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49

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2006. - 525 .
ISBN 5-98118-174-5 ( .).
CIP .

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339.138+366.1
65.290-2+88.5

. Despegue (1968 .)

ISBN 5-98118-174-5

. ., 2006
, 2006


I. ............
1. ................
2. ,
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II.

3. : -
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4. . ..............
5. ...........
6. . ................

17
19
33
57
59
120
161
193

III. . .......
7. ......................
8. , .....
9. , .............
10. ,
.....................
11. . .................

207
209
237
267

IV. .........
12. ................
13. ...........
14. ....
15. ..............
16. .......................
17. ................

339
341
351
360
375
388
402

V. :
18. ...........
19. , ......
.....................
................
. ...........................
........................

297
319

415
417
443
465
502
512
512


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14
I


1. .. ..............
19
1.1. : .....
19
, ,
.......................
20
1.2. . ...................
22
...............
23
..................
26

......................
28
(B2C) (B2B) 31
........................
32
2. ,

33
2.1. ....................
33
. .............
33
...............
36
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38
CRM - CMR .....................
48
2.2. . ......
51
.......
51
.......
53
........................
56
II

3. : -
......................
3.1. ; . ...
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............

59
60
61
65


7
.................
68
3.2. .........
69
............
69
. ..........
71
. .......
74
3.3. . ....................
76
...............
78
....
83
..........
86
3.4. . ..............
87
, . ..........
90
, ...........
94
, ............
97
3.5.
.......................
99
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102
......................
105
. .........................
107
. .......................
109
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110
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111
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112
3.6. - . .
113
-/
................
115
. ........................
119
4. . ................
120
4.1. ..............
120
4.2. ................
123
..................
123
.............
124
..................
127
4.3. .................
129
4.4. .................
133
, ,
- ..............
133
(14%). ................
138
(70%). ................
141
(16%). ................
144
4.5. ................
145
.............
146
. .............
149
.......... 154

4.6. . . . . . . 154
4.7. ;
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
156
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156
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157
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158
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
159
5. .............
161
5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
161
5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
163
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
163
. . . . . . . . 164
. . . . . . . . . . . . 164
5.3. . . . . . 165
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
, -, . . 168
,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
169
. . . . . . 170
5.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
172
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173
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173
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
176

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
179
5.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
184
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
184
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
185
. . . . . . . . .
188
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
190
6. ..................
193
6.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
193
6.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
6.3. ; . . . . . 199
6.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
202
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
205
III

7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

209
209

7.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
212
7.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
215
...................
216
.................
219
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
220
7.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
221
..............
223
...............
224
................
224
........
226
7.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
226
7.6.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
228
- ....................
228
-. .....................
229
....................
230
. .............
231
. ................
232
..............
233
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
235
8. , . . . . . . 237
8.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
237
8.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
238
: ,
...................
240
: ,
, ................
247
8.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
248
......................
250
.... ....................
254
..................
255
.................
257
. ......................
258
8.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
258
......................
258
...................
259
. ...................
261
8.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
263
........................
265
9. , . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
McClelland

267
267
271
271

10

Maslow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
McGuire . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
9.3. . . . . . . . 277
,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
277
,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
281
9.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
283
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
283
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
284
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
285
. . . . . . . . . . . 288
9.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
290
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
293
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
295
10. ,
......................
297
10.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
297
10.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
301
10.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
303
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
303
VALS VALS 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
304
LOV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
308
. . . . . . . . . . .
309
10.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
312
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
312
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
314
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316
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
317
11. ...................
319
11.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
319
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
320
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
322
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
323
11.2. . . . . . . . .
323
11.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
325
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
331
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
332
. . . . . . . . . . . .
332


11.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11
334
334
335
336
337

IV

12. ..................
12.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. ..................
. ..................
..................
..............
................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13. .............
13.1. . . . . . . . .
13.2. . . . . . . . . . .
13.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
...............
..............
..............
. ..................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

341
341
342
343
344
345
345
346
346
347
347
349
351
351
351
354
355
356
357
358
358

14. ....
14.1. ...............
14.2. ........
........
..............
........
14.3. ...................
...............
................
..................
.............
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

360
360
361
362
364
364
367
367
369
370
371
373

12

15. ...............
15.1. . ...'.........
15.2. . ....................
15.3. ......................
...........
. ............
15.4. ..........
........................

375
375
376
378
379
382
384
386

16. ........................
16.1. . ...........
16.2. ............
..
.......
16.3. .............
........................

388
388
390
391
395
397
400

17. .................
17.1. .................
17.2. ........................
17.3. .........................
17.4. .......................
............
. ...............
,
........................
. ........................

402
402
403
406
408
408
409
411
413

V
:
18. .............
18.1. (B2B) ...............
............
................
18.2. .......
18.3. .....
18.4. ; .....
18.5.
18.6. ..............
. ........................

417
417
418
420
422
426
427
436
440
441

19. , ..
19.1. , ....
............

443
443
443


. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
19.2. .............
......................

13
446
449
452
456
461


.

080111 ......
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478
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478
2. : (2002 .) 482
.
...............
489
D. /

499
...........

502

. ......................

512

. ..................

517


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Journal of Consumer Behavior ( ), Journal of Consumer Research (
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.

Del Hawkins, Roger Best, Kenneth Coney, John Mowen, Henry
Assael, Paul Peter, Jerry Olson, Harold Berkman, Christopher Gilson,
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D. Hawkins, R. Best, . Coney,


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Kotler . Armstrong G. [2001,
p. 1622].

(production), (product),
(selling), (marketing),
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marketing [2001, p. 13].
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41

call-, ,
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CRM (Customer
Relationship Management), e-CRM. CRM. Customer
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62

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www.fortune.com, www.sec.gov/archieves/edgar/data].
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2
3

British Petroleum
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5
6
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8
9
10

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Ford Motor
DaimlerChrysler
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[www.imf.org.external, January 2002]. 1992 .
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[www.RBCdaily.ru, 4 2004 ., // , 18
2004 ., . 13].
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, Fiat .


. 2004 . ()
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Citigroup Japan Citibank Japan Douglas Peterson,
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(www.citigroup.com).

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1000 .

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2002 2015 .
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90

3. -

Hawkins, Best Coney [Hawkins et a/.,


1995, p. 38].
,

/.
? ?
? ? .
.

.
- , .
, (be yourself),
(stand out) (don't be one of the crowd) , . .
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. .
,
.
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.
.
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.
/.
. (
) , , , .
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.

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3.4.

91

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.

,
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,
[The Wall Street Journal Europe, 22
24, 2002].

92

3. -

,
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[, 3 2004 ., . 15].
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Unilever Impulse
31 ,
.
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-

3.4.

93

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.
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94

3. -

. , , .
/.
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, .
,

.
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, - ,
. McDonald's
. , ,
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, ? -

3.4.

95

.
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96

3. -


, .


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, .

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[, 18 2000 ., . 8].
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,
- .
,

, . ,

,
.

, .
,
Greenpeace, ,
,
.


. - ,
(recyclable)
,
,
-.I

3.4.

97

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.

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ax.

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, , .

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/.
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98

3. -

?
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, , , .
,
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, ).
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(, ): , Tang . , , .

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3.5. 99

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.

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3.5.

, ,
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. ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
to table a report or motion
,
[Hawkins, et al., 1995, p. 47].
, ,
. , , .


,

100

3. -

Ford Motor Company. Fiera ( ,


)
, fierra
. Ford Comet
, Caliente. : Caliente .
:
Pepsi Come alive with Pepsi (
) Come alive out of the grave with Pepsi
( );
Nova
General Motors
;
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car wash
.
, ,
. ,

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Tide.
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800 , 26 3 , .


, .
. , , ,
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. , -

101

,
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--, .
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.
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) (back)
. ,
, .


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102

3. -

.
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3.5. 103


. ,

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3.6.

( )
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.
, , ,
, ,
[Hawkins et at., 1995, p. 50].

.
.
.

. ,

.

104

3. -

Mowen (1995, p. 586) :


(linear separable time). ,
.
- ;
(circular traditional time).
, .
. ,
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(procedural traditional time).
-
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.
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.
,
. .
.

() , ..
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.
.
, , 1890 . 5%
, 1980-
.


.

. ,
.

105


.
,
.


.
, Kentucky Fried
Chicken, Jack in the Box, McDonald's
.


. 99%

Campbell ,
?

, ,
,
, .

, ,
,
.
, .

.


, .
, - .. ,

, .

.
.

, ,
(bargain basements )
.
()
.

.
, ..

106

3. -

, . .
IBM Japan.
, (Manhattan). IBM
Japan 4300 5000 , 700 (on a sales call) . ,
, ,
( )
, ,
. ,
,
[Hawkrins et al., 1995, p. 51].

. ,

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,

.
11
, .

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.
5 8 (1,53,5 ),
18
3 (46150 ).
, .


,
. ,

3.5. 107

, . , , ,
.
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.

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(friend)
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108

3. -

.
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Avon
,

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, .
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. .


.
- [Hawkins et /., 1995, 52]:
, ,
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3.5. 109

. ,
.
() .
,
.




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.

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110

3. -

.
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, .

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.


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( ) . , , ,
.
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,
.

3.5. 111

- ,
.
( ),

.
, ,

[Mowen, 1995, p. 795].

, ,
a,
.

(. 3.7). ,
,
.
3.7. ,
,

; ,

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,

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, , .
,
,


;


7
, , ,
, , , , ,
, ,
13
, ,

666

, , ;

, ;

: Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 54; Pride et al., 1995, p. 98.

112

3. -


[Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 53]:
, , ,
, , .
, ,
. ,
, ;
, ;

.
. ;
Pepsi-Cola
- , Coke,

. -
- ;
United
Airlines
(Pacific Rim). ,
;
AT&T
,
.

, , . ,
,
.
,
, .
(
) , ,
.
.
,
!

3.6. - 113


,
.
. 10
(4,35 .) 5-
.
.
.
,

,
.
,
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.


, .

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.
3.6. -

1980- .
-
. -
.

, ,
.
. ,

Coca-Cola


. , 18 24
,
,
.

114

3. -


,
.
,
,
, ,
. , - IBM White
Plains 1996 .: 10 15
, 5
\Stevens (1996), p. 63].

(),
.
,
.
(Intermarket Segmentation)
.
,
(, ) .

,

27
, General Foods, Nestle,
Coca-Cola, Procter&Gamble, Unilever ( ,
) Revlon, , 63%

[Engelet al., 1995, p. 100].
,
, .

, .
, , ,
,
, .
:
, , .
Boss
-, , ,
,
. , .

,
. ,

.

3.6. - 115

:

,
,
.


() .
4 : (price),
(place), (promotion).
,
.
.
,
.
, , ,
.

.
, 13 . . .
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.

,
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.
-/

,
(Hawkins
et al., 1995, p. 57].
1.
?
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116

3. -

,
.

.

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. ,
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Tang . ,
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.
3. ?
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3.6. - 117


,
, ,
. 1990- .,
,
Procter&Gamble , 10 %
[Pride et
/., 91}.


