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--

1552-1610

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1978
2

1986
18

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1.

Translation: essentially, is the faithful representative, in one


language, of what is written or said in another language.
(618-907):
, (960-1279)(1088-1158)
:
,
the source language the target
language(the receptor language),
: To
translate is to change into another language, retaining the
sense

20 60
Translation consists in reproducing in the receptor language
the closet natural equivalent of the source language, first in
terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style.(From The
Theory and Practice of Translation, 1969)
1message
formal structure 2
equivalenceindentity3
45

80

Translation may be defined as follows:


The replacement of textual material in one language by
3

equivalent textual material in another language.


1textual material

2
equivalents

3.

4.
1)

2)
3)

.
:

1
18 F

(1)A translation should give a complete transcript of the ideas


of the original work.
(2) The style and manner of writing should be of the same
character as that of the original.
(3)A translation should have all the ease of the original
4

composition.( A.F. Tytler: Essay on the Principles of


Translation,1791)
7

19

19
1898 faithfulness,
expressiveness and elegance

20 30

50

60

1881-1936

<>
5

1
2

3
4


2000

1descriptive text

2(expressive text)

3(vocative text)

components

1
2

a tempest in a
teapot

Lamb of God
Seal of God

1. The young man came down handsomely.

Come
down
handsomely

2. John can be relied on. He eats no fish and plays the game.

To eat no fish


to eat no fish To play the game to play
fair

3. Hilter achieved a successful and very destructive conquest


in the area.

conquest
very
destructive

4. It may be safely assumed that, ten thousand years ago,


before Caesar set foot in southern Britain, the whole
countryside visible from the windows of the room, in which
I write, was in what is called the state of nature.

T. H.
Huxley: Evolution and Ethics and Other Essays

17
F. BaconOf Study
5Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and
writing an exact man. And therefore, if a man write little, he
had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had
need have a present wit; and if he read little, he had need
have much cunning, to seem to know that he doth not.
Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics
subtile; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and
rhetoric able to contend. Abeunt studia in mores.

17

the
Milky Way
cat and mouse station()

1.Although it is we who really moving, the stars all seem to


circle round a point exactly above our North Pole if we live
north of the equator.

the stars all


seemNorth Pole, although
it iswho, we
if
although
if
although
C

2. The commander ordered our company to start the attack


before dawn.

Company
commander attackcompany

Salvation
3. I was saved from sin when I was going on thirteen.

13
4 There was a big revival at my Auntie Reeds Church.
10


Revival
church revival

5. The brokers hour is not only crowded, but minutes and


seconds are hanging to all the straps and packing both
front and rear platforms.

fully occupied,
crowded crowded
(straps)
platforms

II

6. Her conduct is a problem to me.

7. Youre more of a scholar than he is, but youve got less


common sense.

8.
At this his heart missed a beat and he became pale.
missed a beat
His heart jumped and the
color of his face changed
10Do you see any green in my eye?

III
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

11

11We havent seen each other since I lived in Shanghai.

lived since

---

American beauty
British warm
China town
China rose
Dutch comfort
English disease
French chalk
German measles
German shepherd
Indian summer
China (or Chinese) ink
Italian hand
Spanish castle
Turkish delight
2

bedclothes
black coffee
black book
black sheep
black words
black leg
blue wool
busy body
dead eye
dog ear
dry goods
hand money
12

honey cooler
man-of-war
machine-tool
night cart
red tape
street woman
sweet water
white city
white day
white feather
white slaver
white-headed
white-hands
white wine
3

be not in the same street

eg. His coat is not in the same street as that one you brought
last year.
break the ice
eg. There was an embarrassing silence, until one of them
broke the ice by offering the other a cigarette.
face the music
eg. There is no need for you to worry, if any thing goes wrong,
it is I who will have to face the music.
have words with sb.
eg. He had words with her.
have sth. in hand
eg. I have a long letter in my hand.
lend a hand
eg. If we all lend a hand, it would not take us long to get the
job home.
take ones time
eg. I can not enjoy a hurried breakfast, Id like to take my time
over it.
4
1 You cant come too early.
too can

2 We cannot pay too high a price for our national


security.

3 It is eight months since she taught English.

4 It is two years since I smoked.

13

5 I havent written to her since she lived in Beijing.


lived
since
since
She hasnt written to me since I came to Shanghai.
6 It is a wise man that never makes mistakes.

7 Its a good machine that works without power.

8 All his letter were not received.

9 Everything doesnt cause cancer.

10 I am too glad to visit your country.

14

How are your conditions?


Is your work busy?()Please reply
me early.Life here is very nervous.(
)The teachers give us too many exercises.(
)We have no method.

word for word


translationHow are you
getting on recently? Are you busy with your work? Please
write to me soon. Weve been hard pressed for time. The
teachers are always assigning us much homework. We have
no way out.

send to
We
drove him to the airport. We accompanied him to the
airport.
I take
my son to school.
His son
was sent to the front during the AntiJapanese War.

My father gave me a painting on my twentieth birthday.


We went to
the station to see him off.

The nurse helped the patient back to the sickward.


Her English was so good
that I was shocked. Shock
15

good
:Aids is becoming a more popular illness these days.
popular Popular
popular common.

1500
449-1100 1100-1500
1500-

40 1976
50
100
6000
------------

4.9 5.6 1973


40 1960
55
200 5472
60

150

16


400
1300


(the study of politics)(to study politics)
(to overcome difficulties) (a difficult
problem) (to get out of danger)
(exceedingly dangerous)

X X X X X X X
X

book
books
third person singular s;
footfeet;
(tense) go-went-gone
I am writing a letter.()

17

I wrote a letter yesterday.


