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VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT, 2011

PROJECT COMPLETED: MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF


500MW STATOR BAR.

BLOCK ASSIGNED: Block 4 (CIM)

PROJECT INCHARGE:Shree A.K. Dhimaan


Dep. Manager, Block 4, BHEL Haridwar.

SUBMITTED BY: EshanShailendra


Bsc(Engg.), 2nd year (Electrical), Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra.

TRAINING DURATION: 27th May to 5th July (40 days).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would sincerely like to express my gratitude for BHELHaridwar, forproviding me the opportunity of pursuing my vocational training in this renowned industry and endowing me with anunparallel experience and deep understanding of a wide array of processes and manufacturing methods taking place in different workshops of the industry. I would also take this opportunity to thank our training incharge, Mr. A.K. Dhimaan whose guidance and motivation went a long way in our understanding of different sections of the industry. Furthermore, I would thank my institute, DEI for giving me opportunity of visiting the industry and increasing my practical knowledgebase. Last, but not the least, I would also like to acknowledge the immense pleasure, brought about by my friends as they pursued their training along with me. We shared some unforgettable moments together.

Thank you all. EshanShailendra

CONTENTS
1. BHEL, Haridwar a brief introduction.
y Manufactured products, (a) For power generation sector, (b) For power distribution and transmission sectors, (c) For other industries. y Transportation, y International projects and export, y Research and development, y The Human Resource and Development Centre. 2. Block description of BHEL workshops: y Block 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 and 8.

3. Sectional description of Block 4: y Bay 1,2 and 3. 4. Manufacturing process of 500MW T.G. stator bar in detail: y Conductor cutting, Transposition, Crossover insulation, Stack consolidation, Inter strand

short test, Forming, Brazing of coil lugs, Nitrogen leak test, Thermal shock, Helium leakage test, Multi layered insulation, Impregnation, Baking, Finishing, Varnish coating, H.V. testing, Tan testing, Packaging and Dispatch.

5. Conclusion.

BHEL, Haridwar - An Introduction


BHEL is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India in the energy related infrastructure sector today. BHEL was established more than 40 years ago when its first plant was setup in Bhopal, ushering in the indigenous Heavy Electrical Equipment Industry in India, a dream which has been more than realized. with a well recognized track record of performance and worldwide recognition, it has been earning profits continuously since 1971-72.

BHEL caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy viz., Power Generation's & Transmission, Industry, Transportation, Telecommunication, Renewable

Energy, Defense, etc. The wide network of BHEL's 14 manufacturing division, four power Sector regional centers, over 150 project sites, eight service centers and 18 regional offices, enables the Company to promptly serve its customers and provide them with suitable products, systems and services - efficiently and at competitive prices. BHEL has already attained ISO 9000 certification for quality management, and ISO 14001 certification for environment management.

MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS
BHEL manufactures a wide array

POWER GENERATION
Power generation sector comprises thermal, gas, hydro and nuclear power plant business as of 31.03.2001, BHEL supplied sets account for nearly 64737 MW or 65% of the total installed capacity of 99,146 MW in the country, as against nil till 1969-70. BHEL has proven turnkey capabilities for executing

power projects from concept to commissioning; it possesses the technology and capability to produce thermal sets with super critical parameters up to 1000 MW unit rating and gas turbine generator sets of up to 240 MW units rating. Co-generation and combined-cycle plants have been introduced to achieve higher plant efficiencies. To make efficient use of the high-ash-content coal available in India, BHEL supplies circulating fluidized bed

combustion boilers to both thermal and combined cycle power plants. The company manufactures 235 MW nuclear turbine generator sets and has commenced production of 500 MW nuclear turbine Generator sets. Custom made hydro sets of Francis; Pelton and Kapian types for different head discharge combination are also engineering and manufactured by BHEL. In all, orders for more than 700 utility sets of thermal, hydro, gas and nuclear have been placed on the Company as on date. The power plant equipment manufactured by BHEL is based on contemporary technology comparable to the best in the world and is also internationally competitive.

