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objective treatment·l!

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~~ 1l:~ <1lfim Kekrops iIt~<fi 1.!l<fi~iI9J..W~~ ~ ~ ~~tc~~ ~t5lil ~tQt~ <IJ<l~~'e ~~ ~~~C~ I ~1r98 ~ii;tt<w

~<lil<lit"l 9{~ffl '5lt~~ ~~<lt1l: ~tCVfxt C\til I fillrf~<ltfir'Sf1 . B. Lyall 'Itt~<l ~~~ Report of the Land Revenue
~~~ ~1 filcil'f, ~<1t~~~ ~"Ii1 <liC1l:iI<lfQ'l~1~~ tlement of the Kangra District ~C~ <lC"l"l"The change
~51il fiM~\!l~ '5l~~~ 9tf~'\5 ~Jt~c~ ~t~rn The D~ community of wives to separation is going on,
Civilisation ~~ ( a~ ,.~ ) CVf~~~t~iI Cl{ ~Q{C~ til polyandry will disappear, though it probably exists
c~~ ~"I, ~ 111'{S ~t~C"I1l:<lW?lC~~f~~ I.!l<l~
iI~ 'e a greater extent than is admitted" I ~~t~ ~1 c~t~~
<l~ f~~ m~I €iCil1l:1~"Ii1 ~ ~-~ ~~ mt~ ~C\! <lJfu-.~'\5~fu ~~C~~ I.!l~~ I.!l<f'~ <l~~~ ~~'1
IftQ~ ~C1l:"l,\!~~C~ '5l<lttf C~-fiI"IiI 5M~ I C~ ~t~\! ~~C<l, ~fff'e I.!l~~Q{t1l:<li~1~~u1 ~<ft~ ~~1 ~ \!t~l
<liJt9ft~<fi~<ltc~ ~m"l~~ <lMm ~<firn <liC~I 1 ~~1 ~~<l\!: '5lCil<liC<I~<lJt9f<liI "lrota'! 'Itc~c~ ~ ~rm
~O.

~ ~lr~0 ~t~ J. B. Fraser 9f~ ~~t"lt~~ . <R1I'i!it<f'i!iro~ I!ft'tl1t~ I1fu~ ~1l1 ~ I ilrnt~tl11t
~ct ~~if ~<f~ ~~~ Journal of a tour through ir1f <I~ 9J.~-~~~~I!f~ \5(t~<fit"lI!frn f'i!it1ftfti! ~~tt~ I
11l<li
the Snowy Ranges of the Himalaya Mountains ~9f K. M. Panikkar Journal of the Royal Anthropo-
~ ~~ ~~ C~t1~51\!~fif~t~ ~J<fl ~9f~J<fiW!~ bgical Institute (XLVII-~l -<.~~)-~11 ~<lI~ ~~ ~m
~'1~~ ~im~ Asiatic Annual Register 9ffui~~ T. ~~i{ ell ~~1f ~~t~1t1 \!1 ~~1f ~~~ ~<ft~ ~t~ ~ ~<f
:Jftt~ "Narrative of a Journey to the Diamond ~ <ti~~ 9fttll ~<l~ ~t~1f1 <f~<fl \5(t~<f ~f'5te1T~ ~~'f
Sumbhulpoor" ~<ft~ C"It~if Cll <ft"l~~ ~"It~ '4( ~~1fit9f CI1N~l~~ I
C~R ~<ft~\!l ~t"l~~ ~t~ ~~~l ~tt~ ill-~~ \5(tt~fil<lltit
'5!til'f ~tf~1f ~t~ '5!fiI<ft~tI1~~~ e'5tt~f<t<fm
~~"I <f1 ~ ~t"l ~ro~ ~~t1l1 ~~ ~~ ~~ ~ 9ft'€~1~t~ I Bureau of Ethnology1f if<f~ <ftfii~ Pf<f1ftct
~~~~~im~ R. V. Russel ~t~~ Tribes and Castes Dr. J. Murdoch f"lN~~if ell Repulse Bayt'i!i e~tif «fiR
Central Provinces of India ~t~ M~~~if ell ~~ ~ ~~ ~~1f ~t$fJ® ~f~~~ ~~~1 ~t~; I!ft~J<P il~ 9J?lf
~~ 9f~~ ill C~tT;~t~tl11l~<lt~ ~~ ~~~ i!t~t1f1 ~ 1w~t~ ~~t~fil~ ~~~l ~~"a: ~~t"lll ~1 ~~'e> ~
~\! ~9f51\!~~ (~~ ~'E;, 8~lr ~~) I ~t'€~"Itl1it ( 8~~ ~~ ) I '5ftt~fil<fitll~'e1f-9ffi6~ I!ft~ ~i{.f~T; ~t~ <ft~
llt~ ell C<fitif~~ 9f~<ltt1l1l ~<ll~ ~~~ ~<ft~ 'm I ~t~ttl1l1 ~t$fJ C<lltifilt1l1 ll~ ~~~ e'5tt~f~t{ '5liJ1C<fiji{
C~tT;~~~t~ C'I~ f<t<lt~t~ ~ ~t~t1f ~tT; ~tm1f1 C'lttiJj~C"ItC<H
~~\!) ~~<ft~~t~ \!t<f~t~tt~ ~~l ~1ll ~~ I ~~
~~<ft1f'Jfi~l ~~ ~ (Journal of the Asiatic Soo ~ ~Jfu. llfW~t~ ~t51t~ ~~ ~t~l ~~t"l e~ji{ l!t~t1f -ttRg CI1lSm
Bengal vol. LXXII, part III, pp 88, 90) I ~~ ~ "111 ~<f ~ I!f't~t<fl ~~~t1f Dta;t~<ft1f~1ItD1ff<f~\f~1tfN<ft11
~$fitt"l1l ~iJ1 ~lW't llt~t~ ~~ta; e51t~ C~til <f~ <f1~ ~ ~~t$f <fl~l ~~ I \!l<f~ ®t"ltt<f~ <fit~~~ ~ ~t<fll
~~i! Cl11il-~U<f~1f
~mt1t 'Jfi~~l'5l9f'f<flftl~l llt~ I ~~o~ DIm f<l~~<ll1lift~; ~<fi' ~~11 '5l~9f~~\! \5(iJ1 ~ \!t~~
I!f<f'tf-t\! Ethnographic Notes in Southern I_ ~ ~~<fPl <fi~ I ~~tllt~ ~~1fl I!ft~X\: ~~~ I!ftfti{~~11f
E. Thurston ~tt~<f~N~tt~if ell CDl1furti{.
Dt~\f1f ~t$jJ ~ ~~ (Tenth Census of the United States, vol vii~
9f1f<f~~t~~ ~~~ ~ti!ttI11f,f.\<fiT;~ti'l~t\f1f Ul<f~~~ ~ ~~Ir) I '5ft~~ \5(tt~~~i\t\f1l ~$fJ \5(t~~~ ~~ C'lfu
~<\Pl <fitit; ~~ «fiR <f~~~~ itt~ ill ~~, i!~ ~~ ~,,~ti.t111l~~ 9J:?~ '5ft9f'Jfil~t"ltt<fi1l ~~~J1~~~ '5ltil<fle~~;
~'1 \!t~tt<fi"~lItm~ I!t~ 1l~ <fifil~ <ft~ <fi~ ( ) o~ ~'Iol1 ~<l1li! ~~~ ~~"I ~wt~ ~~~J1 ~: a:t~ 9ft~t'i!it~I
Qlt~ -t'i!it~~ c-t~tt~ (~~9~~:~:) ~~~iVi ~9f ~1l ~~~ '5lt~~~'l 9f1f~it ~ti! ~~~ ~~i! -I <ft'5t,l1ttilit
~tllm ~~t~ C"It~if ~ ~J~ ~tm ~W~ ~~t1 ~ ~1l1l ~i'l~'5t'l <f~1f ~~ ~~~ <fJ<f~t1t~~ ~fil~l
~ ilti\t" f<t<l~ <fitit ~<f~ I!tt~J~ ifl~ ll~~~ ~11!f. (Bureau of Ethnology1l ~~11-t <ftm ~<f1l'l, -<'9~,
9fttit I f~~ f<f ~ f~ 9J.w~ C<fi~~~ ~iJ1 ~t~1f clIt )'~) I
,
f.I~ 't<l 1.~ l~~ c~t~~t~ Relief ~~ CW~~ I .,
~~ 9f~ 9ffil~ ~~ ~ ~t~H:',Dtf.~<f ~ ••
~c. ~(.<{~ ';ttfu<{i~'
8
c~~t'e \!l<tiffl~ 9f~ Cif~I ~t~t<f'e C<lxt ~
~t~ ~~~ ~<lt~ c9fl~a;~ C<ltif~OO~ttif~ ~~ I iI1t .~ C\tM~t~, 1.~t\tt<1l1~ ~=~e,~rn+~ ~~ I