I have written a letter.

I shall write a letter tomorrow.()

write

goldfishhistory teacher

We drink water

1 hypotaxis

parataxis

(abstract noun)preposition

relative pronounclause

The isolation of the rural world, because of distance and


the lack of transport facilities, is compounded by the paucity
of the information media.

subject predicate

The isolation of the rural world, is


compounded

18

Because there is a great distance and there are not


enough transport facilities, the rural world is isolated. This
isolation has become more serious because there are not
enough information media.

Carlisle Street runs westward, across a great black bridge,


down a hill and up again, by little shops and meat-markets,
past single-storied homes, until suddenly it stops against a
wide green lawn.

runs

Inadequate training for farmers and the low productivity


of many farms place the majority of country dwellers in a
disadvantageous position in their own countries.

Qing-wen greeted him with a smile, exclaiming, A fine


19

one you are! On the spur of the moment you bade me grind
ink for you this morning. But you threw down your brush and
went away after having written merely three characters.
Youve kept me waiting for you the whole day. You are to use
up this ink now. Be quick!

Nothing has happened since we parted.

I went out for a walk after I had my dinner.

He has to stay at home because he is ill.

He cannot be operated upon as he is very weak.

Tragedies can be written in literature since there is


tragedy in life.

His chief contribution was making me realize how much


more than knowledge I had been getting from him.

His chief contribution

The people of a small country can certainly defeat


aggression by a big country, if only they dare to rise in
struggle, dare to take up arms and grasp in their own hands
the destiny of their own country.

20

It was a keen disappointment when I had to postpone the


visit which I intended to pay to China in January.

finite verb
non-finite verb
infinitiveparticiplegerund
attributive clause

He took his students to the factory for a visit.

Given enough time, I can do it too.

Taking a dictionary, he began to prepare his lessons.

They left for the field, shouldering hoes.

The children came running to greet us.

Thank you for giving us so much help.

A man who doesnt try to learn from others cant hope to


achieve much.
()There+be it
There+be+
+ there

be seem to be, happen to be, likely to be, bound to be


live, come., enter, run, stand, occur, lie

There was an English evening party in the hall last night.

There is a picture on the wall.

There runs a river at a distance.

Once there lived an old fisherman in a village by the sea.

21


There happened to be none in the room.

it
It is difficult to translate the original adequately.

He feels it his duty to help others.

It was in the club that we met her.

It is the wind shaking the window.

(Footsteps are heard) Oh, it is Li Ming coming back.

It is a red flag.
The man you saw yesterday is his father.

He always keeps his promise.


They walked along arm in arm.

The deadline was extended for three days.

Has the letter been mailed?

A renewal notice and return envelope are enclosed for your


convenience.

It should be understood that to err is human.

22

This car handles easily.

The books sell well.

These shirts wash well.

This composition reads well.


Water heats readily.

The door wont lock.

Velvet feels smooth.

She does not photograph well.


Damp clothes iron easily.

The gate is opening.

The cakes are baking.

The cow was milking.

Oranges are selling cheaply.

Drums and gongs were beating.

123
4
+

article ,a, an, the


(relative pronoun and adverb)who, which, when, where,
why
there is it

23

Nouns
Verbs
Adjectives
Adverbs

Pronoun
Prepositions

Conjunctions

Interjections

Articles

You can happy your friend,


malice or foot your enemy, or fall an axe on his neck.

foot

Who chaired the meeting?


It can seat a thousand people.
We should shoulder these responsibilities.
I hope we can room together.
They breakfasted at the guesthouse.

24


eye

nose
lip

beard
brain
jaw

arm

elbow

hand
thumb
skin
stomach
limb
knee
foot
mouth

to eye
to nose
to lip
to beard
to brain
to jaw
to arm
to elbow

To elbow ones
way through a
crowd,

to hand

to thumb

to skin

to stomach

to limb

to knee

to foot

to mouth

worm
dog

fish

fox

ape

mouse

wolf

to worm into ones confidence

to dog a persons footsteps

to fish out
to fox outfox
to ape
to mouse
to wolf

father

to father
mother

to mother
floor

to floor

summer

to summer
bottle

to bottle
corner

to corner

round
to round

sour

to sour

wet

to wet

25

narrow
dry

bare

brave

to narrow
to dry

to bare

to brave

story

1. Oh, what a story!


2. To make a long story short.
3. It is another story now.
4. He storied about his academic career and his
professional career.
5. Once the story got abroad, I would never hear the last
of it.

6. I dont buy your story.


7. Stories circulated first in Moscow.

8. I have tried all I could do to silence such a story.

9. Her story is one of the saddest.


10. Johns tale sounded to me exactly like a fish story.

11. The story about him became smaller and faded from
the public eye by and by.

12. I dont want to get a wrong idea of me from all these


stories you hear.

13. You put me on the spot. I have to cook up a story this


time.

14. A young man came to the police office with a story.

15. It was reported that the general was dead, but officials
refused to confirm the story.

kill :
1. He killed the man.
2. He killed the dog.
3. They killed the proposal.

26

Please kill the engine.


He is dressed to kill.
You are killing me./
She kills her child with kindness.
He took a snack to kill her hunger.
He killed time every day at the park.

10. He killed the motion when it came from the


committee.
11. He killed himself with overwork.
12. He killed the spirit of the group.
13. The news killed their hope.
14. These flowers kill easily.
15. He killed three bottles of whiskey in a week.

kill ones appetite


kill time
kill the peace
kill the mood
kill a marriage
Eric
Partridge Words do
not have meanings: people have meanings for words.