.
4.
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Clayton&Co ,
.
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, , ,

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-

118

3. -

. , ( ).
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.
7.
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119

1.
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2.

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3.


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6. /

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1. 2.

3. 4.

5.

8. /
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9.

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4.
4.1.


.

, , - , , , , ,
.

- . , , ,

.

, , (-,
).

.
- , , , ,
19801990- ., . ,
, , , , , , .
() ,
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.
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) ,

-

4.1.

121

.
,
,

.

.
-
,
.

, ,
.
, , ,

. , rsedes?
Bentley ,
, .

()
. ,
,

.

(social
standing) , .

, ,
.
,
,
,

,
, . 4.1.
.

,

. 4.1.

122

4.

. , ,
.

. , , .. ;
, , , .

-
,
.
- , / .
, , . !
. 4.2 [ Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 120],
, , .. .
, ,
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( ). ()
, , -
, , .
() ,


(, ),


(),

(),

()

. 4.2.

4.2.

123

. , .
(), ,
.
,

.
4.2.

.
, , ,
, ..
.
[Engel et
al., 1995, p. 683].
,


.

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124

4.

.
, , ,
, , . , ,

.
,
( ),

.

, ,

1920- . , Gilbert
ahl (1982) [engel et al., 1995, p. 682], . 4.3.

. 4.3. (Gilbert hl, 1982)


,
Joseph Kahl (1957) [ , p. 683]: ,
( ), , , , . .
(occupation).
. ,
,
,
. .
, ,
,
,
.

(personal
performance).

. ,
,

4.2.

125

, , ,
. ,
, , .


. ,
, , (
),
( ),
(
).

.
(interactions).
,
.
a
- .
,
.
, .. .
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.
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, .

.

,
.
(possessions).
. (conspicuous
consumption), ,
, , , .
,

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,
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-
.

,
.
,
, ,
.

126

4.

(value orientations). , .. , ,
, .

. .

: ?
, , ,
.
,
, .
(class consciousness). .


. ,
(, , , ,
)
.
.

. ,
, ,
.
(power) (mobility) .
. (succession) ,
.

.
,
,
.
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, .. .
,
;

4.2.

127

, ..
, ,
;

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(

).

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;

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.

.

, , , ,

.
o (, ).

. ,

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.
.

, . ,
, , ,
, ()

.

, .. ,
, . ,
()
,
[Assael, 1995, p. 358].


, :
,
, , .

128

4.

, . ,
, , ,
, .
, , , , ,
. ,
,
. (, , )
,
.

, .
, . , , , ,
. ,

? , ..
, .
(status crystallization)
. , . 4.4
,
. ,
()
.
, ..

. (.. , , )
, , ..

-4

~^__
^>

"~^

/*

. 4.4.

4.3.

129

(,
).


.

, ;
.


, . ,
,
.
.
,
. -
,
.
4.3.


XX XXI
, -1. 1991 .
, 1998 .
. -
a

- .

( ,
, 1990 ., 2003 .), ,
, .


() , , .

,
70% .
,
,
,
.
, ,

130

4.

. ,
.
, ,
.
(middle class) . ,
[, 13 2003 ., . 7].
1990- .
. ,
()
: ,
, . 1999 .
12 ,
2003 . 30 (20,9% ). 6,8%
, 72,3%
(. 4.2).
7
, ..
, , ,
, .
.
4.2. , 2003 .

, %

6,8

20,9

72,3
100

__

(
, ),
2003 . 20,9%.
2003 . 48,9% ,
1999 . 28,2%. ,
[. 26 2003 ., . 12], - , . 4.3.

4.3.

131

4.3. , 2003 . ( )

, %

28
14
14
14
6
4
20
100


-
[, 17 |6. 13]
. 4.4 (
).
4.4. , 2003 .
/

, %

,
.

, ,

, -

5%

10%
20%
30%
35%
100%

14
28
42
49
. 140

,

. , 30%
,
1820%, .
, 20%
, [,
14 2004 ., . 5].
. 10%
15 , 10% .
4,5 [. , 2004,
www.sps.ru // 5 2004 .,

132

4.

. 2).
, 1990- . 10;
, 6 ,
4,4 [//, 16.08.2002 . 4].
-
,
, .
2002 . (www.gks.ru), 145,2 73%
27% (www.businesspress.ru, 11 2003
.). 30% -
, .. 100 . . 40%
( 500 . ).
, , ,
, .
12% (16%
15 ),
0,5 3%
[, 30 2004 ., . 4].
20% (30% ) 13 : ( (10,1),
- (4,7), (1,4),
(1,3), (1,3), (1,2), (1,1), (1,1),
(1,1), -- (1,0), (1,0),
(1,0), (1,0).
, ,
, 80%
. 2003 . 4%
500 . [ 26 2004 ., .
20].
, ,
, ..
, 21%
, 70% .
,
(, , , , -),
( 84% ),
,
( 28%
). ,

,
,
, , .
,
-

4.4.

133

,
.
(
) - ,
,


. ,
( ,
,
)
.
,
,

.

,
,
, .

4.4.
, ,
-

,
.
, , (,
).
,
,
, .

. , , ,

, , ,
.

.
,
. ,
,
Gilbert Kahl (1982) Coleman
Rainwater (1978) [Engel et al., 1995, Hawkins et al., 1995, p.
123] (. 4.5).

134

4.

4.5. - , 1978,
1982 .
,
,
Gilbert-Kahl, 1982 .
Coleman-Rainwater, 1978 .


(1%). (0,3%).


,
; - .
; (1,2%).

,
.

(14%). ,

, .
,
(12,5%).
;

();
()

,


(33%).

(32%).


; ; ; ;
.
.
(32%).

(32%).

;
; ,



(1112%).

(9%).

; ;


, - ;
;
, /.
, ; (7%).
,
.
,
(89%). ( );
/ ,

;

; ;

Gilbert hl (1982)
, , . Coleman Rainwater
,
-

4.4.

135

.

,
, e
.
. -
,
.

,
, .
4.6 . ColemanRainwater ,
1983 . [Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 123; Assael, 360].
4.6. Coleman-Rainwater (1983)


% .

0,3

1,2

12,5

32,0
38,0

9,0
7,0

,
.

600 000

450 000

(
)

28 000



15 000



9 000

150 000

5 000

(,
4.7) [ I, 2001]
XX .
,

136

4.

,
.
,
, .
4.7. , %

1990 .

2001 .

45
20
30

2,5
10
80


-
,

-,
2004
.
(www.wikipedia.org/wiki/); , Abraham
Trad,
, (2004) (. 4.8);
Paul Fussel
(1992) (. 4.9).
4.8. -
Abraham Trad, 2004
Wikipedia, 2004
(www.wikipedia.org/ (www.connecticut.org)
wiki/)

, %

, %

Coleman-Rainwater, 1978

14

70

16

0,3

1,2
12,5
32,0
38,0
9,0
7,0

1-3

10-15

30-35

40-45

20-25

4.4.

137

4.9. -
Paul Fussell, 1992 . (;
, ) ( Paul Fussell, Class: A -Guide through the
American Status ,System, 1992, Touchstone, 1992, 208 p.

,
(Invisible Top)

,
(Upper Class)


(Upper-Middle Class)

(Middle
Class)
,

(High Prole)

(Mid Prole)

(Low Prole)
(Destitute)

(Invisible Bottom}

, ,
,
,

. - ,
,
, .


,
. ,

,
. ,
-

30 : 70 ( )
70 : 30,
.

138

4.



.
, ,
(, , )
. ,

90%
. , ,
,
,
,
, .
, ,
(, , , , ).
, Cole man-Rainwater 1978 . [Hawkins et al, 1995, p. 122].

, .
(14%)
(upper Americans)
(upper class, , 13% ) (upper-middle class, 1015%).
= (1-3%) +
(10-15 %)
(upper class) .
. , ,
(,
,
),

.
-

4.4.

139

. ,

.
,
,
, , . ,
, , (, , ,
)
.


,
(hard work). ,

.
,


200 . . ,

( ) , .

.
,
,
.

.
( )
(self made) ( )
(13%) = (0,3%) +
(1,2%)

(upper-upper) (0,3%).

( ),


, .
(community) ,
,
.
Gilbert-Kahl.
(lower-upper)(1,2%)
_-
(.. ).
(orporate class).

140

4.

.
,
. ,

.
, , , , .
3% .
,

.
,
.
(upper-middle) (12,5%).
. ,
,
.
,


.
,
,
.
40 200 . . ,
. , ,
,
/ 35 . .
, .
,
, ,
60 . .
.

, , ,
( ).
yuppies.
, ,
, .
,
,
. ,
, ,
.
,

. ,

.

4.4.


(..
)

141

. 4.5. ,

. 4.5 (upward pull).



.
,

. ,
,
.
-


.
, ,
, .
(70%)

(middle Americans)
Coleman-Rainwater
.
(70%) = (32%) +
(38%)

(middle class) (32%).


,
(white collar workers ,
),
(blue collar
workers , ,
). ,
,

. (upper-middle
class) (middle class)
/

/ .

-
.

142

4.





, ,
, .

, ,
,
.
,

.
.


.
, 1990-
. ,

-
.
,
,
. ,

( ),

. ,
-
, , , .

.
.
, ,

.
,
.
,

-
.
, ,
,
.

4.4.

143

(working class) (38%).


-
1978 ., Coleman, Rainwater [Assael, 1995,
p. 359], Coleman 1983 - [Hawkins et al.,
1995, p. 123],

.
Peter Drucker, 1990 .
(.. ,
)
, 2010 .
[Drucker, 1994, p. 40].
'

.

.
.
,
,
.

,
.
() , ,
. , , , ,
.

,
.
,
.
, .
, , ,
, [Assael, 1995, p. 361].
, -


Sunlnterbrue 2004 .


,
.

, , .
,
.

XX
.

144

4.


.

, ,
, .

.
(16%)
(lower Americans) ColemanRainwater :
.
(16%)
(9%)
(7%)
(upper-lower class) (9%).
, ,

(,
, ).

, ,
.
,
.
, , .
,
.
(lower-lower class) (7%).
. .
,
.
.
,
.

.
.

.
/ .

.

.

4.5.

145


.

.

,
, .
()
- ,
,

, , .
4.5.



.
(
, , ,
)
.


, .

, ,
, .

.
: )
, )
,
.
,
, , ,
, ,
.
1990- . ( ,
),

.

, ,
, ,

146

4.

. ,

,
. ( ),

, , , .
(), ,
. ,
,


(

).


.

.
,
:
,
;
,
()
.

(single-item indexes)
,
.
.


,
.


.

: , , .


.
(occupation)

. ?
,
.
,
.

4.5.

147

,
,
.

, ,

.
.
, ,
.
, ,

.

(socioeconomic index) (.
4.10), Duncan (1985) [Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 130].
, Duncan
,
.
, , ,
(), , ,
.
4.10. (1985)

65

58

84
49
21
24
78

83
28

89
70
15

( )
-

25
78

27

38
46

-))

(education)
.
,
.
( ,
, )


. ,

148

4.

,
.

.
(
), .
()
.
. ,
, 30 .
100 . . , ,
.
(,
) 57 ,

.