POWER TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION (T & D)


BHEL offer wide ranging products and systems for T & D applications. Products manufactured include power transformers, instrument transformers, dry type transformers, series - and stunt reactor, capacitor tanks, vacuum - and SF circuit breakers gas

insulated switch gears and insulators. A strong engineering base enables the Company to undertake turnkey delivery of electric substances up to 400 kV level series compensation systems (for increasing power transfer capacity of transmission lines and improving system stability and voltage regulation), shunt compensation systems (for power factor and voltage improvement) and HVDC systems (for economic transfer of bulk power). BHEL has indigenously developed the state-of-theart controlled shunt reactor (for reactive power management on long transmission lines). Presently a 400 kV Facts (Flexible AC Transmission System) project under execution.

INDUSTRIES
BHEL is a major contributor of equipment and systems to industries. Cement, sugar, fertilizer, refineries, petrochemicals, paper, oil and gas, metallurgical and other process industries lines and improving system stability and voltage regulation. BHEL is a major contributor of equipment and systems to industries, cement, sugar, fertilizer, refinances, petrochemicals,

paper, oil and gas, metallurgical and other process industries. The range of system & equipment supplied includes: captive power plants, co-generation plants DG power plants, industrial steam turbines, industrial boilers and auxiliaries. Water heat recovery boilers, gas turbines, heat exchangers and pressure vessels, centrifugal compressors, electrical machines,pumps,valves,

seamless steel tubes, electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, reactors, fluidized bed combustion boilers, chemical recovery boilers and process controls. The Company is a major producer of large-size thruster devices. It also supplies digital distributed control systems for process industries, and control & instrumentation systems for power plant and industrial applications. BHEL is the only company in India with the capability to make simulators for power plants, defense and other applications.

The Company has commenced manufacture of large desalination plants to help augment the supply of drinking water to people.

Transportation
BHEL is involved in the development design, engineering, marketing, production, installation, maintenance and after-sales

service of Rolling Stock and traction propulsion systems. In the area of rolling stock, BHEL manufactures electric locomotives up to 5000 HP, diesel-electric locomotives from 350 HP to 3100 HP, both for mainline and shunting duly applications. BHEL is also producing rolling stock for special applications viz., overhead equipment cars, Special well wagons, Rail-cum-road vehicle etc., Besides traction propulsion systems for in-house use, BHEL manufactures traction propulsion systems for other rolling stock producers of electric locomotives, diesel-electric locomotives, electrical multiple units and metro cars. The electric and diesel traction equipment on India Railways are largely powered by electrical propulsion systems produced by BHEL. The company also undertakes retooling and overhauling of rolling stock in the area of urban transportation systems. BHEL is geared up to turnkey execution of electric trolley bus systems, light rail systems etc. BHEL is also diversifying in the area of port handing equipment and pipelines transportation system.

International Operations
BHEL has, over the years, established its references in around 60 countries of the world, ranging for the United States in the West to New Zealand in the Far East. These references encompass almost the entire product range of BHEL, covering turnkey power projects of thermal, hydro and gas-based types, substation projects, rehabilitation projects, besides a wide variety of products, like transformers, insulators, switchgears, heat exchangers, castings and forgings, valves, well-head equipment, centrifugal compressors, photo-voltaic equipment etc. Apart from over 1110MW of boiler

capacity contributed in Malaysia, and execution of four prestigious power projects in Oman, Some of the other major successes achieved by the Company have been in Australia, Saudi Arabia, Libya, Greece, Cyprus, Malta, Egypt, Bangladesh, Azerbaijan, Sri Lanka, Iraq etc. The Company has been successful in meeting demanding customer's requirements in terms of complexity of the works as well as technological, quality and other requirements viz extended

warrantees, associated O&M, financing packages etc. BHEL has proved its capability to undertake projects on fast-track basis.

