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WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT LEARNING AREA : COMPUTER SYSTEM

Name of Candidate IC number Index No

Camarul Arnizam Bin Karim 950616-12-5901

Construct : S05 Current and future development of open sources software and Latest Development in ICT. Aspect : S05. Explain the latest open source software available and the latest development in ICT. Type of instrument : Written Assignment. Instruction :Write a report on the latest open source software available and the latest development in ICT.

CONTENTS:

No. 1. 0 2.0 2.1 2.2 3.0 3.1 3.2 4.0 4.1 4.2 5.0 5.1 5.2 6.0

Title INTRODUCTION The latest open source OS Meaning of open source Examples of open souce OS The latest open source application software Meaning of open source application software Examples of open source application software The latest development in ict Hardware Software pervasive computing Meaning of pervasive computing Examples of pervasive computing Conclusion Reference

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1.0 INTR DU TION


Thi i ti t the l test open source soft re, which includes the l test open

source Operating System (OS) and latest open source Application Software. It also discuss the latest development in ICT comprises of the latest ICT hardware and pervasive computing.

2.0 THE LATE T OPEN SOUR E OPERATING SYSTEM 2.1 Meaning of open source OS
Operating system that been provided for use, modification and redistribution.It can be downloaded from internet for free.Can be modified with suggested improvement.

2.2 Example of open source OS


Example of latest open source OS is

Linux. Linux is a generic term referring to Unix-like computer operating systems based on the Linux kernel. Their development is one of the most prominent examples of free and open source software collaboration; typically allthe underlying source code can be used, freely modified, and redistributed by anyone under the terms of the GNU GPL and other free licenses. The latest stable release in Kernel 2.6.29.4 on 20 May 2009. Another example of latest unstable release in Kernel 2.6.30-rc7 on 23 May 2009. Tux, the penguin is mascot of the Linux Kernel. It comes from Unix-like in OS family and in type of Monolithic Kernel. Linux 2.6.30-rc7 kernel brings a late driver to the kernel for the Cisco PCI-Express FCoE HBA SCSI adapter and besides that the rest of the fixes are small changes.The second example of open source operating system is ;

Ubuntu. Ubuntu is a free Debian-derived computer operating system based on GNU/Linux. Ubuntus goals include providing an up-to-date, stable operating system for the average user, with a strong focus on usability and ease -of-installation. Ubuntu has been selected by readers of desktoplinux.com as the most popular Linux distribution for the desktop, claiming approximately 30% of their desktop installation in both 2006 and 2007. Ubuntu is sponsored by the UK-based company Canonical Ltd., owned by South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth. Canonical generates revenue by sellingtechnical support and services related to Ubuntu, while the operating system itself is entirely free of charge.

3.0 LATEST OPEN SOUR E APPLICATION SOFTWARE

3.1 Meaning of open source application software


Application Software that is provided for use, modification & redistribution.Can be downloaded from the Internet for free and can be modified with suggested improvements.

3.2 Examples of open source application software


Examples of the latest application software are;

Google Chrome.Google Chrome is a web browser developed by Google that uses the WebKitlayout engine. It was first released as a beta version for Microsoft Windows on September 2, 2008, and the public stable release was on December 11, 2008. The name is derived from the graphical user interface frame, or "chrome", of web browsers. As of July 2011, Chrome was the third most widely used browser with 22.14% worldwide usage share of web browsers, according to StatCounter. In September 2008, Google released a large portion of Chrome's source code, including itsV8 JavaScript engine, as an open source project entitledChromium. This move enabled thirdparty developers to study the underlying source code and to help port the browser to the Mac OS X and Linux operating systems. Google also expressed hope that other browsers would adopt V8 to improve web application performance. The Google-authored portion of Chromium is released under the permissive BSD license, which allows portions to be incorporated into both open source and closed source software programs. Other portions of the source code are subject to a variety of open source licenses. Chromium implements a similar feature set as Chrome, but lacks built-in automatic updates, built-in PDF reader and Google branding, and most noticeably has a blue-colored logo in place of the multicolored Google logo.The second example of open source application software system is ;

BitTorrent.BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer program developed by Bram Cohen and BitTorrent, Inc.used for uploading and downloading files via the BitTorrent protocol. BitTorrent was the first client written for the protocol. It is often

nic named Mai li by developers denoting its official origins. Since version 6.0 the BitTorrent client has been a rebranded version of Torrent. As a result, it is no longer open source and is currently available for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. Linux users use the previous free-software version 5.x. Programmer Bram Cohen designed the protocol in April 2001 and released a first implementation of the BitTorrent client on 2 July 2001. It is now maintained by Cohen's company BitTorrent, Inc.BitTorrent was written in Python, and was free software. Versions up to and including 3.4.2 were distributed under the MIT license. The source code for versions 4.x and 5.x was released under the BitTorrent Open Source License, a modified version of the Jabber Open Source License. Versions 4.0 and 5.3 were relicensed under the GPL.Version 4.20 of the client was dubbed Allegro by BitTorrent Inc., in reference to protocol extensions developed by the company to accelerate download performance and ISP manageability.