'ent~ if~~ ~t~ fir~ <tlllt~, "fiI~rn s- \!l~ OO~ (physical Body) '<3 ift~<lirn(Mental Body ~(te, We
\!l<fi~1\tt~~ Tariff '5tf'i<f1 ~tm~ m~<lt~~~ if1 t" ~~A ~11:=~
Soul) ~~~1 ~e,<fit~-I.(l<1~ <11~t~~r;~rn
~Pr C'l~~R~~~~
~if~~ ~<t<t~9f~~('invisible, boundless, all-
C~<ft 1fl"3.~ ~ca;if I ~lttfu~ ~t~ ~~ ~ ,
t I C<lt~~ ~t~1 ~fD~ I" a;~ ~~~ <rot ~~, etrating') Universal Principle-!lll, <lJf'e"-~txt~<fi~"<\\"

~~! c<\t~~~! \!l~if~ ~tif, ~<1~ ~ c<R Tariff ~R q ~~lCf ~ ~a;1 '*
ll~<lt~~»t1~~~tt<f ~<l~\S:. ~Oft\S~:-~'S1,')¢l'
s- CDt~ ~t~ ~~ oo~tt~~ C'5\!i~Dca; c~a; I ~' filf.I~
\!la;\!l<f ~'6'1 ~tl:~ ~~ I <1'ica;,"\!l~ \!i~~ f.lfil~,T ~~m ~'<3 cwM~tfi, l~rn~ ~ CWt~~~t~ ~~~
CJt~if DCa;c~ ~~ <1a;t~, "cwt~t~ ~ Q{t~ • ~ (~~) fctifM~ ~1 ('There is existence after death') ;

