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EHU-501 : ENGINEERING & MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS Unit-I Introduction : Meaning, Nature and Scope of Economics, Meaning of Science, Engineering and Technology. Managerial Economics and its scope in engineering perspective. Unit-II Basic Concepts Demand Analysis, Law of Demand, Determinates of Demand, Elasticity of Demand-Price, Income and cross Elasticity. Uses of concept of elasticity of demand in managerial decision. Unit-III Demand forecasting Meaning, significance and methods of demand forecastin

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and Technology. Managerial Economics and its scope in engineering perspective. Unit-II Basic Concepts Demand Analysis, Law of Demand, Determinates of Demand, Elasticity of Demand-Price, Income and cross Elasticity. Uses of concept of elasticity of demand in managerial decision. Unit-III Demand forecasting Meaning, significance and methods of demand forecasting, production function, Laws of returns to scale & Law of Diminishing returns scale. An overview of Short and Long run cost curves fixed cost, variable cost, average cost, marginal cost, Opportunity cost. Unit-IV Market Structure Perfect Competition, Imperfect competition Monopolistic, Oligopoly, duopoly sorbent features of price determination and various market conditions. Unit-V National Income, Inflation and Business Cycles Concept of N.I. and Measurement. Meaning of Inflation, Type causes & prevention methods, Phases of business cycle. Reference Books 1. Koutsoyiannis A : Modern Microeconomics, ELBS. 2. Managerial Economics for Engineering : Prof. D.N. Kakkar 3. Managerial Economics : D.N. Dwivedi 4. Managerial Economics : Maheshwari. EEC-508 : FUNDAMENTALS OF E.M.THEORY Unit I Review of Vector analysis, Rectangular, Cylindrical and Spherical coordinates and their transformation, divergence, gradient and cvrl in different coordinate systems, Electric field intensity, Electric Flux density, Energy and potential. Unit-II Current and conductors, Dielectrics and capacitance, Poissons and Laplaces equations. Unit-III Steady magnetic field, magnetic forces, materials and inductance, Time varying field and Maxwells equation. Unit-IV Uniform Plane waves, Plane wave reflection and dispersion Text Books: 1. Mayt, W.H. and Buck, J.A., Engineering Electromagnetic Tata Mc.Graw Hill Publishing Reference Books: 1. Jordan E.C. and Balmain K.G., Electromagnetic Wave and radiating Systems Prentice Hall International , 2nd Edition. 2. Kraus, F. Electromagnetic Tata Mc. Graw Hill 5th Edition Ramo S, Whinnery T.R. and Vanduzer T, Field and Waves in Communication Electronics John Wiely and Sons 3rd Edition EEE-501: ELECTRO-MECHANICAL ENERGY CONVERSION - II UNIT-I Synchronous Machine I Constructional features, Armature winding, EMF Equation, Winding coefficients, equivalent circuit and phasor diagram, Armature reaction, O. C. & S. C. tests, Voltage Regulation using Synchronous Impedance Method, MMF Method, Potiers Triangle Method, Parallel Operation of synchronous generators, operation on infinite bus, synchronizing power and torque co-efficient -1-

UNIT-II Synchronous Machine II: Two Reaction Theory, Power flow equations of cylindrical and salient pole machines, operating characteristics Synchronous Motor: Starting methods, Effect of varying field current at different loads, V- Curves, Hunting & damping, synchronous condenser UNIT-III: Three phase Induction Machine I Constructional features, Rotating magnetic field, Principle of operation Phasor diagram, equivalent circuit, torque and power equations, Torque- slip characteristics, no load & blocked rotor tests, efficiency, Induction generator & its applications. UNIT-IV Three phase Induction Machine- II Starting, Deep bar and double cage rotors, Cogging & Crawling, Speed Control (with and without emf injection in rotor circuit.) UNIT-V Single phase Induction Motor: Double revolving field theory, Equivalent circuit, No load and blocked rotor tests, Starting methods, repulsion motor AC Commutator Motors: Universal motor, Single phase a.c. series compensated motor, stepper motors Text Books: 1. D.P.Kothari & I.J.Nagrath, Electric Machines, Tata Mc Graw Hill 2. Ashfaq HussainElectric Machines Dhanpat Rai & Company 3. Fitzerald,A.E.,Kingsley and S.D.UmansElectric Machinery, MC Graw Hill. Reference Books: 4. P.S.Bimbhra, Electrical Machinery, Khanna Publisher 5. P.S. Bimbhra, Generalized Theory of Electrical Machines, Khanna Publishers 6. M.G.Say, Alternating Current Machines,Pitman & Sons EEE-502: CONTROL SYSTEM Unit-I The Control System: Open loop & closed control; servomechanism, Physical examples. Transfer functions, Block diagram algebra, Signal flow graph, Masons gain formula Reduction of parameter variation and effects of disturbance by using negative feedback Unit-II Time Response analysis: Standard test signals, time response of first and second order systems, time response specifications, steady state errors and error constants Design specifications of second order systems: Derivative error, derivative output, integral error and PID compensations, design considerations for higher order systems, performance indices Unit-III Control System Components: Constructional and working concept of ac servomotor, synchros and stepper motor Stability and Algebraic Criteria concept of stability and necessary conditions, Routh-Hurwitz criteria and limitations. Root Locus Technique:The root locus concepts, construction of root loci Unit-IV Frequency response Analysis: Frequency response, correlation between time and frequency responses, polar and inverse polar plots, Bode plots Stability in Frequency Domain: Nyquist stability criterion, assessment of relative stability: gain margin and phase margin, constant M&N circles Unit-V Introduction to Design: The design problem and preliminary considerations lead, lag and lead-lag networks, design of closed loop systems using compensation techniques in time domain and frequency domain. Review of state variable technique: Review of state variable technique, conversion of state variable model to transfer function model and vice-versa, diagonalization, Controllability and observability and their testing.

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Text Book: 1. Nagrath & Gopal, Control System Engineering, 4th Edition, New age International. 2. K. Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, Prentice Hall of India. 3. B.C. Kuo & Farid Golnaraghi, Automatic Control System Wiley IndiaLtd, 2008. 4. D.Roy Choudhary, Modern Control Engineering, Prentice Hall of India. Reference Books: 5. Norman S. Mise, Control System Engineering 4th edition, Wiley Publishing Co. 6. Ajit K Mandal, Introduction to Control Engineering New Age International,2006. 7. R.T. Stefani, B.Shahian, C.J.Savant and G.H. Hostetter, Design of Feedback Control Systems Oxford University Press. 8. N.C. Jagan, Control Systems, B.S. Publications,2007. EEE-503: ELEMENTS OF POWER SYSTEM Unit-I Power System Components: Single line Diagram of Power system, Brief description of power system Elements: Synchronous machine, transformer, transmission line, bus bar, circuit breaker and isolator Supply System Different kinds of supply system and their comparison, choice of transmission voltage Transmission Lines: Configurations, types of conductors, resistance of line, skin effect, Kelvins law.Proximity effect Unit-II Over Head Transmission Lines Calculation of inductance and capacitance of single phase, three phase, single circuit and double circuit transmission lines, Representation and performance of short, medium and long transmission lines, Ferranti effect. Surge impedance loading Unit-III Corona and Interference: Phenomenon of corona, corona formation, calculation of potential gradient, corona loss, factors affecting corona, methods of reducing corona and interference. Electrostatic and electromagnetic interference with communication lines Overhead line Insulators: Type of insulators and their applications, potential distribution over a string of insulators, methods ofequalizing the potential, string efficiency Unit-IV Mechanical Design of transmission line: Catenary curve, calculation of sag & tension, effects of wind and ice loading, sag template, vibration dampers Insulated cables: Type of cables and their construction, dielectric stress, grading of cables, insulation resistance, capacitance of single phase and three phase cables, dielectric loss, heating of cables Unit-V Neutral grounding: Necessity of neutral grounding, various methods of neutral grounding, earthing transformer, grounding practices Electrical Design of Transmission Line: Design consideration of EHV transmission lines, choice of voltage, number of circuits, conductor configuration, insulation design, selection of ground wires. EHV AC and HVDC Transmission: Introduction to EHV AC and HVDC transmission and their comparison, use of bundle conductors, kinds of DC links, and incorporation of HVDC into AC system Text Books 1. W. D. Stevenson, Element of Power System Analysis, McGraw Hill, 2. C. L. Wadhwa, Electrical Power Systems New age international Ltd. Third Edition 3. Asfaq Hussain, 'Power System, CBS Publishers and Distributors, 4. B. R. Gupta, Power System Analysis and Design Third Edition, S. Chand & Co. 5. M. V. Deshpande, Electrical Power System Design Tata Mc Graw Hill. Reference Books 6. M. V. Deshpandey, Elements of Power System Design, Tata McGraw Hill, 7. Soni, Gupta & Bhatnagar, A Course in Electrical Power, Dhanpat Rai & Sons, 8. S. L. Uppal, Electric Power, Khanna Publishers 9. S.N.Singh, Electric Power Generation, Transmission& distribution. PHI Learning -3-

EEC :509 ANALOG INTEGRATED ELECTRONICS Unit-I Frequency response & stability of an Op-Amp: Frequency response, compensating Networks, Frequency response of internally compensated and uncompensated Op-Amps, High frequency Op-Amps. Equivalent circuit, stability in constant GBP Op- Amp. Circuits. Unit-II Op-Amp Circuits: Applications Current to voltage converters, V to I converters, current amplifier, difference Amplifiers, Instrumentation Amplifiers, integrators and differentiators. Unit-III Active filters & Converters: First and second order low pass & High pass filters, Band Pass & Band-Reject filters, All-Pass filter, Filter using MATLAB. Voltage to Frequency and Frequency to voltage Converters, Analog to Digital and Digital to Analog Converters. Unit-IV Non Linear Circuits & Regulators: Voltage Comparators, Precision Rectifiers, Schmitt Triggers, Analog Switches, Peak detectors, Sample and Hold circuit, Square and Triangular Wave Generators, Linear Regulators, Switching Regulators. Unit-V Non Linear Amplifiers & Phase-Locked Loops: Log/Antilog Amplifiers, Analog Multipliers, Operational Trans conductance Amplifiers, Phase-Locked loops, Monolithic PLLs,Noise in integrated circuits. Text Books: 1. Franco Sergio, Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits Tata McGraw-Hill 2. Ramakant A. Gayakwad, Op-Amps and Linear Integrated Circuits Prentice Hall of India. Reference Books : 1. James M.Fiore,Op-Amps and Linear Integrated Circuits: Theory and Applications Thomson Asia Pvt. Ltd. Singapore 2. Millman J.&Halkias C.C., Integrated Electronics Analog and Digital Circuits & Systems McGraw Hill. 3. Soclof,S.,Application of Analog Integrated Circuits Prentice Hall of India. 4. Bell, David A., Operational Amplifiers & Linear ICS Prentice Hall of India. LABORATORY EEE- 551: ELECTRO-MECHANICAL ENERGY CONVERSION II Note: The minimum 8 experiments are to be performed from the following, out of which there should be at least two software based experiments. 1. To perform no load and blocked rotor tests on a three phase squirrel cage induction motor and determine equivalent circuit. 2. To perform load test on a three phase induction motor and draw: (i) Torque -speed characteristics (ii) Power factor-line current characteristics 3. To perform no load and blocked rotor tests on a single phase induction motor and determine equivalent circuit. 4. To study speed control of three phase induction motor byKeeping V/f ratio constant 5. To study speed control of three phase induction motor by varying supply voltage. 6. To perform open circuit and short circuit tests on a three phase alternator and determine voltage regulation at full load and at unity, 0.8 lagging and leading power factors by (i) EMF method (ii) MMF method. 7. To determine V-curves and inverted V-curves of a three phase synchronous motor. 8. To determine Xd and Xq of a three phase salient pole synchronous machine using the slip test and draw the power-angle curve. 9. To study synchronization of an alternator with the infinite bus by using: (i) dark lamp method (ii) two bright and one dark lamp method Software based experiments (Develop Computer Program in C language or use MATLAB or other commercial software) 10. To determine speed-torque characteristics of three phase slip ring induction motor and study the effect of including resistance, or capacitance in the rotor circuit. -4-

