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TP CH KHOA HC V CNG NGH, I HC NNG - S 2(25).

2008

B TI U CNG SUT PHN KHNG LI


IN PHN PHI
REACTIVE POWER OPTIMAL COMPENSATION OF
DISTRIBUTION NETWORK
TRN VINH TNH
Trng i hc Bch khoa, i hc Nng
TRNG VN CHNG
Cng ty in lc 3
TM TT
Li in phn phi (LPP) lin tc pht trin theo khng gian v thi gian, ngoi
vic p ng nhu cu cng sut tc dng cho ph ti, cn ch trng p ng
nhu cu cng sut phn khng (CSPK). Vic b CSPK s cho php nng cao
cht lng in nng cng nh hiu qu kinh t ca LPP.
Bi bo trnh by kt qu nghin cu xy dng c s d liu v cc ch s kinh t
LPP cho chng trnh PSS/ADEPT. T s dng chng trnh tnh ton,
nh gi hiu qu cc phng n b ti u pha trung p v pha h p, nhm
xut phng n b ti u cho LPP.
ABSTRACT
The distribution network developed continuously in space and time, beside
sufficiently meeting the active power need for additional load, its also very
important to meet reactive power need. Reactive power compensation will
enhance electricity quality as well as economic efficiency of the distribution
network.
In this article, we present the study result of establishing data bases and
economic indexes of the distribution network to PSS/ADEPT. Then, we can use
this program to calculate and evaluate the efficiency of medium and low voltage
optimal compensation with the aim of proposing the most optimal alternative for
the distribution network.

1. t vn
Theo d bo ca tng s VI th ngnh in vn cn thiu in, c cng sut tc
dng v CSPK. Mt khc, hin nay nhiu nh my ngoi ngnh in, v li ch cc b, ch
yu pht cng sut tc dng ln li, gy thiu ht CSPK rt ln cho h thng.
Trong thi gian gn y, d lun quan tm nht l vn thiu in v tng gi
in. gp phn gii quyt hai vn ny, ngnh in ang tch cc b CSPK li in
phn phi:
- B CSPK s tng cng sut pht cho cc nh my in, tng kh nng ti cho
cc phn t mang in, gim tn tht cng sut gp phn khc phc thiu in [3].
- B CSPK s gim chi ph u t ngun v nng cp li in, gim tn tht in
nng gp phn bnh n gi in [3] .
Thc t vn hnh th b trung p nhiu hn pha h p, t t b h p cha hp l
v dung lng v phn chia cc module t, chng trnh PSS/ADEPT tnh ton b CSPK
cha c c s d liu v cc ch s kinh t LPP tnh ton, nh gi hiu qu b; ng
thi chng trnh tnh ton b pha h p khng chnh xc.

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TP CH KHOA HC V CNG NGH, I HC NNG - S 2(25).2008

Xut pht t nhng hn ch trn, bi vit t vn nghin cu l thuyt b ti u


theo phng php phn tch ng theo dng tin t; dung lng ti u v phn chia module t
trong t t b h p; xy dng c s d liu v cc ch s kinh t LPP cho chng trnh
PSS/ADEPT. S dng chng trnh tnh ton, nh gi hiu qu cc phng n b ti
u pha trung p v h p nhm xut phng n b ti u cho LPP.
2. C s l thuyt
2.1. Tnh ton b ti u theo phng php phn tch ng theo dng tin t
- C s phng php: Trong u t v vn hnh LPP u c nhng khon chi
ph v nhng khon thu nhp xy ra nhng thi im khc nhau trong mt khong thi
gian di, cc khon chi, thu c gi l dng tin t.
Gi N l s thi on trong k phn tch, r% l chit khu tnh ton, i% l ch s
lm pht, P l tng s tin mc thi gian quy c no c gi l hin ti, F l tng
s tin mc thi gian quy c no c gi l tng lai. Xy dng c cng thc
quan h gia F v P:

1+ r
F = P.

