM MJMBER 6 416 Ribtett Lane Wilmington DE j9€09 3o'r-lat1$ -D +71 2/8/L996 National Ttans portation Safety Board 490 f'Enfant Plaza East washington DC 20 594 Attn: Mr.e ice ridge forms. Accordingly. f arn enclosing additional data showing that the cause of the ice rj-dge. the unusual pressure peak on the 430xx airfoi. Ttterefore.Jas caused by the p@rl-y designed.lACA 430:o< all turboProp regional airliners should be so banned. there nuy be scnre nerit for the FAA to ban airplanes usi-ng the airfoils frcrn flying jrr freezing rain and &izzle ( figr:re I).rEly of the l. VehicLe perfonnance Divi-sion Subject: tuneri. Ttre results of t. h.nd . In fact. the NACA 54-415. l4ore conventional.cially on propdrlven twins.t.rfoj-ls. etc. However. but not l.hopefully.09c caused the ice ridge to form at that point. figure 4. the sharp and dangerous starl on these aj. For confirriEtion of this airfoil data.lACA 430xx airfoil.ned by ccnputer performance analysrs. espe. which is unfor- tunate.anes. This il.ho is responsible for the idiotic 430:o< airfoil. lovt pitching nrnent coefficients.ent ( unrelated to the Roseladn acci.09C) because that is hrhere the adiabatic cooling is the greatest. aileron hinge nErnents.e 1935 NACA wind tunnel tests. hrho made the nistake of certifying the ATR airplane with this airfoil on it.l-conceived airfoil design was part of a test prograrn conducted by I'IACA Langley on "airfoils having the camber unusuaLly far: forw-ard".Ly the 9t chord position. check lrrith scrrEone other than: -[{ASA. In you response Ietter I/25/1996 you ignored this point ccnp-letely. formed at exact.ahy the ice ridge on the ATR-72 wing. is due to an anc. ihese test airfoils canE to be used on actual" aj-lpl. for that is the key to the puzzle. and that dovrned the airplane. exactfy where tJ. tie top surface of an airplane wing is sirply a one-sided venturi.c the tests must be considered a failure. The point is. airfoils do not have this problern.09C for the 430xx airfoil. figure 5. Ttlerefore. and fortunately rarely used.ls at .riti gener- ally disappointj-ng resutts. Thls is analagous to ice formation in the tbloat of a carburetor. arxi ignores the fasts in the case. wlro made t}re trListake of ch@sing this airfoil for their airplanes.can Eagle ATR-72 crash at Roselawn Indiana LO/31/1994 Dear Mr.y to see \{hat effects the exErso-. UnforEunately. Clark: Ity letier xo you 9/7/95 explaj. -FAA. To issue a blanket prohibition is heavy-handed. Ilere]. The actual pressure distributions (velocity ratj-o curves ) for these trno airfoils obtaj. as bad as any airfoil. Figure 2 shov/s the forward loading scheduJ-e. unifoqnJ-y loaded ai-rfoil. a pronounced negative pressule peak at the 9t chord position. ard no peak whatever for the 64*41-5 aj-rfoil. r. forvard loading would have on airfoil perforrnance.

lR . Washington DC 2059I !4r...)) . salvano to incrude this letter as a public ccmEnt in the docket rega_rding this accident./A cA 1. L.( (efe-ff) * oc 4N Lta€ (<.-. Regional Airline Assn. I.e.fasfLj. !"tashington DC 20005 A I ltr:. n !:!_t '-..-4 t.r -trs- NA(A +ro r< r. l!. In the j. National Ai! Ttansportati.. 1"1r.rd Phifl-ips. '1.r. .^o. Andtehr CebuJ.A rto. walt colernan. 128 .ted for May 6-8 at Springfield.-.-lt" nt"'.anPae'tcJ .^f€ [(r.NA.4 .ra. and also to include at in the FAA'S tcing symposium schedu. F t. president.By copy of this letter' r request FAA'S Mr. +'t (r. FAA. VA.. Al.^" [hAW-- CC: Venc]-. Mr..4-) .nterest of rmproving flight safety..on Assn.ieST.e* ..ngton DC Zg59l l4r. Tbny Broderick.p. . Harry Rib.l11".r ! .) c tl!!4-gl:1:-J(F-r.a. ato a.. FAA. v. . Gov't &rndustry Affairs. Edwa.-Lr) 1 F€n^. Mr. Dan Salvano. ta 11.