3000
736

27%

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

-ness
fruitfulness
greatness
illness
-ion
realization
discussion
decision
27

-ship
friendship
scholarship
statesmanship
-hood
childhood
kingdom
likelihood
-dom
freedom
kingdom
officialdom
-th
truth
warmth
length
-al
refusal
approval
arrival
-ment
movement
argument
judgment
-ing
building
feeling
painting

abstraction
necessity
relativity

commodity
intensity
infiltration

corrosive
jealousy
arrogance

He is at it again.

He is no in it.

We talked on over fresh tea.

If your mother sees your torn trousers, youll be in for it.

Noun

kindness, wisdom, humility, youth


invitation, movement, choice, arrival, assistance,
discovery

1
He was always an unwelcome intruder.

Their refusal to attend the conference embarrassed the


chairman.

He can see beyond the simple happenings to their farthest


28

implications.

They went on across the desert and into China.

2
Our appeal remained a dead letter.

It is a near miss.

She talked to him with brutal frankness.

He wondered whether his outspokenness might be a liability


to his friend.

3
a rewarding book

passing joy

loving glances

a demanding job

morning briefings

a hitchhiking trip

vanity surgery

fault-finding

ideas behind the times

to read between the lines


something beyond a joke

to my liking

3
1
1

a.

dis- appear
disappear

agree
disagree

unhappy
unhappy

fair
unfair

informal informal

active inactive

impolite impolite

moral immoral

re-
write
rewrite

form
reform

mis-
spell misspell

understand misunderstand
en-
rich
enrich

able

enable

29

self-

locking self-locking
defense self-defense

b.

-er read
reader
-or act
actor

visit visitor
-tion
object objection

operate operation
-ment
treat treatment
argue argument
-ness
ill
illness
-ship
hard hardship
friend friendship
-al
music musical
-an
Italy Italian
-ern
west
western
-ful
use

useful
-able
move
moveable
-ish
fool
foolish
-ly
month monthly
-ive
act
active
-y
wind
windy
-less
help
helpless
-en
deep
deepen

-fy
simple simplify
-ize
modern modernize
-ly
wide
widely
simple simply
2

a.
dust+bindustbin
sun+lightsunlight
b.
world+wideworldwide

man+mademan-made

good+lookinggood-looking
white+hairedwhite-haired
c.
safe+guardsafeguard
white+washwhitewash
3

calm(adj.) calm(n.)
good(adj.)
good(n.)
water(n.)
water(v.)
30

4
a.
use/ju:z/v.
use/ju:s/n.
contest/k ntest/v.
contest/k ntest/n.
permit/p mit/v.
permit/p :mit/n.
close/kl uz/v
close/kl us/adj.
record/rik :d/v
record/rek :d/
refuse/rifju:z/v.
refuse/refju:s/n.
perfect/p fekt/v.
perfect/p :fekt/adj.
b.
advice(n.)
advise(v.)
belief(n.)
believe(v.)
relief(n.)
relieve(v.)
c.
blood(n.)
bleed(v.)
food(n.)
feed(v.)
gold(n.)
gild(v.)
speech(n.)
speak(v.)
tale(n.)
tell(v.)
d.
2

1
a.

b.

2
+---
+---
+---
+---
3
---
---
4

3
1

workworker
simplesimplify
carecareful
carefulcarefully

31

Economy! Comfort! Efficiency! Everything!

Interpol (international + police)


Heliport(helicopter + airport)
2

laser(light amplification by stimulated emission of


radiation)
radar(radio detecting and ranging)
UFO(unidentified flying object)
MP(member of parliament)
3

1
lab(laboratory)
tech(technique)
hi-tech(high technology)
2
maths(mathematics)
rept(report)
3
phone(telephone)
bus(omnibus)
4
flu(influenza)
fridge(refrigerator)

:labs, UFOs, skylab


2
1
1

2
1

2
32

3
1

4
a.

b.

3
1
lasercon(laser converter)
telstar(television star)
2
mobot(mobile robot)
infranics(infrared electronics)
3
Dopplar
Optophone
4
GSV (guided space vehicle)
RATO (rocket-assisted take-off)

1
anti-G suit G
gravitation
2 BM ballistic missile
anti-BMLL
laser
3 electronic
brain robot() IT
calculation computation
translation T translator
translator input
IT input translator

33

465-532

I bought six pens which cost me thirty yuan. When I took


them back home, I found they were second-hand.

One will fail unless one perseveres.


Keep on, or well fail.
If you dont hold on, you will fail.

If he comes, I will go.

Since he comes, I will go.

When he comes, I will go.

As he has come, I must go now.


It made me upset.

The heat makes me sweat.

34

She showed up in a graceful manner, gleaming with


jewelry.

You can sit tight in the fishing boat despite the rising wind
and waves.

Pitch dark, I dont know whether it is a day or night.


Ill remember if I live to be a hundred! said Aroma. Im


not like you, letting what I say go in at one ear and out at the
other forgetting whats said at night by the next morning.

His passion carried him astray.

Neither sorrow nor regret followed my passionate


outburst.

Memories of that historic and happy occasion still linger.

An idea suddenly struck him.

The sight of the orphan always reminds me of the parents.

The most notable is the further willingness of people to


speak their minds.

Her illness kept her in hospital four weeks.

Simplicity of language demands, in the first place, that the


texts should be colloquial rather than literary, that they
should be written in short sentences, not in long and
complicated clauses.