11. To determine speed-torque characteristics of single phase induction motor and study the effect of voltage variation. 12. To determine speed-torque characteristics of a three phase induction motor by (i) keeping v/f ratio constant (ii) increasing frequency at the rated voltage. 13. Draw O.C. and S.C. characteristics of a three phase alternator from the experimental data and determine voltage regulation at full load, and unity, 0.8 lagging and leading power factors. 14. To determine steady state performance of a three phase induction motor using equivalent circuit. EEE 552: CONTROL SYSTEM LABORATORY Note: The minimum of 10 experiments are to be performed from the following, out of which at least three should be software based. 1. To determine response of first order and second order systems for step input for various values of constant K using linear simulator unit and compare theoretical and practical results. 2. To study P, PI and PID temperature controller for an oven and compare their performance. 3. To study and calibrate temperature using resistance temperature detector (RTD) 4. To design Lag, Lead and Lag-Lead compensators using Bode plot. 5. To study DC position control system 6. To study synchro-transmitter and receiver and obtain output V/S input characteristics 7. To determine speed-torque characteristics of an ac servomotor. 8. To study performance of servo voltage stabilizer at various loads using load bank. 9. To study behaviour of separately excited dc motor in open loop and closed loop conditions at various loads. 10. To study PID Controller for simulation proves like transportation lag. Software based experiments (Use MATLAB, LABVIEW software etc.) 11. To determine time domain response of a second order system for step input and obtain performance parameters. 12. To convert transfer function of a system into state space form and vice-versa. 13. To plot root locus diagram of an open loop transfer function and determine range of gain k fir stability. 14. To plot a Bode diagram of an open loop transfer function. 15. To draw a Nyquist plot of an open loop transfer functions and examine the stability of the closed loop system. Reference Books: 1. K.Ogata,Modern Control Engineering Prentice Hall of India. 2. Norman S.Nise, Control System Engineering, John Wiley & Sons. 3. M.Gopal, Control Systems: Principles & Design Tata Mc Graw Hill. EEC -509 : ANALOG INTEGRATED ELECTRONICS LAB 1. To determine CMRR of a differential amplifier. 2. To study op-amp based inverting and non-inverting amplifiers, voltage comparator and zero crossing detector. 3. To study op-amp based Adder and integrator circuits. 4. To study RC low pass and high pass active filters and draw outlput voltage waveform for square wave input. 5. To study Op-Amp based triangular wave generator. 6. To study operation of IC74123 as monostable multivibrator. 7. To design and fabricate Op-Amp. Base astable multivibrator and verify experimentally frequency of oscillation. 8. To study operation of IC NE/SE 566 voltage controlled oscillator and determine output frequency for various voltage levels. 9. To study Op-Amp. Based V to I and I to V converters. 10. To study a PLL circuit and determine the free running frequency. 11. To study Op-Amp. based sample and hold circuit. 12. To study Instrumentation Amplifier circuit. 13 to15 The Institute /college may add three more experiments at its level.

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Course description: this course is designed to familiarize the students of B.Tech programme , with the basic principles and theories of economics which will prepare them for their roles as future managers. Unit no. 1 Competencies The objective of this unit is to provide a basic understanding of economics and how economic decisions are made. The unit also deals with the concept of science, engg and their role in economic development The objective of the unit is to provide the understanding of basic concept of demand. The unit attempts to explain the meaning and significance of elasticity of demand Contents Introduction: A brief historical perspective, definitions and classification of economics Nature and scope of economics Significance of economics Role of economics in managerial decision making Meaning of science, engineering and technology. Principles of Economics Managerial economics and its scope in engineering perspective Economic development and growth Basic concepts Demand analysis Concept of needs, wants, demand and supply Law of demand and demand determinants Reasons for shape of demand curve Exception to the law of demand Types of demand Concept of elasticity of demand and supply Price, income, cross and advertising elasticity Measurement of elasticity of demand. Law of supply Demand forecasting Meaning and significance of demand forecasting Methods of demand forecasting Production- meaning and production function Factors of production Law of production Law of return to scale Law of diminishing returns scale Cost concepts Short run and long run cost curves Fixed cost, variable cost, average cost, marginal cost, opportunity cost etc. Theory of firm No of Tech./lear. Lect. Acti. 06 Orientation Lectures and Classroom discussion Book & pg no. KK dewett Page no 3-8

KK dewett Page no 640-651 8 Lectures and Classroom discussion KK dewett Page no 77-91

This unit attempts to explain meaning and methods of demand forecasting and production and cost concepts

10

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The aim of this unit is to provide a thorough knowledge of market structure and pricing under different market structure.

Market structure Perfect competition meaning and features Price determination under perfect competition Imperfect competition Monopolistic meaning and features Price determination under monopolistic oligopoly meaning and features Price determination under oligopoly Monopoly meaning and features Price determination under monopoly

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The basic aim of the unit is to give an idea about the national income, and the various methods to measure it . this unit also tell about the inflation and business cycle.

National income, inflation and business cycle Definition of national income Methods of measuring national income Meaning of inflation Types of inflation Causes of inflation Theories of inflation Prevention of inflation Introduction of business cycle Phases of business cycle Theories of business cycle Remedial measures

Reference Books: Koutsoyiannis A : Modern microeconomics,ELBS Managerial economics for engineering : Prof. D.N.Kakkar Managerial economics :D.N.Dwivedi Managerial economics: Maheshwari Modern economic theory: KK dewett

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ENGINEERING AND MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS EHU- 501 TUTORIAL SHEET UNIT 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Discuss the development and classification of economics? Should economics be treated as a science or art? How is economics useful for mangers? Discuss the nature and scope of economics. Managerial economics is the discipline which deals with the application of economic theory to business management discuss

UNIT 2 1. State and explain the Law of demand .what are its exceptions? 2. Why does a demand curve slope downward? Can a demand curve slope upward to the right under any condition? 3. Discuss the concept of price elasticity of demand along with its various types. 4. Define cross elasticity of demand and state its formula. How does such elasticity differ in case of substitutes and complementary goods? 5. Explain the various uses of concept of elasticity of demand. UNIT 3 1. Discuss briefly the various methods of demand forecasting and point out their limitations. What are the criteria of a good forecasting method? 2. Explain the concept of production function and point out its managerial uses. 3. Explain the concept of law of diminishing returns. 4. Discuss briefly different cost concept relevant to managerial decision of planning and control. 5. The long run average cost curve is L- shaped. Does this means that the economies of Scale does not exist. UNIT 4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. UNIT 5 1. Define national income and Differentiate between gross National product (GNP) & Net National Product (NNP). 2. Describe the various methods of measuring national income. 3. Explain the concept of business cycle and point out its different phases. How is a business enterprise affected during those phases? 4. What is inflation? What are the causative facture to the inflation? 5. Enumerate some of the important theory of business cycle & explain any of them pointing its main features? Why is a firm under perfect competition regarded as price taker and not a price maker. What is meant by price discrimination? State the necessary condition for price discrimination. Explain various types of market structure and compare their characteristics. What is meant by monopolistic competition? How does a firm take it pricing and output decision in it? Define oligopoly. Explain how price and output decision are taken under oligopoly.

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TEAC. LEAR. ACT Lecture cum Discussion

NO

COMPETENCIES

CONTENTS Review of Vector analysis Rectangular, Cylindrical and Spherical coordinates and their transformation, divergence, gradient and curl in different coordinate systems Electric field intensity, Electric Flux density Energy and potential. Current and conductors

H 1 2

UNIT-1

APPENDIX -A

1 1 1 2 2 4 2 1 2 3

2.1 TO 2.6 3.1 TO 3.7 4.1 TO 4.8 5.1 TO 5.6 6.1 TO 6.7 7.1 TO 7.6 8.1 TO 8.7 9.1 TO 9.4 9.5 TO 9.10 10.1 TO 10.5 12.1 TO 12.5 13.1 TO 13.8 Lecture cum Discussion Test Paper & Oral Question Lecture cum Discussion Test Paper & Oral Question Lecture cum Discussion Test Paper & Oral Question

ll

UNIT-2

Dielectrics and capacitance Poissons and Laplaces equations. Steady magnetic field magnetic forces

lll

UNIT-3

materials and inductance Time varying field and Maxwells equation. Uniform Plane waves

4 4

iv

UNIT-4

Text Books: 1. Hayt, W.H. and Buck, J.A., Engineering Electromagnetic Tata Mc.Graw Hill Publishing Reference Books: 1. Jordan E.C. and Balmain K.G., Electromagnetic Wave and radiating Systems Prentice Hall International , 2nd Edition. 2. Kraus, F. Electromagnetic Tata Mc. Graw Hill 5th Edition 3. Ramo S, Whinnery T.R. and Vanduzer T, Field and Waves in Communication Electronics John Wiely and Sons 3rd Edition

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ELECTROMAFNETIC FIELD THEORY EEC - 508 TUTORIAL SHEET -1 1. State and prove Gasusss law and discuss its application. 2. Discuss the vector representation of the a surface. 3. Prove the following . B = 0 , B being magnetic flux density. 4. Find the divergence of vector function. A = x2 ax + (xy)2 ay + 24 x2 y2 z3 az 5. Find the gradient of the function A given by A = x2 + y2 + z3 6. Determine the vector A directed from (2,-4) to (0,-2,0) in Cartesian coordinates and determine the unit vector Ans. aA= - ax +ay az 7. Write the following expression explicitly in Cartesian coordinates. (a) Grad div. E (b) Curl E (c) Div curl E. 8. Discuss the difference between dot product and cross product. 9. What is Stokes theorem? State and prove it. 10. State and explain the divergence theorem. TUTORIAL SHEET -2 1. Under what circumstances are the vectors A x (B x C) & B x (A x C) equal. 2. In free space, let Q1 = 10nC be at P1 (0,-4,0) & Q 2 = 20nC be at P 2 (0,0,4). Find E at the origin. 3. For the above values where should be 30 n c point charge be located 80 that E = 0 at the origin. 4. A point charge QA = 1 c is at A (0,0,-1) and QB = -1 c is at B (0,0,-1). Find Er, E0, E( at P (1,2,3). Ans. 554,225,0 v/m 5. Eight point charges of 1 nc each are located at the crones if a cube in free space that is 1 m or a side. Find E1 at the center of cube. 6. For same, a face 7.For same, an edge Ans. 5,6,7 = 0,19.57 v/m , 25.7 v/m. 8. For x,y and z positive, let (v = 40 xyz c/m2.find the total charge with in the region defined by 0 ( x,y,z ( z. 9. Express Poissons and Laplaces equations in various co-ordinate system. 10. State and explain the coulombs law. TUTORIAL SHEET -3 1. A radio antenna 1cm diameter conductor is stretched horizontally 10 meter above the ground .Determine the capacitance of the antenna /unit length. Ans - c=6.707pf 2. A thunder cloud above the earth setup a vertical electric field of 50 volt /meter. In this field there is a rain drop carrying charge of 0.3 m. What is the electrostatic force on this rain drop? Ans- F=15x10-6 N 3. Two point charges of 1 coulomb each and the same sign arte separated 1mm apart calculate the magnitude of repulsive force. Ans-F=9x1015 N 4. Find out the force between two charges 1 c, when they are separated 1 m distance in air. Ans-F=9x1015 N 5. Calculate electric field intensity at a distance of 0.20 m from a charge 2.4 c in vacuum. Ans-E=4.5x102 KV/m. 2 6. A parallel plat capacitor consists of two sheets of copper foils each of area 0.1m separated by 2.0mm thick seat of plastic having a relative permittivity of 2.1.What is capacitance . Ans-C=924x10-12 F 7. Calculate the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor having two dielectrics r1 = 1.5 & r1 = 3.5 ,each comprising one half space between plates but the interface is parallel to the plates, given A = 2m & d = 1m. Ans.C1 = 53.124x10-9 F, C2 =123.95 x10-9 F, vq = 37.18x 10-9 F. 8. Explain energy stored in magnetic fields. 9. Amperes law of force and its application. 10.Faradays law and its application. - 10 -