n =1 1 + i
N

N
P = F . 1 + i
n =1 1 + r

N
1+ i
Thnh phn N e =
l quy i gi tr tng lai F v gi tr hin ti
n =1 1 + r
P. Thnh phn ny l mt i lng thi gian tng ng quy i thi gian v thi gian
hin ti.
Trong ngnh in, tn tht cng sut, tn tht in nng tit kim c cng nh
qu trnh bo tr vt t thit b in din ra trong thi gian di, v vy ta c th s dng i
lng thi gian tng ng Ne quy i cc li ch hoc chi ph v gi tr hin ti so
snh, nh gi cc phng n.
- Phng php tnh ton b ti u:
xc nh dung lng b ti u, cn phi xy dng hm mc tiu Z, l hm
li ch thu c khi t b, bao gm cc li ch thu c tr i cc chi ph do t b, hm
Z phi t gi tr cc i. i vi LPP, hm Z c thnh phn li ch Z1 do gim tn tht
in nng so vi trc khi b, thnh phn chi ph Z2 do lp t, vn hnh thit b b; thnh
phn chi ph Z3 do tn tht in nng bn trong thit b b: Z = Z1 - Z2 - Z3 .
+ Thnh phn Z 1 = T . N e . ( g p . P + g q . Q ) =

. N

. g

i D

R
U

i
2
i

(2

.Q

.Q

b j

2
b j

)+

i D

X
U

i
2
i

(2

.Q

.Q

b j

Trong : T l thi gian lm vic ca t b [gi/nm]; gp, gq l gi in nng tc


dng v phn khng bnh qun ti khu vc tnh b [/kWh]; Qi, Ui l ph ti phn khng
v in p cui nhnh i [kVAr], [kV]; Ri, Xi l in tr v in khng ca nhnh i []; Qbj
l CSPK b ti nt j, D l ng i ca dng in t ngun n nt j .
+ Thnh phn Z2 = (qo + Ne.Cbt).Qbj
Trong : qo l sut u t cm t b [/kVAr], Cbt l sut chi ph bo tr hng
nm ca cm b ti nt j [/kVAr.nm], chi ph ny mi nm bng 3% nguyn gi ti sn
c nh ca trm b ti nt j, vy Cbt = 3% . qo
Z2 = (qo + Ne.3%.qo).Qbj = (1 + 0,03.Ne).qo.Qbj

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2
b j

TP CH KHOA HC V CNG NGH, I HC NNG - S 2(25).2008

+ Thnh phn Z3 = T . Pb. gp . Ne . Qbj


Trong : Pb l sut tn tht cng sut tc dng bn trong t b [kW/kVAr].

Z = Z1 Z

= T . N

Ri
X i
+ g q .
. g p .
.Q b2j +
2
2
i D U i
i D U i

R i .Q i
X i .Q i
+ 2 . T . N e . g p .
+ g q .
(1 + 0 , 0 3 . N
2
U
U i2
D

i
D
i

).q o

T . Pb . g p . N e .Q b j

Trong biu thc Z c h s ca Qbj2 nh hn khng, do Z t cc i khi:

pp

Q bj

= 0 , t tnh c gi tr Qbj ti u ti nt j l:

2 .T . N
Q bj =

Q i .R i
Q i.X i
+ g q .
. g p .
(1 + 0 , 0 3 . N e ) . q o T . Pb . g p . N
2
U i
U i2
i D
i D

Ri
X i
+ g q.
2 .T . N e . g p .

2
2
i D U i
i D U i

(1)
Xt trong khong thi gian tnh ton N nm vi h s chit khu r% v lm pht
i% m NPV > 0 tc l Z = Z1Z2Z3 > 0 th phng n kh thi v mt ti chnh, ngha l ta
c th u t lp t t b ti nt j. Vy iu kin u t lp t t b ti nt j l:
Z > 0
Q bj

Q .R
Q .X
2. T . N e . g p i 2 i + g q . i 2 i (1 + 0, 03. N e ) .q o T . Pb . g p . N e
U
Ui
i D
i D
i