The case in which the patient is running high fever and


suffering from continuous convulsion has got into grave
danger indeed.
His case is really serious, as he is suffering from high
fever and continuous convulsion.

35

laser, radar

sound

Air carries sound


sound
sound
noun:
1.sth that you can hear
a high/low sound
the different sounds and smells of the forest
2. the effect that is produced by the music of a particular
singer or group of musicians ,
I like their sound..
3. impression the sound of sth.,
From the sound of things you were lucky to find him.

4. water ( of place names) a narrow passage of water that


joins two larger areas of water syn:strait
verb
1. give impression
His voice sounded strange on the phone.
2. sounding ()
fine-sounding words
3. produce sound
The bell sounded for the end of the class.
4. give warning/signal
When I saw the smoke, I tried to sound the alarm.

5. produce
You dont sound the b in the word comb.
6. measure depth
adj.
1. reliable the reach a sound conclusion
2. thorough
a sound knowledge/understanding of sth.
36


He has a sound grasp of the issue.
3. not damaged/hurt
We arrived home safe and sound.
The house needs attention but the roof is sound.

4. sleep: deep and peaceful


to have a sound nights sleep
5. good, but not excellent
a sound piece of writing
6. physical punishment ,
to give sb. a sound beating
round
1. In the first round our football team has had three wins and
one defeats.

2. The earth rounds the sun.

3. The earth is round.


4. The exciting news soon carried round.

5. The earth goes round the sun.

work
16. This method worked very well.

17. It is due to the invention of the computer that man has


been able to work so many wonders in the past few
decades.

work work
method
worked very well
work
wonders


carrier

:
18. A porter is a baggage carrier.
19. Flies and mosquitoes are carriers of infectious diseases.
37

20.

21.

22.
23.

24.

The solder glass is in a powdered form and is


suspended in a liquid carrier for ease and accuracy of
application.

Before work you must carefully check whether flat tool


is fastened on the tool carrier.

The pilot landed his plane on the aircraft carrier.

An alternative method is to transmit the combined


digital signal from the parallel channels by frequency or
phase modulation of common carrier.

In a crystal at equilibrium a dynamic balance exists


between carrier generation and recombination.

II

1. A sofa is a compromise between a chair and a bed.

compromise

2 Nixon was pleased by the distinction, but not


overwhelmed.

distinction
overwhelm

3.We are all human beings, and have the same organs
and share the same experiences and agonies.
organs:

the same organs


experiences agony
agony

4.Every life has its roses and thorns.

roses thorns
38


5.There is a mixture of the tiger and the ape in the
character of the imperialists.

tiger ape

6.The ill-paid workers ought to save sufficient means in


their early days to support themselves in the decline of
life.

ill-paid

III

nobleheroicsacrifice
politebravekindness

:accomplice cheat
,crueldie-hard()invasion

1. Our conference did in the end make detailed plans for the
invasion. The date was to be 4 June, 1944.
X
1944
6 4
2. We had been conferring with our allies on the crucial
question of whether and when the island should be
invaded.
X X

Our conference We
invasion invaded invasion, invade

ambition
3. I am very reluctant to give up an ambition which I have
cherished for over twenty years.
20
4. The domineering ambition of Hitlers Germany was not
satisfied.

incite
39

5. The captains example incited the men to bravery.

6. The plotters incited a crowd riot.

He admires the Presidents stated


decision to fight for the job
admires
stateddecisionto fight
(for)

1
1) One after another, speakers called for the downfall of
imperialism, abolition of exploitation of man by man,
liberation of the oppressed of the world.

2 Until 1972, all efforts by the two nations to curb the


nucleararms race had foundered on one point: U.S. insistence
on the right to make on-site inspections of the Soviet strategic
arsenal and Russias refusal.

3)Rockets have found application for the exploration of the


universe.

1)As sight and sound of our jet planes filled me with special
longing.

2 As the week drew to a close, the enemy rout was


complete.

40

3 -er teacher , thinker

1)I am afraid I cant teach you swimming. I think my little


brother is a better teacher than I.

2)Talking with his son, the old man was the forgiver of the
young mans past wrong doings.

teacher, forgiver
She is
a well-known singer singer
Some of my class-mates are
good singers singers

4 To have a rest To
have a good look at rest look.
1)They took a final look at Iron Mike, still intact in the
darkness.
---
2 The next new bulletin, shorter than usual, made no
mention of the demonstration.

across, past, toward


1)Party officials worked long hours on meager food, in cold
caves, by dim lamps.

2)Coming! Away she skimmed over the lawn, up the path,


up the steps, across the veranda, and into the porch.

confident, certain, careful, cautious, angry, sure, ignorant,


afraid, doubtful, aware, concerned, glad, delighted, sorry,
ashamed, thankful, anxious, grateful, able
1)Doctors have said that they are not sure they can save his
life.

2)The fact that she was able to send a message was a hint.
But I had to be cautious.

1)As he ran out, he forgot to have his shoes on.


41


2) That day he was up before sunrise.

3)She opened the window to let fresh air in.

1
1Formality has always characterized their relationship.

2)To them, he personified the absolute power.

1)In the early dawn, the guard towers were silhouetted


against the sky.


+ +
1 Snow was treated very shabbily by the U.S. press and
officialdom during this period, victimized for his views.

1
1They did their best to help the sick and the wounded.

2)Robin Hood and his merry men hated the rich and loved and
protected the poor.

2
1Stevenson was eloquent and elegantbut soft.

2)The Wilde family were religious.

3)They were considered insincere.