4.0 T E L TEST EVELOPMENT IN ICT 4.1 ardware

There are the latest development in ICT in hardware such as:

iPad 2. The iPad 2 is the second generation of the iPad, a tablet computer designed, developed and mar eted by Apple. It serves primarily as a platform for audio-visual media including boo s, periodicals, movies, music, games and web content, and is available in blac or white. The Foxconn China-manufactured iPad 2 has a lithium-ion polymer battery that lasts up to 10 hours, a new dual core Apple A5 processor and VGA front-facing and720p rear-facing cameras designed for FaceTime video calling. Apple unveiled the device on March 2, 2011, began selling it by website and retail stores on March 11, and released it in 25 other countries on March 25, including Australia, Britain and Canada. Apple announced that the iPad 2 will be released in Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore and other countries on April 29, 2011. The comparison between iPad 2 with old iPad are shown below:

Co pariso isplay

iPad
9.7-inch LED-bac lit IPS LCD 1024 x 768 1GHz Apple A4 16GB / 32GB / 64GB None EDGE plus triband HSPA

iPad 2
9.7-inch LED-bac lit IPS LCD 1024 x 768 1GHz dual-core Apple A5 16GB / 32GB / 64GB VGA EDGE plus quadband HSPA or CDMA / EV-DO Rev. A

esol tio Processor Storage Fro t camera Cell lar radio

iFi Bl etoot Accelerometer Gyroscope Thick ess eight

802.11a/b/g/n 2.1 + EDR 3-axis No 13.4mm 730g (WiFi + 3G)

802.11a/b/g/n 2.1 + EDR 3-axis 3-axis 8.8mm 601g (WiFi),

4.2 Software
There are the latest development in ICT in software such as:

5.0 PE VASIVE COMP TING 5.1 Meaning of pervasive computing


Uses web technology, portable devices, wireless communications and nomadic or ubiquitous computing systems.Other terms are ubiquitous computing, calm technology and things that thin Not personal computer.Tiny and might be invisible devices which might be mobile or embedded in almost object that communicated through interconnected networ 5.2 E amples of pervasive computing 5.2.1 Smartphone

Smartphone is a high-end mobile phone. A smartphone combines the functions of a personal digital assistant (PDA) and a mobile phone. Today's models typically also serve asportable media players and camera phones with highresolution touchscreens, web browsers that can access and properly display standard web

pages rather than only mobile-optimized sites,GPS navigation, Wi-Fi and mobile broadband access. The term smartphone is usually used to describe phones with more advanced computing ability and connectivity than a contemporaryfeature phone, although the distinction can be vague and there is no official definition for what constitutes the difference between a smartphone and a feature phone. While some feature phones also may be thought of as handheld computers integrated with mobile telephones, a feature phone is based on proprietary firmware, while a smartphone runs an openand complete mobile operating system. Widespread examples are Apple iOS, Google Android, Microsoft Windows Phone 7, No ia Symbian, Research In Motion Blac Berry OS, and embedded Linux distributions such as Maemo and MeeGo. Such systems can be installed on many different phone models. They can run third-party applications, using an application programming interface(API). Although most of today's feature phones are able to run third-party applications, for example mobile games, these applications are based on rather limited platforms such as Java ME (a virtual machine) or BREW (a pseudo-OS for native code). A smartphone mobile app integrates more tightly with the user interface and other phone features than a feature phone application, and relies on a more powerful application programming interface (API). According to an Olswang report in early 2011, the rate of smartphone adoption is accelerating: as of March 2011 22% of UK consumers had a smartphone, with this percentage rising to 31% amongst 2435 year olds. Growth in demand for advanced mobile devices boasting powerful processors and graphics processing units, abundant memory (FLASH memory), high-resolution screens with multi-touch capability, and open operating systems has outpaced the rest of the mobile phone mar et for several years. According to an early 2010 study by ComScore, over 45.5 million people in the United States owned smartphones out of 234 million total subscribers. [7] Despite the large increase in smartphone sales in the last few years, smartphone shipments only ma e up 20% of total handset shipments, as of the first half of 2010. In March 2011 Berg Insight reported data that showed global smartphone shipments increased 74% from 2009 to 2010. 5.2.2 Precision Lightweight GPS eceiver

The Precision Lightweight GPS

eceiver is a ruggedized, hand-held,

single-frequency GPS receiver fielded by the US military. It incorporates the Precise Positioning Service - Security Module (PPS-SM) to access the encrypted P(Y)-code GPS signal. Introduced in January 1994, and extensively fielded until 2004 when it was replaced by its successor, the Defense Advanced GPS Receiver (DAGR). In that time period more than 165,000 PLGRs were procured worldwide, and despite being superseded by the DAGR, large numbers remain in unit inventories and it continues to be the most widely used GPS receiver in the US military.The PLGR measures 9.5 by 4.1 by 2.6 inches (24 cm 10 cm 7 cm) and weighs 2.75 pounds (1.25 g) with batteries. It was originally delivered to the US military with a six-year warranty, however this was extended to 10 years in June 2000.

6.0 CONCLUSION Open source software has natural strengths which benefit individual users. Above and beyond this, the widespread use of open source software holds advantages for the U.S. economy as a whole, and it is for this reason that a careful program of government promotion and encouragement would be justified and beneficial.The aim of the research presented in this thesis is to contribute to the design of CSdCL environments of good pedagogical quality. This is approached by exploration of the research question: What are the most crucial limitations and possibilities of Internet related to performing collaborative activities in distributed learning situations? The research question is primarily illuminated through the process of developing a prototype of a CSCL computer system and the application of this in a CSdCL situation. This development is founded on literature studies and initial studies at two distance education institutions. Open source software has natural strengths which benefit individual users. Above and beyond this, the widespread use of open source software holds advantages for the U.S. economy as a

whole, and it is for this reason that a careful program of government promotion and encouragement would be justified and beneficial. The aim of the research presented in this thesis is to contribute to the design of CSdCL environments of good pedagogical quality. This is approached by exploration of the research question: What are the most crucial limitations and possibilities of Internet related to performing collaborative activities in distributed learning situations? The research question is primarily illuminated through the process of developing a prototype of a CSdCL computer system and the application of this in a CSdCL situation. This development is founded on literature studies and initial studies at two distance education institutions.

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