<

R
X
T . N e . i2 + g q . 2i
U
U
i D
i
i D i

(2)

xc nh v tr b ti u cho LPP, c th dng cc chng trnh tnh ton


bng my tnh .
2.2. Xc nh dung lng b ti u pha h p
Lng CSPK tiu th pha h p my bin p gm CSPK tiu th ca ph ti v
tn tht CSPK trong my bin p. Tn tht CSPK trong my bin p gm: tn tht gy t
trong li st QFe = I 0 %.S dm khng ph thuc vo ti, tn tht ng trong cun dy my
100

2
2

bin p QCu = u N %.S ph thuc vo ti S2. Tn tht CSPK ca cc my bin p 22kV


100.S dm

in hnh khi y ti v khng ti nh [1], trong thnh phn tn tht QFe tnh vo cc
module t b c nh, thnh phn tn tht QCu khi y ti tnh vo cc module t b iu
chnh.
Theo thng k vn hnh th h s cng sut trung bnh ca cc trm bin p trc
khi b l costb = 0.8 v ch cc tiu h s ti Ktmin = 0.35; ch cc i h s ti
Ktmax = 0.8 (cc trm bin p c Ktmax > 0,8 s c nng cng sut). Hin nay yu cu h
s cng sut ti u cc xut tuyn phn phi >0.92; h s b k = tgtb - tgyc; Pti min(max) =
Sm . Ktmin(max) . costb; CSPK cn b cho ti Qb ti min(max) = Pti min(max) . k; CSPK cn b cho
pha h p l: Qbmin(max) = Qb ti min(max) + QFe(QCu).

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TP CH KHOA HC V CNG NGH, I HC NNG - S 2(25).2008

Lp bng tnh ton Qbmin(max) v la chn t cho cc trm bin p c cng sut nh
mc khc nhau:
DUNG LNG B V CHN T CHO CC TRM BIN P CH CC TIU
Bng 1
Sm Costb Cosyc Ktmin Pti min
k
Qb ti min QFe
Qbmin
Chn t
(kVA)
(kW)
(kVAr) (kVAr) (kVAr)
(kVAr)
160
0.8
0.92 0.35
44.8 0.324 14.515
3.36 17.875
1x20
180
0.8
0.92 0.35
50.4 0.324 16.330
3.57 19.900
1x20
250
0.8
0.92 0.35
70.0 0.324 22.680
5.145 27.825
1x30
320
0.8
0.92 0.35
89.6 0.324 29.030
6.405 35.435
1x30
400
0.8
0.92 0.35 112.0 0.324 36.288
8.015 44.303
1x30
560
0.8
0.92 0.35 156.8 0.324 50.803 10.395 61.198
2x30
630
0.8
0.92 0.35 176.4 0.324 57.154 12.495 69.649
2x30
DUNG LNG B V CHN T CHO CC TRM BIN P CH CC I
Bng 2
Sm Costb Cosyc Ktmax Pti max
k
Qbti max QCu
Qbmax
Chn t
(kVA)
(kW)
(kVAr) (kVAr) (kVAr)
(kVAr)
160
0.8
0.92
0.8 102.4 0.324 33.178
7.68 40.858 1x20+1x20=40
180
0.8
0.92
0.8 115.2 0.324 37.325
8.16 45.485 1x20+1x20=40
250
0.8
0.92
0.8 160.0 0.324 51.840
11.76 63.600 1x30+2x15=60
320
0.8
0.92
0.8 204.8 0.324 66.355
14.64 80.995 1x30+3x15=75
400
0.8
0.92
0.8 256.0 0.324 82.944
18.32 101.264 1x30+4x15=90
560
0.8
0.92
0.8 358.4 0.324 116.122 23.76 139.882 2x30+5x15=135
630
0.8
0.92
0.8 403.2 0.324 130.637 28.56 159.197 2x30+6x15=150

