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LEGAL MEDICINE (2011) Antonio Rebosa, Ll.B, M.

LEGAL MEDICINE y Branch of medicine which deals with the application of medical knowledge to the purpose of law and in the administration of justice. The application of basic and clinical, medical and paramedical sciences to elucidate legal matters.

bleed freely because the blood vessels are cut cleanly and without ragged edges. Eg.: Knife, blade, scalpel. 4. Stab wound (saksak) caused by an instrument sharp point with a sharp edge. A small surgical incision caused by a thrust with a sharp instrument. (single/ double bladed). 5. Hacking wound (taga) [bolo/axe] large incise wounds. 6. Contusion (pasa) tapture of blood vessels due to forceful contact due to a blunt object or instrument. Another name for a bruise. A bruise or contusion is caused when blood vessels are damaged or broken as the result of a blow to the skin. (be it bumping against something or hitting yourself with a hammer.) 7. Hematoma (bukol) blood cyst or tumor extravassation of blood that newly formed cavity, also cause by a blunt object. An abnormal localized collection of blood in which the blood is usually clotted or partially clotted and is usually situated within an organ or soft tissue space, such as within a muscle. A hematoma is caused by a break in the wall of a blood vessel. 8. Abrasion (gasgas) contact with a rough surface / friction or scratching. Made when the skin is rubbed or scraped off. Rope burns, flood burns, and skinned knees or elbows are common examples of abrasions.

TYPES and NATURES of INJURY 1. Lacerated wound / tear (putok) open wound caued by a blunt object or instrument. These wounds are torn, rather than cut. They have ragged, irregular edges and masses of torn tissue underneath. These wounds are usually made by blunt, rather than sharp objects. Eg: Fist blow in the face, bump of the car, bamboo, lead pipe. 2. Punctured wound (tusok) caused by a sharp pointed instrument or object. Punctures are caused by objects that penetrate into the tissues while leaving a small surface opening. Wounds made by nails, needles, wire, and bullets are usually punctures. As a rule small puncture wounds do not bleed freely. Eg.: Syringe, needle, pen, ice pick, nail (.5cm.) 3. Incised wound (hiwa/ cut/ slash) caused by a sharp edged instrument. Incisions, commonly called CUTS are wounds caused by sharp cutting instruments such as knives, razors, and broken glass. Incisions tend to
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LEGAL MEDICINE (2011) Antonio Rebosa, Ll.B, M.D

This kind of wound can become infected quite easily because dirt and germs are usually embedded in the tissues. Types of Abrasions 1. Linear 2. Multi-linear 3. Confluent (tapyas) Special Types of Wounds 1. Patterned wound 2. Defense wound - A wound sustained when a victim places a hand, arm or other body part to prevent or minimize a blow or slashing by a sharp weapon. 3. Self-inflicted wound 4. Suicidal wound

2. External from the time it leaves the barrel of the gun 3. Terminal effect of the bullet on an object when hit 4. Medical when a bullet hits human body. Firearm identification used to determine whether the gun that is subject of the investigation has the same gun used or fired. Parts of Ammunition (bala) 1. Shell / cartridge 2. Gun powder inside the shell 3. Primer made up of lead, antimony, barium 4. Projectile (tingga) Products of Combustion 1. 2. 3. 4. Smudging smoke or soop Singeing (kulot pag natamaan) Tatooing, peppering, stippling Contusion or collar -would help determine the relative position between the assailant or the victim and or the trajectory of the bullet. Point of Entry Smaller and oval in shape unless it is a close contact fire. The edges are inverted Point of Exit Usually bigger and irregular or stellate in shape.

Gun Shot Wounds A person with a gunshot wound has an injury from a bullet that was fired from a gun. Classification of Firearms 1. Short (revolver, pistol) 2. Long (rifle, AK47, M16, Machine Gun etc.) Major parts of Firearm 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Barrel Handle Trigger Percussion cap Firing Pin Muzzle

Kinds of Ballistics 1. Internal / Interior from the time you pull the trigger
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Everted, and tissued are protruding. Depending upon Always negative. a distance, may be positive for the products of combustion and paraffim. Have a contusion Absent or abrasion collar

LEGAL MEDICINE (2011) Antonio Rebosa, Ll.B, M.D

Perrafim test used to determine whether the subject has recently fired a gun or not. -not used to determine whether the subject is the killer or shooter. -the value of the test is only presumptive, not conclusive, because of false positive and false negative results. FALSE POSITIVE 1. Subject recently fired a gun -totally not related to the incident in question 2. Subject is a smoker 3. Subject is a farmer who deals with fertilizer. FALSE NEGATIVE 1. Subject is a professional 2. Incessant rushing with water and soap (suka) 3. Paraffim test was done beyond 3 days from the time of incident. WITNESS A person who by perceiving and made known his perception to others. Person who testifies under oath in a trial with first hand or expert evidence useful in a lawsuit. A person who sees an event.

Two Types of Witnesses: 1. Ordinary goes to court and specify what he has perceived. 2. Expert goes to court to enlighten the court to render his expert opinion on matters. - He has authority on that particular field. Subpoena order issued by the court to a person to appear in court. A subpoena ad testificandum is a court summons to appear and give oral testimony for use at a hearing or trial. CONTEMPT OF COURT -any willfull disobedience to or disregard of a court order or any misconduct in the presence of a court action that interferes with a judges ability to administer justice or that insults the dignity of the court. Punishable by fine or imprisonment or both. 2 kinds: Direct inside the court room or anywhere in the court room Indirect outside the court room, defied the order of the court.

VIRGINITY A condition of a female who has not experience sexual intercourse and whose genital organs have not been alteres by carnal connection and whose hymen is still intact.