Technology up gradation and Research & Development


To remain competitive and meet customers' expectations, BHEL lays great emphasis on the continuous up gradation of products and related technologies, and development of new products. The Company has upgraded its products to contemporary levels through continuous in house efforts as well as through acquisition of new technologies from leading engineering organizations of the world. The Corporate R&D Division at Hyderabad, spread over a 140 acre complex, leads BHEL's research efforts in a number of areas of importance to BHEL's product range. Research and product development centers at each of the manufacturing divisions play a complementary role. BHEL's Investment in R&D is amongst the largest in the corporate

sector in India. Products developed in-house during the last five years contributed about 8.6% to the revenues in 2000-2001. BHEL has introduced, in the recent past, several state-of-the-art products developed in-house: low-NQx oil / gas burners, Circulating fluidized bed combustion boilers, high-efficiency Pelton hydro turbines, petroleum depot automation systems, 36 kV gas-insulated sub-stations, etc. The Company has also transferred a few technologies developed in-house to other Indian companies for commercialization. Some of the on-going development & demonstration projects include: Smant wall blowing system for cleaning boiler soot deposits, and micro-controller based governor for diesel-electric locomotives.

Human Resource Development Institute


The most prized asset of BHEL is its employees. The Human Resource Development Institute and other HRD centers of the Company help in not only keeping their skills updated and finely honed but also in adding new skills, whenever required.

BHEL, as an integral part of business performance and in its Endeavour of becoming a world-class organization and sharing the growing global concern on issues related to Environment. Occupational Health and Safety, is committed to protecting Environment in and around its own establishment, and to providing safe and healthy working environment to all its employees.

POWER TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION


In the T&D sector, BHEL is both a leading equipment manufacturer and a system-integrator.BHEL manufactured T&D products have a proven record in India and abroad. In the area of T&D systems, BHEL provides turnkey solutions to utilities. Substations and shunt compensation installations set up by BHEL are in operation all over the country. EHV level series compensation schemes have been installed in KSEB, MSEB, SMPSEB and POWERGRID networks. Complete HVDC systems can be delivered by BHEL. The technology for state-of-the-art Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) is being developed. track

CHAPTER II
BLOCKS IN BHEL Block-1 Hydro & turbo generators, AC/DC machines Block-2 Fabrication (steam, hydro & gas turbine) Block-3 Gas, hydro & steam turbine Block-4 CIM and ACM Block-5 Heat exchangers, forging & fabrication Block-6 Electrical repair & maintenance of transformer Block-7 wooden packing works Block-8 Fabrication, seamless tuber and heat exchanges

CHAPTER III
BRIEF SUMMARY OF CIM SHOP (BLOCK-4) BAY-I: -Bar winding shop: Manufacturing of stator winding bars
of generator.

BAY-II: -Manufacturing of motor stator coil: DC armature coil,


main pole coil, inter-pole coil, equalizer coil etc.Also manufactured heavy duty generator stator bars with New CNC M/c No, 3-464 i.e. Robol bar centre.

BAY-III: -Insulation detail shop; manufacturing of hard


insulation & machining of hares insulation part (Glass textolite) such as packing, washer, insulation box. Wedges etc.

Bar Shop: -This shop is meant for manufacturing of stator


winding coils of generator that may be turbo-generator or hydrogenerator.

Why do we call it bar: -It is quite difficult (rather impossible)


to manufacture, handle and wind the coil in stator slot of generator of higher generation capacity because of its bigger size and heavy weight. That is why we make coil in two parts. One part isBottom part of coil called bottom or tower bar and other part of coil is called top bar or upper bar.

HG Bars: -The manufacturing of bars of different capacity as


required by the customer depends upon the water head available

at site. The Hydro generator is air cooled generator of Comparison to its tagger diameter. (Note: - The manufacturing of Hydro Gen Stator Bars has been shifted from BHEL Hardwar to BHEL Bhopal to since 2008.)