T kt qu tnh ton trong cc bng 1 v 2, xut mt s gii php b pha h p


nh sau:
- V cng sut trm bin p cn b m bo kinh t: cc trm bin p Sm <
250kVA c tng dung lng t t b h p l 40kVAr (1x20+1x20), chi ph t ny cao
tng ng cc t khc. Mt khc theo thng k li in phn phi trn a bn min
Trung th s trm bin p c Sm < 250kVA trn li rt nhiu hu ht phn b vng
nng thn, min ni ch yu cp in cho ph ti nh sng sinh hot, nn c h s cng
sut cos cao. m bo kinh t nn b cho cc trm bin p c cng sut Sm >
250kVA.
- V la chn module t b c nh v iu chnh: t gi tr Qbmin, nn chn
mt loi module t 30kVAr b c nh. T gi tr (Qbmax-Qbmin), nn chn mt loi
module t 15kVAr thc hin b iu chnh pha h p.
- V tng dung lng t t b h p: T gi tr Qbmax v tng dung lng b c
nh, b iu chnh, i vi trm bin p 250kVA nn chn t c dung lng l 60kVAr,
trm 320kVA l 75kVAr, trm 400kVA l 90kVAr, trm p 560kVA l 135kVAr, trm
630kVA l 150kVAr.
- V la chn rle iu khin t b iu chnh: T vic phn chia cc module
t b iu chnh, n gin nn chn 2 loi rle iu khin: loi rle 4 cng dng cho
cc t t b ca cc trm c Sm = 250 400 (kVA) v loi rle 6 cng cho cc t t b
ca cc trm c Sm = 560 630 (kVA). Theo thng k trn li hin nay, s trm bin p
c Sm = 250 400 (kVA) rt nhiu, phn iu khin t b iu chnh c gi thnh cao,
nn vic chn loi rle 4 cng s gim ng k vn u t so vi dng rle 6 cng nh
hin nay.

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TP CH KHOA HC V CNG NGH, I HC NNG - S 2(25).2008

- V module t b c nh v iu chnh nhp trong th CAPO ca chng


trnh PSS/ADEPT: T vic la chn cc module t b c nh v iu chnh, trong th
CAPO ca chng trnh PSS/ADEPT nhp module t b c nh l 30kVAr v module t
b iu chnh l 15kVAr tnh ton b h p cho LPP.
3. Cc c s tnh ton b CSPK bng chng trnh PSS/ADEPT:
3.1. Xy dng cc ch s kinh t cho chng trnh PSS/ADEPT:
Trc khi tnh ton b CSPK, cn phi ci t cc ch s kinh t trong
Network>Economics ca chng trnh. Cn c tiu chun k thut vt t thit b, thit k
lp t cm t b v mt s quy nh hin hnh, tnh ton c cc ch s kinh t ca
chng trnh ph hp vi LPP Vit Nam nh bng 3:
Bng 3

- Gi bnh qun gp ti khu


vc tnh b CSPK
- gq = k% x gp (h s k tra
theo cos ti ph lc
- Gi in nng phn khng tiu th kVArh
Thng t 09/2001/TTLT[ng/kVArh].
BCN-BVGCP
ngy
31/10/2001).
- T s chit khu [pu/year]
- 0.12
- T s lm pht [pu/year]
- 0.05
- Thi gian tnh ton (years)
-8.
- Sut u t lp t t b trung p c nh
- 232.075,85.
[ng/kVAr]
- Sut u t lp t t b trung p iu chnh
- 567.562,62.
[ng/kVAr]
- Sut u t lp t t b h p c nh
- 256.118,26.
[ng/kVAr]
- Sut u t lp t t b h p iu chnh
- 352.271,3.
[ng/kVAr]
- Chi ph bo tr t b trung p c nh hng nm
- 6.962,28
[/kVAr.nm]
- Chi ph bo tr t b trung p iu chnh hng nm
- 17.026,88
[/kVAr.nm]
- Chi ph bo tr t b h p c nh hng nm
- 7.683,55
[/kVAr.nm]
- Chi ph bo tr t b h p iu chnh hng nm
- 10.568,14
[/kVAr.nm]
- Gi in nng tiu th 1kWh [ng/kWh].