Who cannot be a witness? -Those who cannot made known his perception to others * Children * Senile / Insane * Those who have convicted of perjury
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Virtuous Female
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previously

been

If her body is pure and if she has never had any sexual intercourse

LEGAL MEDICINE (2011) Antonio Rebosa, Ll.B, M.D

with another though her mind and heart is impure. Kinds of Virginity: 1. MORAL the state of not knowing the nature of sexual life and not having experienced sexual relation. - Applies to children below the age of puberty and whose sex organs and secondary sex characters are not yet developed. 2. PHYSICAL condition whereby a woman is conscious of the nature of the sexual life but has not experienced sexual intercourse. The term applies to women who have reached sexual maturity but have not experienced sexual intercourse. Distinction between True and False Physical Virginity. a) True Physical Virginity a condition wherein hymen is intact with edges distinct and regular and the opening small to barely admit the tip of the smallest finger of the examiners even if the thighs are separated. b) False Physical Virginity a condition wherein the hymen is unruptured but the orifice is wide and elastic to admit two or more fingers of the examiner with a lesser degree of resistance. -the hymen may be laxed and distensible and may have previous sexual relation. In this particular instance the physician may not be able to make a convincing conclusion that the subject is virgin.

-this term refers to a condition who permits any form of sexual liberties as long as they abstain from rupturing the hymen by sexual act. - the woman may be embraced, kissed, may allow her breasts to be fondled, her private organ to be held and other lascivious acts. - the woman allows sexual intercourse but only inter-femora or even inter-labia but not to the extent of rupturing the hymen. - hymen is still intact 4. VIRGO INTACTA - literally the term refers to a truly virgin woman; that there are structural changes in her organ to infer previous sexual intercourse and that she is a virtuous woman. - inasmuch as there are no conclusive evidence to prove the existence of such condition, liberal authorities extend the connotation of the term to include women who have had previous sexual act or even habitually but had not given birth.

Defloration is the laceration or rupture of the hymen as a result of sexual intercourse. All other lacerations of the hymen which are not caused by sexual act are not considered as defloration.

Other causes of Hymenal Laceration: 1. Passage of clotted blood during menstruation 2. Ulceration due to disease like diphtheria 3. Jumping or Running 4. Falling on hard sharp object 5. Medical instrumentation

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3. DEMI-VIRGIN

LEGAL MEDICINE (2011) Antonio Rebosa, Ll.B, M.D

6. Self-scratching or irritation 7. Masturbation 8. Insertion of foreign bodies 9. Previous operation 10. Horseback riding 11. Aerobics / biking 12. Throma to the genitalia Degree of Laceration: a) Incomplete Laceration - Rupture or laceration of the hymen is considered incomplete when it does not involve the whole width or height of hymen. y Superficial the laceration does not go beyond one-half of the whole width of the hymen y Deep the laceration involves more than one-half of the width of the hymen but not reaching the base.

o Dead for less than 3 hours. o Dead, but cells are still alive 2. Molecular /Cellular Death o Dead for 3-6 hours o Death also of the cells 3. Apparent Death or State of Suspended Animation o Transient loss of consciousness or o Temporary cessation of the vital functions of the body - It is important to determine the condition of suspended animation to prevent premature burial.

MUSCULAR CHANGES in the BODY following DEATH Importance: help us determine the approximate time of death. 1. Stage of Primary Flaccidity: -AKA post-mortem irritability. -The muscles are relaxed and capable of contracting when stimulated. -Died less than six (6) hours. 2. Stage of Post Mortem Rigidity: -AKA Rigor Mortis -The whole body becomes rigid due to the contraction of the muscles. - Six (6) twenty four(24) hours 3. Stage of Secondary Flaccidity / Onset of Decomposition: -AKA commencement of putrefaction -Relaxed and soft but with foul odor - 24-36 hours ++
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b) Complete Laceration - The hymenal laceration involves the whole width but not beyond the base of the hymen c) Compound or Complicated - The laceration involves the hymen and also the surrounding tissues. - It may involve the hymen also the surrounding tissues. - It may involve the perineum, vaginal canal, urethra or rectum. DEATH Complete cessation of all cardiopulmonary (heart-lungs) and/or cessation of brain activity.

3 Kinds of Death 1. Somatic Death / Clinical Death


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Forensic Entomology involves the insects that are eating up the body.

LEGAL MEDICINE (2011) Antonio Rebosa, Ll.B, M.D

POST MORTEM LIVIDITY -it occurs in most extensive areas of the most dependent portions of the body. Importance: to determine the position of the body when the person died. 2 KINDS: 1. HYPOSTATIC LIVIDITY blood still fluid on form. 2. DIFFUSION LIVIDITY blood has already coagulated, blood already clotted.

autopsy -Only those authorized by law may perform this kind of autopsy

TOTAL or PARTIAL autopsy. -by the pathologist of the hospital

PERSONS ALLOWED BY LAW TO PERFORM OFFICIAL AUTOPSY: Medico legal of PNP Medico legal of NBI Municipal/ Health Officers who are considered ex-officio medical officers Those authorized by an ordinance or thru request from chief of police, mayor, prosecutor.

POST MORTEM EXAMINATION Intermal examination of the dead.

Importance: to determine the cause of death. AUTOPSY: Both the internal and external examination of the dead.

NEGATIVE AUTOPSY after the autopsy, cause of death is still unknown. NEGLIGENT AUTOPSY cause of death is still unknown because of so many errors committed during the autopsy. An autopsy may be official and non official, the differences are as follows:
OFFICIAL NON-OFFICIAL / NON MEDICO LEGAL

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-medico legal or mandatory autopsy. -done on those who died on non-natural causes -NO NEED for consent of the next of kin. -always a TOTAL

-hospital based or elective autopsy -done to those who died from natural causes -consent from next of kin is needed, they will decide whether it will be a