esrdent o[ mor. coted. (ey os . from op erot.[octur6r5 ond rhc FAA ihqr connot ba ond ro. fhe FM hos set Mor. rcid Alorn Brodin. 129 FAA TO BAN TURBOPROPS hes lormed oh of the wing deicers. Ahhough . "but we hove no yond . servrce. . signed b occrete ice ord serve os o vjsuoj c.cing conditions oi nigltl.ro. Foice NKt-t3SA lAw&sT )o^ 2.oprd rol onC suose.0OO ro $5OO. gvorontees beyond thi: yeor" thot the cenif rcohon ol -ronspon Coiegory.ns w.by $250.cers. Th6 in-flighr tosr! NTSE To iaorn more obout fraezing driz:le Avro cornponie:. been litttd with lorgol wing deicers o: wall v{lno so. b flighl into .ans.renr loss of control by the tlignt c'ew condit. Solvono soid. 7. flcd of no{s !.ount6rod by k6ting for Aoro lnr6rnotionol R6gionql broer EMBI20 Brosilio ir the onfy otb lhe Amerrcon Eogte ATR72 probobiy ex- {AlR) Morkotrng lnc.ce de'ecl'on sysle. coL:srng o.Le lhot lhe oircroh l. PHIIIIPS/WASHINGTON 'rrespectjve Frodrculo' orrcrolt'! Mosler Min.2OO oroblems ogsocrored wrrh forecosrrng jrs cr. f iting on unsofe condition rot covered r vUU serier. lo conl.ons. Ft. He expe<fs ese. 1c95. lh6 FAA is plonn. bul the FAA ir. In. I Require rhot ol' ice hghts be ope. Ai.eluctont" to exiind the com- rrenrperiod beyond. NKC-135A'.as copoble of prov. Aooendix C of Pon ouroprlor it ice is ooserved forming oft of plon3 lo issue qn oirworlhir€ss directive 25 o{ tire Federol Avrolion Regulolions. cro.ng ro. rhe U S N.r obou he donqer o[ lreezino roin po'qt.6sp5. monoger of the FAA's Rotorcroh Dires" lorote. de Hovillond DHC. ln oddition ro rh€ ATR72-20O.n's *. I994.n. 28.i.nin€ couse ol rhe occidenr. fi. uniquo orrcroh will romoin op€. occording ro Sorvono. Embroer EM& I 20.rt ocnon stem-s hom ihe ol'he copro.d 200 hicro4s. Jehtraom ond h.otc thol on qircrofi con oll rurbop'op regronol oircroh .l"or dote.equol. lonker oircrah is ovoiloble lor monr. ponrs wjll be encoJroged ro openly d s. Exrstrng'69J'otions requirc monufoc. honker for . 6r rsgionsl oircroft thot hos flown b+ ccod.E prio. Soob 340/20O0 series. the FAA lilicolion cnterio unde. ond ":s very. p. Vo. DRIZZI.ng oll turboproo re- glonol konspods rn U S.ometer ol 2O5O l"nic.s Indrcotes Solvsno soid.b. Worth. A. q 'criticol doto point' lor morr Brodin roid the snlirs U-S. inctud.rfqc./DHC-8.dtionol.ho'on ce r dge fo.bop'op The di.izzle or. Foictlild 5A226/227 o'rd Eeechcrofi Model 99 senes.Af ACCIOENT hos not only rejnlo. presence ond deveioprrent ol oclvonced ing conditions lor which it is not cerrifi" p. or wlrcn on unusuol joterol 'rim conoilon exisls.de how teez. AIR is o sol€s con. oy Moy lo. ll cosh monufocturors qbcu{ turafs to domonsi.1.ng in freezing roin ond drizzle 6y omend.t! cunent b'eodr$. Dornisr 228/328.d use of tne Lr by curranl certificotron rules. soid Don p. which regionol .ied rhe FAA ri cot the Russion deleqar. P 28).O0g ro chqaer $c operote iolery in *oter droplers hoving prohib.ot. on overogo d. zle.Sf Nov I4. ground6ored rests desiqned io oere. he soid.ot.mpor.ndow Tne probe is de- ing roin ond driz.n. p. vsr€ weother cgnditoru." ou'Florrici.hey moke evey eftn o orcd ured for Moy 68 rn Soringfield..fing flight in fteozinq roin ond dr. Z os lhe deodline For rece ving commenls.on ro p. ciorarrons obour teez.ly modihed U S. onolys.mum Equ p rnenl Lirt.y oll tu. lo lhe Airplone Flighr Monuol thor wouid: pilols use opgroved orocedures to. l lese o rcroti neel rc nq cer.srro o spe oher rhe neetrrg concjuoes.rng \.7. occordinq to tha 3orlium o[ $6 lormer ATR.n ond orrzzle q.oslr o[ on Americon Eogle AIR72.ve IN FREEZING RAIN.ronspo s ore su5ceprible . I P.ohibit u5e of the oirtopiiot when ice diolely exit freezrnq i.d.o1ot T'onsporrorion Soie-v rng on eorly worning ro p'lots The .o'rde.oircroh.c. qn Erh- The diomoler of dropreh . lurers. bur hos fo.luoi.Ma. not mondo no its conce.? e. Tre c.e5.ouA ot. Proyid. lhe wrng jg.cing tosts. tnd Iawd.l.nd rh.zle should be definad.os encounrered ic- or Roseldwn.ective would require chonges ln qdditron. fi6 di!6clive mondoies rhot powered regionol oirline oircroh hom fly.ng on rnrsmo lion 158 AlX4? ood ATRZ2 oircrslr how derived ftom groundbored rcs*ng. OPERATION Of Th! TANKtt ir funded side'exponding furprendix C of Porr 25 bo bnt doto on Feez:ng prec p ohon becou!6 through Fiscol I996.dding vrrtuol.rs€ ol The FAA rs sr'rl corducring speciol Eoord hos not determin€d rhe probobl! orrsrde vrsuol cues olso w ll be discussed. I AVIATION WEE( & SPACE lEcHNotocy/fcbrvory S.. ol exceptionr contoined in o IDWARD H..ol problemg Under severe icirg de.pg "\ /e ore 1or expeoing ro moke ony oe.croh.ng eoch oircroh's opprov€d A.ced cLsg lh€ isrue Fom o" operarronol rio. ord o-:2.ce evidence probes mounted ouiside inodvenently flyrng rnlb such reqions topics lo be discussed rncir. Brodin soid.llighf.um currendy scheci.mme rng rn heezinq roin ond drizzle. I -'mil use oi flops ond forb.med oh of . 820O ond tions ond tho.ofi chiefly offeded bv fie directive :nclude ti€ Jehheom 31/4i ArRA2/lZ. Scl" lionol icing !ympor.361. Port 25 qowm: of their extensrve llyrng experienco in s+. 199A.- plone Fl:gh. Solvono. Nov. 1996 37 Frqeee I . The FAA s drrectrve esrentiolly will mole Soi"ono soid.c.ojn condi- The direclve wil' orohibit dl l€osr l8 dii- lererl.

\ -. t.133.^ zl : I T--- . l."!lllR:tB:o :PrttiS:!33" f. F .l (. . l!!::. G.. $l i' ":p li I rR ti rl\.1 Q{ it /"4.t.-1-'rte4 f I e:! i ra.*-o\.er.. .N <l 2 . _. V l:'... l:9!t*iR::3t6 : : F l ..p.llc v j.) i/!€ . __.ti rl..t q h ro tt. 130 \.'"]! /D'.!l . (l\ ^rr :::::-5a!iro{r t! r- ry*€ j ! 1.l T Fl o o vJ \^t I -l\ . .-_. .-_ 'l' .rl . rU> lr4.a./ +l '.iz \ l(l .( ill..*.._ I t. "".8!1rr6 o?r 6.oNp..! 3h ta q: . )" t-'. t '.15-at Br)F4.i::d jo >+ i -* _ .-.