.
.
, , .
[Hawkins et ai,
1995, p. 130] 0,33,
0,4 ( 1,0
0
).

, :
,
,
(
, ).

. ,
,
.

.
, ,
,
.
, ,
. , ,
, .
.
, ,
-. ,
,
.
,
.

4.5.

149

(relative occupational
class income)-
. ,

.
, -,
, , .

,
:
, ,
.
,

.

.

(subjective
discretionary income). ,

() [Hawkins (1995), p. 132].

1 6 /
:
, ,
;
,
;
,
.


.

(multi-item indexes)
.

.

( , ,
), .

hollingshead (Hollingshead index of social
position), 1958 . (. 4.1 1) [Hawkins et al.,
1995, p. 134]. -

150

4.

( ),

(, )
(). ,

.
4.11. Hollingshead (1958 .)

( 7)
,

,

,
-,



( 4)

(, Ph.D. . ) 4 ( ) -,
( -)
(12 ) 1011 (
) 79 7
(ISP score) =
= ( 7) + ( 4)


11-17
18-31
32-47
48-63
64-77

Warner
,
Warner 1941 .
-

4.5.

151

Warner
: , , .
. 4.12, ,
(Hawkins et al., 1991].
.
4.12. Warner (1941 .)
-
"

-

-

: .

,
:
,

:

:

4
5

- /

Warner:
(ISC score) = ( 4) + ( 3) + ( 2)

12-17
18-24
25 -37
38 -5 0
51 -62
63 -8 4

j
1.4%

10,2
28,8
33,0
25,0

152

4.

Coleman (colman's computerized status index),


Social Research, Inc. 1983 . . 4.13
,
,
[Engel et ai, 1995, p. 690, 691]. ,
.
, .
4 . 1 3 .
Coleman (1983 .)

()

+ (911 )

1
2

1
2

(12 )

(1 (, , )
,

4- (, B.A./B.S)

5-

(Ph.D.) 6/7- -

(8 )

, :

, : ,
,
()
,
, , , ,

, , ,
,
(1020 ), (, )

5
7

, (
, )

153

4.5.
. 4.13


: ,
. : ,
.


. , , ,
,
:
. __________________________________________________
, . .
5
5-9,999
10-14,999
1519,999
20-24,999
25-34,999
35-49,999
50
___________________

_______

,

.
,

/ ( , )
7% [Benedict R., Taylor , 1995, p.
19]. 60% (
25% 1950 .), 1995 . 80%
[Engel et ai, 1995, p. 765, 766].
. 4.13
.
,
.

.
,
, .
.

(relationship marketing). ,

.

154

4.

-
. ,

.

, .


. , (selfmade),

, .

, ,
.
,
[Engel et al., 1995, p. 696].

,

.
,


.

.


.
, ,
. ,
,

Coleman Warner,
Hollingshead.

,
,
.
, ,
.
4.6.


.

.

4.6.

"""

1.
/
2.

3.

4.

II

:
1.

2.

3.

4.
-/

III

IV

:
1.
2.
3.
4.

. 4.6.

. 4.6

[Hawkins et ai, 1995, p. 135].
,
.
,
,
/, ,
,
..
/
. , ,
.
,
, .
.
/
.


.

.
,
, .

,
-

155

156

4.

/,
.
,
,
, .
, , ,

.
4.7. ;


.
:
,
, .

. , ,
,
.
.
,
.

( ) (
).
.
.
,
, .
,
.

.
.

,
.

.
, ,
.
. ,
. .
-

4.7. ;
157

. - (
)
.
, ,

, ,
.
,
,
. .

, 59
. , ,
. , ,

.
,

.
,
,
,
.
.


.



.


.


; ,
.

.
,
.
. ,
,
,
, .
, ,
,

158

4.

, ,
[Assael, 1995, p. 364].
, ,

: .

. ,
( , , )
.

, , ,
(

).
,
, ,
.

- . ,
-Daily
, .
,
-
.
.
.

-
40
[Engel et al., 1995, p. 705].
.

. ,

.

, ,
,
.
, (,
, ).


, .
,
,
. -

159

,
, .
, , , .
,

,
.

. ,
(..
)
.

.

,
.

,
, . ,
,
, , .

.
,
,
.
, 10 ,

, ,
[Engel et al., 1995, p. 707].
.

, .

,
.

1.
?
?
2.

,
?
?

160

4.

3.
- ? ,
-
? ?
4.
(upper-middle)
.
()
.
.
? ,
-,

(upwardpull)?
5.
:



-



,
, ,
. -
.
6.

.
4 ?

1.
2.
3.
4.

X
1. 2. -

3.

4.

5.

5.
5.1.


, .. . (group)
, ,
,

. ,

, .

-
.
.
, ,
, .

/
.

(. 5.1).

(. 5.2).

:
(membership);
(tipe of contact);
, (attraction).

-3014

. 5.1.

162

5.

()

(
)

(
)

()

()

(
)

(
)

()

()

()

()

. 5.2. [Hawkins et ai, 1995, p. 146].

, .
,

(, ),
.

.
(,
) , ,
.
(primary)
(secondary) .
,
.
. ,
.
, ,

.
.
,
.

5.2.

163

, ,
,
.
, ,
, .

.
5.2.

(reference group) ,

.


. ,

.

()

,

.
Solomon Asch (Engel et ai, 1995, p. 716) 1951 .
,

.
,

,

.
, , ,
.
,

. ,

.
, .

.
,

. ,
.
. .

.

, ,
142

164

5.

.
,
, .

(aspiration groups) ,
.
, ,
. ,
.

.
, ,
. ,
,

Procter&Gamble
,
. ,
, ,
.
(dissociative groups) ,
.
, ,
. ,
,
, , .

,
;
.
, ,
. ,
, -.


.
,
.


. ,
.
,
.

5.3. 165

,
, ,
.
5.3.

,
, - .

(informational influence)
,
. ,
-
wvAv.4p.ru

,
, ,
. ,
(, -, ),
- (
) .

(
,
,
, )
.
,

,
.
,

.
, ,
. ,
(principle of social proof)
.
.

(normative influence)

166

5.

, ,
,
( , ,
), . ,
,
.
.

, .
.

/ .

: 1)
, 2)
, 3) /
/ .
, , .

George Romans [Engel et ai, 1995, p. 719].

.
,
. ,
. , ,
, .
, .. , (NP,
normative pressure)
, ..
(; awards perception) (; costs perception):
NP ~ ~ .

, ,
,
.
,
.
-,
( )
.

5.3. 167


.
.

:
;

;

.
,
.

,
.
,
, ,
.
,
,
.
,
.
,
, .
,
.

. ,

, , , ,
. ,
,
, .
,

, .. .
.
.

/.

168

5.

(, ,
), .

. , ,
. ,

.
,

.
, .
,
.

.
,
.
, -,

(identification influence)

-
(valueexpressive).


.

.

, .
.
,


(, ),
.
,
,
.

( ,
, )
()
(, , , ).
- , ,
,
,
.

5.3.

169

.
5.3
-
[Hawkins et al., 1995, p.
151]. -

.
, . ,
.
: ,
, . ()
, ,
, , , , . ,

(, ,
, ).
, , Pepsi-Cola
.


CompUSA, .
,





. 5.3. -

170

5.


. (
) ,
,
.

. ,
Asch,
.
( )
.
, , ,
.

,
. , , , .
, , , , , ,


, , ,
.

, ,
.
. (role) ,

. ,
.
, ,
.
(, ) .
,
, , , , -

5.3. 171

, .
.
.

, ,
.
. , ,
,
,
, ,
.

.
,
,
.
,
,
.

. , ,

, , ,
.

, -
, , .
,
.

.
, ,
,
,
.

,
Procter&Gamble,
Blend-a-Med .
,
.

, ,
.

172

5.
5.4.

,
,
.
.
, ,

.
.
(word-of-mouth)
, ,
,
.
,

, ,
.
,

.
,
.

,
.


:

.

;
,
.
;

,
;

;
,
,
;

;

,
-

5.4.

.
:
;
;
;

.


: ; ,
, .
,
,

.

.

.
,
, .

.
,
.

.

.


.
, ,
.

-,
.

.


: (trickle clown /up /across),
(a two-step flow),
(multistage interaction).

173

174

5.

. (trickle
down)
. ,
,
.
,
. ,

,
, , ,
(. 5.4, ).

.

- .
,
.

(trickle down), (trickle up)
(. 5.4, ), (trickle across) [Assael, 1995, p.
692, 693]. , ,
( ) .

. , ,

.

1954 .
. . , , ,
, ,
[, 5 2004
., . 7].

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

. 5.4. )
; )

5.4.
()

. 5.5.


.
, ,
,

.
(two-step flow). (. 5.5),
1948 . Lazarfeld [Engel et ai,
1995, p.727], ,
(influentials),
( )
.

.
,
.
(Multistage Interaction).

,

()

. 5.6.

175

176

5.

(, ) (. 5.6).
-
.

,
.


.
? ?
?

.
(
).
1. (sociometric method).
(,
) ,
,
.
. 5.7
.

. ,
( 7),
, 6 .
3, . ,


7.

. 5.7.

5.4.

,

,
.
,

300400 .
,
.
2. (key informant method).
,
,
.
,
.
.

.

.
,
, ,
.

, , ..
,
.
3. (self-designation method).
,

.
,
,
.


,
. ,
.

,
.

.


,
[Assael, 1995, p. 659]:
*
?

177

178

5.


?

?
. , , :
, ..
/
.

. ,

,
.
;

, ,
;
,
, ;


: -,
, ,;


. ,
, .

-
(

monomorphic)
( polymorphic). ,

, ,
, . ,

,
market maven,
[Hawkins et ai, 1995, p. 167J.
.
/
/,
. ,
,
: 1) , 2)
, 3) , 4) -, 5) .

5.4.

.

. ,

.

, .

, ,
( )
, . ,
, ,

,
.
.

.

,
. ,
.
-
().

,
.

Procter&Gamble
.
.

()

.
.
,
.

.



.
:
.
,

;

179

180

5.

, ,
,

,
;
,
.
.
,

.

, ,
. ,
;

.

, .
,
.

,
.
, .

, ,
.
.


. , Coca-Cola
, ,
.
[Engel et al., 1995, p. 731]:
12% 20

;
,

,
-
;
10% ,
,
;
, ,
, 910
;
, ,
,
- .
45% .

5.4.

181

.

.
, ( 2002, 2003 .)
Wal-Mart Stores
, ,
.
.

, ,
. WalMart ,
. Wal-Mart 1990-
0,5% , Kmart 2,5%, a Sears
3,8% [Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 163].
.

.
,
, , .

,

.
-
.
, , PC Week/RE

( )
-. ,

.

,

.
.


. , ,
(examination copies)
.
(
20 , ),
.

-
Amazon.com,
Ozon.ru
.
-

VI-,

182

5.

. Ford Motor Co.



Thunderbird.
406 .
.
15 . 10%
, 84% ,
.

web-,

.

, ,
. ,

. ,
,
,
.
.
, .. ,
.
, ,
-
.

-
-,

- .
-

.