TUTORIAL SHEET -4 1. A point charge of 6 c is located at the origin line charge dencity of 180nc/m lies the x axis and a uniform sheet of charge equal to 25nc/m2 lies in the z=0 plain .Find D at A (0,0,4). 2. Find D at B (1, 2, 4) for above. 3. For same calculate the total electric flux leaving the serface of a sphere of 4m radius center at origin. Ans 1, 2, 3 # 47.5 az nc/m, 4.96 ax +12.79 ay +38.1 az nc/m,8.70 C respectively. 4. Calculate the divergence of Cc at P (2,-3,4) if Cp = x ax + y ay +z az 5. For same C1 = pa1, D=? 6. For same C1 = 6rsin ar+2rcosa Ans 4,5,6 # 3,2,88.2 7. Let the D=x ax & find the value of s u D.ds or the surface of sphere r= 1 Ans -4.19 8. & 9. Determine the capacitance of each of the capacitor shown below, taking r1 =4,r2 =6,d=5 mm ,s=30cm Ans c=26.5 9. .Determine the capacitance of a capacitor consisting of two parallel metal plates 0.30x0.30m surface area ,separated by 5 mm in air what is the total energy stored by the capacitor if the capacitor is charged to a potential difference of 500v.What is the energy intensity TUTORIAL SHEET -5 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Obtain H due to an infinitely long straight filament of current I, using amperes law The magnitude of H at a radius of 1 m from long linear conductors is 1 A/m. calculate the current. A square of edge a carrier, a current I. Show that the value of V at the center is given by B = 22 I / 9. If the magnitude of H in a plain wave is 1A/m, what is the magnitude of E for a plane wave in free space? The electric field intensity of an electromagnetic wave in free space is given by Ex = 0, Ez = 0, Ey = E0 cos (t-z/v), Define the expression for the components of magnetic strength H, using Maxwell equation. Explain the nature of magnetic material. Define magnetic boundary conditions. Write a brief note on Inductance. Write the Maxwell equation as per laws. Explain retarded potential. TUTORIAL SHEET -6 1. In fig10.1 of W.H. Hayt, replace the uniform B field by B= 2e-50y az. Find v12 (t) if d= 4 cm and v= 65 ay mi/h with y=0 at t=0 Ans2.33e-1453t 2. let us assume that the sliding bar of fig 10.4,( W.H. Hay) is fixed at position at x=1 m with a rail separation of 8 cm. find Vab (t) if Bz = 2 cos 108 t T. Ans- -16 sin 108 tV 3. For same if Bz = 2 cos (108 t x/3)T. Ans-15.93 cos (108 t 99.5)V 4. Let B= 0.5xaz t in fig 10.4 the position of the sliding bar is given by x=4t-2t2 if the separation of the radius is 10 cm. find voltmeter reading Vab at t=0.55. Ans- - 0.15V 5. calculate same for x=1 m, Ans- -0.1414V 6. State explains biosavart law for static, magnetic field as applied to different types of current distribution. 7. find J if H= 31 X + 7y 1y +2X 1z A/m 8. find J if H= 6 RLr +2 r L + 51z A/m 9. Find magnetic vector potential A due to an infinity plane current sheet of uniform density K fig. 6.13 of S.P.Sethi. 10. Magnetic field intensity in free space is given by H= 20 (X1x + Y1y)/ (x2 + y2) A/m, show that . B=0

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TUTORIAL SHEET -7 Explain the mechanism of wave motion on free space. Describe in brief the wave motion in perfect dielectrics. Explain the plain wave in losy dielectrics. What is poynting vector? Explain in detail for what purpose the pointing vector is used. Explain the spin effect? Explain how reflection of uniform plain wave takes place. Describe the standing wave ratio. By integrating the pointing vector over the cross-section of a co-axial cable. Show that the total power carried by the cable is VI, Where V is the voltage and I is current. 10. Find the velocity of a plain wave in a lostless medium having a relating permittivity of 5 and relative permeability of unity. Ans.3x108 TUTORIAL SHEET -8 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Derive the relation between E and H in uniform plane wave. Derive the expression for and in a conducting medium. VSWR and the reflection indicate the matching condition between networks. Justify it. The poynting theorem gives the energy balance in asystem. Justify it by obtaining necessary relation. A wave propagation in a loss less dielectric has the components, E =500cos(107t- (z) ax v/m and H = 1.1cos(107t- (z) ay A/m.If the wave is traveling a V=0.5c. Find out (a) (r, (b) r, (c) ( Ans - 2.41, 1.659, 0.0667 rad/m For the above question also calculate ( & Moh Ans - 94.2 rad/m, & 455 A uniform plane wave in free space is given by Es=200e j0.1z ax v/m. Find the instantaneous value of poyniting vector at t = 0,z = 0,15,30 & 45. Ans 10.62 az, 0.531az,014.1az & 4.72az w/m2 7 A brass pipes (r = 10 ) with inner and outer radius of 1.7 and 2 cm carriers a total current of 100A dc. Find the E, H and p with brass. Ans- 0.0287 az v/m,[(143400/ )-41.4 ] a A/m, [(-4110/ )+1.18 ] ap (/m2. A nonmagnetic good conductor support a uniform plane wave traveling at a velocity of 2.5x105 m/s with a wavelength of 0.25mm.Find the frequency and conductivity. Ans - 14Hz,1.6x105 moh/m. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

6. 7.

8.

9.

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Time : 3 Hours Note : Attempt all the questions 1) Attempt any four of the following

Write down gradient of any scalar & divergence and curl of any vector : (a) (b) (c) If =

x+2 y + 10 z

and

=4 10 z find out the value of for which two vector become perpendicular x+8 y -10 o Given Points A(x=2, y=3,z= and B( =4 , = -50 , z=2) find the distance A to B y=3,z=-1) State the word statement of Coulombs law of forces . Three point charges q1 = 10 -6 C , q2 = -106 C and q3 = 0.5 X 10-6 C are located in air at the corners of an equilateral triangle of 50 cm side . Determine the magnitude and direction of the force q3 Two uniform line charge of density e = 4 nc/m lie in the x=0 plane at y= 4m e Find at (4 , 0 , 10) m Charge distributed throughout a volume V with density gives rise to an electric field with energy e content WE = permittivity of the medium . Show that its equivalent is WE = where is the

(d)

(e)

2) Attempt any four of the foll following (a) (b) Explain convection current and conduction current. Derive ohms law in point form? The electric field intensity in polystyrene ( r=2.55) filling the space between the plates of parallel plate capacitor is 10 kV/m. the distance between the plates is 1.5 mm. calculate: (1) the surface charges on the plates (2) the potential difference between the plates. Derive dielectric-dielectric boundary condition? dielectric Two conducting cones ( =/10 and =/6 ) of infinite extent are seprated bty an infinitesimal gap r=0 . If V( =/10) = /6 /6 0 and V( =/6) = 50V Find V and E between the cones /6) The electric field intensity at a point on the surface of a conductor ia given by = 0.2 (f)

x +0.3 y + 10

(c) (d)

(e)

in spherical co ordinates from poissons equation assuming a uniform a uniform co-ordinates Determine charge density

3) Attempt any two of the following: a) A charge particle of mass 2 kg and charge IC starts at the origin with velocity 3y m/s and travels in the region of uniform magnetic field B=10zWb/m2 .At t=4s , Calculate: (i) The velocity and acceleration of the particle. (ii) The magnetic force on it. (iii) Kinetic energy and location. - 13 -

b)Define Bio Savart Law and Amperes Law(in detail). c)A long ,straight conductor cross section with radius a has a magnetic field strength H=( Ir/2a2 ) with in the conductor(r<a) and H(I/2r) for (r<a).find J in both the region? 4) Attempt any two of the following: a) How the wave propogation takes place in dispersive medium?Light is incident from air to glass at Brewsters angle.Determine the incident and transmitted angles? b) Determine the polarization.State of plane wave with electric field E(z,t)= x3cos(wt-kz+30)- y4sin(wtkz+45)mV/m. c) A lossy dielectric has an intrinsic impedance of 20003ohm at a particular frequency.If at that frequency the plane wave propogating through the dielectric has the magnetic field component H=10exp(-x)cos(wt-1/2x) y A/m. Find E, and skin depth 5) Attempt any two of the following a) Derive Transmission line differential equation.Derive the condition of loss less transmission line from it? b) (i) A 50 ohm lossless transmission line is terminated by a load impedance ZL =(50-j75)ohm.If the incident power is 100 mW. Find the power dissipated by the load? (ii) A transmission line operating at 500 MHz has Z0 = 80 ohm,=0.04 Np/m ,=1.5rad/m.Find the line parameters? c) Using the concept of Maxwells equation explain how wave propogates in guided waves?

- 14 -

Course Description: The course is designed to impart knowledge of AC machines, mainly 3-phase synchronous machine and 3-phase and 1-phase induction motors. Theory, operation, controls and applications of these machines are to be discussed. 1-phase AC commutator motors and stepper motors are also included. Unit No. 1. Synchron ous MachineI Competencies Student may learn operation, windings, basics, phasor diagram, regulation and related calculations as generator Contents Constructional features, Armature winding EMF Equation, winding coefficients. Armature Reaction, Equivalent circuit & phasor diagram O.C. and S.C Test and Voltage regulation Voltage Regulation using Synchronous impedance method, MMF method, Potiers Triangle method Parallel operation of Synchronous generators Operation on infinite bus Synchronising power and torque coefficient Two reaction theory Power flow equation of Cylindrical and Salient pole machines Operating characteristics of Synchronous machines Starting method for Synchronous motors Effect of changing field current at different loads & V-Curves Hunting & damping Synchronous Condensor Constructional feature and rotating magnetic field Principal of Operation and Phasor diagram, Equivalent circuit Torque and power equations, Torque-slip Characteristics No load and blocked rotor tests & efficiency Induction generator Starting and starting methods. Double cage and Deep bar rotor Cogging & crawling Speed control and its methods Double Revolving field theory Equivalent circuit No-load & Block rotor tests Repulsion Motor Modification in D.C. Series motor for A.C. operation Compensated A.C. Series Universal motor Stepper Motors H 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1&2 1&2 Ref. 1&2

2. Synchron ous MachineII. and Synchron ous Mohrs 3. Three phase Induction MachineI

Students may learn the operation of salient pole generator and 3phase synchronous motors including applications Student may become familiar with theory and operation of 3phase Induction motors Student will be familiar with starting & speed control methods and crawling & cogging phenomenon in 3 phase Induction motor Students will learn the Principal of 1phase Induction motor and Reputation motors. Students will learn principal of A.C. Commutator Motor and Stepper Motors and their applications

1&2

1&2

5Single phase induction motor A.C. Commut ator And Stepper Motors

1&2

- 15 -

Text Books: 1- D.P.Kothari & I.J. Nagrath, Electric Machine, Tata Mc Graw Hill 2- Ashfaq Hussain Electric Machine Dhanpat Rai & Company Reference Books: 1- P.S.Bimbhara Electrical Machine , Khanna Publisher P.S.Bimbhara Generalized theory of Electrical Machine , 2- Khanna Publiser 3- M.G. Say alternat Alternating Current Machine , Pitman & Sons 4- O.C. Taylor, The performance & desing of A.C.Commutator Motors , A.H. Wheeler & Co(P) Ltd. 5- Fitzerald A.E., Kingsley and S.D.Umans Electric Machinery , Mc Graw Hill.