4...A (o4 .-onrrn I o... osr ll-o@ I cr* 0.n4 ".'i A60orr + {o. +' roe r-tt*e C..t +.a 16 t.:". ?: T.ihar'7 NA(^ 4ror5 (nrR_rz) t CA -'l .r6.--0.t g.. F. (F-rr) -$i It.lo c 'L L' '/6 .. ia o(..0ll -n e r)(.6t3 ..t<. +tt 'a t^.-.ea reoarea) V€Loc'rY PLor r r !. t. +ND NA.ic{r !iv! 4lo . lt9a A.]. lun -.0 I rrrl I 0 ran? | o..ll . @ q. .... ri]t .r. a.t.€ C6aeaa.". I 01L Lrx..r-03r r-rrLl' -r.re-ZZl I't/o*" tt1A (o|f t .' I e.'rr3 II tras.tr o. .cE (r.rtl r 7l-ooala Iol'e '.?er 7! I r{'r I or{?o I ot'l r r.1..n (i .rn J trt2st I o. \ t.. ln f.o.2 ll I o.+tt d.J . ldu) ro.rt' ^ &\. -l ".J Dotrrr"rr v.r I ndrr.r0. ioJr.Lr a !rl.1 . (/. P€ a Gdr.5 A rRFarLs (ae< 'eer. ?' ?.sqL. NJna rir '&r.rf ". iig 4r' ota t' lt I n. rtt . 0.. 1.o1{ .r .^ 1 31 $! . r 7.r -+t( ca'r.-:. ao e 'k B6u!oAAy LAlE\ 9 u'.ifort tru..?_1991 NAc{ b+ . F .ro N{rAnlf ?r€treaa l^.

6. 132 About the Author Harry Riblett.fe Jo-Ana never Diss going to the annual Oshkosh Convention. and is working on a (nearly finished) single seat original design. He has buj.s of typical ICubI construction. Allen is an. and installing aircraft runway arrest- ing gears. flies both regularly. he returned horoe. He sub- sequently worked a dozen or so years uith civilian coEpanies manufacturing.1t two homebuilt airplanes.active "Stardustertr pilot. bought a computer. developed his own GAtr series of airfoils. a Star- duster II and a CUBy. who operated a G. and sjx grand-children.1trj. and has been active ln sport avi-ation and EAA activities for many years. pusher.L flight school at l{j. Gail and Mark). nisappointed pith NASATS near total lack of enthusiasB for such a project. His interest in airfoil design prompted him to visit NASA langley j. tricycle gear. and j. 64 . He holds a Commercial ASEL pilotrs license. Delaware. testing. and the others give flmoral supportrr. and published his book. have three chj-ldren (Allen. June 1994 Harry Riblett 415 Riblett Lane Wilmington. Harry and his wj. The new project is a high-winC . He is an ex- president of }illmington Chapter #?4Q ana is cuEently a chapter Technical Advlsor. as yet unnamed. wlth fold- ing wings. Harry served as a Reservist Radar Officer/ Air ControLler on a USN cruiser during the Korean War.ngton airport iBmediat- ly following WV-II.n 1985 to encourage them to develop a EoderD aerles of airfoils specifically d€signed for General Avlation alrcraft. Harry got his early interest in aviation from his father. rrGA Airfoils- a Catalog of Airfoils for GeneraL Aviation Use't. Delaware 19808 n2/994-s479 . in Wilnington.50Lb. j-s a llechanical Engineer EM#2957 recently retired froo Hercules Inc.

: i.r-ich iJ a li.ft increase of onl-y Z5t. involves tl* rate of chanqe of the ns. hr.. it b.'I am using arrfoil (XyZ) on my airplane.rrd a.t the fT th.y... Since rer cannot shift q.4 to CI=.Lhe cg cointer so tilat the airplane will tend t-o return to its trirrrEd attitude and speed. or L-ith i . w^. tt"p"..ritrr tne ritt vecbo!. to reast the cqsiderabl" noi"Ic. accordilgJ.€np_Ie. reguires that the cG be located it arso must be dvnarnicaLlv stabt.-th."rd a negarive nErent of 80Q ft-Ibs about...^.tached sketch.Ld I use for ttre itt CG lirrlit? " It \.t" cG fore and aft in f1ight. prcduces J"6Q +5-"1_rll!. second. Frcm ti:-is \. at theh.E can see. Thus ttre resultant rift vecto! passes through the CG. -.e rlrltron is a "zero cq" aiJfoir which neans that tre airfoil rust be eitherdef_ fiEtrical' (uncanbered).l. but.3.on .315glang has precior.plane is veqr ri.ti-on' but by saying tl)at the srrn of the nrnents arFut the cG must be zero. and the airplane is statically stable. curpared t! a simirar oonventiorni airprani with flaps.L of the rear wi-ng will increase frcrn c1=.the cc.lri.ese airplane. It r.iff tfy leveL.. $E have rl^lc !. First.