3.2. Xy dng c s d liu li phn phi cho chng trnh PSS/ADEPT:


a- Xy dng c s d liu dy dn:
Chng trnh PSS/ADEPT c c s d liu dy dn, file nz-austconductors,
nhng thng s k thut theo cc loi dy ca M, khng ph hp vi cc loi dy dn

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TP CH KHOA HC V CNG NGH, I HC NNG - S 2(25).2008

trn li phn phi ca Vit Nam. Hin nay, khi nhp thng s dy dn tnh ton th
chn cc dy dn trong chng trnh tng ng vi dy dn Vit Nam, iu ny s dn
n sai s tnh ton ln. V vy cn phi thng k cc loi dy s dng trn li in phn
phi Vit Nam nghin cu a vo c s d liu ca chng trnh.
X l file nz-austconductors ca chng trnh thnh file Excel theo dng bng, t
d dng cp nht thng s k thut dy dn Vit Nam. Sau chuyn file nzaustconductors sang dng file chng trnh kt ni d liu tr li chng trnh. Khi
tnh ton ch cn vo bng Select Conductor Type la chn loi dy Vit Nam nh hnh
sau:

b- Xy dng c s d liu thng s cu trc li phn phi:


Sau khi kt ni c s d dy dn Vit Nam vo chng trnh, t thanh Menu
chnh vo Tools\Line Constants tnh ton thng s cu trc ng dy gm tr khng,
cm khng v dung khng th t thun, th t nghch. Tin hnh tnh ton cho nhiu
chng loi dy, nhiu s ct khc nhau v cp nht cc thng s trn vo file PTI.con
s c t in d liu ng dy.
Ngoi ra, ta cng thng k c cc loi my bin p ang s dng trn phn
phi, t cc thng s Po, Pn, un%, Um, Sm s tnh ton c tr khng v cm khng th
t thun. Tr khng v cm khng th t khng tnh ton theo Rn cho php. Theo thng
k in tr sut ti cc khu vc min Trung thng thng c > 250 .m, theo quy phm
trang b in s 11TCN-19-2006 th Rn cho php n 10. tnh ton in tr th t
khng my bin p, chn Rn=10 (gii hn trn). Cp nht cc thng s trn vo file
PTI.con (file t in d liu LPP). File ny dng tnh ton nhiu ln m khng phi
nhp li mi khi s dng.
4. Tnh ton b CSPK bng chng trnh PSS/ADEPT
Thc hin m phng cc xut tuyn 472, 473-E15 vo chng trnh PSS/ADEPT,
tin hnh tnh phn b cng sut, tnh ton b t nhin (iu chnh nc phn p), tnh ton
cc phng n b trung p c nh, b trung p iu chnh, b trung p c nh kt hp
vi iu chnh.

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TP CH KHOA HC V CNG NGH, I HC NNG - S 2(25).2008

i vi tnh ton b CSPK pha h p, trong mt s trng hp, chng trnh


PSS/ADEPT cho kt qu Qb ln hn CSPK tiu th ca ph ti, iu ny khng cho php.
Do bi ton b pha h p s c tch thnh 2 bi ton: chng trnh PSS/ADEPT s
gii quyt bi ton xc nh v tr b ti u, v bi ton tm dung lng b ti u s c
xc nh theo bng 2. Mt khc, thun tin trong cng tc ch to, lp t, d tr thit
b b... dung lng t t b h p c chn theo mt s gam nht nh. Tin hnh tnh
ton cc phng n b h p c nh, b h p iu chnh, b h p c nh kt hp vi
iu chnh.
Mi phng n tnh ton s c c kt qu tng dung lng b c nh v b
iu chnh, tn tht cng sut gim so vi b t nhin. T tnh c tng gi tr hin
ti
cc
khon
chi
ph
vn
hnh,
lp
t
t
b
l:

C = Qbcd (qocd + N e .Cbtcd ) + Qbdc (qodc + N e .Cbtdc ) . Trong : Q bcd , Q bdc [kVAr] l dung
cd
dc
lng b c nh v iu chnh, q o , q o [/kVAr] l sut u t t b c nh v iu

chnh, C btcd , C btdc [/nm.kVAr] l sut chi ph bo tr trong nm i vi t b c nh v


iu chnh
Tng gi tr hin ti cc khon li nhun do lp t t b c tnh theo cng
thc:

B = (P x gp + Q x gq) x Ne x T.