1 The pallor of her face indicated cleared how she was


feeling at the moment.

2)The security and warmth of the destroyers sick bay were


wonderful.

1The blockade was a success.

42

2)As he is a perfect stranger in the city, I hope you will give


him the necessary help.

3)Independent thinking is an absolute necessity in study.

1)Occasionally a drizzle came down, and the intermittent


flashes of lightning made us turn apprehensive glances
toward Zero.

2)We took brief, restless naps, struggled to understand the


intermittent broadcasting of Radio Prague,

2
1 The film Carve Her Name with Pride impressed him
deeply.

2)He routinely radioed another agent on the ground.

3)The President had prepared meticulously for his journey.

1)This is sheer nonsense.

2)Buckley was in a clear minority.

1
1)When he catches a glimpse of a potential antagonist, his
instinct is to win him over with charm and humor.

2The new mayor earned some appreciation by the courtesy


of coming to visit the city poor.

1)They have not done so well ideologically, however, as


organizationally.

2)Tact must be used in requesting permission; and unless it is


given willingly and cordially, the patrol shall not be landed.

43


3)He is physically weak but mentally sound.

amplification

I
A
1. Are you sure?
Absolutely.

2Is John coming to the party?


Im afraid not.

B.

3.The fox may grow old, but never good.


may grow

4.The letter I stands for the current in amperes, E the


electromotive force in volts, and R the resistance in ohms.
E R stands for
I E R
5.A grass eating animal cannot exist without grass, a predator
without prey, a plant without certain basic chemicals or
certain kinds of soil. predator plant cannot
exist

6. Better be wise by the defeat of others than by your own.


It is better to be wise by the defeat of others
than to be wise by the defeat of your own.

II
A.
7. A black hole is a theorized celestial body.

8. Their activities and habits afford a lifetimes study.

9The molecules get closer and closer with the pressure.

10. Testing is a complicated problem and long experience is


44

required for its mastery.

B.
11He was weak and looked pale from his long illness.

12.This bike is indeed cheap and fine.

13.He paled with rage.

14.Martin Luther King became a black leader of national


importance.

15.The next year the bill became law and ended inequality in
buses, hotels and other public accommodations.

16.We have found a solution of the problem.

17.From the evaporation of water people know that liquids


can turn into gases under certain conditions.

18
18.He allowed the father to be overruled by the judge, and
declared his own son guilty.

19.After getting up, he dresses, brushes and washes.

20.They went to Florida by Ford.

21.According to Einstein, time is relative.

22.Deep into the night, outside Washington, the bus pulled


into Howard Johnsons.

Howard Johnsons

L.
45

in shortto sun
upand all thatand so on,

23.We often use the words up and down. Are these notions
absolute or relative?

24.For such applications as home study, industrial training


and self-education, there is already evidence of growth.

M.

25.Theory is something but practice is everything.

26.Grasp all, lose all.

27.The strongest spring leads to fatigue failure caused by


excessively high stress.

Repetition

I
A
1. We like blue les than red but more than green or yellow.

2. Mr. Jarden was playing for high stakes, but so was Mr.
Marcus.

3. Other western inventions, such as paper or gunpowder,


are often taken for granted, without their far-eastern
origins being remembered.

B .
4. Be polite, above all, to old people.

5. Do whatever you please.

C.

6. Eating and drinking, he has passed through his life.

46

7. Einstein was purely and exclusively a theorist.

8. When he was introduced to the famous actress, he was so

nervous that he was tongue-tied.

9. The stamp collector is said to have a unique stamp.


10. We loved each other tenderly.

II
A
11. They want to stop the experiment, but I prefer not to.

12. Reading exercises ones eyes; speaking ones tongue;


while writing ones mind.

13. Grammar deals with the structure of language, English


grammar with the structure of English, French grammar
with the structure of French.

B
1
14. We must do our best to develop the students ability to
analysis and solve problems.

15. Operators should inspect and oil their machines before


work.

2
16. On a fine day the sight of foreign seamen, or of tall ships
from far away, or of an exotic bit of merchandise from
halfway round the world gives us a pang of jealousy of the
men who move about over the sea viewing the wonders of
the deep.


sight jealousy

C.

1
17. There is air all around us although we cannot see it.

47

18. Jesse opened his eyes. They were filled with tears.

19. But everywhere men feel a compulsion to pit their strength

against the sea, to explore it and wander about on it, to


use it for their own ends and wrest its wealth from it.

2
20. Big families had their own difficulties.

21. Ours is an old country.

22. The cook turned pale, and asked the housemaid to shut the
door, who asked Brittles, who asked the tinker, who
pretended not to hear.

4-ever
23. Ill take whoever wants to go.

24. You may take whichever will interest you best.

25. Wherever there is matter, there is motion.

26. Well come to see you again whenever we have time.

5 one ( ones),that(
those)
27.I have two blue shirts and three white ones.

27. About 65 million years ago the dinosaurs just disappeared.


What could have caused that?
6500

29.I havent got a raincoat. Ill have to buy one.

(omission)

1. A dictionary is a good teacher.


48

X X
2. He started hitting the bottle at 18.
18

II

3. He knows hes too tired to read, and hes just wasting time.
x

4. A stick can be thrown far away, and the dog enjoys running
after it, and searching for it until he finds it.

it

5. Her dark hair waved untidy across her forehead, her face
was short, her upper lip short, showing a glint of teeth, her
brows were straight and dark, her lashes long and dark,
her nose straight.