,
.
,
,
.
,
.

(, )
.

,
, -

5.4.

.
-.

. , . , .
, ,
. , ,

, .
, .

, .
Procter&Gamble,
, , .
. , . ,
,
-
- . ,
,
.
, . 2004 .
. 1991
1998 ., - ,

. - ,
11 . (www.kommersant.ru).
, , .

183

184

5.

.
.
,
.
5.5.


.
,
Microsoft,
.
,


.
(diffusion of innovation)
()
.
.

.

(innovation) ,
,
. , (
)
,
.
, ,
,
.

.


: ,
, (. 5.8).
,

(continuous
innovation)

.
, , ,
.
, ,
.

5.5.

185

|_^_
I
,


. 5.8.

(dynamically continuous
innovation) ,
.
,
, .
Windows MS Office
,
.

,
.

(discontinuous
innovation)

.

(
),
,
.

.


.


-

186

5.

: ,
, ,
.

.
5.9

/
. ,
, .


.
,

.
.
1. . ,


.
2. .

, .
.
, ,

.
3. .

4 (product
(), price (), place (-),
promotion ().

()

()

. 5.9. /

5.5.


.
4. .

.
, , ,
.
,
,


.

.
5. ,
.
.
1998 .

.
6. .

, .
.


- , ,
.
.7. .
, .

.
8. .
, .


,
, .
9. .
, .

,
,

.

30

.
, ,
.

187

188

5.

10.
. ,
,
. ,
. : ,
;

;
. ,
,
.


.

. Rogers 1962 .
5 [Assael, 1995, p. 683]:
(innovators), (early adopters),
(early majority),
(late majority), (laggards).
, S-,
() (.
5.10).

.
()
, %
, S

100 - 50--

-2

. 5.10.

t()

5.5.

189


.

.
[Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 178;
Kotleretal., 2001, p. 200].
(innovators) 2,5%
,
(Q)
(X). ,

. ,

,
. ,
.
,

.
(early adopters)
;

13,5%
.
.
,

. ,
. ,

.
(early majority) ,
, 34%


.
. ,
, ,
.
, .
,
, .

.
(late majority)
,

; 34%.
.

-

190

5.

,
.
, ,
.
(laggards) (16%),
,

.
.
.
.
, ,
, .
, ,
,
.
, (68%
) .
,
, , , , ..
.
,
,
.

.
, ,
,
.


.

1. ,

( / ):
-;
web-;
;
;
;

191

_ ;
;
;
;
;
;
;
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/;
;
.
, :
/
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2. ()

.

X
1. 2. - 3.

4.

5.

3.

(,
, /-)

().
(4)?
4. ()
?


/.
( )
? ?
5. (,
, , ,
),
( / ):
- ;
;

192

5.

-;
;
;
/;
;
.

?

?

6.
6.1.

,
.

. (, ,
), , ,
, , , .

. , ,

.
,
.
, ,
[Engel et ai, 1995, p.
742]. , ,
(), .
. ,
,
.
.
,
, , .
,
, .


.
.
, , ,
. 2002 . ,
.



.
.
.

194

6.

3
23,8%

. 6.1.
, 2002 . (www.gks.ru)



. , 2002 . ,

(. 6.1, www.gks.ru). 27,6%
. 18 52%
, ,
, 48% .

, ,
( ,
, , ,
, ; ).

.

(
).

,
(. 6.2).
,
.
6.2.

.

-

6.2. 195

. 6.2.

.
,
.
,
.

( 30,3%) [Hawkins
et al., 1995, p. 191],

(Household Life Cycle, ) (. 6.3).

.

-
, ,

.

.
. (
35 ) .
, , , ..
.
.
,
(), .
, ,
, ,
.
.

. -

196

6.

( 35)

*
*

(3564)

2
2

*
*

*
*

*
*

( 65)

. 6.3.


.
.
.
.
, ,
.
1: .

.
, , .
.

.
. .

,
.

.
. ,
, ,

6.2.

. 3564 ,
.
, ,
,
. ,
, .
1: .
: ;
,
; , .

,
.
2:
. 3564 , ,
, .

(, , ), ,
.

.

, .
2: .
3564
. ,
,

.
.

,
.
.
2: .
64 ,
.

.
, , .
,
.
.

.
,
. ,
,
, .

197

198

6.

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(compliment)

:
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8.3.

257

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.

:
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(response environment) -

.

.
,
.

( ) ,
.

,
.
:
1) ,

() ,
2)
, .

, .


,
.

,

, .
8.4.


.
: ,

.

[Solomon, 1992, p. 115).

,
, . . 8.10
.

, .
- . ,
-

8.4.

259

:
() ()


:
:

, ,


:
:

, ,
(.. ),

. 8.10.

.
, , ,
,
, ,
, .
,
. ,
, ,
.

.
,
,
.
.

.

260 8. ,



. ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
.
.
, ,

(rehearsal)
(elaboration) ,


.

,
. ,
, ,
, , .
, .
, , .


. (chunk) ,

[Solomon, 1992, p. 114].


, 35 .
,
, .. .

.
, .
,
. ,

, , ,
.

[Hawkins et
ai, 1995, p. 2881:
, ,

;
.
,
, .

8.4.

261

,

.
, ,
, , ()
..
,
.
, , , .
,

.

,
. ,

, .
,
,
.

, , .

, . ,

.
.
,

.
, .

. 8.11. ,
, ,
.
, ,
. ,
, .
, ,
,
(, ,
) .

,
, , .

262 8. ,

. 8 . 1 1.


, .. .

, , .
,
.
. . 8.12

.
,
. , ,

,
.
-


op

. 8. 12.

, ,

8.5.

263



. Sprite !

Sprite.
, ,
() (evoked set).
,
,
, (script),
. ,
,

.
8.5.


( )
.
-

,
,
, .
, ,


.
, -

, . Sunkist
Growers (,
)
.
, -
. ,
.
Sunkist Fruit Gems .


,

(Hawkins et at., 1995, . 289).

264

8. ,


,
.
, ,
,
Snowpup ( ).
. ,
Snowmaster ( ), ,
[Hawkins /.. 1995, p. 289].

.


. . 8.13

*Cadillac
Mercedes

*Buick
*Oldsmobile
*Pontiac

Chevrolet

Nissan

Toyota

Honda

VW

Mazda

* General Motors

. 8. I3. Pontiac, 1981 I.

265

, 1981 . [Belch et a/., 1993, p. 182]. ,


Pontiac General Motors ,
Nissan, Toyota, Honda, Mazda VW
, GM. , Pontiac .

.

.

.
. ,
,
.
, ..

.

,
, .
, ,
, .

-
.



.

1. ?
/ ,
?
2. ?
?
3.
:
)
;
)
?
.

266

8. ,

4.
:
)
/;
)
;
)
?
.
5.
?
( , ,
, )
6. :
)
;
)

/
:

;
- Samsung

(, .
. ,
);

;
.

7.

.


X
1.
2.
3. 4.

5.

,
4P? 8.

/
?

9. ,

(consumer motivation)

.
(personality) ()
.
(emotions) ,
, .
.
,

(
)
( )
,

(
).

.
, .
9.1.

(motivation)
(motion). , .
, ,


. ,
, ,
. . 9.1
, :

,
,
[Mowen, 1995. p. 192).
,
. , ,
,
(, ) .

, .
,
.
,
, ,
. -

. 9.1.

9. ,

. ,
, ,
.
( , )
, .. (
).
. ,
. , ,
, , ..
. .
, , ,
,
.
, (drive state). ,
, ,
.
, ,
.

. ,
, .

.
.

9.1.

269


. , , ,
,
.

.
,
.
, , -
.

, , ,
.

, .

(. . 9.1),
.

. ,
, .

, .

,
.
,
, ,
, , ,
.

,
(Hawkins el al., 1995,
p. 299], . -
,
, 1000
.

() .

?
. ,
.
, , .
-

270

9. ,

.
.
-, .
,
. . 9.2
.


.
(
)
( , ). , ,
,

( )
. ,

,
, .
,
. ,


.

,
, ,
. ,
, ,
.

.

, , ,
/

,
, ,
/

, , , ,
,

. 9.2.

9.2,

271

9.2.

-
.
McClelland

D.McClelland 1965 . ,
.
, (Mowen, 1995,
p. 197).
(achievement
motivation) ,
.
McClelland , 83%

,
, .
McClelland ,
(need for affiliation), Maslow (belonginess need).
, .
. ,
.
.
,
.
, , , , .
(need for power)
. ,
, , .
,
, .
,
.
McClelland ,
, , , -

272

9. ,

.
. ,
.
Maslow

Maslow
.
:


;

, ;

,
;

.
. 9.3 Maslow [Solomon,
1992, p. 76; Hawkins et ai, 1995, p. 300].
. 9.4.
Maslow
. :
(
),

( );

( ,

5. : , ,
, .
4. : , , ,
.
.
3. : ,
, .
2. :
, , .
1. : , , ,
, . .
,

. 9.3. Maslow

9.2.

273

:
,
,
,

,
, .
:
Campbell's Soup
:
: , , ,
, , ,
, , .
:
: :

:

R-Style:
:
: , , , , , ,
,
:
Lexus RX 300: Siemens:
(Global network of innovation)
:

: , , , , ,
:
Land Cruiser 100 Toyota: .

: , , , , ,
:
, (Be all you can be).
:
. 9.4. Maslow

);
(
).
McGuire

McGuire ,
, Maslow.

274

9. ,

McGuire,.
[Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 302).
(Need for
Consistency). - ,
.
, , ,
(, ),
..
( )

(
).

,
.

(need to attribute duration). ,
- ,
.

,
.

-
?

( ). ,

, .

, , ,
.
(need to categorize).

.
, ,

. (
) ,
. ,
4 . . 1 . .

,
. 9,95,
49,95 . .. -
10 50 .
(need for cues).

, ,
. ,

9.2.

275


, . ,
, , ,
.

.

,
.
Schaffner and Marx
:
.
.
(need for independence).


.
, ,
, ,
.
MasterCard
. ,
, ,
.
:
.
(need for novelty).
.

.
. ,
, ,
.

.
, ,
-
, .
(need for self-expression).

.
(
), . ,
, , , ,
-

276

9. ,

,
. , ,
,
.
- (need for ego-defence).
, .
,
. . ,
,
- ,
.
, Head and Shoulders,
- ,
.
(need for assertion).
,
, .

.
(needfor reinforcement). ,
. ,
(, , , ),
, .

Ariel, Comet Procter&Gamble.
Keepsake , :
,
.
(need for affiliation).

. -
. .

.
( , ) -

9.3.

277

,
.
(need for modeling).

.
, .

, .
,
, .
9.3.

.
. ,
, ,
, .
,
.
, .
- ,
,
.

.

.
: 1) , , ,

; 2) ,
; 3) .
,


.
, ,
, .
, (manifest motives).
, : ?,
: ,
,
, .
,
, ,
.

278

9. ,

, , (latent motives).
, , ,
,
, ,
.

.

.
. ,

, , ,
.
. 9.5
.

. ,
.
, .
, :
?
.
.

