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30 3

1998 5


ACTA M ECHAN ICA SIN ICA

Vol130 , No13
May 1 9 9 8

-
1)

( , 116023)

2 .
2 : , , , , , .
Galerkin
. .
, , , , Galerkin


2 :
2 [ 1 , 2 ] ;
. .
: , , .
, ( ) , ,
[ 3 ,4 ] . .
,2 .
c m ,
.
2 . Galerkin
, Galerkin ,
, .
. Galerkin
.
Galerkin 2
. Taylor2 Galerkin , Galerkin ,
,
,
. 2
. Chorin [ 5 ] .
. Zienkiewicz Galerkin 2
[ 6 , 7 ] . , ,
(59478014) (CI1 3 CT94 - 0014 (D G12 HSMU) ) .
1997203209 , 1997210222 .

1)

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322

1998 30

, Zienkiewicz Galerkin [ 7 ] ,
Galerkin . 2
( ) . ,
Galerkin . 2
. , .
, .

1
1. 1

c m
J c = cm U
gw

( 1)

w
g w
g
m m

U
gw = g
u +

( 2)

m = n ( S w - S w 0 ) . w
g ;
g
u , ; n ; S w ; S w 0
S w ; n S w 0 nS w im = n
Sw 0 .
1. 2

Fick
J m = - D m g cm

( 3)

nD m 0 . D m 0
D m D m =
, 10 25 cm 2/ s ; ( 0. 9 1. 0 ,
0. 4 0. 5 , 0. 2) ; = 4 . 3 / 2s Millington [ 8 ] ,
= nS w s = n ;
.
1. 3

Fick
J d = - D d g cm

( 4)

D d ,
D d = a T g
U w I + ( aL - a T )

U
gw U
gwT

g
Uw

( 5)

I , aL a T .

( 6)
J h = J m + J d = - D h g cm
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: 2

323

1. 4

.
cim ,
f im m = d3 ( ci m - c m )

( 7)

d3 ,
. d3 .
1. 5

.
.
. van Genuchten Simunek [ 9 ] Freundich
.
Fm Fim
m N1
im N 2
Fm = ( 1 - p ) K d c m , Fi m = p K d c im

( 8)

K d m K d i m ( m3 / kg) , N 1 N 2
, K d m = K d i m = K d N 1 = N 2 = N . ( 8)
N
N
Fm = ( 1 - p ) K d c m , Fim = p K d cim

( 9)

N = 1 . p
p = im / . F :
( Fm ) ( Fim ) ,
N
N
F = Fm + Fim = ( 1 - p ) K d c m + p K d cim

( 10)

, ,
.
1. 6

, . ,

s = - ks F = - ks ( Fm + Fi m )

( 11)

m = - k m c m / w

( 12)

im = - k im cim / w

( 13)

ks , k m k im , ( s - 1 ) .

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2
,
5 (m c m )
( 14)
+ div [m ( c m U
gw - D h g c m ) ] = mwm + f imm - f sm + Q 3 c 3
5t
5 (im ci m )
m
s
( 15)
= imw im - f im - f im
5t
5 ( ss F)
s
s
( 16)
= ss s + f m + f im
5t
s = 1 - n , s , s F
, Q 3 c 3 , f yx x
y . ( 10) ( 11) ( 16)
s

fm =

5 ( (
N
N
[ s s 1 - p ) K d c m ] + k
s
s s ( 1 - p) Kd cm
5t

( 17)

5 (
N
N
[ s s p K d cim ] + k
s
s s p K d ci m
5t
( 17) ( 7) ( 14)
s

( 18)

f im =

R m

5 (m c m )
+ A m (m c m ) + U
gTw g (m c m ) - div (m D h g c m ) - d3 cim - Q 3 c 3 = 0
5t

( 19)

s
R m = 1 +s ( 1 - p ) K d NcNm- 1 , m = d3 / m
m
s
5 s (
A m = div U
gwo w+ k m + m +
1 - p ) K d cNm- 1 + s ( 1 - p ) K d kscNm- 1
m
5 t m s
( 15) . ( 18) ( 15)
R im

5 ci m
+ A im cim = im c m
5t

( 20)
( 21)

( 22)

s
d3
( 23)
R i m = 1 + s p K d N cNi m- 1 , im =
im
im
s
1 5i m
5 s
N- 1
N- 1

A i m = k im + im +
g ( 24)
i m 5 t + 5 t im s p K d c i m +im s p K d ks c im
N = 1 , ( 22) , t [ t n , t n + 1 ]
t n cim
ci m ( t ) = ci m ( t n ) exp