TURBO-GENERATORS: -The manufacturing of bars of


standard capacity such as: has 100MW, capacity 130MW, and 150Mw, to 210/235MW.The plant technology

manufacture 500MW, 600MW, 800MW and 1000MW genera

CHAPTER IV
MANUFACTURING PROCESS FLOW CHART OF 500 MW TG STATOR BAR
1. Conductor Draw from Store. 2. Conductor cutting and end cleaning. 3. Transposition of conductor. 4. Assembly of all conductors to be used in stator Bars. 5. Cross over insulation. 6. Consolidation if slot portion of Bar.

7. IS Test (i.e. inter strand test). 8. Forming or Bar (to shape overhang portion). 9. Pickling of bar ends (1) 10. Mounting of Contact sleeve & bottom part of water box. 11. Brazing of Contact sleeve & bottom part of water box. 12. Pickling of bar ends (2) 13. Mounting of water box leak test. 14. Repacking. 15. Water flow and N2 test. 16. Thermal Shock Application. 17. Helium Leak Test. 18. Reforming of Bar.(i.e. overhang portion). 19. Insulation of bar on CNC machine. 20. Impregnation a curing of bar insulation. 21. Surface finishing of stator bar. 22. OCP on stator Bar. 23. Preparation of bar for HV and Tanq Test.

24. If O.K. Dispatch to Bicck-1 for lying in the generator.

INSULATION CLASSIFICATION:Thermal classification of insulation depends upon the

temperature Withstand capability of the insulation. Class Y Class A Class E Class B Class F Class H Class C up to 90 C up to 105 C up to 120 C up to 130 C up to 150 C up to 180 C 180 C up to 220 C.

TYPES OF GENERATORS:The generator may be classified based upon the cooling system used in the generators such as-THRI, TARI, THDI, THDD, THDF, THFF, and THW.

T-> First alphabet signifies the type of generator i.e. turbogenerator or Hydro-generator. H/A-> Second alphabet stands for the coding media used for the cooling of rotor i.e. hydrogen gas or air. R/D/F/I-> Third alphabet signifies the type of cooling or rotor E.g. Radial, indirect, forced, direct etc. I/D/F-> Last alphabet stands for the type of cooling of stator E.g. indirect cooling, direct cooling, forced cooling. W-> Cooling media used for cooling of stator coil e.g. water.

Resin system:a) Rich Resin or Thermo reactive insulation system: -In this type of insulation system the bond content in resin 3637%. The raw materials are ready to use and require preservation and working on temperature 20-25':C. Its life is one year when kept at temperature 20 C which could be increased when kept at temperature of 5 C.

b) Poor resin or Micalastic insulation system: -In this


type of insulation the bond content inthe resin is 5-7% and insulating material is prepared with accelerator treatment. The temperature control need not required. The insulating material is applied on job and then the same is impregnated (fully dipped) in the resin.

CHAPTER V
MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF BARS:Some Points of Manufacturing Process are in brief as below:-

Conductor Cutting:This process is done by automatic CNC machine. In this process the pre-insulated copper conductor is cut into number of required length. Insulation is removed from both ends of the conductor cut.

Lower Bar:-

Conductor size: (Solid)

8*4.6*1.5 mm (Hollow), 8*2.8 mm

L - 10200 mm: -C- 500 mm Conductor No. In 1 bar: - Hollow 20, Solid - 20

Upper Bar:U 10050 mm: Conductor size: c- 5 mm


8*4.6*1.5 mm (Hollow) 8*1.3 mm (Solid)

Conductor No. in 1 bar: -Hollow 20, Solid 40

Transposition:Transposition means changing/shifting of position of each conductor in active core (slot) part. After cutting the required number of conductors, the conductors are arranged on the comb in staggered manner and then bends are given to the conductors with the help of bending die at required distance. Then the conductors are taken out from the comb and die and placed with their ends in a line and transposition is carried out. This process is repeated for making another half of the bar which would be mirror image of the first half. The two halves of the bar are overlapped over each other and a spacer is placed between the two -halves.