{] ]r)s.. for exatrq>l-e r. ccreratvely -ti. tt]al is. itri.nugic' quarce!-chord p"l"t. at the center of pressure of the.ve fiEflEnts about tle cG is zero. hhat shou. t.. arrplane. trr" t syn- edge rm:st be ref]exed sufficiently to achieve zero On. a nei stabilizing ncrent._ramins. and the aJt CG liJrdt. zero pit-ning -nr.il" La. no=e d'isturbance ocflrrs." -ot cr ro. 7 133 Aircraft Srabili-tv .^.. As Ln any airpLane.2 to cf=. A fl-ying wilg airplane doesnrt have to drag around a fuselage an& "i a tail.Sj-nce each one-degree change of angre of attack.tent airfoils nust be used. In prastice. the srope of the li-ft curve for any airfoil is'approxirrutery o. for. sirnilfuiy..rd wing . so. flaps are deployed.i need.Duld be nice ]l ]! yer" rtlat sinpJ-e.trc stalirity IrErely in rine r.Flvrnq Winq Airplanes.5. follorr'ing a disturbance frfir trifined ffgrrEl G-oe aynan. that for {e elevons.tt.pit"Lg n'-r=.et. Notice that the wins.changes can tre ha'dled.. the "pendurlm 6rr. thD conditions mlst be satisfied.ng and take-off high..' c€rdi.ica]]r stabre.bout tfle CG. rn a carrrd configr:rarion. rtrerer6rl. and the parUicul-ar airfoil belng used is only one factor affecting the ploblern.'balanceO. that is. T*9".E load the airplane per the ar.id for this suFposed advantage is tco high. the totar :::"_I_:t.. onefiying possibirity is to Locate the cG beneath the rrring as shou'.r. the rift of the for$ra. .ce" of the cG noving forwardup terd to bring the nose back d"'.'. cG.-wirl pricated_possLbility is to use elestronic sensors to detece the drresti-on and nrag- nitude of the disturban:e.Another nDle cqft.'and are gcnparatively inefficient in terrns of vD. an airfoir cp does nor itt""g" p"sid"" $"-llt*n ot attack changes. the ci.ca[y stable the disturbed airplane must scrrEhoe. but it isn't.isbry ttre angr. Ttris is the key to achievrng dynamic stabirity. no flaps can be used on tl.ls littr-e fiechanism to develop thii restoring rnxrEnt..rings operating in Earrd€m.*' to ttrl trre origi'ar Fositi. 9i:g !. so tlrat the airplane unai.sturb& .ql!Iq*$$]angs. with the CC Sit f6nrara of =: aft wrng c/4 pint. depend on many factors. for ( ving airplane.. ADDENDUM t'lo. F.vith a sudden stick noveneni. for there is no tair.iir. landj.hen . ttnt is. and T::... equalrng thg h919lt of the airplane. th"-r.hose . o.utili-ty tn" .plified is surprising hor9 lIEry builders ask this question . wtdle the -C.of the fona. a llyrng wrng.." range of tne ai.i ah. Aircraft longitudinal stability. If re novr apply a I degree nose-up distuibance to the ajrplane. posiri-re nE''Ent of 80Q fr-1b5 about tie cc. develop a net nirent about to the' direcLion of the d. and rhe surn of the positive and negatJ.. a li-ft inqrease of 50t. price pa. l. trai]jng onLy veqr srnalJ. *iog'"iir increase frcrn CI=. .r. to produce the needii ?Fpropriate accuation signals can be generated rLtoring rurlent a.at flying wing arrpranes invorve scne fai-rry serious desigrn restristions. the ":. the'picture changes. restricting the..istulbance. rre see that the forr{drd wing produces the AO lb. for any steady st-ate fight clcndition. "i-fj. sta!. so that .itq.s bregin by looking at the npst sj:rrcle case. .ting edge reflex can be changed slightry to trim out sfilali chairges in cc location. if canber ' is used in the alrfoil sestion. .urcstEbility. th. ents about on the o-ther han:.".o=*-up gust load... ccrnpleting tlre anarysis. l^ie descrih:e this ..