A im
( t - t n)
R im

i m
A im

( t - t n ) c m +

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cm ( t n) -

R im
c
A im m

: 2

325

( 25) . c m = ( c m ( t n + 1 ) - c m ( t n ) ) / g t .
( 25) cim ( 19)
5 (m c m )
1
( 26)
+ U
gw3 T g (m c m ) + Am c m 3 div (m D h g c m ) + Q = 0
5t
Rm

A =

Rm

,U
gw =

Rm

Q im ( t ) - Q

, Q =

( 27)

Rm

A im

= Am +

imm
imm R im
A im

( t - t n) +
( t - t n)
1 - exp 2

R m = Rm A

U
gw

R im

im

i mm 5 m
dcN
R im
A im
( t - t n) +
( t - t n)
1 - exp A i mm 5 t
A im
R im

Q im ( t ) = - im (im cim )

m
A im

(m c m )

t = t n exp

-d

A im
( D
t - t n)
R im

1 - exp

t = tn

( 28)
( 29)

A im
( t - t n)
R im

( 30)

3 Galerkin
Galerkin , ( 26) U
gw3 ,

d (m c m )
( 5 m cm )
( 31)
=
+ U
gw3 T g (m c m )
dt
5t
t = t ref
x = x ref , t = t ref
s
t n + 1
x n + 1 , ( x ( t n + 1 ) ,
)
t n + 1 . t n x ( t n ) ( x ( t n ) , t n ) .
( x ( t n + 1 ) , t n ) t n x n + 1 .

,
d (m c m )
dt

t = t ref

d (m c m )
dt

t = t ref

1
(
) ( x ( t n +1 ) , t n +1 ) - (m c m ) ( x ( t n ) , t n ) ]
t [ m c m

( 32)

(m c m ) ( x ( t n + 1 ) , t n + 1 ) , (m c m ) ( x ( t n ) , t n ) t n + 1 t n m
n+1

c m . < <

= < ( x ( t n + 1 ) , t n + 1 ) , <n = < ( x ( t n + 1 ) , t n )

t n x n + 1 <. ( 26) [ t n , t n + 1 ]

( Am c m ) t = t = v ( Am c m ) n +1 + ( 1 - v) ( Am c m ) ( x ( t n ) , t n )
ref
( 33)
n +1

Q = vQ
+ ( 1 - v) Q ( x ( t n ) , t n )

Rm

div (m D h g c m ) = v

Rm

div (m D h g c m )

( 1 - v)(

R m3

n +1

div (m D h g c m ) ( x ( t n ) , t n )

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( 34)

326

1998 30

v [ 0 , 1 ] , v = 0. 5 ( Crank2Nicolson ) .
(m c m ) ( x ( t n ) , t n ) , (m c m ) n = (m c m ) ( x ( t n + 1 ) , t n ) . (m c m ) ( x ( t n ) ,
t n ) (m c m )

5 (m c m )
5 xj

5 (m c m )
g t2 3 n 5
U
gw , i
U
gw3 , nj
2
5 xi
5 xj

(m c m ) ( x ( t n ) , t n ) = (m c m )

U
gw3

n + 1/ 2

= (U
gw3 t + + U
gw3
n

)/2 U
gw3

Rm

+
3
+ O (t )

( 35)

=U
gw3 t . ( 33) ( 34 ) ( x ( t n ) , t n )
n

n+1

( Am c m ) ( x ( t n ) , t n ) = ( Am c m )

3 n +1/ 2

- tU
gw , j

div (m D h g c m ) ( x ( t n ) , t n ) R
1

Rm

n
tU w , j

5 ( Am c m )
5 xj

- t U
gwn , j

2
+ O (t )

div (m D h g c m )

Rm

( 36)

30

div (m D h g c m )

( 37)

5 xj
5 Qn

n
Q ( x ( t n ) , t n ) = Q - t U
gwn , j

xj

2
+ O (t )

( 38)

, ( 36) ( 38 ) U
gw U
gw3 .
( 35) ( 32) ( 36) ( 38 ) ( 26 ) ( = 0 . 5 ) ,
t n + 1/ 2 = ( t n + t n + 1 ) / 2 < <n + 1/ 2 = ( <n + 1 +
<n ) / 2 , ( 26)
1

[ (m c m ))

n +1

5 (m c m )
5 xj

n
- (m c m ) ] + U
gw3 ,nj+1/ 2

( Am c m )

n +1/ 2

t n
5
U
g
2 w , k 5 xk

+ Q

n +1/ 2

1
Rm

Rm

div (m D h g cm )

5 (m c m )
t 3 n 5
U
gw , k
U
gw3 , ni
2
5 xk
5 xi

div n(m D h g c m )

n +1 / 2

+ ( Am c m )

+ Q

n (

( 39)

= 0

( 39) t n t n + 1/ 2

(m c m ) = t - U
gw3 , nj

5 (m c m )
5 xj

1,

3 div (m D h g c m )

Rm

5 (m c m )
t 2 3 n 5
U
gw , k
U
gw3 , ni
2
5 xk
5 xi
t 2 n
5
U
gw , k
2
5 xk

- ( Am c m )

- Qn +

3 div (m D h g c m )

Rm

m)
n

+ ( Am c m )

+ Q

22 Galerkin .

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( 40)

: 2

327

( 40 ) , Galerkin
( 40) (m c m ) c m , .