6. These homing pigeons begin their training when they are


about four weeks old. 4

III

7. On the evening of December, 1955, in Montgomery, a bus


stopped at an intersection.
1995 12 1
Intersectioncrossroads
8. Smoking is not allowed in classroom.
9. They arrived in London on May 20. 5 20
5 20

10. The children are the beautiful flowers in spring.

IV

11. Early people got up at sunrise and went to bed at sunset.


and at

12. Where there is a will, there is a way.


13. Unless there is motion, there is no work.
49


14. Never get on or off the bus before it comes to a standstill.

V.

15. The second summer in Indiana, like the fist, was a summer
of much hard work and little play.

16. These facts are related to the problem.

17. Rontgens discovery was a stone with its waves.

18. These animals made an adjustment to the new


environment in a short time.

19.
Oculists finds that a childs eyes do not
reach full development until about twelve years of age.
12

20.
Now we have solved the problem and
have arrived at the same conclusion as they arrived at.

arrived at
VI.

21. His father is an oculist, or an eye-doctor.

22. This medicine, or drug, has a violent effect.

Negation Negation

Negation
Negation
1.Full negative()2. Absolute negative3.
Semi negative( ) ;4. Words, or phrases, with negative
implication

1.I dont think Tom is correct.


50


2.
I dont think Xiao Li will come tomorrow.
I think Xiao Li wont come tomorrow.
3. A: Are you not going tomorrow?
B. No, Im not going.

4. Africa is not kicking out Western Imperialism in order to


invite other new masters.

5. The world today is far from peaceful.


far from

6.
Our PLA is worthy of being called a great army of the people.
7.
He tries his best to overcome the lack of technical data.
8.
The window refuses to open.
9.
Yesterday he failed to get to school on time.
10.
They excluded children (from) getting in.
11.
That building is in a state of neglect.
12.
Hes often absent-minded.
13.
To do this beyond my ability.
14.
Lei Fengs noble deeds are above all praise.
15.
I, rather than you, should do the work.
16.
The truth is quite other than what you think.
17. She refrained from laughing.

18. She was refused admittance by them.

19. An opportunity is not likely to repeat itself.

20.
Live up to the expectations of our own people and the people
throughout the world.
21.
Slips are scarcely avoidable when youre new to your work.
51

22.

There are two aspects to everything; to say there is only one


is to be aware of one aspect and to be ignored of the other.
23.

In technology, I think first we have to follow others in most


cases, and it is better for us to do so, since that is what we
are lacking at present and know little about.
24.
The meeting were marked by such an absence of lively
discussions that at times they were almost on the point of
breaking up.
25.
avoid operating the keys roughly.
26.
The scientists made a solemn pledge at the conference,
saying, Well for ever live up to what our Party expects of
us.
27. The evidence is conclusive, excluding all possibilities of
doubt.

28.
The County Party Committee there is ignorant of conditions at
the lower levels.
29.
The fellow is far from being honest.
30.
The city and the areas around it are an ice-free port and a
nuclear-weapon-free zone.
31.
Luan Ping stood still, trying vainly (in vain) to answer the
battery of questions Yang Zirong raised.
32. Mr. White has refrained from making any official comment
on the coup in that country.

33. That served to strengthen instead of weaken our


determination (or: That strengthened, rather than
weakened, our determination.)

34. But for the workers help, we should not have succeeded in
this experiment.

35. All that glitters is not gold. (or: All is not gold that glitters.)

36. All is not lost. John Milton

37. George Bernard Shaw once said,All criminals are not


murderers.
52

38. But all men are not born to reign.

39. All graduates from the Foreign Languages Institutes will


not be appointed to do translation work.

40. All that flatter you too much are not faithful friends.

41. Both children are not clever.

Two noes make a yes.


The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

1.We never thought of nothing wrong.


We never thought
of anything wrong.

2.They would not eat themselves, and would not let others
neither.
neither either

(Division).
1So I swam and, presumably because of the long absence of
foreigners from Sichuan, before an undeservedly large and
enthusiastic audience.(From an article written by John
Service.)

53

5
because of before
undeservedly

(Fusion)
2.When someone asks me what business I am in, I become
embarrassed. I stutter and stammer. My face feels hot.

I
A

(1)
3.He is having an identifiable trouble with his teeth.

4.The day dawned misty and overcast.

5.As a shy young visitor to Einsteins home, I was made to feel


at ease when Einstein said, I have something to show you.

(2)
6.Frankly, are you interested in going?

7.Not surprisingly, those who were praised improved


dramatically.

8.Characterically, Mr. Harold concealed his feelings and


watched and learned.

3
9.We recognize and share Chinas resolve to resist the
attempts of any nation which seeks to establish global or
regional hegemony.
54

Share
share

4
10.She left home a child and came back a mother of three
children.

11.As a secret training base for a revolutionary new plane, it


was an excellent site, its remoteness effectively masking
its activity.

1
12.He was dressed, sitting by the fire, looking a very sick and
miserable boy of nine years.
9

13.He handed me my draft of the plan completely modified.

2
14.The fire started during the workmens dinner hour.

15.With all his faults, I like him.

3
16.Alice, normally a timid girl, argued heatedly with them
about it.

17.You should consult your advisor, Dr. John H. Olson, Room


125D Science Wing, Phone 715 232-2604, concerning the
planning of your program.
.H.
125D 715232-2604
C

18.But underneath the sympathetic talk, they actually feel a


little wistful envy of the men who brave the winds, rain,
snow, cold, and storms upon the restless water.

who
who the men.
19.A spirited discussion springs up between a young girl who
55

says that women have outgrown the jumping-on-a-chairat-the-sight-of-a-mouse era and a major who says that
they havent.