re tt'n the rur./ suppose orlr airplane section with a pitching nErrent of OrF-0. btrich spells inefficienry and relatively tt-igh ianding sFeds.r: sane.convent+onal Ailprare.h" !iir.*g .e CG 'r. since a starr of ttre forvard wing approaching touchdo^'n is rikery to cause a sudden nose drop.A further resEErcrion is trrat a car:.d on to produce a l-ift in either direction.f"i-J1j'ar*.{. -or if. ard sti. or both. hE can achieve a wi-de cc range. But since the *eight of the ai-lprane is stiu onry 24e lbs..-Jiir'rr ti.r negative ( nose d. the c' of ttre nain wing r_oufa Its off the chare. and the G> of the main At the wi-ng nov6s fonrard at or very close to tlE c/4 positron. even at the "t relatively ity.rgi:.iing.6 ft)=20.nfiguration.r*ra wing nust.ng the utirity ot tire airprane a"'=ign 6oi""eiu".derablv the . Accordi-nsly. and suppose the desj-gn li-ftuses a wing at cruise is Cldes=0.04. as qEII p.. with ttre cc it . is consj. L1e gllard aLrplane.asc.ard airprane shour-d not be flared on randing. aj}i the lifi coerfi-cient arso a aynarnicaiif condi-tion."ere greater . is rs=. that the prumry reguir€(ent for arly tal:Id.\.e s& tUt t]le maj-n coefficient wing @ is at . f Z. so:-r obeys the san= rul-es for stab.^Eff for instance in a c'h-in-class. As tong as the cG is f orvrard of ' tire aj-rilan" ..l dcnn-road. nhich first of all neans tlrat the a-irDlane is in a transitioial conditj-on.nn ) .rr" . of.45c (aft cc lir{dt).s itnr ti'r" r".rt . and re are satisfied that tail wirl not starl before t}Ie nraj.ere placed farther forr"and. l61l+avIn .. to bring the nose back dor. be n.8. rn our" anarysis.ity ir't roaoittg.u net stabirizing rEcEnt will after a disturbance. usual practice is to cunpro- mj. that the required Eil lift coefficient will be +0. load t-rre airplane with the cc at tt'is sa. u" fonard fuselage area. This is ttre stabiiizing nE(IEnt that re a-re looki-ng f or . -n . Lir-is neans that the nrain wi. taking rEflents dbout the cc.i.ay of irlu-stration..rAsA GAIFI ai. enrrinci. and anEunts to (34e tbs)(0. used on srnalle:: airplanes..n wing.= "t"l icnr p.oe {you're welccne)." -rt wit-t:-i' the range of our IEC-A 63A012 tail section. up or.s srigntry n.n tsnard th" . Fram the above r. . so that the of the arlplane wilJ. and use a syrnEtrical sect-ion for the tail'surfaces.ly of the tair' wir.zing). our wing airfoil has a C]rrEx of I. since the Lift coefficient of the rear wing (tail) i.e .e of thunb of r5-2og z0 sqft. Ttle net *t=l!_"l the airplane alout the cc is nor. airplane.5r for t. the neutra] point is the CG I. with do-O . A convenrionat aj. r. since there is no wastefur. gYtr€geous pitcLinE ntrEnt -if the of coeffj.n for tail surfaces. 134 i-ncreases frqn 8e to l.n """.dr-p at ttre "Lr. .ane wj-th a main wing area of g0 sqit.e.r-orane (taif in the rear ) is arso : -1"* arrplane. the airprane . is c^rl.E poi. For exarpr-e . ure pitching nsrEnt coefftcrent of . hcrdsver..tai."a fusel-aEe area ard stick-fjled (stabilj. No. rf r"e . unlike a canard."rpr"= JTtarl F. "*t -. ni-tti-ng considerabre flocibiJ. atl-tude - Ttrere a-re othe! lesser factors that af fest dynamc stal iiv.eynolds nunber and lcwJ aspect rario cc(Ifrlf.r."""n -b"l "ta effects .J. E\rthe!.iud-. as a1l ai-rfoils do."p. . wirr be staLic.' used the r.so nolice tlar trris is a parLrcul-arlv the trft effj.le . :: cne or i:B wrng area.s. Trr-is i.ci-free ( destabiirrinoJ. designed tail.Li= *r-by per- an arrpJ.z. q€ see L\at the resultant e is no longe! aligned with the cG. .ctlon in the conrroi...s.nt.does not starl before the main wing.r. and a c-onsiderable ( be and rEsteful ) tail dcr"n-load muld L requjred to trjrn Lhe airptane.:.aaitio.. tfre tor. The horizontaL tail surface. e" yldgh has a good VD ralio and decent ttlickness.rf oir . ro'"rer iian=a"ri" coefficient of thefonrnrd r. By r./ings is tne salrE. alext vre check to rnake sure the tair..rraia wing musi st ii before the rea:: wing. By using a=u!n -" tn.bove. it neans titat f]aps'cannoc be useci on the main wingl of a canard arrpJ'ane .i.rt .45c at cnris€. lt.cient ". + +If wlng . ttrii is a desi-rab. be see that this i-sstable. ar'd the li-ft of the rear wing increases frcnr I6Q Eo to 24e. In Lr1e case.rLher. for a totaL resulranL lift of 34e lbs."i" i.. vJe also note that the taiL cJ. lJe a-l. negr-esting -resurt the iesser factors rentroned above. be zero.ng than -nose can never reach its nra:<irun lif c coef fj-cient. rather che reverse.en wrng regarding dlnaruc 3rrplane i. r.These a-re not incruded in tne adve sinple anarysi.Iity as stated a. nrce o:ao:-2.y loaded than the rear wjng.4a ft-lbs.J.. f!:.i-poi." ul *1rr"n the Ci of both r..d.cient ai4>rar. the first thing we notice is tlEt ure aiiplane 90es up' lto\. ".rays siau."f"tiu"fy farge. Referring to the attached @ chart. dc'ern. sta]-l.. aid a horizontal tail a-rea in" of of rhe rnaln '"ring area.