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NOTE: Every Student must submit each tutorial sheet within three days of completion of the unit for its evaluation. Each tutorial sheet is of 10 marks . TUTORIAL SHEET-1 1- An Alternator Armature core has 36 slots. A 4-pole 3-phase, 600 phase spread winding is placed in the stator (a) in single layer (b) in double layers. Each coil has 12 turns. The winding is short pitched by one slot. (i) Draw developed winding diagram showing start and finish of each phase (ii) Connection scheme for star and delta connections (iii) Find winding factor. (iv) Find emf. Induced per phase at 1500 rpm, talking flux per pole=0.12 Wb 2- A 20-pole, 50 Hz, 3 Phase star connected salient pole Alternator having 20 slots with 72 conductors per slot, in two layers in its full pitched, concentrated coil stator winding. The sinusoidally distributed flux per pole is 25 m Wb. Calculate, (i) speed (ii) winding factor (iii) per phase emf and (iv) Line emf. generated 3- A 10-pole, 3 Phase star connected Alternator has 6 slots per pole with 10 conductors per slot in its two layers stator winding The winding is of 1500 Coil span. Speed of Alternator is 600 rpm. Calculate (i) Frequency (ii) Slot angle (iii) Distribution factor (iv) Pitch factor (v) Per phase emf. And (VI) line emf. 4- A 2000 kVA, 11 kV, 3 Phase star connected Alternator has a resistance of 0.3 and reactance of 5 per phase. It delivers full load current at 0.8 lagging power factor and normal rated voltage. Calculate power angle and no load voltage, if excitation remains constant. 5- A 3 phase synchronous generator has d-axis synchronous reactance 0.8 p.u and q-axis synchronous reactance 0.5 p.u. The generator is supplying full load at 0.8 p.f. Lagging at 1:0 p.u. terminal voltages. Calculate (i) Power Angle and (ii) the no load voltage, if excitation remains unchanged. 6- The table gives date for OCT and SCT on a 6-pole, 440V, 50Hz, 3 Phase star connected Alternator. The effective Ohmic resistance between any two terminals of the armature is 0.3 Field current(A) O.C. Terminal voltage (V) S.C. line current (A) 2 156 11 4 288 22 6 396 34 7 440 40 8 474 46 10 530 57 12 568 69 14 592 80

Find regulation at full load current of 40 A with (i) 0.8 p.f. lagging (ii) 0.8 p.f. leading, by Synchronous Impedance Method. 7- For question No.6, find regulation at full load current of 40 A with (i) 0.8 p.f. lagging (ii) 0.8 p.f. leading, by MMF method. 8- The table gives data for OC and ZPF test on a 6-pole, 440V, 50Hz, 3 Phase star connected alternator. The effective Ohmic resistance between any two terminals of the armature is 0.3 . Field current(A) 2 4 6 7 8 10 12 14 16 18 O.C. Terminal voltage (V) ZPF voltage (V) 156 --288 --396 --440 0 474 80 530 206 568 341 392 398 --460 --504

Find regulation at full load current of 40 A with (i) 0.8 p.f. lagging (ii) 0.8 p.f. loading, using Potier method. 9- A 1000 kVA, 3 Phase star connection alternator has a rated Terminal voltage of 3.3kV.The resistance and synchronous reactance per phase are 0.4 and 6 respectively .Estimate voltage regulation at 0.8 p.f. lagging and Draw the phase diagram. - 17 -

10- Two identical Alternators of rating 2 MVA each are operated in parallel to share 3 MW load st at unity p.f. For the 1 machine the uniform frequency drops from 50 Hz at no load to 48Hz at full load and for the 2nd machine, it is from 50Hz to 47.5Hz. Find (a) how will the two machines share the total load? (b) What will the maximum load that can be delivered at unity power factor, without overloading either machine? 11- A 3 Phase star connected alternator having per phase resistance and reactance 0.4 and 6 respectively delivers 300A at 0.8 p.f. to a constant frequency 10kV busbar. Find the percentage change in e.m.f. necessary to rais the power factor to unity, if steam supply is unchangd and change in losses ignored. 12- A 2 MVA, 3 Phase star connected 8-pole, 750 rpm Alternator is operating on 6kV busbars. Synchronous reactance is 6 per phase, Find synchronizing power and torque per mechanical degree of displacement for full load 0.8 p.f. lagging. TUTORIAL SHEETS-2 1- A 1200 kVA, 1100 V, 3 Phase 50 Hz star connected salient pole Synchronous generator has reactance, Xd =1.8 and Xq =1.2 per phase. Find the excitation voltage when it is operated at 0.85 power factor lagging. Neglect the losses. 2- A 400V, 50Hz delta connected Alternator has a Xd=0.1 and Xq=0.07 per phase. The Alternator is supplying 1000A at 0.8 lagging power factor. The armature resistance is negligible. Find the excitation emf. : (i) Neglecting the saliency and assuming Xs= Xd (ii) Taking the saliency into account 3- A Synchronous generator has Xd=0.8 pu. and Xq=0.5 pu. lt is supplying full load at 0.8 p.f. lagging Calculate the excitation emf. (i) Without ignoring Xq (iii) Ignoring Xq and assuming Xs= Xd (iv) Also find power angle with and without Xq 4- A 3 phase Alternator has Xd=0.8 pu. and Xq=0.4 pu. Calculation per unit excitation voltage per phase when the alternator is supplying rated load at 0.8 p.f. lagging at rated voltage. Neglect Ra. Also find the Power Angle. 5- A 3 phase 400V, 50 Hz, 4 pole synchronous motor has negligible armature resistance and synchronous reactance 6 per phase. Its field excitation is adjusted so that the power factor becomes unity, when the motor draws 3 kW from the supply. Calculate: (i) The excitation voltage and power angle. (ii) Mechanical power developed. (iii) The maximum torque the motor can deliver, if field excitation is constant and the shaft load is slowly increasing. 6- A 1500kW, 3.3kV, 3 phase star connection synchronous motor has reactances Xd=4.01 and Xq=2.88 per phase. All losses may be neglected. Calculate (i) excitation emf. when the motor is supplying rated load at unit power factor (ii) the maximum power the motor can supply with excitation held fixed at this value. 7- A 3 phase 11kV star connected synchronous motor takes 50A input current. The effective resistance and synchronous reactance per phase are 1 and 30 respectively. Calculate (i) the induced emf. for (a) 0.8 leading (b) .8 lagging p.f. and (ii) power supplied to the motor. 8- A 6600V, 3 phase star connected synchronous motor draws 80A full load current at 0.8 p.f. lagging. The armature resistance and synchronous reactance are 2.2 and 22 per phase respective. If stray losses of the machine are 3200W, determine (i) emf. included (ii) output power and (iii) the efficiency 9- A 150HP, 2300V, 1000RPM, 50Hz, 3 phase star connection cylindrical rotor synchronous motor has a synchronous resistance. Of 34 per phase and negligible armature resistance. It is operating with an input power of 60KW at a generated voltage of 1800V per phase. Determined (i) power angle (ii) motor input and (iii) power factor. 10- A 200 MVA 11kV, 3phase delta connection synchronous motor has synchronous impedance of 15 /phase .Iron, friction and windage losses are 1200kW. Find (i) value of the unity p.f. current drawn by the motor at 15MW shaft load (ii) what will be the excitation emf under this condition? - 18 -

(iii) If the excited emf. is adjusted to 15.5kV(line) and the shaft is so adjusted that the motor draws unity power factor current, find net motor output. 11- A 3 phase synchronous motor absorbing 60kW is connected in parallel with a factory load of 240kW having 0.8 p.f. lagging. Determine the value of leading kVAr supplied by the motor and the p.f. at which the motor is working. 12- A small industrial load of 500kW at 0.6 p.f. lagging supplied from a 3.3 kW, 3 phase, 50Hz system. It is desired to raise the p.f. of the entire system to 0.8 lagging by means of a synchronous motor which is also driving a pump taking 10kW from the line. Determine the kVA rating of the synchronous motor. TUTORIAL SHEET-3 1- A 3phase induction motor runs at a speed of 1485 rpm at no-load and at 1350 rpm at full load at 50 Hz, 3phase line. Find : (i) No. of pole in the motor. (ii) Percentage slip at no-load and at full-load. (iii) Rotor e.m.f frequency at no-load and full load. (iv)Speed of rotor field with respect to rotor conductors at no-load and at full load. (v)Speed of rotor field with respect to the stator at no-load and at full load. (vi) Speed of rotor field with respect to the stator field at no-load and at full load. 2- A 3phase slipring induction motor has induced e.m.f of 40V between open circuited sliprings at normal voltage applied to the stator winding. The rotor resistance and standstill reactance per phase are 0.5 and 3 respectively. Calculate: (i)Rotor current and rotor power factor at standstill.(ii)Rotor current and rotor power factor, if 4+j3 impedance per phase is added in the rotor circuit at standstill.(iii)Rotor current and rotor power factor at normal running with 4% slip. 3- A 6 pole, 50 Hz, 3phase induction motor running at full load gives 150N-m useful torque at 1.5 Hz rotor e.m.f. frequency. If mechanical torque lost in friction and winding is 10N-m and stator losses are 700W, calculate: (i)Shaft power output (ii)Rotor copper loss (iii) Mechanical power developed (iv)Efficiency of the motor. 4- A 1000V, 6-pole, 50Hz, 3phase star connected induction motor have slipring rotor resistance 0.02 and standstill reactance 0.03 per phase. In the motor full load torque is obtained at 970rpm. Calculate: (i) the ratio of maximum torque to full load torque (ii) the speed at maximum torque and (iii) the ratio of starting torque to full load torque 5- A 400V, 50Hz, 4-pole, 3phase star connection induction motor is having stator impedance (0.15+j0.4) , equivalent rotor impedance referred to sartor (0.16+j0.4) , magnetizing reactance, Xo=20 , core loss equivalent resistance, Ro=200 and slip 3% at load. Draw equivalent circuit for the motor and calculate: (i) Effective rotor impedance referred to stator. (ii) Total input impedance of the motor. (iii) Stator current (iv) Rotor current (v) Mechanical power output and (vi) Input power to the motor. 6- A 6-pole, 500V, 50Hz, 3phase induction motor running at full load with 4% slip, develops 14.92kW at 0.86 lagging p.f. The stator copper and iron losses are 1620W and friction and winding losses are 200W. Calculate: (i)Rotor copper losses (ii) Rotor power input (iii) Mechanical power developed (iv) Input power to the motor (v) Line current and (vi) Efficiency of the motor. 7- A 6-pole, 200V, 50Hz, 3phase star connection squirrel cage induction motor is having rotor resistance and standstill rotor leakage reactance per phase 0.1 and 0.8 respectively . The ratio of rotor to stator turns is 0.65 at 5% slip, calculate: (i) rotor current (ii) rotor power input (iii) Mechanical Power developed by the rotor (iv) Torque developed in the rotor. Also calculate for maximum torque condition (i) the slip (ii) Rotor copper loss (iii) Mechanical power (iv) Rotor speed and (v) Maximum Torque 8- A 6-pole, 400V, 50Hz, 3phase induction motor having 0.15 stator winding resistance per phase, is tested as below: No Load test (line value) : 400V, 20A, 2080W Block rotor test (line value) : 133V, 100A 8085W Determine (i) Equipment circuit of the motor referred to stator side (ii) Losses in the motor and (iii) Efficiency at full load. 9- A 4-pole, 50Hz, 3phase induction motor develops a maximum torque of 100N-m at 1360 rpm. The star connected rotor is having 0.25 /phase. Calculate the value of resistance per phase to be added in each phase to produce starting torque equal to half of the maximum torque in the motor. 10- A 4-pole, 50Hz, 3pahse star connection induction motor is operated at 200V line voltage. The rotor resistance and standstill rotor reactance per phase are 0.1 and 0.9 The ration of rotor turns to stator turns is 0.67, Calculate, (a) total torque at 4% slip (b) maximum torque (c) speed at maximum torque (d) maximum mechanical power developed. Stator impedance is neglected. - 19 -