, ,
(

).
.
,

, ,
.
. 9.1
(Berkman, 1986, . 65; Solomon. 1992, p. 85; Hawkins et al.,
1995, p. 308).

. 9.5.

9.3.

279

I. (Association techniques)
( )
.

, ,


(Successive word association)

: ,
, .

3-

, . . -

. .
,
.
,

.
,
,

II. (Completion techniques)
.
, , :
(Sentence completion)
,
, __________

(Word association)


(Copy compktion)

, ______________________________
,
.
, ,

280

9. ,
. 9.1



. -
.
, ,
.

III. (Construction techniques)
(Cartoon /
techniques)
.
.
,
, ,
,


-,
(Third-person techniques)

.
,
.


,
(Picture response),

.
()
,


.

,
(Psychodrawing)

,
, ,
,

IV. -
Focus groups
(8 10 .)
-
( )
,
,




.
,
, ,

9.3.

281

-

.

.
. ,
(. . 9.5)
.
?
,

.

, , ,
.
.
.
, .
,
.

.

. .
,

.

,


,
.
,

,
.
,
: -,
, .
(approach
approach Motivation conflict).
.

. -

282

9. ,


. ,

.

. , ,
Procter&Gamble
,
.
, ,
,

.

.

(approach avoidance motivational conflict).
,
.
, -
( , , , )
.


/.
, ,
,
.

, .

.

(avoidance avoidance motivational conflict). ,

.
,

.

.
,

: ,
.

9.4.

283


,
.

(Engel el ai, 1995, p. 433).
o
. ,

.
-
, ,
.

.
,

:

.

.
.
(, ) : -
.

: ,
, ,
(Assael, 1995: p. 375).
.

,
, ( )
.

,
(id), (ego) (superego).
-

.
.
.
,

.
.
,
, ,
. ,

284

9. ,

. , ,
[Assael, 1995, p. 376].
.

,
. ,
,

,
.

,
-, .

Ditcher
Ivory Soap Procter-&Gamble
1940 . Ditcher
.
, ,
Ditcher : ,
Ivory Soap... .



. ,
,
.

,
.


. -, ,
,
. -, ,
, , ..

. ,
. , ,
.

Alfred Adler. Adler
.
,

9.4.

285


.
, Karen Homey , ,
, -.
:
(compliance), ; (aggressiveness),
(detachment), .
Homey, Cohen -- (CAD) [Assael, 1995, p. 379).
35 .
, Cohen , , ,
, ;

; , ,
.

,
( ),
.

, ,
, , ,
( ), , , ,
( ).
(self-concept) . (
, private self) , .
( , social self) ,
(. 9.6)
[Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 318].

. 9.6.

286

9. ,

.
. 9.7 .
.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

. 9.7.

,
-. . 9.8
.
:

(, , self-consistency)
.

. 9.8.

,

. ,

(
),

, .
,
( ).
,
, -.
,
.

9.4.

287

(actual self-concept),
, .
,
,

, ,
, .

.
(desiredself-concept)
.
, .
,
, .
, , ,
,
, ,
.

, White ,
.


.


.

[Assael, 1995, p. 380].
, ,
,

, .
,
, , ,
. ,
, ,
, .
,
,

,

.
.

. , (..
),
, , ,
, .

.

.

288

9. ,


(, , , ).

,
.
, , ,

, ,
.

,
. . 9.9
.

, , , , ,
, , , .


, /

. 9.9.

, ,
, ,
,
.
, . ,
,
.
,
, ,
, .


:
, ;

. ,
.

9.4.

289


. ,

.
,
.

Cattel

. Cattel ,
, .

( ),
, , . Cattel ,
,
,
. ,

,
.
. 9.2 [Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 310]

.
9.2. Cattell
:
: ,
, ,
:

: , ,
, ,

: ,

:
: ,
,
: ,
,
: ,
,

: ,
,
: , ,

: ,
,

: ,

: ,
-

: ,

: ,

:
: ,
,

: ,
,

: ,
,
,

290

9. ,

:
:
,

. 9.2.
:
:
,
,

:
,

:
,
,

: ,
,

:
, ,
,

: .
,

Gordon ,
, , ,
, (
).

, .
,

,
,
(
) [Assael, 1995, p. 382]. ,
Marlboro Cowboy
.
9.5.

(emotions) ,
, .

, .
,
.
, .

,
. ,

(
),
,


.
,
,

:
, (),
,

9.5.

291

, .

( ) ,
.
,
,
.
,
.
.
, , :
!
,

.
, Intel inside
Pentium II
! ,

. Beeline
, ,
,
.

. ,
,
. .
,
.
,
,
, .
/ , ..

. . 9.10
.

. 9, 10.

292

9. ,

. Plutchik
:
(fear), (anger), (joy), (sadness),
(acceptance), (disgust)
(expectancy), (surprise) [Engel et ai, 1995 p. 440;
Hawkins et ai, 1995, p. 313]. Plutchik
, ,

.
,
,
.
,

(pleasure),

(arousal)

(dominance) PAD).
,
.
. 9.3 PAD;
,
; ,

. . 9.4
12 [Hawkins et
ai, 1995, p. 314, 315].
9.3. ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

, , ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

9.5.

293
. 9.3

, , ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

, , ,

, ,
,

9.4. Batra Holbrook

, ,

,
,

,
, ,
,

, ,

.
, .
,
( ).

294

9. ,

,
,
.

Las Vegas, Atlantic City, Disney Word


.

,
Sprite e !.

, . ,

, , . ,
, , ,
,
.

,
, ,
.
.
,
, .
,
.
, ,
.
,
,

( ) (
) ,
.

. ,
,
,
.
,
,

.

,
.
,
. , , Stife-Guard

Proacr&Gambie

295


.

BBDO.
,
. 26 , ,
, .
. 1800
, ,
53, 26 ,
.
.
53
,
. , .
, Gillette, Pepsi-Cola, Polaroid, Wrigley. ,
, Gillette The Best a Man Can Get

[Hawkins et al. 1995, p. 317].

1. ?
2.
( ) .
3. McClelland
(
, /,
)
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
4P

;
;
;
;
;
...;
;
;
;
.

4.
,
.
Maslow (, , ,
, ),

296

9. ,

/
.
5.

McGuire ( ,
, , ,
, , , -,
, , , )
.
6. Cattel (-,
--,
-,
-, -, -,
-,
-,
, - (),
-, -,
-
,
)

?
7. (: , ,
),

?
8. ,

().
?

X
1. 2. - 3. 4. 5.

10. ,

10.1.


.
. ,
,
. ,

,
, .
.
, ,
.
, , : ,
,
,
,
,
, , , ,
(
. .A.) [Mowen, 1995, p. 705].

,
.
.
, ,
. ,

(Engel et al., 1995, p. 443].
, ,
.

. ,
, .
,
, ,
.
Nestle
,
, -

298

10. ,

, ,
, , '
. ,
.

, .
,
.
, , .
Rokeach (Rokeach Value Scale)
(. 10.1). Rokeach ,
(,
), (
) (Engel et /., 1995, p. 445).
10.1. Rokeach

( )
I


( )

10.1.

299




,
.


.

,
: ?

, ,
, , ,
?.
, , .

.


.
, .. , ,

, ,
,
. , ,

, ,
. ,
,
, ,
.

,
, (Mowen, 1995, p. 709).
,


. . 10.1
.
2001 .,


.
( -)


. , ,

300 10. ,

,
,


,
,

, ,
-
, -,
, ,

. 10.1.

. ,
,
,
.

,


.

-
.
: ,

,
, , .

10.2.

301


.
. , , Stouffer's
Inc.
.
.
.
,
,
.
: [Mowen, 1995, p. 709].



.
10.2.
(consumer lifestyle)
, ,
.
. ,
, ,
.
, (
, )
.
,
.
,

.
, ,
, , , ,
, , ,
, , . ,
,
.
,
, , .
.
(. 10.2)
(Hawkins el al., 1995, p. 328).

302 10. ,

. 10.2.


,
() , ,

, ,
,
.

,
, , ( ,
), ( , ).

(, ,
) ( ,
, , ). ,

, ,
.

.

,
, ,
,
.
,
.

, ,
.

10.3.

303

10.3.

(psychographics).
(Quantitative,

[Mowen, 1995, p. 259].



(activities, interests, opinions).
AIO

AI
( ) , :
, . . 10.3
,
.

,
/. ,
:
?.
?
-
- , ?,
?.
/ ,


.
()

(I )

()

()

()

. 10.3. A

304 10. ,


. ,
,
.
,
,
.

AIO
.
,
, ,
,
. ,
, .
, ,
.

AIO.
VALS VALS 2

1978
.

(Stanford Research Institute


International, SRI) VALS (values and lifestyles
),
Maslow.
9 , 3
: (11%),
(67%) - (22%) [Engel et ai, 1995, p. 457].

,
. VALS 1980- .
. ,

,
, .
1989 . SRI VALS 2,
VALS,
.
8
(. 10.4) [Mowen, 1995, p. 266; Hawkins et ai, 1995, p. 333).
. ,
,
,

10.3. 305

10.4 VALS 2
, . ,
,
.

, .
: , ,
, .
. 42 .
, ,
,
.
VALS 2 .
(actualizers) , , , . , ,
.
,
, .
,
.
,
.
.

306 10. ,



,
.

(fulfilleds)

,
, , ,
, .

.

(..
).

. .
,

.
,
,
,

, .
(believers) ,
,
- , , .
.
,
.

, ,
.
,
.
-

.

, .

(achievers)

,
,
.
. ,
, , .

, .
, .
,
-. ,
, ,
, .

10.3.

307

(striven) ,
.
.
, .
.
, ,
. .
. ,
. , ,
.


.
.
. .
, (experiences)
, , , .
, ,
, .
,
,
. ,
.
,
. ,
, .
,
, , .

(makers)

.
, ,
, ,
. , ,
, ,
,
. ,

,
.

(, ,
).
, (struggles)
, , ,
,
, -

308 10. ,

.
,
.
, .
,
.
VALS 2,
Chevron, Mercedes-Benz, Eastman Kodak [Belch,
1993, p. 166].
,

(
,
),

.
VALS TNS Gallop
Media ,
.

(www.sric-bi.com/VALS), ,
, ,
. VALS
Japan .
LOV

LOV (list of values)


9 ,

[Mowen, 1995, p. 264]:


1 (self-fulfillment);
2 (excitement);
3 (sense of accomplishment);
4 (self-respect);
5 (sense of belonging);
6 (being well respected);
7 - (security);
8 (fun and enjoyment);
9 (warm relations with
others).

.
, LOV
.
LOV
, .

:
( 1, 2, 3, 4); -

10.3.

309

( 8 9); ( 5, 6, 7).
, ,
.

.


19701980- . [Mowen, 1995, p.
269].
: 100 .
. , 45% ,
, 75%
.
1970- .
. ,
, .
, ,
, . ,
.

.
1979 . , , ,
. , ,
, , 15,2 . .
. , .
,
, .
.
25% 56%
1980 . 19% 1982 .
54% 1980 . 91% 1984 . ,
.

310 10. ,


(GeoVALS, www.sri.com/VALS),
()
.