{e mlst also investigate the spin recoverff properties of the airpLane at th-is CG location. that a srnal] anEunt of pitcllixg trErEnt c€€fficient in an airfoil can actually tre helpful in ach. r. This seerns to be a safe practice. characteri-stics of gre a:irplane a. at least in c€nventional. arld sirply put the aft CG lirnit at or near the i. hodever. such as the flat tails of tubular construccion ccflncn to l"ight aj"r- planes.'i:tg A. tllat is.re satisfaqeory.airplanes.IASA GAvFt ard -2 aq16i1s . At the other extrenE.. but r^orks against us on low wing airplanes. thus. studies serve no useful. at a[proxijrately 25-30i of chord.ng aj-rplanes.s tEper. as shoiml b'y lhe exafipIe above. and provided the spin recov- er!.re can be satisfied tt)at this is a safe aft CG limit. provided the tarl does noE stall before the nE-in wing. " I{o\a€ver. ltris involves a lthole nevJ set of paranEters. It is interesting to note.Ls tlEt NACA developed in the s-digit. so this condj-tj-on is dynamically sta-ble as r". the later I. Thus the zer*r airfoi. therefore a c€nservative pracLice with sj-rple airi planes is to ignore tie infLuence of t-he tail on the position of the airplane's neutral Foint. Before r. 23-25tC is often used as the aft CE ljmit prior !o f1ight tests. 9ie are not finished yet. for Io^. beyond the scope of tlai. PoorLy designed tail. at least unLil flight tests can be done to Fossilcly extend the CG range.nes larger than they need to be. t-tlat the CG peniulun effect rrrks for us on high wj..C. 135 less tfnr the wing cl.pu4)ose. horever. rrl'rich have gfl values 3 ti.ett 4/17/1996 . RenEnber. this is difficult to calsulate pEior to flight tests. wing airplanes. Holv shall rrE ans\re! tfle question posed in the first Paragraph above? The corleqE ansrrer is "ltle aft CG lijrdt shDuLd be slightly forviard of the aircraft neutral poijlt. riarrlt nibJ.e)'l. lte proF ably '. are equalfy ill-advised.ouldn't have been able to prove out this aft CC liJrrit with a gnalLer.ieving a wider CG range.

Jl ir -r Ir^ er ci t. 136 {.l t ._-lIrq. a i .t ! ila - '.J !: 1 I . -t lo f : r:..8 o g lr I f E .1 J -l rl ?g I .t ..tr E5t fl {a o .? fl It:tl !.rrPtJtlot ? > ' _1.*+l h o I . ti d €d i . {lr ra ?"* a! ti j-. t.<t.'1 q a..: lo It t !.'a'P : I tr' {..l .r-_. f { I J t ..r {q ol 's t nt 3 E.