11- A 4-pole, 400V, 50Hz, 3phase squirrel cage induction motor runs at 1450 rpm at 0.85 p.f lagging developing 11kW power. The stator losses and the Mechanical losses are 1.1kW and 400W respectively. Determine (i) Slip (ii) Rotor copper loss (iii) Rotor frequency (iv) line current and (v) Efficiency 12- The following test result are obtained on a 7.5kW, 4-pole, 400V, 50Hz, 3phase delta connection induction motor, having per phase stator resistance 2.1 : No Load: 400V, 5.5A, 410W, Rotor Blocked: 140V, 20A, 1550W. Obtain approximate Equivalent circuit Also find the breaking torque developed when the motor running with a slip of 0.05 has two of its line terminal suddenly interchanged. TUTORIAL SHEET-4 1. A 5 kW, 400V, 50Hz 3phase delta connected induction motor is started with the help of a star-delta starter. The short circuit line current of the motor at 100V is 15A. If full load efficiency of the motor is 85% at 0.8 p.f. lagging, calculate: (i) Starting line current and (ii) the ratio of starting to the full road current. 2. A 400V, 50Hz 3 phase delta connected squirrel cage induction motor draw 25A phase current, when started at the rated source. Determine :(i) Starting line current at DOL starting. (ii)Starting line and phase current at star delta starting (iii) Starting line and phase current at Auto transformer starting with 60% tapping. 3. A 400V, 50Hz, 3phase delta connected squirrel cage induction motor has short circuit current, 5 time of its full load current with 5% full load slip. Find the starting torque in terms of full load torque at: (i) DOL starting (ii) Star-delta starting and (iii) Auto transformer starting, when starting current is limited to twice the full load current. 4. A cage type 3phase induction motor when started by star-delta starter talks 180% of full load line current and develops 35% of full load torque at starting. Calculate the starting torque and current in terms of full load values, if an autotransformer with 80% lapping was employed. 5. A 8-pole, 50Hz, 3phase induction motor develops a maximum torque of 150N-m at 650 rpm. The rotor resistance per phase is 0.6. Find torque at 4% slip. Neglect stator resistance. 6. A 400V, 4-pole, 50Hz, 3phase star connected induction motor has following parameters refered to stator .r1=0.15,x1=0.44 ,r2=0.12 ,x2=0.44 , xm=30, core loss equivalent resistance neglected. Find: (i) Stator current and (ii) Power factor at rated voltage and 4% slip. 7. The rotor of a 6-pole, 50Hz slip-ring induction motor, having per phase resistance 0.25, runs at 960 rpm at full load .Determine the value of external resistance to be added per phase to reduce its speed to 800 rpm at the some torque. 8. A 400V, 4-pole, 50Hz, 3phase delta connected two cage induction motor have respective standstill per phase impedance (2+j8) and (9+j2) ohms referred to stator. Calculate the total torque developed (i) At standstill (ii) At 1450 rpm. Also find total stating torque at star-delta starting. Neglect stator impedance. 9. (a) A 8-pole, 50Hz, 3phase induction motor develops a maximum torque of 150N-m at 650 rpm. Find torque at 4% slip, if motor resistance per phase is 0.6 and stator impedance is neglected. (b) A 3phase induction motor has starting torque of 100% and maximum torque of 200% of the full load torque Determine: (i) Slip at the maximum torque and (ii) Full load slip. 10. A 4-pole, 400V, 50Hz, 3phase delta connected induction motor has a leakage impedance (0.3+j5.5+0.25/s) ohms/phase (delta-phase) refered to the stator. The external resistance to be insisted in each star- phase of the motor winding such that the motor develops a gross torque of 150 N-m at a speed of 1250 rpm. Neglect the no-load current. 11. A 4-pole, 50Hz, 3phase inductions motor is having per phase rotor resistance and standstill rotor reactance 0.04 and 0.16 respectively. Calculate the value of external rotor resistance per phase to be inserted to obtain 70% of the maximum torque at starting. 12. A 3phase, 6-pole, 50Hz, induction rotor having per phase motor resistance 0.2, runs with 3% slip at full load. Find the value of series resistance per phase to be added in rotor circuit to reduce its speed by 10%. Neglect the leakage reactance.

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TUTORIAL SHEET-5 1. A 230,50Hz,4-pole,1phase split phase induction motor is tested as below: No Load Test : 230V, 6.4A, 220W Block Rotor Test : 82.5V, 9.3A, 500W The main winding resistance of the motor is 2.5. Determine equivalent circuit parameters and draws the equivalent circuit. 2. A 230V, 50Hz 4-pole 1phase split phase induction rotor having equivalent circuit parameters as: R1=2.5, X1=3.362, Xm=60.945 R2=3.28 and X2=3.365. The motor is running at 1420 rpm at motor voltage. Determine: (i) Input current and power factor (ii) Input power (iii) Torque developed (iv) Mechanical power developed (v) Rotor copper losses and (vi) Air-gap power. 3. The equivalent circuit parameters of a 230V 50Hz, 1phase induction motor having friction, winding and core losses 50W, are given below: R1=2.4, X1=3.2, Xm=90 , R2=4.7 and X2=2.8 At 4% slip, calculate (i) input current (ii) power factor (iii) developed power (iv) Output power and (v) Efficiency 4. A 220V, 6-pole, 50Hz single winding single phase induction motor has following equivalent circuit parameters as refered to the stator: R1=3, X1=5, R2=1.5 and X2=2 Compute the ratios of Em/Emb, Tf/Tb and the gross total torque, when the motor runs at 97% of the synchronous speed. Neglect the magnetizing current. 5. A 230V, 4-pole, 50Hz, 1phase induction motor has an effective rotor resistance and leakage reactance of 0.5 and 0.5 respectively. It is running at a speed of 1350rpm. Determine: (i) Frequencies of forward and backward rotor current components. (ii) Relative magnitudes of forward and backward fluxes. Neglect magnetizing current and stator impedance 6. Determine the parameters of equivalent circuit of a 220V, 1phase induction motor from the following test results: No- load test : 220V, 4A, 100W Blocked-rotor test : 110V, 10A, 400W Also find iron and mechanical losses. Assume rotor resistance refered to stator side equal to the stator resistance. 7. A 230V, 500W, 4000rpm, 50Hz, 1phase series motor has total resistance of 3 and total reactance of 20. For a stray power loss of 40W, determine the current and power factor when working under rated conditions. 8. The main and auxiliary winding impedances of a 50Hz capacitor start single phase induction motor are, Z m=(3+j2.7) and Za=(7+j3) respectively Find the value of capacitor to be connected in series to the auxiliary winding to get a phase difference, =900 between the two winding currents at start. 9. An universal motor has a resistance of 30 and an inductance of 0.5H. It runs at 2000rpm when connected to 250V d.c. at 0.8A load current. Determine the speed, torque and power factor, when connected to 250V, 50Hz a.c. for the some load current 10. A HP 110V split phase motor is having starting winding current 4A lagging 150 and running winding current 6A lagging 400 to the supply voltage, when delivering rated output Calculate: (a) Total starting current and p.f. (b)Power dissipated by starting and running windings.(c)Steady state power dissipated during running.(d) Efficiency of the motor. 11. A 220V, 1phase induction motor having 1.2 d.c. stator resistance has following test results: No-load test : 220V, 6V 350W Blocked-rotor test : 125V 15A 580W Estimate power factor and efficiency if slip, s=5% 12. The test result on a 230V, 50Hz, 1phase induction motor at stand still are: Main winding : 125V, 2.5A 62.5W Auxiliary winding : 90V, 1.2, A64.8W Determine the value of capacitor to get maximum torque at starting

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Unit No. 1 Topic Name The Control System: Open loop & closed control; servomechanism, Physical examples. Transfer functions, Block diagram algebra, Signal flow graph, Masons gain formula Reduction of parameter variation and effects of disturbance by using negative feedback Time Response analysis: Standard test signals, time response of first and second order systems, time response specifications, steady state errors and error constants Design specifications of second order systems: Derivative error, derivative output, integral error and PID compensations, design considerations for higher order systems, performance indices Book Nos 1, 2 1 1 Chapt er 1, 1 2 3 Page Nos 2-08, 6-7 46-83 93-102 No.of Lect. 1 5 1

194-214

215-226

1 4 Control System Components: Constructional and working concept of ac servomotor, synchros and stepper motor Stability and Algebraic Criteria concept of stability and necessary conditions, Routh-Hurwitz criteria and 1 6 limitations Root Locus Technique: The root locus concepts, construction of root loci 1 7 Frequency response Analysis: 1 8 Frequency response, correlation between time and frequency responses, polar and inverse polar plots, Bode plots Stability in Frequency Domain: Nyquist stability 1 9 criterion, assessment of relative stability: gain margin and phase margin, constant M&N circles Introduction to Design: 1 10 The design problem and preliminary considerations lead, lag and lead-lag networks, design of closed loop systems using compensation techniques in time domain and frequency domain. Review of state variable technique: Review of state variable technique, conversion of state variable model to transfer function model and vice-versa, diagonalization, 1 12 Controllability and observability and their testing ADDITIONAL TOPICS STEPPER MOTOR Types; Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor, Variabl Reluctance Stepper Motor Reluctance Stepper Motor & Hybrid Stepper Motor. Use of Stepper Motor in Control system. CONTROLLER Basic concepts of P, PD, PI & PID controller

138-142, 148-163

3 3 5

376-413 426-475

3 5

Text Book: 1. Nagrath & Gopal, Control System Engineering, 4th Edition, New age International. 2. K. Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, Prentice Hall of India. Reference Books: 1. Norman S. Mise, Control System Engineering 4th edition, Wiley Publishing Co. 2. M.Gopal, Control System; Principle and design, Tata McGraw Hill. 3. M.Gopal, Modern Control system, Tata McGraw Hill. 4. D.Roy Choudhary, Modern Control Engineering, Prentice Hall of India. - 22 -

UNIT -1 TUTORIAL SHEET 1 1. Draw the Mechanical equipment network of the following rotational system and write the system equation

2. Draw the mechanical network of given system and draw the electrical analogous circuit use f & f-I f-v analogy

3. For the mechanical system draw (a) Mechanical equivalent network (b) Electrical analogous circuit (c) Write the system equation.

4. Find the transfer function matrix for the system shows below assuming f1 & f2 as the two components of input force vector and x1 & x2 as the two components of the position vector in the Laplace transform from

5. Obtain C(S)/R(S) for the block diagram shows below using reduction techniques.

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6. Using masons gain formula, determine the ration C/R for the system reprinted by the following block diagram.

7. Determine the overall transfer function from the single flow graph shows in Fig using the masons gain formula.

UNIT -2 TUTORIAL SHEET 2 1. The transfer function of on elements second order system may be given by

Where K is the gain, the values of J & F are given respectively as J=5.0*10-2 Kg-Cm2 F=2.5*10- 4 Nm/rad/sec Cm (i) Find the damping ratio and nature frequency of oscillations as a function of K. (ii) What value of K will make the system critically damped? 2. Consider a unity feedback system having transfer function

Determine the open loop transfer function and steady state error coefficients. 3. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback control system is given by

(i)

Calculate the natural frequency of oscillations, damped factor , damping ration and the maximum overshoot of a unit step input imum - 24 -

(ii)

It the damping ratio is to be made 0.75 using a tachometer of gain SKt calculate the tachometer constant Kt and determine the maximum over shoot, peak time and settling time Black diagram incorporating tachometer fee feedback is

Find the value of damping ratio. What information does this convey the transient performance? 5. For a control system shown in fig, find the value of k and kt so that the damping ratio of system is 0.6 and setting time (ts) is 0.1 sec .use ts =3.2/wn.

UNIT -3 TUTORIAL SHEET 3 1. Determine number of roots with positive real parts, zero real part and negative real part for the following polynomial equation using Routh Criterion Q(S) =S4+2S3+852+105+15 2. Apply Routh- Hurwitz criterion to determine (1) number of roots with positive rea part (iii the number real of roots with real parts (2) The number of roots with zero real part (3) the number of roots with negative real parts for the following equation. S4+2S3+7S2+10S+10=0 3. The open loop T.f. of certain unity feedback system is

Range of K for stability Marginal value of K Location of roots for marginal value of K. - 25 -

4. In the system shows in fig, K>0. Find the range of K for which we can ensure that there is no pole Of the close loop system whose real port 0> 0>-1.