20.We have nothing to do with David Swan until we find him


at the age of twenty on the main road from his home to the
City of Boston where his uncle, a businessman, is going to
give him work in the store which he owns.
. 20

until where
to the city of Boston a
businessman
II
A
21.It was 2 a.m. on a hot August night. In a San Francisco
suburb, a man staggered out of a bar.
8

22.People are the same everywhere. They are born. They are
babies. They are children. They are adults. They grow old.
They die.

B
23.Her dress was grey and plain, but it fitted her body nicely.

C
24.Thats the only thing we can do now.

25.Thats why you should put one item of information on each


of information card.

D
26.Pitcher was a quiet man. He didnt usually let his face show
his feelings.


I
56

A
1.This book has been translated into several foreign language.

B
2.The machine here are all made in China.

C
3.Im flattered.

D
4.Unfortunately, their plan failed and we mercilessly criticized
by their opponents.

II
A

5.Both the father and the son were thrown into prison.

6.Wherever she went, the princess was welcomed with great


enthusiasm.

7.The children were taken care of by their grandparents when


we were away.

B.
This book was written in 1912. 1912
1912

1
8.This project should be finished as soon as possible.

9.This must be made clear to everybody.

10.This issue is not much talked about in China.

be+

11.She is dressed in red.

12.We are convinced that our team will win.

13.The gun is loaded.

14.The gun was quickly loaded again.


57


15.University of Electronic Science and Technology of China is
located in the eastern part of Chengdu City.

16.Smoking (is) prohibited.

it

17.It is said that the old man is a millionaire.

18.It is well known that Hong Kong has been


part of China since ancient times.

It is reported that

It is supposed that

It is hoped that

It must be pointed out that

It must be admitted that

It is believed that

It is generally considered that


It will be said that

It was told that

(3)

19.We were very much impressed by what she had


said.

20.Everybody in the room was shocked by his thundering


voice.

21.The downtown area of Tokyo was practically destroyed by


the earthquake.

to get+

22.They got married last Sunday.

23.Jack got caught slipping a note to Lisa during the exam.

58

I
++
it++
A.
1That she survived the earthquake is sheer luck.

2.Who ever breaks the regulations deserves a fine.

3.Which result is correct remains to be studied.

4.What little she said has left us much to think about.

5.That he was in error will scarcely be disputed by his


warmest friends.

B. it

1
6.It hasnt been made clear when the new expressway is to be
opened to traffic.

7.It occurred to him that he had forgotten to take his notebook


with him.

2
8.It doesnt matter where we are going on holiday.

9.Has it been announced when the planes are to take off?

3
10.It is common knowledge that the whale is not a fish.

11.It is probable that he has got the clue for solving


the problem.

12.It seems that that datum is quite convincing.

It is advisable that

It is desirable that

It is evident that

It is noteworthy that

It is assumed that

It cannot be denied that

59

It is preferred that

It is reported that

It is said that

It can be seen from this that


It is well-known that

It is a fact that

It is no wonder that

II.
A
13.This is what we are firmly against.

14.Things are not always as they seem to be.

15.That is why we decided to put the discussion off.

B
16.There is no air and water on the moon. Thats why no living
things can live there.

17.That was how they were defeated.

C
18.Raw material is what we are badly in need of.

III
A 19 20
21 22 23

19.I cant make out what they are talking about.

20.She reminded me that I had a meeting to attend that


evening.

21.He was not conscious of what an important discovery he


had made.

22.You may be sure that he is honest.

23.We are certain that well be able to accomplish the


designing in a short period of time.

24.Did she say anything about how the work was to be


done?

D it

60

25.We all thought it a pity that the conference should have


been cancelled.

26.The teacher made it clear to the students that they must


hand in their compositions by Friday.

IV
A

27 Then arose the question where we were to get the
materials
needed.

28. In July 1898, Madame Curie and her husband got a great
success that they discovered the radioactive element,
polonium.
1898 7

29. The name volcano indicates the belief of the ancient


Greeks that the burning hills of the Mediterranean were
the workshops of divine blacksmith, Vulcan.

30. Can you produce any evidence that he was not at home
that night?

B
31. There was little probability that they would succeed.

32. Any proposals that John should be dismissed must be


resisted.

C.

thought, hope, wish, proof, discovery, suggestion

33. This thought came to him that maybe he had left his keys
in the bedroom.

34. Is this not another proof that the so-called dtente is just
empty talk?

35. He gave the order that all the prisoners be set free.

36. The story goes that the expedition was a failure.

61

I
A

1.Those who want to go please sign their names here.

2.James Russll is a man for whom I have the greatest respect.


.
3.Go back further, to a world where the steam engine
and
allied
inventions
had
not
yet
enabled
industrialization.

4.The way you answered the questions was admirable.

5.The speech, which he had written on little bits of paper,


seemed endless.

1
6.He is with his youngest brother, who is accompanying him
on his tour in China.

7.I have to book ahead for concerts, which are usually held in
London.

8.The critical value is expressed as =(S-1)(1-P) where S is specific gravity


of material, P is percentage of voids in material
expressed as a decimal.
=S-11-P S P
where
where
9. The Tartar chief controls a thousand men, all of whom must
obey his orders in both war and peace.
1000 1000

10. Im looking at a photograph of New Orleans jazz group


which I used to play in.

2
11.Isaac Asimov was a productive writer who wrote over two
hundred books all his life.
62

200
12.He said that he liked reading, which I was glad to hear.