Claritas
PRIZM.
40 , 12

.
:
, ,
, , ,
, >>.

.
PRIZM
,
.


. ,

,
.

, ,
- [Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 338].

, ,
,
- - ,
( ) ,
, , .

. ,
, ,
-
.

, ,
.
.
250
15 .
14 BSBW
Global Scan \Hawkins et al.,
1995, p. 341] - .
-

10.3.

311

, ,
, , , , , ,
, , , , .
:
1) (strivers)
. 31 ,
. ,
. ,
.
,
;
2) (achievers)
,
. ,
. , ,
.

- ,
;
3)
(pressed)

,
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324

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326

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. 11.4.

(cognitve component)
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CS3338Z:
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328

11.

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1995, p. 357]:
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330

70. ?
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495

100

200

300

400

500

600

. 11.5.



.


.

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11.3.

331

(affective component)
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332 11.

(behavioral
component)

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, . 11.6 [Hawkins et al, 1995, p.


360].
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11.3.

333

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334

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. 11.7 [Hawkins el ai, 1995, p. 365].
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.
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, CD-ROM.

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338

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IV
12.
12.1.
12.2.


13.
13.1.

13.2.
13.3.


14.

14.1.
14.2.

14.3.


15.
15.1.
15.2.
15.3.
15.4.


16.
16.1.
16.2.
16.3.


17.
17.1.
17.2.
17.3.
17.4.

IV.
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.
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12.1.).

. 12.1.

12.1.

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342

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. , Coca-Cola
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[Engel et ai, 1995, p. 797].


.
.

.
( ,
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)
.
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,
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12.1.

343

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.

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,

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( ), Acer (), AMD (),
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[,
31 2005 ., . 21].

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344

12.


,
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(www.amazon.com,
www.bizbook.ru)

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12.2.

345

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346

12.

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12.2.

347

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348

12.

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(, )


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349

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.


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350

12.

4.
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1. 2.

3.

4.

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).

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.
1. (need recognition)

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13.

352

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353

3.
(prepurchase alternative evaluation)

.


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.
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(purchase)

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354

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).

, , :
(habitat decision making), (limited decision
making) (extended decision making)
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. -

13.3.

355

. 13.1.

.

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356

13.

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.
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(limited decision making)



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13.3.

357

. .
, , , Procter&Gamble .

. , ,
.
,
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.

,
(extended decision making) .
. ,
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. . , , Chrysler (
1990- .) 30
, . ,
(CompUSA, Panasonic, Microsoft, )
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.
(FAQ) WEB .

358

13.


. (impulse purchase)
( ).
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, .
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. .

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359

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(problem recognition)

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.

14.2.

361


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.
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.
14.2.


:
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; -

362

14.

;
;
.


. .

, . ,

.
,

.


(survey),
.
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/ .
(observation) (experiment)
. (focus groups),
,
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8 12 , ,
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14.2.

363

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364

14.



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24 , 365 .

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Amazon.com 3
15
[ et ai, 2001, p. 145].

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/
/.
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14.2.

365

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366

14.

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367

14.3.

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368

14.

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14.3.

369

,
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,
, ,
.

, , .
,

- Fujitsu-Siemens, Toshiba, IBM,
Hewlett-Packard, Acer, Dell, Vist, Canon, Apple.
(awareness set) [Hawkins
et ai, 1995, p. 446].

(. 14.3):
(evoked set), , .. ,
,
(inert set) , , (inept set)
,
.

. .

Compaq,
Toshiba,
IBM,
Hewlett Packard,
Acer,
Dell,
Vist,
Canon,
Apple

Fujisu-Siemens
Canon
Hewlett Packard

Toshiba
IBM Dell
Acer

Vist
Apple

. 14.3.

370

14.


, ..
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14.3.

371

, . Coca-Cola
Pepsi-Cola

.


, , .
:
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, (degree of search),
, , ,
.
, .
,
.
,
.

.
.
(direction of search) ,
. , ,
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,
, .
.
,
(google.com, yandex.ru
) .
-
, .
.

: -

372

14.

, ,
.
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.
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(sequence of search)
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374

14.

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2.
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3.
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15.
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.

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376

15.

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15.2.

(evaluative criteria)
,
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.
, ,
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,
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30 .
5 . 2005 .


.
,

.

.

. ,
,
.
,
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Rolex, Bentley.

.
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, .
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377

15.2.

. , ,
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.

, .
. , ,
- (, , )
(. 15.1).
.
. .
.
15.1.

3
5
7
6
4
1
2

1
4
5
7
2
3
6

4
2
3
1
6
7
5


.
, , -, .
,
, .
,
.

378

15.

15.3.

(decision rules)
.
. .
.
,
. ,
. , .
, ,
,
.
.
,
,
.
- .
, , ,
,
. -
. 15.2.
15.2.
( 1 5 )

compaq

Hewlett

canon

toshiba

packard


(compensatory decision rule) (noncompensatory decision
rule).
,
.

379

15.3.

. 15.2.

. , (. 15.2)
/ ,
(
).
.
,
,
.

,
. , ,
,
. ,

.
: ,
, , .

380

15.

(conjunctive decision rule)


.
,
. ,
,
. 15.3.
15.3.
Compaq Hewlett
Packard

-3-24
5

Canon

4
-33
5

4
5
3
4

Toshiba

-34
4
4
4
3
4
4

HP,
Canon
Canon
Canon

Compaq Toshiba . Hewlett Packard


. Canon.

,
.

, .
, (disjunctive decision
rule),
,
. , (.
15.4).
15.4.

Compaq
3 -2-

Hewlett
Packard
4 -3-

Canon

Toshiba

Canon,
Toshiba

Toshiba

35

15.3.

381

,
Compaq Hewlett Packard,
Canon.
Toshiba. ,
(Toshiba)
(Canon).
,
.
,

.

--
(elimination-by-aspects decision rule)

( )
. ,
.
.

, .
,

. ,
,
, .

Compaq Hewlett Packard.
Toshiba
Canon (. 15.5). ,
, .

Canon,



( ).
15.5. --
Compa Hewlett Canon Toshiba

Packar
q

-$5
4
-9

4
3
5

4
3
4

-34
4

1
2
3
4

4
Canon,
Toshiba
4
Canon
3
i
4
Can on

382

15.

(lexigraphic decision rule)


.
,
,

.
,
.., .

Canon, (. 15.6).
15.6.
Compaq

Hewlett
Packard

Canon

Toshiba

-3-

-*-

-4-

Canon

1
1

Canon


,
. :
.
(simple additive rule)
. ,
.
:
n

Rb Bib
i 1

Rb b, i ,
, Bib .
Canon
(. 15.7).

15.3.

383

15.7.

Compaq

Hewlett
Packard

Canon

Toshiba

14

15

16

15

(weighted additive rule)


,
n

Rb Wi Bib
i 1

. :

Wt i- .

Canon (. 15.8).
15.8.

Toshiba

Compaq

Hewlett
Packard

Canon

30

40

20

10

300

350

420

370

100


. , ,
. , .

384

15.

Compaq HP Canon Toshiba

.
.

,
. , .,
%

30

20

10

40


( )

. 15.3.

. 15.3
.
15.4.


, . ,
.
.
. ,
,
,
,
.
, ,
. ,
,
.

15.4.

385

. , , , .
, ,
,
.

:
;
; , ..
;
.

. , ,
Toshiba 3 4
(),

() (. . 15.5).
,
, , ,
, .
. ,
(. . 15.6)
1 2
Compaq Hewlett Packard
Compaq
.

.

. , 4 3 Hewlett Packard
, ,
Canon (. . 15.5).
, ..
, .
,

.

386

15.

-,

.

1.

?
2.

?
3.

?
?
4.

(

,
)

() :
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;

;
;
;
;
;
;
.

5.

(
;

,

)
(, )
.

(

,

)
(, )
.

(
;
)
.

387

8.
( )
.
9.

( )
.
10.

( ) :
)

;
)
;
)
, ..
;
)
.

16.


,
.
,
. ,
.
(purchase)
.
;
( ,
,
) .

.

,
.
16.1.


( )

.
:
;

;
; ;
[Hawkins et ai, 1995, p. 500].
(specifically
planned purchase)
, .

. ,
( ), ,
.
, ,
, , .

,
.

.

16.1.

389

, (generally planed
purchase) ,
, . ,
,
.
,
.


. ,
.

,
.
- (substitute)
,
. ,
,
. ,
-
/
.
(unplanned purchase)
,
. .
,

.
(in-store decision) ,
,
. ,
,
, ,
.
.

[Engel et ai, 1995, p. 238]:
(fully planed purchase);
(partially planed purchase);
(unplanned purchase).
Hawkins (1995, p. 497),
,
. ,

.

390

16.
16.2.


, .

(,
)
.


(, -, ,
, ); ;
;
.
,
.

,

-,

.
(
), (,
, ) .

, :
(
),
(,
) .
,

:
(), ;
, ;
.

(. 16.1)
[Hawkins et a/., 1995, p. 489].
16.1. ,



1

,

.

16.2.

391

. 16.1

1
2


,
.
,
. ,
,
.


( ), , .
, , , ,
.

;
(Engel et al., 1995, p. 241).
, .
:
(role playing).
,
, , ,
, ;

(diversion).
;

392

16.

(self-gratification). ,

, ,
;
(learning about new trends).
, ,
,
;
(physical activity).
,
,
;
(sensor stimulation).

,
,
, ;
,
.
:
(social experience outside
the home). ,
,
.

;
(communications with
others having a similar interest). , -


,
;
, (peer
group
attraction).

(, , )

( -, ,
);
(status and authority).

,

. -
, ,
;
(pleasure of bargaining).
(
)
.

16.2.

393


(. shopper).

:
.
.
.
,
, , ;
. .
.
, ,
;
.
.
.
;
. (
, , , ),
.
;
. ,
. ,
.
, ,
, , ,
.

.
, .. , .
(
, ) ( ,
).
(, )
, (, ).
(
), .
,
.
,
, .

394

16.

.
(
) .
,

, .
. , , .

. , ,
-,
.
, , , .
,
.

. , ,
Microsoft
.
-

.
;
CompUSA, Canon,
Phoenics.


.
.
, ,
,
.

.
, ,
, .
, , ,

16.2.

395

Potomac Mall.
Levi Strauss .


.
.
. ,
( , )
.
.
( ,
).

, .

.

, ,
, , .

, . 16.2
( ) , .
16.2.

*



/
*



, , /,
, ,
,

, , ,

396

16.


. ,

.
Web-, -. ,
.
.
,
,
. , ,
, -
. , ,
,
.
, ,
,
, .

. ,
.

.
, - .
, , (spillover
sales) [Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 492].
. ,
() (),
.
.
,
.
. .

. ,
, -

16.3.

397

MS i

S i Ti
n

Ti

i 1

MS, /; S, /; Tt
i; X
.

, , .
, ,
.
X
, . ,

. ,

.

. www.amazon.com
, .
, www.ozon.ru, www.biblion.ru,

, .
, . 1 1,7 .
(www. axcessnews.com/technology_l 00604).
16.3.