5. Construct the root locus of the system with open loop transfer function as,

6. Draw the locus plot for a unity feedback system whose characteristic equation is given by S3+3S2+ (K+2) S+5K=0 7. Sketch the root loci for H(S) =-1 8. Sketch the root locus plot of a unity feedback system with an open loop transfer function of

Find the range of values of K for which the system has damped oscillatory the value of K so that the dominant pair of complex poles of the system has a damping ration of 0.5. Correspond Corresponding to this value of K determine the closed loop transfer function in factored from. UNIT -4 TUTORIAL SHEET 4 1. Draw the asymptotic bode plot for the conditionally stable system given by

(i) (ii)

Plot a bade plot for the given open loop transfer function Determine the appropriate value of gain & phase margin

(i) (ii)

For K=8 draw the bade plot and find the phase margin & gain margin. What will be the value of K for a phase margin of 300 and what is the corresponding gain margin? - 26 -

5. Draw the inverse polar plot of the network shows in the following fiq

Sketch the nyquist plot for it. Mark on it the important points with their values and corresponding w value. 9. Sketch the Nyquist plot for the system having

Using Nyquist criterion determine whether the closed loop system having the open loop transfer function is stable or not. UNIT - 5 TUTORIAL SHEET 5 1. Closed loop transfer function of a system is given as

From a state variable model of the system. Is there a name for this form of state transition matrix? 2. Consider a system X=AX with X0=X(0)

3. For the system shows in fig choose suitable state variables and form the state equation.

5. Find the state model using physical variable for the network shows in fig.

Find if the system is completely controllable 8. Find the response of the system

- 28 -

10. Obtain the state model of the system whose transfer function is given by

UNIT - 6 TUTORIAL SHEET 6 1. The fig shows Pd Controller used the system. Determine the value of Td so that will critically damped. Calculate its setting time

2. The black diagram shows in fig represents a heat treating oven the set paint (desired temperature) is 10000C what is steady state temperature? s

3. Find the steady state error E, if T is unit step input and R=o

4. Assuming r(t)=0.1t and it is desired that ess<0.005 find the range of value of K for error to be with in specified limit for given system.

- 29 -

Unit No. 1 Topic Name Text Book Nos 1 Chapter Nos 6 Page Nos 155-157 2 No. of Lectures

Power System Components: Single line Diagram of Power system, Brief description of power system Elements: Synchronous machine, transformer, transmission line, bus bar , circuit breaker and isolator. Supply System Different kinds of supply system and their comparison, choice of transmission voltage Transmission Lines: Configurations, types of conductors, resistance of line, skin effect, Kelvins law. Proximity effect Over Head Transmission Lines Calculation of inductance and capacitance of single phase, three phase, single circuit and double circuit transmission lines, Representation and performance of short, medium and long transmission lines, Ferranti effect. Surge impedance loading Corona and Interference: Phenomenon of corona, corona formation, calculation of potential gradient, corona loss, factors affecting corona, methods of reducing corona and interference. Electrostatic and electromagnetic interference with communication lines, Overhead line Insulators: Type of insulators and their applications, potential distribution over a string of insulators, methods of equalizing the potential, string efficiency. Mechanical Design of transmission line: Catenary curve, calculation of sag & tension, effects of wind and ice loading, sag template, vibration dampers. Insulated cables: Type of cables and their construction, dielectric stress, grading of cables, insulation resistance, capacitance of single phase and three phase cables, dielectric loss, heating of cables.

15-25

3,4

30-39, 66

2 3 2 3

2,3 7 4 9,10

2 3

6 22

135-146 468-480

1 2 6 146-148 3 2 3 8 9 169-183 78 - 88

2 3

7 6

2 3

9 4

184-221 46-73

- 30 -

Neutral grounding: Necessity of neutral grounding, various methods of neutral grounding, earthing transformer, grounding practices. Electrical Design of Transmission Lne: Design consideration of EHV transmission lines, choice of voltage, number of circuits, conductor configuration, insulation design, selection of ground wires. EHV AC and HVDC Transmission: Introduction to EHV AC and HVDC transmission and their comparison, use of bundle conductors, kinds of DC links, and incorporation of HVDC into AC system.

3 2

24 11

499-505 246-256

4/5

17 / 6

544-553 / 186-203

14,15

459-461, 478-483

Text Books 1. W. D. Stevenson, Element of Power System Analysis, McGraw Hill, USA 2. C. L. Wadhwa, Electrical Power Systems New age international Ltd. Third Edition 3. Asfaq Hussain, 'Power System, CBS Publishers and Distributors, India 4. B. R. Gupta, Power System Analysis and Design Third Edition, S. Chand & Co. 5. M. V. Deshpande, Electrical Power System Design Tata Mc Graw Hill. Reference Books 1. M. V. Deshpandey, Elements of Power System Design, Tata McGraw Hill, India 2. 2.Soni, Gupta & Bhatnagar, A Course in Electrical Power, Dhanpat Rai & Sons, India 3. S. L. Uppal, Electric Power, Khanna Publishers, India 4. S.N.Singh, Electric Power Generation, Transmission& distribution. PHI, New Delhi

- 31 -

ELEMENTS OF POWER SYSTEMS EEE -503 UNIT I TUTORIAL SHEET-1 1. Show that the per unit impedance of transformer referred to primary side will be equal to the per unit impedance referred to the secondary side. 2. A 3-phase synchronous generator delivers 10MVA at a voltage of 10.5 KV. The line impedance is 5 phase delivers 5. Determine line voltage of 10.5 K.V. . Determine line voltage drop in the line is pu & and in volts. Use the reference base as 12 MVA at 11KV. 3. For the system shown in fig. 1 determine the genera voltage. generator

4. Draw the reactance diagram for the system shown in Fig2 . The specification of the components are given below. Generator Transformer1 Transformer2 Motor1 Motor 2 Line 13.8 KV 25MVA 25 MVA 15MVA 10MVA X=65? 25MVA 13.2/69kVA 69/13.2KVA 13KV 13KV X=0.15pu XL=0.11pu XL=0.11pu X=0.15pu 0.15pu Determine the generator terminal voltage assuming both motors operating at 12KV, &%% full load and unity power factor. 5. Compare the different kind of supply system on the basis of equal maximum potential difference between any two conductors. 6. In a dc 2 wire system a feeder is working on 250 V supplying a constant load. If the supply voltage is wire increased to 400 V with the same power transmitted, calculate the percentage saving in cond conductor material. dc-3 7. compare the relative weight of copper required for a distribution network on the dc wire, and 3-phase 4-wire system. Assume in both cases the same voltage at the consumers terminals, the same copper wire losses, that the loads are balance and unity power factor in 3-phase case, Neglect the losses in neutral. balanced, phase 8. A single phase load is transmitted by a pair of overhead conductor carried on similar insulators, but with one line operated at earth potential. A third conductor of same cross section is added and a3 section a3-phase supply is connected instead of single phase one. Calculate the percentage increase in power transmitted for the same loss. The voltage to earth for the each conductor is to be same as the voltage between lines in the single phase case. Assume constant power factor. se

9. Electronic power of 50 MW at 10.85 power factor lagging is to be transmitted over a 220KV 3phase, 3wire 200 KM transmission line. The efficiency of transmission line is 0.9. Calculate the weight of conductor material required for the line in the following conductors. terial (a) Copper conductors (b) Aluminum conductors Resistivity of copper=170* 10-8 OHM-m Resistivity of copper=2.85* 10-8 OHM-m Resistivity gravity of copper=8.89 Resistivity gravity of Aluminum =2.71 - 32 -

10. A 5 km long three wire dc feeder has an outer conductor of 1.5 Cm diameter. The load on the positive and negative sides is 44 km and 36 km respectively. The load voltage is 220 V. If the same power is to be supplied with a2-wire dc system for the same line loss and same voltage, calculate the weight of copper used. The middle wire is half of the cross sectional area of that outer conductor. Tale =1.73 am. 11. A three-phase four wire system is used for lighting. Compare the amount of conduction material required with that needed for two wire dc system with same lamp voltage. Assume the same losses and balanced load. The neutral wire has half the cross-section of the meters. 12. Draw and explained the line diagram of a typical transmission and distributions scheme. Indicate clearly the voltage levels used at different stages. UNIT-1 TUTORIAL SHEET-2 1. Discuss the economic choice of transmission voltage for a transmission scheme. 2. Show that for overhead systems the ratio of volume of conductor in dc, single phase ac & 3-phase ac are given by V1:V2:V3 = 1/2cos2: 2/ cos2 When cos is the power factor of t he load. Assume equal power transmitted over equal length with equal losses & maximum voltage to earth to be same in all cases. 3. Show that in a cable transmission scheme the ratios of volumes of conductor in dc, single phase ac and three-phase ac are given by V1:V2:V3 = 1:2/cos2 : 1.5/ cos2 Where cos is the power factor of the load. Assume equal power transmitted over equal length with equal losses & maximum voltage between cable conductors to be same in all cases. 4. A 500v, 2-core feeder 0.8km long is required to supply a constant load of 100kw. The cost of the cable including installation charges is Rs.(6a+1.3) per meter, where a is the cross sectional area of each feeder in sq.cm. Interest and depreciation total 10%. Determine the most economical size cost of energy is 12 per unit, specific resistance of copper is 1.75 x 10-6/cm2 cross sectional area and 1 cm long. 5. Find the best current density for a 3-phase overhead line which is use for a 2500 hours a year cost of copper per kgf = Rs.20 annual interest & depreciation = 12.5%. Weight of copper = 8.89gf/cm2 Resistance per conductor per km length and per sq. cm = .173 cost of energy per unit = 16 paise. 6. One train is running from station A and is crossing another train standing at 2kms from station B The load due to running train is 500A, while standing train is taking 50A. What will be the position of running train for having minimum potential at a point in a section having distance 10km between station A & B. Both ends are maintained at equal potential. 7. A distributor AB is fed from both the ends as shown in fig.3 the loop resistance of the distributor is 0.5/km. Calculate the minimum voltage point and current in each section if voltage A & B are equal to 230v. 8. An electric train taking a constant current of 600A moves on a section of line between two substations 8kmapart and maintain at 575 & 590 V respectively. The track resistance is 0.04 per km both go & return. Find the point of minimum potential along the track & current supplied by two substations at that instant. 9. A DC two wire distributor AB is 450 meter long and is feed at both ends at 250V the distributor is load as shown in figure. The resistance of each conductor is 0.05 per km. Find the point of minimum potential and its potential. `

A

60m

2040A

10. A DC 3 wire distributor shown in fig. is feed at both ends A & B and has concentrated load at C, D, E and P the resistance of each outer is 0.05 and that of neutral is 0.10 per 100m length. Calculate the pd at each load point. - 33 -

C

G

150m 20A H

D 30A

200m J

200V _ A+

_

_ +

60A F 100m

200m

40A E _ 150m

11. With the half of meat diagram. Describe the various d.c. system used in transmission & distribution 12. With the half of diagram describe the important a.c. system used in transmission and distribution UNIT-2 TUTORIAL SHEET-1 1. A 2 conductor single phase line operate at 50Hz. The diameter of each conductor is 20mm and the spacing between the conductors is 3m. calculate (a) the inductance of each conductor per km. (b) the loop inductance of thee line per km. (c) the inductive reactance per km. (d) the loop inductance per km of the line when the conductor material is steel of relative permeability 50. 2. A single phase line has 2 conductors separated by a distance of 3m, each conductor has a diameter of 25mm. If the line operates at 10kv 50Hz. Calculate . a) Loop inductance per km b) Line capacitance c) Capacitive shunt reactance d) Charging current per km e) Reactive volt ampere generated per km. 3. A conductor consists of seven identical stands each having a radius r. Determine the self-GMD of the conductor in terms of r . 4. Find the GMR or self-GMD of each conductor shown below in terms of the radius of an individual stand.