(m c m ) =

(
gm c m ) j , c m =

( cm )

( 41)

( 3 ) j 3 j , N j 3 j , (
gm c m ) c m
(
m c m ) c m .
M [ (
gm c m )

n +1

- (
gm c m ) n ] = - t C1 + C2 ) (
gm c m )

t [ ( Ku1 + Ku2 ) (
gm c m )
t 2
2
t 2
2

N [ ( Ug )
N T[ U
gw3 )

n]( U
gw3 , j )
T

+ f s + D ( cm ) ]
n

n ] Q d n

+ K ( c m )+ + f +
n

5 (m c m ) n
d +
5 xj
N [(U
gw )

nT

N T[ ( U
gw )

nR]

Rm

n ] ( Am c m ) n d +

div (m D h g c m )

( 42)

n , N = [ N 1 N 2 N N NODB ]
5N

N N d , C = N Ug 5 x d , C = N
1 5N
5N
K =
R 5 x D 5 x d , f = N Q d

M =

3 n
w, k

K u1
n

fs =

h , kl

5( NT U
gw3 , k ) 3 5 N
1
U
gw , l
d , Ku2 =
5 xk
5 xl
2

5( N U
g
1
2 5 x

1
=
2

w , k)

Q d , D =

AN d

1
2

5( NT U
gw , k )
AN d
5 xk

( 43)

5( NT U
gw , k ) m 5
5N
D h , lm

n
3
5 xm d
5 xk

R m 5 xl

( 42) . ( )
[ 6 ]
t t crit = mh
g
Uw

1
2

1
1
3
P

( 44)

h , Peclet P = g
U w h/ D h . D h .

M , ( 44) 1/ 3 1 .

4
[ 10 ] . 30 m 1 m 30 1
. 1 x = 5 . 0 .
U
gw , x 1 . , Peclet
. Courant C r = 0 . 25 . 1 2 t = 10s t = 20s . ,
Galerkin Pet rov - Galerkin ( SU P G) ,
. 3 x .
Galerkin SU P G .
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328

1998 30

1 t = 0 t = 10 s
Fig. 1 Concentration distribution at t = 0 (initial pulse) and t = 10 s

2 t = 20 s
Fig. 2 Concentration distribution at t = 20 s

3 x
Fig. 3 Concentration values along coordinate x where concentration wave crests pass through

4 t = 10 s
Fig. 4 Concentration distribution at time t = 10 s for different cases

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: 2

329

, .
: ( 1) ( C) ; ( 2) ( D m = 0 aL = 0 . 5 )
( C &D I) ; ( 3) , (d3 = 8 . 0448 10 - 3 , S w 0 = 0 . 25 , S w = 0 . 5 )

( C & D I & IM) ; ( 4) , , ( k m = k im = 0 . 01 ) ( C & D I & IM


& D) ; ( 5) , , , ( ks = 0 . 5 , K d = 0 . 01 p = 0 . 5) ( C &
D I & IM & D & A) . 4 . 5

N = 1 , 3 , 0 . 7 .
, , [ 11 ]. [ 10 , 11 ] .
,
. 10 m 10 m 10 10 .
3 m . g
U w = 1 ,
30
. : ( 1 ) ( aL = a T = 0 . 5 , D m = 0 ) ; ( 2 ) ,
, (d3 = 8 . 0448 10 - 3 , S w 0 = 0 . 25 , S w = 0 . 5 ) ( ks = k m = k im = 0 . 01 , K d
= 0 . 01 , p = 0 . 5) [ 10 ] .
6 11 t = 10 s , 30 s 40 s

5
Fig. 5 Concentration distribution at time t = 10 s for different adsorption model number N

6 ( 1 , t = 10 s) 7 ( 1 , t = 30 s)
Fig. 6 Concentration contour for case 1 at t = 10 s Fig. 7 Concentration contour for case 1 at t = 30 s

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330

1998 30

8 ( 1 , t = 40 s) 9 ( 2 , t = 10 s)
Fig. 8 Concentration contour for case 1 at t = 40 s Fig. 9 Concentration contour for case 2 at t = 10 s

10 ( 2 , t = 30 s) 11 ( 2 , t = 40 s)
Fig. 10 Concentration contour for case 2 at t = 30 s Fig. 11 Concentration contour for case 2 at t = 40 s

. ,
.