Trong : P, Q [kW, kVAr] l lng gim tn tht cng sut so vi b t


nhin, gp [/kWh] l gi tin in nng tc dng tiu th, gq [/kVArh] l gi tin in
nng phn khng tiu th, T [gi/nm] l thi gian lm vic ca t b.
Th cc gi tr vo cng thc, tnh ton c cc gi tr B, C v NPV = B C ca
cc phng n b kinh t theo tng xut tuyn nh cc bng sau:
Bng 4
Xut tuyn 472
Phng n b
Tn tht cng sut ban u

Qbcnh+ Qbchnh
P (kW) Q (kVAr)
(kVAr)
0+0

277.57

634.882
568.613

C (ng)

B (ng)

NPV= B C
(ng)

0+0

250.93

1800+0

207.09

481.186

0+1500

211.70

490.835 1,005,842,622.6 1,666,584,253.4

B trung p c nh v iu chnh

1800+0

207.09

481.186

493,545,783.43 1,863,182,320.7 1,369,636,537.3

B h p c nh

660+0

225.05

509.299

199,714,441.08 1,111,151,423.2

0+1455

201.86

457.991

605,571,247.13 2,104,006,720.7 1,498,435,473.6

660+1065

194.64

440.51

642,967,621.96 2,415,044,777.0 1,772,077,155.0

B t nhin
B trung p c nh
B trung p iu chnh

B h p iu chnh
B h p c nh v iu chnh

493,545,783.43 1,863,182,320.7 1,369,636,537.3


660,741,630.84
911,436,982.15

Bng 5
Xut tuyn 473
Phng n b
Tn tht cng sut ban u
B t nhin
B trung p c nh

Qbcnh+ Qbchnh
(kVAr)

P (kW) Q (kVAr)

0+0

171.971

369.437

0+0

161.879

344.644

300+0

151.514

324.842

C (ng)

B (ng)

82,257,630.57 436,843,378.85

NPV = B - C
(ng)

354,585,748.28

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TP CH KHOA HC V CNG NGH, I HC NNG - S 2(25).2008


0+300

151.514

324.842 201,168,524.52 436,843,378.85

235,674,854.33

300+0

151.514

324.842

82,257,630.57 436,843,378.85

354,585,748.28

B h p c nh

180+0

153.147

325.783

54,467,574.84 370,918,062.38

316,450,487.55

B h p iu chnh

0+435

142.716

303.644 181,047,073.88 813,484,925.73

632,437,851.85

180+255

142.716

303.644 160,598,618.15 813,484,925.73

652,886,307.58

B trung p iu chnh
B trung p c nh v iu chnh

B h p c nh v iu chnh

Kt qu phng n b h p c nh kt hp iu chnh ca c 2 xut tuyn u c


NPV ln nht.
5. Kt lun
- Tnh ton b ti u LPP bng phng php phn tch ng theo dng tin t,
dung lng b nh biu thc (1), iu kin rng buc nh bt ng thc (2), v tr b xc
nh theo phng php d.
- V b h p: thc hin b CSPK cho cc trm bin p c cng sut t 250kVA
tr ln. Dung lng t t b, dung lng cc module t b c nh, t b iu chnh; s
module t b c nh, t b iu chnh v s cng rle iu khin nh bng 2.
- Xy dng c s d liu dy dn, thng s cu trc v cc ch s kinh t LPP
kt ni vo PSS/ADEPT, chng trnh tnh ton, nh gi chnh xc c 8 bi ton phn
tch LPP.
- xut thc hin b kinh t bng cch b c nh kt hp iu chnh pha h p
cho LPP.

TI LIU THAM KHO


[1] Schneider Electric S.A (2004), in cng nghip, NXB thnh ph H Ch Minh, TP
H Ch Minh.
[2] Shaw Power Technologies_Inc (2004), PSS-ADEPT_User Manual, New York .
[3] Trn Vinh Tnh (2001), p dng cc phng php ti u ho nhm nng cao hiu
qu kinh t vn hnh h thng cung cp in, Nng.

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