5. Determine the inductance of 1 transmission line having the following arrangement of conductors. One circuit consists of 3-wire of 2mm dia each and the other circuit consists of two wires of 4mm dia each.

5m 2m 2m

2m

A

- 34 -

6. Determine the inductance per km per phase of 3 transmission line having two conductor per phase and arranged as shown in figure.

0.04m

a' 12m

b'

c'

The dia of each conductor is 25mm and carries 50% of the phase current. 7. A single circuit 3-phase line operated at 50 Hz is arranged as follows. The conductor diameter is 0.6cm. Determine the inductance per km.

1.5m 3m

1.5m

8. Determine the inductance per km of a transposed double circuit 3 phase line shown im fig, each circuit of the line remains on its own side. The dia of the conductor os 2.532cm. O ----------------7.5m------------------- O-------4 km O ----------------------9.0m--------------------- O 9. What do you mean by the constants of an overhead transmission line? ? 10. The daily load cycle of a 3- phase, 33kv, 10km transmission line is as given below 2000 kva for 8 hours 2500 kva for 9 hours 1000 kva for 7 hours Determine the most economical conductor size if the cost of line including erutim is Rs (8000+6000) per km where a is area of each conductor in cm2. The rate of interest and deprecation is 10% of cost of energy is 20 paise per unit. The line is in use for 300 working days a year. The resistance per km and per 59.cm is 0.173. UNIT 2 TUTORIAL SHEET-2 1. A two-conductor single-phase line operates at 50 Hz. The dia of each conductor is 2cm and are spaced 3m apart. Calculate: (a) capacitance of each conductor to neutral per km. (b) line to line capacitance. (c) Capacitive reacceptance to neutral per km. 2. Find the capacitance of a 3-phase single circuit un-transposed line. 3. Determine the capacitance and charging current per unit length of the line when the arrangement of the conductor is shown in fig.

3m 3m

20mm

The operating voltage is 132kv. 4. A 3-phase double circuit line shown in fig. below. The dia of each conductor is 2cm. determine the capacitance and charging current per km length of the line. Assume that the line is transposed and the operating voltage is 220kv.

a 2.2 b 2.2 c a' b' c'

5. Describe the effect of earth on the line capacitance. 6. Determine the efficiency and regulation of a 3 phase 100 km, 50hZ transmission line delivering 20MV at a pf of 0.8 lagging and 66kV to a balanced load. The conductor are of copper, each having resistance 0.1 ohm per km, 1.5cm dia, spaced equilaterally 2M between centers. Use nominal T & nominal methods 7. In a 3-phase line with 132kV at the receiving end the following are the transmission constants. A = D = 0.98 30 b = 110 750 0 C = 0.0005 88 S If load at the receiving end is 50 MVA at 0.8pf lagging, determine the value of the sending end voltage. 8. The following data refer to 220kV 200km long over head line. Resistance per km per phase = .68 Shunt leakage susceptance per phase to neutral per km = 4.4*10-6 S Shunt leakage conductance 0 Inductive reactance per km per phase = 0.68 Calculate the general network constants and the surge impedance. 9. A single-phase load of 200kVA is delivered at 2500V over a transmission line having R = 1.4, X = 0.8. Calculate the current voltage and pf at the sending end when the pf of load is (a) unity (b) 0.8 leading. 10. Fig shows a quadruple- conduction of a single- circuit, three phase, 50Hz line with a horizontal spacing of 20m. Each sub conductors of the bundle has a diameter of 40mm and spacing between the sub conductors is 0.5 m each phase group shares the total current and charge equally and the line is completely transposed. Determine the inductive reactance and capacitive reactance per phase per km of the line. UNIT 3 TUTORIAL SHEET 1 1. In a three phase overhead line the conductors have each a diameter of 30mm and are arranged in the form of an equilateral triangle, assuming fair weather conditions, air density factor of 0.95 and irregularity factor 0.95. Find the minimum spacing between the conductors, if the disruptive critical voltage is not to exceed 230kv between lines. Break down strength of air may be assumed to be 30kv per cem(peak). 2. Find the corona characteristics of an 110kv, 50Hz, 3-phase transmission line 175km long consisting of 1cm dia stranded copper conductor spaced in 3m delta arrangement, temp. 260C and barometric pressure is 74 cm, m=0.85, mv for local corona = 0.72 and mv for general corona = 0.82. Assume 0 0=25 C. 3. Estimate the corona loss for a 3-phase 110kv, 50Hz, 150 km long transmission line consisting of 3 conductors each of 10mm dia and spaced 2.5m apart is an equilateral triangle formation, the temp. of air is 300C, and atmospheric pressure is 750mm of Hg. Take the irregularity factor as 0.85. Ionization of air may be assumed to take place at maximum voltage gradient of 30kv/cm. Assume 0=250C. 4. Each conductor of a three-phase over head line has a dia of 21mm. The conductors are arranged in equilateral formation. Find the minimum spacing between the conductors, if the max. value of break down strength of air 30kv/cm, the disruptive critical voltage 230kv rms air density factor 0.98 and irregularity factor 0.95. 5. Explain the formation of corona an HV transmission line and develop an expression in terms of conductor radius, conductor spacing, and breakdown voltage of air, for the voltage at which the corona effect might be expected to appear on a symmetrically spaced smooth conductor3-phase transmission line. Indicate other factor that might influence the value of this voltage. Discuss the importance of corona in design and operation of the line. 6. Each conductor of a 33 kV, 3 phase system is suspended by a string of three similar insulators; the capacitance of each disc is nine times the capacitance to ground. Calculate the voltage across each insulator. Determine the string efficiency also. 7. A string of eight suspension insulators is to be graded to obtain uniform distribution of voltage across the string . if the capacitance of the top units is 10 times the capacitance to ground of each unit, determine the capacitance of the remaining seven units. 8. Explain the importance of bundled conductors in EHV/UHV lines. 9. Explain critical disruptive voltage & critical visul disruptive voltage. - 36 -

UNIT 3 TUTORIAL SHEET 2 1. Explain why the voltage across the insulators of a simple insulator string is not equal and describe practical method to improve this distribution. 2. If the voltage across the unit in a two unit suspension insulator is 60% and 40% respective of the line voltage find the ratio of the cap of the insulator to that of its capacitance to the earth. 3. A string of suspension insulators consists of three similar units. The capacitance between the metal interlink is 10 times the capacitance between each interlink and earths. The flush over voltage of one insulator is 100kv. Calculate the voltage at which the string will flush over. 4. Find the voltage distribution and string efficiency of a three unit suspension insulator string if the capacitance of the link pins to earth and to the line are respectively 20% & 10% of the self capacitance of each unit. If a guard ring increases the capacitance to the line of lower link pin to 35% of the selfcapacitance of each unit, find the redistribution of voltage and string efficiency. 5. In a string of 3-insulator unit, the capacitance of each unit is C, from each conductor to ground is C/3 and from each conductor to line conductor is C/5. Calculate the voltage across each unit as a percentage of the total voltage. To what value of the capacitance between the conductor of the bottom unit and the line has to be increased by a guard ring to make the voltage across the equal to that across the next higher units. 6. A string of eight suspension insulators is to be fitted with a grading ring. If the pin to earth capacitance are all equal to C, find the value of line to pin capacitances that would give a uniform voltage distribution over the string. UNIT -4 TUTORIAL SHEET -1 1. An over head line has the following data: Spam length 160m, conductor dia 0.95cm, weight up length of the conductor 0.66kg/m. ultimate stress 4250 kg/cm2, wind pressure 40kg/cm2 of projected area. Factor of safety 5. Calculate the sag. 2. An overhead transmission line has a conductor of cross-section 2.5cm2 hard draw copper and a span length of 150m. determine the sag which must be allowed if the tension is not to exceed the fifth of the ultimate strength of 4175kg/cm2 (a) in still air (b) with a wind pressure of 1.3kg/m and an ice coating of 1.25cms, determine also the vertical sag in the latter case. 3. An overhead line having a conductor of 10mm and a span length of 150m has sag of 3.5m at 50C with 10mm thick ice coating and a wind pressure of 40kg/m2 of projected area. E =127*104kg/cm2, = 16.6*10-6/C ice density 910kg/m3, copper density 8850kg/m3. Determine the temp at which the sag will remain the same under fair weather condition. 4. Determine the sag at 32.20C and 65.50C in an 8 SWG copper conductor erected on a 45.7 meter span length. The wind pressure is 48.82kg/m2 of projected area at a temp. of 4.50C, weight of wire is 0.1156kg/m. the working stress shall not exceed the ultimate tensile strength. 5. The transmission line is designed based on worst probable conductors and not worst possible conditions. Why? 6. Describe the vibration of power conductors and explain the methods used to damp out these vibration. UNIT 4 TUTORIAL SHEET 2 1. A concentric cable has a conductor diameter of 1cm and an insulation thickness of 1.5cm find the maximum field strength when the cable is suggested to a test pressure of 33kV. 2. A 66kV, 1 core metal sheathed cable is to be gvaded by means of a metallic intersheaths. Calculate the diameter of the intersheaths and the voltage at which it must be maintained in order to obtain the minimum overall cable diameter. The maximum voltage at which the insulating material can be worked is 60kV/cm. had the cable been imgnaded what will be the overall diameter of the cable. 3. An 11kV 50Hz 1 cable has a diameter of 20mm, and an internal sheath radius of 15mm. If the dielectric has relative permeability of 2.4 and a loss angle of 0.031 radian, determine for 2.5km length of cable (A) the capacitance (b) Charging current (c) the generated reactive volt-ampere. (d) Dielectric loss (e) the equivalent insulation resistance. - 37 -

4. Find the most economical value of the diameter of single core cable to be used in 66kV three-phase system. Find also the overall diameter of the insulation if the maximum permissible stress is not to exceed 5kV/mm. 5. A single core cable 5km long has an insulation resistance of 0.4M ohms. The core dia is 20mm and the dia of the cable over the insulation is 50mm. Calculate the insulation material UNIT 5 TUTORIAL SHEET 1 Explain the reason to the general practice of earthing the neutral point of a power system & discuss the relative merits of earthing it (a) soled by (b) through a resistance. A 132kV, 3-phase 50 Hz over-head line, 50km long has a capacitance to earth for each line of 0.0157F/km determine the inductance and KVA rating of the arc suppression coil suitable for lighting system. Derive an expression for the reactance of potential coil in terms of capacitance of the protected line. Calculate the reactance of the coil suitable for a 33kV, 3-phase transmission system of which the capacitance to earth of each conductor is 4.5F. Explain phenomenon of arcing grounds. How does neutral grounding eliminate arcing grounds? A 50Hz transmission line has a capacitance of 0.1F per-phase determine the inductance of pelirsion coil to neutralize the effect of capacitance of (a) complete length (b) 95 & 85 % of the length. UNIT 5 TUTORIAL SHEET 2 1. A bridge connected rectifier operates with = 300 and r = 150. Determine the necessary line secondary voltage of the rectifier transformer, which is normally rated at 220/110k, if it is required to obtain a DC output voltage of 100kV. Also determine the tap ratio required. 2. A DC link has a loop resistance of 10 ohms and it connected to transformer giving secondary voltage of 120kV at each end. The bridge connected converters operates as follows: Rectifier = 150 Inverter = 100 Allow S0 margin on 0 for X = 15 = 150

1. 2.

3.

4. 5.

X = 15

Calculate the direct current delivered if the invertor operates on constant control. 3. Explain merits & demerits of HVDC transmission. 4. What is flexible AC transmission system (FACTS)? Describe briefly various devices used in this system. 5. An existing 3-phase, double circuit AC line is to be connected to three ckt. DC line assume the same insulation level and unity pf in the AC system show what:(a) the ratio of power transferred by DC to that by AC is equal to 2 & (b) the ratio of percentage loss by DC to that by AC is equal to 1/2.s 6. Determine the inductance of Peterson coil to be connected between the neutral and ground to neutralize the charging current of overhead line having the line to ground capacitance of 0.15uF. If the supply frequency is 50Hz and the operating voltage is 132 KV, Find the kva rating of coil. 7. Write a short note on following (1) Series compensation (11) Shunt Compensation.