And since the added thrckness is al-. Imported airplanes t"ouJ-d have to me€t the sanE perfornEnce reguirenents. 'ne'. at the fOg chord pos- ition.on at the hinge rine.s. that is.least soften the needless and troublesare discontinuity in the rnean li-ne tlrat these airfoil-s have at the . at1 withi-n current tectnorogy: (l) soft stalr airioil-s.cle concerning lAcro-Dynandcs Inc VG kits printed in the January 1996 issue of "Arr Progress'. the subject was discussed at scrne length in my papers "Design Notes for Tapered [iings". and "Tanr. ihen one engine quits ard hard rudder opposite the dead engine is applied to iold headrng. these vc's. Ttre first thing that FAA shoul-d do is to rescind ( after a suitable grace period of perhaps trno years ) the tl.nar flol airfoils.rard shj-ft of the airfoil mean line. ADDNiDUM NTI4BER 8 137 Vortex C.us high drag. r'-nus the vc's a. effective rudder designs.ing the Sharp Statl of t]e NACA 2301-2 Airfoil".s light twi'ns llave terribl-e flovr separati. one set j-s install- ed on the top surface of the ping. The rudder VG's reduce fls^. hcr. whrch we do not have with today's obsolete.?e certificates of at1 prop--driven twins that cannot show a unc lo.ring a sinpie fl-j-ght denpnstration. Ttren the arended type certificate for the rnproved "no \. effective drag bra-te. The prirE y effect. Three things are required. just what ire don't need. el-iminate or at . for the re-cerEification costs associated vrith najor design changes effectj.on. especialLy on prop-driven twins with one engine out. Ttris must be changed. and I5t thick for lani. the better approach is to design and build the planes properly in tbe first p1ace.€ver.rOc position on the I. just as if "gon6. the second array is instarled as crose as possj-b]e to the l-eading edge of the rudder. Of course. the si:rp1e hinged rudders used on nlfst of today. the rudder beccnes a large.rer thEn the normal stal1 speed of tl'e a-irplane. This el-minates the fl-c'vi separation that occurs at that point at high angles of attack. they increase the effective thick- ness of the wing.' r*ere appl_ied to the top surface.trc" nrcdel shoul-d be issued follo. better? It. Hhy does Vlichi-ta continue to build this trash.l pressure side of the defl-ect- ed rudder. garbage airplanes. and we strongly reccnrrend that anyone interested in the subject should read that exceLlent article. both sides. this second set is instaued near th6 triiung edge of Lhe fin.e design. l.15C Position. VJj-th that.'pe cerLificate systern. In ssrE cases. an increase of wing carnber.re very effective band-ards that address the poor wing and tail designs that ' are used on today's Iight tvrins (and ccnrnuter twlns ai well).ch a]ready have soft-stalr airfoils. Thus rne are forever v€dded to 40 and 50 year-ord technology. wj. !'Je also elaborate on an artj. \. The vG kj-ts basically contain tr4o sets of vorEex generators. Ttrus. tl. In this condj-tion.^ould at last tEve true twin-engine reliability. the prinary effect is sinply an increase in clnax.ncrease the trrickness of the bounciary rayer doenstream of the vc. to the detrirent of aafety.IACA 2301x airfoils that are used on npst GA liaht twins. 5/Li /1996 . selErati.!trj. the vc's give rnproved controJ-J-abirity ( eh-mination of \nrc ) as \nelf as a higher C]nax. without vc's.l on the top surface oi the wing. Harry Riblert .s the fauLt of the FAA t1.thout the prohibitiveLy expensj-ve "normFl-" c"itificallon procedure. such as "GA" airfoi-rs (2) t'ting tips ar least l2t thick ior turbulent airfoirs. thus. and (3) Low drag. and this is the key to good aileron i"=ponse. when placed at the . of the vc's is to i. across the entire wlngspan. magazine. separation on the 1o.direreas on the Cube and Charnps.Ji-thout the frorr. such as the articulated rudder used on the USAF C-I7. htlen \i€ knov. Both the increased thickness and the increased carnber result in a higher rnaximurn lift coefficient for the wing' l"bre urportantry. the stalr be- cdr'es soft and gentre.enerator Kits This paper discusses the highly effective vortex generator kits that are avaj-l- able to lolver stall speeds and inprove lcrvr-speed controllability. for the 2301x airfoiLs. even with one engine out.vel-y freezes t]. . this causes an uF.

8 .h tto llwww. The kit tor lhe Baion 5581C/!/E contains 106 vodex generalors mounted on lhe wirgs and on both sides of the rudd€r. plustuo strakes on tl* outside ol theengine nac€lles. NEW MODELS! sanau ssrc. .t redlces the Baron's Vmca by 10 knots and sells tor S2450. I tJO FRIDAY F A(r.b Fthu*. c o m /m i c ro '14 AtR PBoGRESS Aflordabte Ftyirs -"1 At J nq. saP Visit aur lnternet Web Site at .m i c r aa e ro.