Crossover Insulation:The pre insulation of the copper conductor may get damaged due to mechanical bending in die during transposition, hence the insulating spacers are provided at the crossover portion of the conductors. A filler material (insulating putty or molding is provided along the height of the bar to maintain the rectangular shape and to cover the difference of level of conductors. To eliminate inter turn short at bends during edges wise bending and leveling of bars in slots portion for proper stack pressing.

Stack Consolidation:-

The core part of the bar stack is pressed in press (closed box) under pressure (varies from product to product) and temperature of 160 C for a given period. The consolidated stack is withdrawn from the press and the dimensions are checked.

Inter Strand Short Test:The consolidated bar stack is tested for the short between any two conductors in the bar, if found then it has to be rectified. This is done to ensure that no local current is flowing due to short circuit between conductors. (300 A/C supply)

Forming:The straight bar stack is formed as per overhang profile (as per design), the overhang portion is consolidated after forming.

Brazing of coil lugs:For water cooled generator bars, the electrical connection contact and water box for inlet and outlet of water are brazed.

Nitrogen Leak Test:The bar is tested for water flow test, nitrogen leak test and pressure test for given duration.

Thermal shock test:-

The cycles of hot (80C) and cold (30C) water are flown through the bar to ensure the thermal expansion and contraction of the joints.

Helium leakage test:After thermal shock test bar is tested for any leakage with the help of helium gas.

Insulation:The bar is insulated with the given number of layers to build the wall thickness of insulation subjected to the generating voltage of the machine.

Impregnation and baking:a) Thermo reactive system:In case of rich resin insulation the bar is pressed in closed box in heated condition and baked under pressure and temperature as per requirement for a given period.

b) Micalastic system:-

In case of poor resin system the insulated bars are heated under vacuum and the impregnated (dipped) in heated resin so that all the air gaps are filled, layer by layer, with resin. Then extra resin is drained out and bars are heated and baked under pressed condition in closed box fixture.

VPI Micalastic system:The bars already lay in closed fixture and full fixture is impregnated (dipped) in resin and then fixture with box is baked under given temperature for given duration.

VIP Micalstic system:The individual (separate) bar is heated in vacuum and impregnated in resin. Then bar is taken out and pressed in closed box fixture and then baked at given temperature for given duration.

Finishing:-

The baked and dimensionally correct bars are sanded-off to smoothen the edges and the surface is calibrated, if required, for the dimension.

Conducting varnish coating:i) OCP (Outer Corona Protection) coating:The black semi-conducting varnish coating is applied on the bar surface on the core length.

ii) ECP (End Corona Protection) coating:The grey semi-conducting varnish is applied at the bend outside core end of bars in gradient to prevent from discharge and minimize the end corona.

Testing:a) Tan@ test:This test is carried out to ensure the healthiness of dielectric (Insulation) i.e. dense or rare and measured the capacitance loss.

b) H.V. Test:Each bar is tested momentary at high voltage increased gradually to three times higher than rated voltage.

Dispatched for Winding:The bars preserved with polythene sleeves to protect from dust, dirt, oil, rain etc are send to Block-I (Electric Machines Production Block I, Turbo Generators and Hydro Generators) for winding.

CONCLUSION
Engineering students will have to serve in the public and private sector industries, laboratories and workshops based training & teaching in classroom has its own limitations. The lack of exposure to real life, materials processes and functioning of industrial organization employment. In the open economy era of fast modernization and tough competition, technical institutes should procedure pass outs as near to job function as possible. is the measure hindrances in the student

Practical training is one major step in this direction. This training helped me in gaining in depth knowledge of the working of a telephone exchange. At last I would only say that this training was helpful for my future prospects.