.
. ,
/ .

, .

: ,

398

16.

, , .

: , , ,
.
.

, ,
.
(point of purchase display)
.

, , .

.
.
(price reduction and
promotional deals) .
(rebate), , , , .
,

:
;
, ;
, , ,
; ,
, , ,
.
,
.
.

.
-.
,
.
,
. -
.

16.3.

399

(store layout)

.
:
, .

,
.

.
(store atmosphere)
,
. , ,

, ,
,
. , ,
,
.
. ,
(, ), ( ).
,
, .
(stockouts)

/ .[Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 505]


:
I. :
- -
.
/ ;

;
3) ;
4) .
' ,
.

. . :

;
;

/- .

400

16.

III. :
1)
;
2)
-;
3)
/-.
(sales personnel)
.
.


.
.

. ,
.
,
. , ,

.

1.

(
,

,
,
,
) :

;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;

;
;
-;
;
;
;
;
;
;

,

?

401

2.

()
, :
2.1. ,
;
2.2. ,
;
2.3. .
3.

, ?

17.


:
, .

,
, ,
/ .
,
,
.
17.1.

(, , , ),

. /
? - ?

(postpurcha.se dissonance).

[Hawkins et ai, 1995, p. 514]:

(degree of commitment or irrevocability of the decision).
( ,
),
;
(importance of the
decision to the comsumer).
, ;
(difficulty of
choosing among the alternatives).
,
.
;
, ;
,

17.2.

403

(individual's tendency to
experience anxiety).
. ,
.
/
. ,
, ,
/.
,
( ), .

, ..
/
.

.

.
, ,

.

/
,
,
, .
17.2.


(. 17.1).

. ,
; ; , .

,
.

404

17.

()

. 17.1.
(, Hawkins et al., 1995, p. 519]

, ,

,
, (-)
.

,

.
, ,
,

.


.
,

.

. , , 5%
,
.
,

17.2.

405

, ,

, , .

, .
,
, . (,
, , , , ,
, )

, . , .
,
- ,
, .
, .. , , [Engel et al.,
1995, 270]:

(exchange). ,
, ,

- , , , ,
.
, ;
(possession).
, ,
. ,
, , , ,
, , ,
;
(times). ,
(, ) ,
( , ), -
( , );

(pilgrimage).
,


,
;

406

17.

(collection).
.
, .

, ,
,
.

. , , -
. .
(,
McDonalds )
, .

. ,
, ,
, 2004 . Christie's 2 32 . .
,
, Sotheby,
, 120 .
17.3.


, . ,
,
,
,
. , , Siemens Nixdorf
Informationsysteme

.
,

. 90%

17.3.

407

[ . : SNI //PC Week/RE, 1997, 2 , . 62].



(. . 17.1).
,
. ,
-
. ,
,
.

Dell 1997 . Dell 8086/286/386
.
.
,
, . Procter&Gamble
80% .
Mobil Chemical ,
[Hawkins et ai, 1995, p. 518].
,

.
, ,
, , ,
, . ( / ) .

. -,

. ,
( ) . ,
, .

,
. -,

, -

408

17.

, , .
,
,
. ,
.
,
95%.

.
, , ,
, classified
.
(remarketing)
[Eng'el et a!., 1995, p. 283].
17.4.


,
.
.
, ,
, ,
, ,
.

, ,
,
.
. . 17.2
.
.
, .
,
, ,
.

409

17.4.

. 17.2.


[Hawkins et al.,
1995, p. 523], . 17.3.

,
.
,

-------------------------------

. 17.3.

410

17.

/.


,
.


.

.
,
.

,
.
,

. ,


.
,
.

,
.


. , General Electric 10 .
call-,
, 800-,
3 .
Procter&Gamble
,

. Burger King 4 .
24- . 65%
, 95%
. ,
, 25%
-
[Hawkins et al, 1995,
p. 525].

17.4.

411


. - ,
.
,


. , ,
- Gazeta.ru .

-

-
(,
, , , , .)
.

, (
) .

,
.

, .
-
Fujitsu-Siemens.
Ajnazon.com ,
. CompUSA
(www.compusa.com)
.


.

, .

.
. 17.4
[Hawkins et al, 1995, p.
526].
(total buyers)
.
,

412

17.

. 17.4.

(satisfied buyers) . ,

(repeat purchasers), .. .
, ,
.

(
) .
,

. ,
.

, ,
. ,
.
(committed
customers), , .
-

413

(),
,
,
( ).

, , , : !,
. ,
,

(,
,
, ). ,
( , , ).

, .
, .
,
. ,

.
, , ,

, ,
.

1.
() ,
(
, , ),
:

;
;
;
;
;
;

;
;
;
;
;
.

414

17.

2.

() ,

(, , , , )
.

?
3.

,
( , ),
.

V
18.
18.1. (B2B)
18.2.
18.3.

18.4. ;

18.5.
18.6.

19. ,
19.1. ,

19.2.

V. :

18.
18.1. (B2B)

( B2B, business-to-business, ) ,
,
.
. B2B
.
(,
, ),
, .
, ,
,
,
.

:
, -, ,
, .

,
. ,
, .
,
.. ,
,
. ,
,
.
B2B
.
, ,
, -.

(
) , , ,

418

18.

B2B , .
(
4050%), ,
.
B2B . ,
B2B 2005 . 6
.,
(www.ftc.gov/bc/b2b/).


, ,
.
, :
; ; ;
, .
1. [producer
markets) .
,
.
,
.

(,
,
,
,
,
), - ,
, , ,
, , , ,
, ;
; . ,
, , .
, ,
.
, ,

.
2. (reseller markets)
,
-
. (,
) .
,

18.1. (B2B)

419

, 12 , .
. 1990- . 476 .
[Pride et al, 1995, p. 199].

.

, 250 .; ,

.
2,4 , 18 . ,
, 12 . ,
40 .

.
3. (government markets)
,
.
() , ;
. , ,
. , ,
, , ,
, .
,
.

.

,
.
( )
, , , ,
, . , ,

.
. ,
,
2005 .
.


2004 . Eurocopter,
EADS [!., 6 2004 ., . 16]

, , (
,

420

18.

, , ) .

.
4. (institutional
markets) , . , ,
, , , , .
, ,
,
( , )
.

( , , ,
),
. ,
.
.

,
,
: , ,
, . , ,
Microsoft
.

, , ,
, ,
.

.
.
, , (, ,
) 1997 . North American Industrial Classification System
(NAICS, ,
vAvw.census.gov/eped/www.naics.html).
SIC
(Standard Industrial Classification System). NAICS . ,
334,
.

18.1. (B2B)

421

() (www.standard.ru/classif/okp), .
- UK SIC (www.statsbase.gov.uk).
(europa.eu.int/comm/eurostat).
. , ,
-
, .
-, .
( )
( ). ,
,
(, ), ,
. ,
,
.

()
( ).
, ,
, , . , .

, , , .
. ,
, - .
-

.
, ,
,
. , ,
, .
,
,
.
Procter&Gamble

422

18.

,
. (--ment)
, General
Motors, Ford, Wai Mart [, 23 2001 ., . 8].

CommerceOne TradeXchange
General Motors 400 .
[PC Week/RE, 14 2002 .].

(Support Chain Management, SCM)



, ,
.
, ,
.
.
.
,

.

,
.
18.2.

,
.
,
B2B:
1. ( )
, (. 18.1). ,
,
.
.
,
(-,
), -.

.
Boeing Airbus
2001 .
.

18.2.

, ,

( , )

423

. 18.1.

, ,
. ,
, .

.
2.
,
. , , -
, ,
.
(, , , ,
)
.
250
-.
.
,
.
3.
.
.
.
, ,

.
, .
-

424

18.

. ,
,
,
,
4.
.

.
5. ,
.
.
.
6. ,
, ,

.

-

.
7.
. (
)
. ,

,
,
.

, ,
/, (buying center).
, ,
. , ,
, -
.

.
8.

.


, -

.


,
.

18.2.

425


,
. , , , , .
9.

,
.
,
,
.

.

- ,
.
.

,
. ,

.

(. 18.2),

/
\
/
\
/
/
/

N
V
\

^
s

. 18.2.
()

426

18.

.
, .. ,
,
.

, .. , .

.
. 18.1.
.1 18.1.
(B2B)


, ,
,
-

18.3.

, ,
,
. - ,
.
,
, .
.

18.4. ;

427

>


. 18.3.


(. 18.3). (organizational style)
,
, .
. ,
, ,
, -
.
, ;
- () ,
.
18.4. ;

(organizational style)
(. . 18.3), /,
, ,

428

18.

, , ,
, .
(organizational
objectives/ activities)
. , , , , , ,

, .
.

.

( , ,
, );
(
); .

. , ,
(),
,
.
(organizational values)
.

.
, ,

, . 18.4
[Hawkins et al, 1995, p. 555]. ,
,
, .
1.
2. ,
3. ,
4.
5.
6. ;
7.
8. ,

. 18.4.

18.4. ;

429

, .
. .
, .


.
, . 18.5 [Hawkins e( al., 1995, p. 555].

. 18.5.


/ . , ,

/
.
/
. , ,

.
, -

430

18.

,
, , ,
.
, ,
.

- ,
, ,
.
(organizational demographics)
, .
,
, ,
.
, , .

.
(, ,
, ).
- .
,
.

(macmsegmantatiori).
,

( , ,
).
18.6.
.
(reference groups)
,
.
,
, .

, , ,
, -.
,
.
,
, .
,'

18.4. ;

1.

431

-:



2. ( ):






3. -:
;
: , 2
: ,

:

. 18.6.

,
,
- /
/ .

,
. ,
-,

-, ,
() ,
,
, , ,
, - (. 18.7).
,
. ( )
,
-
.

432

18.

! !

\'

. 18.7.

(decision-making unit)
, ,
. ,

.

.
, .
,
,
.

, ,
, (buying center),
(decision-making unit).

. ,
,
.
,

.

18.4. ;

433

:
1) ; 2) ; 3)
; 4)
-
.

( , , , ,
.) .
, ,
/ . , ,
,
, ,

.


.

.

.

,

,
.

,
: , ,
, , , .
(users) ,
. ,

.
(influencers)
, ,
,

.
,
,



.
(buyers)

. -

434

18.

,
.
, (deciders),
,
.
. -
,
,
.
(gatekeepers)
. ,

,
.

(macrosegmentation).

,

.
, -,

(,

),
, ,
.


-
.

.
- ,
, .

.
-
,

,
.

(. 18.2).

18.4. ;

435

18.2.

, , , .
, . , ,
.
, . -
,
,
. -

.

- (business-to-business).

, ,
.
,
.

, .
150 200 .
-
. , ,

436

18.

Microsoft Windows Server System



PCWeek RE
Toyota Motor
.
25%

.
.

, ,
.

.
,
.
, ,
.
,
.

, ,

,
,
.

.
.
18.5.

, ,
.
,
:

;
/ ;
.

,
, , .

,
. -

18.5.

437

, , . ,
.
, ,
, , , .
,
Citibank,
, AT&T Solutions.
. , 2002 .
31 Boeing 11
Airbus.
,
.
.