13.On the ground floor he had a store where he sold canned


goods.

there be
14.There are many foreign tourists who want to visit the
Great Wall.

15.There is no reason why he shouldnt come.

16.He has been suffering from al kind of disease for which the
cure is possible.

17.That was the way she looked after us.

II
A

1
18.He lived in the house near us which was wrecked.

19.There is no habit so old but may(=that may not) be


cured by a strong willpower.

20.I put the books in the cupboard which you read yesterday.

21.A war broke out which lasted for forty years.


40
22.Hardly a man came to the exhibition but was (=who was
not) deeply impressed by the originality of his works.

23.There was one thing he told me which I dont


believe.

24.Cay you mention anyone that we know who is so talented


as he?
63

25.Standing by a fine model of FujiYama was the boy who


everyone thought would be chosen the winner by the judges.

who thought

26.Brill worried about the strange stories which she


claimed Tom told her.

which

27.There are even people with plastic parts in their hearts,


people who would otherwise have died.

28.From all over the country, more than 200,000 people of all
races, faiths, creeds, and ages gathered at the Lincoln
Memorial, the memorial of the beloved President who helped
set American blacks on the road to freedom from slavery 100
years before.
20
100

29.In old days the woman was kept at the bottom of society, a
slave who could be bought, sold or simply discarded.

III

30.Ernest Hemingway, who published his masterpiece The Old


Man and the Sea, was rewarded the Nobel Prize for Literature
in 1954.
1954

31.Our delegations have been sent to Asian and African


countries, who will negotiate trade agreements with the
respective governments.

32.He insisted on buying another coat, which he had no use


for.

33.Any questions you have about your visa status should be


64

referred to the International Student Service Office at the


University.

34.He is clever and quick at his work, for which he is in his


boss good grace.

I
1.If American education is so tragically inferior, why is it that
this is still the country of innovation?

2.As Matt began to suffer worsening seizures, the Simpsons


knew surgery has to be the next step.

3.Whether its consultation over a job, or general political


discussion, or on children or chickens, there is a wide and
varied perspective from people engaged in the same context
as you are.

4.You must close all the doors and windows before you leave
the laboratory.

5.You may leave now if you like.

6.Please dont go away until I come back.

II
7.Please wait until I come back.
6
8.I had hardly entered the room when the telephone started
ringing.

9.You may leave now if you like.


5
10.He stayed away from the party, because he was afraid of
meeting Sally.

III
65


11.She burst into tears as soon as she came into the room.

12.He shouted wildly as he ran down the street.

13.Its all right if you dont want to come.

14.Where there is a will, there is a way.

15.I stayed home because I had already seen that movie.

IV
A
16.Had he planted the tree near the road, strangers would
have stolen the fruit.

(=If he had planted the tree near the road,)


17.Poor though/ as she is, her life is happy.

(= Though she is poor)


18.Be he rich or poor, I will marry him all the time.

(=Whether he is rich or poor,)


B.

19.Once begun, Hawkings career soared.

(= Once it was begun,)(it Hawkings career)


20.Contact us if possible.

(=if it possible.)(it to contact us)


21.Fill in the blanks with the words or expressions given
below. Change the form where necessary.

(=Change the verb form where it is necessary.)(it


to change the verb form)
22.Like it or not, youll have to do it.

23.Going across town, he drove carefully, more slowly


than usual, aware he had had a good deal to drink.

(going across town


aware that When he
was going across town,, as he was aware that)

24.In a different mood, and at another time, he


66

might have handled this more tolerantly.

(in a different mood at another time


if he had been in a
different mood, and if he had been handling this at
another time,)
25.Police coning in all directions, he knew that he was trapped
and there was no escape this time.

(police coming in all directions )

1)If she had long lost the blue-eyed, flower-like charm, the
cool
1
slim purity of face and form, the apple-blossom coloring which
had
so swiftly and oddly affected Ashurst twenty-six years ago,
she was
2
still at forty-three a comely and faithful companion, whose
cheeks
3
were faintly mottled, and whose gray-blue eyes had acquired
a
4
5
certain fullness.

67

On August 1, the gunboat began her mission, which was, in


the eyes
1
of the defenders, a provocative act and seemed to be part of
the
2
overall assault which had begun on July 31.
3

Time goes fast for one who has a sense of beauty, when
there are
1
2
pretty children in a pool and a young Diana on the edge, to
receive
3
with wonder anything you can catch!

3
And I take heart from the fact that the enemy, which boasts
that it
1
can occupy the strategic point in a couple of hours, has not
yet
2
been able to take even the outlying regions, because of the
stiff
68

3
resistance that gets in the way.
4

1
2

3
4

While the present century was in its teens, and on one


sunshiny morning in June, there drove up to the great iron
gate of Miss Pinkertons academy for young ladies, on
Chiswick Mall, a large family coach, with two fat horses in
blazing harness, driven by a fat coachman in a three-cornered
hat and wig, at the rate of hour miles an hour.

on one


with
driven by at

The president said at a press conference dominated by


questions on yesterdays election results that could not
explain why the Republicans had suffered such a widespread
defeat, which in the end would deprive the Republican Party
of long-held superiority in the House.
(News from Foreign
Agencies and Press)

69

But without Adolf Hilter, who was possessed of a demoniac


personality, a granite will, uncanny instincts, a cold
ruthlessness, a remarkable intellect, a soaring imagination
anduntil toward the end, when drunk with power and
success, he overreacted himselfan amazing capacity to size
up people and situations, there almost certainty would never
have been a Third Reich.

who
until

70