- 38 -

Unit Competencies Contents Frequency respose.,compensating Networks. Frequency respose of internally compensated and uncompensated OP-AMPS, High Frequency OP-AMPS Equivalent circuit, Stability in constant GBP OPAMP circuits. Current to voltage converters,V ti I converters ,current amplifier, difference Amplifiers, Instrumentation Amplifiers, Integrators & Differentiator. First and second order low pass & High pass filters, Band pass & Band reject filters,All pass filter, Filter using MATLAB. Voltage to frequency and Frequency to Voltage. Converters, Analog to Digital and digital to analog converters Voltage compartors, Schmitt Triggers Precision Rectifiers ,Analog Switches peak detectors, sample and hold circuit,square and triangular wave generators, linear Regulators, Switching Regulators. Log Antilog Amplifiers, Analog Multipliers Operational Trans conductance Amplifiers (OTA), Phase locked Loops, Monolithic PLLs, Noise in Integrated Circuits. .multi opamp function generators and various IC function generators. Hrs. 3 Teaching Method of learning Evoiuation Activities Lectures & Test paper Discussion. and oral Tutorial & question. Asssignment Page no. B(209-213)

2 2

B(214-222) B(223-231)

2 2 2 4

Test paper Lectures & Discussion. and oral Tutorial & question. Asssignment Test paper Lectures & and oral Discussion. question. Tutorial & Asssignment

2 3 2 Lectures & Test paper Discussion. and oral Tutorial & question. Asssignment

2 3 3 3 2

Lectures & Test paper Discussion. and oral Tutorial & question. Asssignment

05 6 Function generators

Lectures & Test paper Discussion. and oral question. Tutorial & Asssignment

H(150-180)

A. Franco Sergio,"Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits "Tata Mcgraw Hill. B. Ramakant A. Gayakwad,"OP-AMPS and linear Intergrated Circuits" Prentics hall of India. C. James M Fiore,"Op-Amps and linear Integrated circuits:Theory and Applications "Thomson Asia Pvt Ltd. Singapore. D. Millman j.& Halkias C.C."Integrated Electronics Analog and digital Circuits & Systems"Mcgraw Hill. E. Soclofs."Application of Analog Integrated Circuits"Prentice Hall of india. F. Bell David A.,"Operational Amplifiers & Linear ICS" Prentice Hall of India - 39 -

ANALOG INTEGRATED ELECTRONICS EEC 509 TUTORIAL SHEET-1 Explain why active load is used? Explain the level translator and output stage. Find the differential input resistance of the dual input, balanced output differential amplifier. The signals applied to the inverting and non-inverting terminals of a differential amplifier are respectively - 0.40mV and -0.42mV. The different gain 105. Calculate the output voltage. A4: V out = 2 Volt. Q5: For dual-input, balanced output differential amplifier, the Voltage Gain = 86.96. Determine the output voltage V0 if Vin = 50 mV peak to peak (pp) at1KHz. A5: V0 =2.61 Vpp. Q6: Derive the differential input resistance of dual input, balanced output differential amplifier. Q7: For the inverting amplifier shown in following fig-1 (a) Determine the maximum possible output offset voltage due to input bias current IB (b)What value of ROM is used needed to reduce the effect of input bias current IB? A7: V00 = 23.5 , 470 . Q8: The following specifications are given for the dual - input , balanced - output differential amplifier: given Rc = 2.2 K, Rin1 = Rin2 = 50 . Vcc = 10 V, -VEE = -10 V and the transistor Bdc = Bac = 100 and VBE = .715 V typical. (a) Determine the ICQ and VCEQ. (b)Determine the voltage gain. (c) Determine the input and output resistance. A8: VCEQ = 8.54 V Re = 25.3 Ad = 86.96. Rin1 = Rin2 = 2 Bac rc. Ro1 = RO2 = 2.2K. Q9: Draw schematic block diagram of the basic op- amp with inverting and non- inverting. Sketch their equivalent circuit. Q10: Explain the significance of virtual ground in a basic inverting amplifier. How would you explain its existence? TUTORIAL SHEET 2 Q1: What do you understand by closed loop and open loop gain of an opamp. When a non-inverting opamp acts as a voltage follower? Q2: What is meant by an ideal? Q3: What are differential gain and common mode gain of a differential amplifier? Define the term common mode rejection ratio (CMMR). Q4: Define the terms (a) input bias current (b) input offset voltage. Q5: Define the term (a) input offset current (b) full power bandwidth and slew rate. Q6: Describe the function of an opamp as: ( i ) an amplifier ( ii ) a scale changer Q7: Describe the function of an opamp as; a phase shifter. Q8: Write down short notes :(a) CMRR (b) Thermal Drift. Q9: What is unity gain bandwidth? Q10: Derive the equation of Slew Rate. Q1: Q2: Q3: Q4:

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TUTORIAL SHEET 3 Q1: For the inverting amplifier shown in fig 1. Determine the maximum possible output offset voltage due to input bias current IB. Q2: Similar Q1; what value of ROH is needed to reduce the effect of input bias current IB? Q3: The output of an opamp voltage follower is a triangular wave as shown in fig for a square wave input of frequency 3 MHz and 8V peak to peak amplifier. What is the slew rate of the opamp? A3: SR = 14 V/ sec. Q4: A 741 opamp is used as an inverting amplifier with a gain of 50. The voltage gain frequency curve of 741 is flat up to 20 KHz. What maximum peak to peak input signal can be applied without distorting the output? A4: Vo = 7.96 VPP , Vmax ( input signal ) < 159 mV. Q5: What is thermal drift? How does it affect the performance of an opamp circuit? Q6: For an opamp having a slew rate of SR = 2V/s. What is the maximum closed loop voltage gain that can be used when the input signal varies by 0.5V in 10 s? Q7: Discuss how opamp can be used as a comparator. Q8: Write short note on :(a) Dual input balanced output differential amplifier. (b) Differential input and differential output amplifier. Q9: Why open loop opamp configurations are not used in linear applications? Q10:Determine ( i ) the voltage gain ( ii ) output voltage and internal resistance for the differential amplifier given in fig-1. Given that R1 = R3 = 540 Rf = R2 = 5.4K , Vin2 = -3.5 V, , Vin1=-2.5v Input impedance Ri = 2M and openloop voltage gain = 2105. A10: 363.7109. TUTORIAL SHEET 4 Q1: Briefly explain the necessity for compensating network in opamps. Differentiate compensated op amp from non compensated opamp. Q2: Give the lay compensation network. Explain its operation and show how it affects opamp frequency response. Q3: Give the lead compensation network. Explain its operation and show how it affects opamp frequency response. Q4: List the precautions that should be observed for practical opamp circuit stability. Q5: What is the SR? Enumerate the causes of the SR and explain its significance in application. Q6: What is meant by frequency response? Q7: What is meant by frequency compensation? Q8: Explain the method polezero compensation with open loop gain vs frequency. Q9: Why is over compensation usually provided in op amps. Q10: What is relation b/w unity gain frequency and break frequency?

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TUTORIAL SHEET 5 Q1: Draw and explain an op amp as a ( i ) Summing amplifier ( ii ) Subtractor . Q2: Explain the operation of an op amp integrator circuit. Q3: What are the properties of a ideal operational amplifier used in measurement and instrumentation system? Q4: Draw the typical circuit for a current to voltage converter. Q5: Explain voltage controlled current source. Q6: Shown in fig -1 a differential amplifier using ideal op amp (a) Find the output Vo. Q7: Similar Q -6, Show that the output corresponding to common mode voltage. VC =

V1 +V 2 2

is zero if

R' R 2 = R R1

Find VO in this case. Q8: Similar Q -6, Find CMRR of the amplifier if R/R R2/R1. Q9: Design a differentiator to differentiate input signal that varies in frequency from 10 Hz to about 1 KHz. Q10: Similar Q -9, if a sine wave 1V peak at 1000Hz is applied to the differentiator of part Q -9, draw its output waveform. A9 & 10: RF = 1.5K, R1 = 79.5, CF = .0055s ROM = RF. TUTORIAL SHEET 6 Q1: Find Vo for adder subtractor shown in fig A1: Vo = 6.58V1. Q2: Explain the instrumentation amplifier and show that the output voltage is directly proportional to the differential Change in transducer resistance. Q3: What is an instrumentation amplifier? How does if differ from an ordinary op amp? Q4: Draw the schematic diagram of an instrumentation amplifier and explain it. Q5: Draw the circuit of a precision rectifier and explain its working. Q6: Differentiate between dc and ac amplifier. Q7: Write short note on the following: (a) op amp as an integrator (b) Voltage controlled current source. Q8: Write short note on the following: (a) Precissicen rectifier (b) DC and AC amplifier. Q9: Write short note on the following: (a) Peaking amplifier (b) Instrumentation amplifier. Q10: What are the applications of integrators? TUTORIAL SHEET 7 Q1: Discuss the use of operational amplifier in active filters. Sketch the circuits of high and low pass active filters. Q2: Write down the expression of first order low pass filter with high cut of frequency. Q3: Derive the expression of 2nd order low pass filter with high cut off frequency. Q4: Derive the expression of first order HPF. Q5: Derive the expression of second order high pass filter. Q6: What is all pass filters? Derive the transfer function of this filter. Q7: What is band reject filter? Write the expression of wide band reject and narrow band reject filter. Q8: Design a 60Hz active notch filter. Q9: What is difference between low pass, high pass and band pass filter? Q10: What is difference between band pass and band reject filters.

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TUTORIAL SHEET 8 Q1: What is peak detector? Q2: Discuss the function of sample and hold circuit using op amp. Q3: What is comparator? Q4: What is Schmitt trigger? Q5: Describe op amp circuits for mono-stable and bi-stable multivibrators. Explain their peration. Q6: Design a phase shift oscillator circuit phase frequency of oscillation is 200Hz. Q7: Draw the circuit of quadrature oscillator and find out the frequency of its oscillator. Q8: Explain the peak detector with circuit diagram and waveform. Q9: Explain the logarithmic amplifier with circuit diagram. Q10: Explain the Antilog amplifier with circuit diagram. TUTORIAL SHEET 9 Design a second order Butterworth high pass filter with 0 -3dB frequency of 1KHz. Design a Schmitt trigger with Vu1 = 5V and VLT = -5V, what is its hysteresis voltage. What are the limitations of three terminal voltage regulators? For a given op amp, CMRR = 105 and differential gain Ad = 105. Determine the common mode gain Acm of the op amp. Q5: The output voltage of a certain op amp circuit changes by 20V in 4s, what is the slew rate. Q6: The CMRR of differential amplifier is 55dB, if its gain in differential mode (Ad) is 1200 then calculate its gain in common mode (Acm). Q7: Design an adder circuit using an op amp to get the output expression as under. Vout = -( V1+10V2+100V3 ) When V1, V2, V3 are the input, it is given that RF = 100K. Q8: Show that the super diode half wave rectifier is suitable for very small voltage (in mv) Q9: What is the 555IC timer? What is its circuit? Explain its operation as mono-stable and as table multivibrator. Q10. Explain PLL in detail. TUTORIAL SHEET -10 Q1: Discuss the 723 voltage regulator. Explain the operation of overload protection circuit. Q2: Explain the 0TA with working. Q3: What is programmable trans conductance amplifier? Explain its basic principle. Q4: Describe the phase shift oscillator. Q5: Explain the working principle of a regulated power supply. Q6: Explain the working of a series regulated power supply. Q7: What is the function of voltage regulators? Q7: What are fixed output voltage regulators? Q9: What is SMPS? Compare it with linear power supply of switched mode. Q10: What is an ordinary power supply? Q1: Q2: Q3: Q4:

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