, ,
.
:
, ,
.
(. 18.3), .. .
18.3.

(
)

.
(straight rebuy). , ,
-

438

18.

. ,
.
,

.
.
'

/,
. , ,
.
,


.

,
. , ,
OfficeMax ,
20 .
-
- (www.officemax.com).

(modified rebuy).

.
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Approach. Prentice Hall, 2000.
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Marketing Strategy. 7-th edition. McGraw-Hill, 1998.
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Implementation and Control. 9-Th ed. Prentice Hall, 1999.
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23. Journal of Consumer Marketing.
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1. , . . : ,
. . : , 1996.
2. , . ., , . .
. . : ,
2000.
3. , . .
/ .
-96. . 1. . : , 1996.
4. , . .
.
. : , 2002.
5. , . . . . :
-, 2003.
6. , . . . .
: , 2004, 2003, 2002.
7. , . .
. . : -, 1997.
8. , . . .
. . : , 2001.
9. , . . . .
. . : -, 2000, 1999.
10. , . ., , . ., , . .
. . . : , 1996.
11. , . : . .
. : , 1989.
12. , . Web // PC
Week/RE, 21.10.97.
13. , ., , ., , .
. . : , 2002.
14. , . . . . :
, 2004.
15. - // PC Week/RE, 23.06.1998.
16. 5 1995 .
.
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18. , . .
// . 1995. 9.
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19. , . // Japan
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513

20. , . ., , . .
. . . . : , 1993.
21. , . . . . : ,
2001.
22. , . . . : , 2003.
23. , . . . . : , 2003.
24. , . . . : , 2003.
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. 2004. 28. . 4-16.
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1.
,

www.google.com Google
www.gg.ru Google,
www.Yahoo.com Yahoo
www.Lycos.com Lycos
www.LookSmart.com LookSmart
www.AltaVista.com AltaVista
www.yandex.ru Yandex
www.rambler.ru Rambler
search.msn.com MSN Search
//FindWhat.com FindWhat
www.inctomi.com Inctomi
www.ask.com Ask Jeeves
www.ixquick.com Jxquick
www.scirus.com Scirus,
2.

www.consumerpsychologist.com consumer psychology


from a marketing point of view (
)
www.psychology.org/links/Environment_Behavior_Relati
onships/Con sumer Encyclopedia of Psychology (UK)
(
,

)
www.knowthis.com Marketing Virtual Library
( )
www.larsperner.com/teaching_materials.htm

www.sric-bi.com/VALS
VALS, SRI
www.fcsmos.ru/Publicat ,

518

3. CRM Customer Relationship Management

www.CRMcommunity.com CRM
www.insightexec.com CRM
www.crmguru.com CRMGuru
www.eCRM.com electronic CRM
www.ecrmguide.com eCRMGuide CRM
www.personalization.org Personalization Consortium
www.loyalty.com
www.destinationcrm.com CRM
www.crmdaily.com CRMdaily
www.crmpartner.ru CRM
4. :

www.tns-global.ru - TNS (TNS Gallup Media, TNS Gallup


AdFact, TNS MIC)
www.comcon-2.ru ,
www.acnielsen.com AC Nielsen,

www.acnielsen.ru AC Nielsen Russia


www.acnielsen.com/research/behavior.htm AC Nielsen
CB Information
www.memrb.ru MEMRB
www.gallup.com The Gallup Organization
www.ipsos.com Ipsos-F Squared
www.fsquared.ru Ipsos-F Squared,
www.gfk.ru GFC
www.masmi.ru
www.businessanalytica.ru -
www.research-int.com Research International
www.c-s-r.ru CSR Research
www.lexis-nexis.com Lexis-Nexis,
, ,
www.scanmarket.ru
5. : , ,

www.marketingpower.com

American Marketing
Association
www.the-dma.org Direct Marketing Association
www.aaaa.org American Association of Advertising
Agencies

519

www.prsa.org Public Relations Society of America


www.raso.ru
www.ipranet.org International Public Relations Association
www.iabc.com International Association of Business
Communications
www.awpagesociety.com
www.prfirms.org Council of Public Relations Firms
www.ipr.org.uk Institute of Public Relations (Great Brit)
www.cerp.org European Public Relations Confederation
www.esomar.com World Association of (Opinion and
Marketing) Research Professionals, Europe
www.ram.ru
www.mrs.org.uk The Market Research Society, UK
6.

www.interpublic.com Interpublic Group of Co


www.omnicomgroup.com Omnicom Group Inc
www.wpp.com WPP Group Pic
www.bm.com Burson-Marsteller
www.hillandknowlton.com Hill & Knowlton
www.webershandwick.com Weber Shandwick Worldwide
www.fleishman.com Fleshman-Hillard Inc.
www.ogilvi.com, www.ogilvi.net Ogilvi & Mother
www.vitpc.com Video International
www.promo.ru Promo.ru
www.adwatch.ru Ad Watch
www.mindshareworld.com Mindshare
7. ,

www.4p.ru
www.internet.com Internet Marketing
www.marketingterms.com -
www.netlingo.com -
www.i-advertising.com Internet Advertising, discussion list
www.marketingprofs.com
www.emarketer.com eMarketer
www.emailmarketingnews.com - E-mail Marketing
www.interactivemarketing.org

520

//ecommerce.internet.com e-commerce
www.prandmarketing.com PR and Marketing
www.marketingissues.com/public.htm

Marketing
Issues
//promarket.al.ru
//groups.yahoo.com/group/marketingissues Marketing
Issues
www.4marketeers.com For marketeers
www.ftc.gov/conline/pubs/buspubs/ruleroad.htm

Federal Trade Commission guide to ethical behavior for internet


marketers . www.adventive.com/lists/isearch/summary.html
/ search discussion list, Search Engine Technology
www.marketing.ca Marketing Magazine (weekly,
Canada)
www.marketingsherpa.com
www.interbrand.com Interbrand,
www.wdfm.com Web Digest for Marketers
www.marketer.ru Marketer
www.marketingmix.ru MarketingMix
www.marketolog.ru online
www.accesscag.com Access Worldwide Cultural Access
Group
www.future.nowinc.com basic Web metrics
www.nielsen-netratings.com-nielsen/netrating

-
www.internetnews.com Internet News
www.advertising.com/technology/adlearn.html

online,
//adres.internet.com Ad Resource
www.adage.com Advertising Age
www.manager.ru/catalogues/advertising

www.adrelevance.com
www.reklamaster.com
//i-advertising.com -
www.avantmarketer.com -
www.pronline.ru Pronline
www.prnews.ru PRNews
www.pr-news.spb.ru PR-News, -
www.pr-dialog.com PR Dialog
www.prweekus.com PR Week US
www.prweek.com PR Week UK, London
www.prweekworldwire.com PR Week Worldwire
www.soob.ru
www.sovetnik.ru ,
www.online-pr.com/markpr.htm

521

www.uua.org/interconnections/pr/ Public Relations and


Communications Resources
www.prwatch.org PR Watch
www.internetprguide.com/prjinks/
www.prmadeeasy.com - online
//lamar.colostate.edu/~pr/ -
www.public-relations-online.net/press-release-services

Public Relations Press Release Services


www.suitel01.com Internet-based Publishing community
www.e-xecutive.ru E-xecutive
www.cornerbarpr.com Corner Bar PR
www.theprguy.com The PR Guy
//aboutpublicrelations.net All about PR
www.intranetjournal.com Intranet Journal
www.cioupdate.com CIO (Chief Information Officer)
www.wal-mart.com Wal-Mart
www.pg.com Procter & Gamble
www.amazon.com Amazon.com
www.landsend.com Land's End,
www.gator.com Gator
www.dell.com Dell
//jup.com Jupiter Research
8.

www.worldbank.org , ,
www.loc.gov
www.europa.eu.int European Union on-line
www.gks.ru ,
www.rsl.ru
www.webopedia.com
-
www.loc.gov/copyright/legislation/dmca.pdf

Digital
Millenium Copyright Act
www.consumer.nm.ru


www.futurenowinc.com Conversion Rate Marketing,

www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html

522

oficialcities.org , ,
www.economist.co.uk Economist Technology Quarterly
www.ftc.gov Federal Trade Commission,

www.sec.gov US Securities and Exchange
Commission (SEC),

www.sec.gov/archieves/edgar/data SEC,
www.esomar.nl European Society of Opinion and
Market Research www.lexis-nexis.com
;
,
.
www.infores.com Information Resources

www.sbaonline.sba.gov

US
Small
Business
Administration
cyberatlas.internet.com/big_picture/geographics/article/


www.forrester.com -
www.cyberatlas.com

-
www.avantmarketer.com
www.dotorgadvisor.com DotOrgAdvisor Web and email Marketing for associations and nonprofits
www.gigalaw.com GogaLaw.com
-
www.wdfm.com Web Digest for Marketers
//pm.netratings.com/ nnpm/owa/ NRpublicreports
Nielsen/Netrating, -
-
//hotwired.lycos.com/webmonkey HTML,
web-
www.chillingeffects.org/index.cgi Online
Copyright Site
www.garant.ru/main

www.ispr.ru
-
www.wilsoncenter.org

www.wikipedia.org

9.

www.publist.com

www.Ulrichsweb.com

523

www.mediafinder.com/index.cfm
www.owt.com/dircon
-
www.mediamap.com
-
www.public.ru 600

www.jmm.com Jupiter Media Metrix,


www.internews.ru -
www.pointer.org

www.monitoring.ru
www.ecola.com/news Ecola's 24 Hour Newsstand
2000 eb-,

www.poynter.org , Poynter Institute


10.

www.ap.org Associated Press


www.rbc.ru
www.prime-tass.ru -
www.interfax-news.com
www.reuters.com, www.reuters.ru Reuters
www.upi.com DPI
www.prnewswire.com PR News
www.businesswire.com Business Wire
www.lenta.ru Lenta.ru
www.apn.ru
www.deadline.ru Deadline
www.akm.ru , ,
story.news.yahoo.com/news Yahoo news
www.regions.ru
www.smi.ru - .
11.

www.kommersant.ru !.
www.nytimes.com New York Times //online.wsj.com Wall Street Journal
www.washingtonpost.com Washington Post (weekly)
www.latimes.com Los Angeles Times

524

www.businessweek.com Business Week


www.ft.com Financial Times
www.csmonitor.com Christian Science Monitor
www.usatoday.com USA Today
www.iht.com Herald Tribune
www.vedomosti.ru
www.ng.ru
www.izvestia.ru
www.gazeta.ru Gazeta.ru
www.lenta.ru Lenta.ru
www.public.ru

,
www.publist.com
www.owt.com/dircom

www.mediamap.com

www.e-commerce.ru -
12.

www.cnn.com CNN
Europe.cnn.com CNN
www.tvc.ru
www.bbc.co.uk
www.abc.com
www.cbs.com CBS
www.nbc.com NBC
www.fox.com FOX
www.ltv.ru 1-
www.rutv.ru
13.

www.echo.msk.ru
www.silver.ru
news.bbc.co.uk/hi/Russian/news

www.voanews.com Voice of America


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