1 Li Xikui , Zienkiewicz OC , Xie YM. A numerical model for immiscible two - phase fluid flow in a porous medium and its time do2
main solution. Int J N umer Met hods Eng. , 1990 , 30 : 11951212
2 Li Xikui , Zienkieiwcz OC. Multiphase flow in deforming porous media and finite element solutions. Com puters & S t ruct ures ,
1992 , 45 : 211227
3 Bear J , Verruijt A. Modelling Groundwater Flow and Pollution ,D. Reidel Publishing Company , Holland , 1987
4 Yong RN , Mohamed AMO , Warkentin BP. Principles of Contaminant Transport in Soils. Elsevier Science , Netherlands , 1992
5 Chorin AJ . A numerical method for solving incompressible viscous problems. J Com put Phys. , 1967 , 2 : 1226
6 Zienkiewicz OC , Taylor RL . The Finite Element Methods. Chapter12 , 4th Edn. ,Vol. 2 , Mc Graw - Hill , 1991

1995-2004 Tsinghua Tongfang Optical Disc Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

: 2

331

7 Zienkiewicz OC , Codina R. A general algorithm for compressible and incompressible flow - Part I , The split , characteristic basedscheme. Int J N umer Met hods Fl ui ds , 1995 , 20 : 869885
8 Millington RJ . Gas diffusion in porous media. Science , 1959 , 130 : 100102
9 van Genuchten M Th , Simunek J . Evaluation of pollutant transportin the unsaturated zone , in : NA TO Advanced Research Work2
shop , Regional Approaches to Water Pollution in Environment , Liblice , Czech Republic ,Sept . 1995. 510
10 Radu J P , Biver P , Charlier R , Cescotto S. 2D and 3D finite element modelling of miscible pollutant transport in groundwater ,
below the unsaturated zone. Int Conf on Hydrodynamics , Wuxi , China , 1994
11 Brooks AN , Hughes TJ R. Streamline upwind Petrov Galerkin formulation for convection dominated flows with particular empha2
sis on the incompressible Navier Stokes equation. Com puter Met hods i n A pplied Mechanics and Engi neeri ng , 1982 , 32 : 199
259
12 Biver P. Modelling transport in a double porosity medium : An alternative approach. Proc of the Int Conf of Water Pollution :
Modelling , Measuring and Prediction. Southampton , U. K. ,1991. 4557
13 Zienkiewicz OC , Taylor RL . The Finite Element Methods ,4th Edn. , Vol. 1 , Mc Graw - Hill , 1989

NUMERICAL MODELL ING OF POLL UTANT TRANSPORT


IN UNSATURATED/ SATURATED SOILS1)
Li Xikui
( N ational L aboratory f or S t ruct ural A nalysis of Indust rial Equi pment ,
Dalian U niversity of Technology , Dalian 116023 , Chi na)

Abstract A numerical model to simulate miscible pollutant t ransport t hrough unsat urated/ sat u rated soils is presented. The model is composed of t he two coupled p hases : t he hydromechanical
analysis of t he two immiscible fluids t hrough t he deforming porous medium to determine t he ve2
locity fields of t he porous water and air flows and t he sat uration degrees ; t he pollutant t ransport
analysis t hrough t he porous medium. The emp hasis of t he present paper for t he numerical mod2
elling is specially given to t he second p hase.
The main governing p henomena of t he miscible pollutant t ransport modelled in t he present
numerical simulation include : convection ; mechanical dispersion and molecular diff usion. In addi2
tion , t hree ot her p henomena responsible for temporary pollutant storage (or release) and inducing
retardation effect s , t hat is adsorption , degradation and immobile water effect , are also integrated
into t he model.
Solute t ransport in porous media is governed by t ransient advection - diff usion equations wit h
primary unknowns cwm , where cwm is t he pollutant volumet ric concent ration in porous mobile wa2
ter , in a generalized sense as certain retardation terms appear is t heequations due to such p henom2
ena as adsorption , degradation and immobile water effect integrated into t he model. It is re2
1)

The project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China ( Research Project No. 59478014) and International

Scientific Cooperation of Commission of the European Communities ( Research Contract CI1 3 CT94 - 0014) .

Received 9 March 1997 , revised 22 October 1997.

1995-2004 Tsinghua Tongfang Optical Disc Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.