<1tf~ ~t~~ m~ f.I~~ I ~t9fM ~~ \!l~te{ ~~ ~ rq~~ 9f~ \!it~tllC\t<1f<fi~ ltt"3.~f<fi~ ~t~~ ~~ C9fxttl) f<t;~
\!i~ ~t~R CWt~if f~ f' s- ~ti{~~ ~ ~ ~cm~~~~l
'This existence is effected by re-birth-strictly speaking
Ci{~, f<f <1"lt<1if~~ <f~ 9ft~fWtif ~ I a;t~ ~~
by palingenesis, within one of the five realms mentioned
~fDt~ ~2-c~, "~t9fM \!l <rnt~ ~tt~ ~~ ~~if Cif_-U above'.
CW't~fiI~t~ s- ~I:a;~~ mJt~<lJ ~~~ 15l~
~~e, C\t<1t"ltt<fi
C\t<1
~~-CW<lxt~~ ~'1,
~rn't1~~, ~tift~ I" <1t"lS- \!l~ m~C~~ f<rt~~j~Ic."'l ~~ ~Jt~tt~ ~~ ~t~-~t~<l xtm ~~'1,
G-lI ~~ G- f.I~~ ~lttt~ <1ta;~"l~ I S-Jll
~llf~ ~"?l<fit~tt~if~~ ~-~~~~ ~11 ~'1,
~ti{~a;t~ ~t~ \!l~~if <1'¥ ~~~ ~t~ ',c~~ I f~f.{ ~llf~ C~ta;tt. C9f'lCftl)
~~-C~~~ ~'1,
~t~ C~~if I ~~til1 C~~ \!l~~~ C<lt~1~t~ ~ ~ ~llf~ 9f~t~tt~ f\!i~r~~t"l{-9fM<l -t~"?l~~'1 ~ I
~t~'e ~t~~ ~t~ <\\"~1
~~t'Sif ifl, ~~<1t\t~'e ~ I Ia1 Five in number, Sari putt a , are the fates which may be-
\!l~ lft~<f ~i{I:<\\" \!l<\\"ntif~tcfa; a;~ Ver l af~er death; namely these: passage into the hell world,
anunal kingdom. the realm of shades, the world of men
<l>too~a;if, ~~ ~~ ~ ~tt~ f~ 1 a;;5 ~PIlI
the abodes of the gogs-M. N. I, p. 73.
~ ~, "cDt~ ~~ c<fi"f, i\'(~,~ I f<lt\titr~ta;1
~~<fi1I 7il~'1~~t~, ~ ~W ~~~ ~Wift~ '<3 ~~-
f<t;f'
<fi1lt<1
~ ~'\!i ~ft1~1 ~~9\1l <ffi1~t~~ ~, \!l~ ~\!i1l
c~t~l C~<fi c~tQ{t~I.(l~ 9f,¥71~I ~;r I.(l~~ti{- ~
~9ff.l~\t1I~9ft\txt ~~iI)'[ ,
~. "'N ama-rupa together with consciousness' constitute the individual ( ~ )
~
C~,
~H 9ffil~

~.~ ~~~511ct1:~~it~ '5ft9f1:lfTlIO{.


(~~) ·. gThence departing, there I came to existence
~'1, ~~11l1 ~~f., \!It~ ~i-Cl{1fof n"ilClrtR ~1 't~lItlft~
en d1n .
"" was 1. This was my rank now.
.
Th1s was my

~-~
1'bere n 0 ••
t~1{" ,~n~
l!l~ ~~ ~t~~1 ~'lt~lI ~t~i <f1l~: f.i~. .
tion.
Such and such the fresh weal or woe I underwent.
. . I
..rT my life's endmg. Departmg, once more, came
~9f ~~ l!l~ C(f~~t~i1 Clf~t~lI ~~i ~\!: '!itO).ffi~ ~~~'I "as no ••
~~t1I ~~cf~~Q1~m\§l(qt~l "~\!"il Cl'Q1Tt'l\5l1
~9f ~5OfI Cl'l:1I( . e again elsewhere. In such wise I remembered the
~~ ~9f~ \!~l:\!), ~9f ~'l1J\511f~~ m\§Jt~ ~fi1i1 f~ teristics and particulars of my vaned . lots 10 previOus
. .
~ C'f<ll:Q1t~
~ll2t~t9f~l:Q1t~ <11~~t<f <f1 ~Q1tl:~l1 iS~ _~.r~R~tl,\,I, p. 38.
<f~ (~w~ "~~11~ <f"lJt~1I~ ~9f~ \§~ f9f\!iJ~~1 ~t~~~ 'l1~~ 1.Q~9f ,~~~' ~~~1 ~~CVf<t ~~ 'lllC~ l.!l~~Q{$ ~
<f1 ~w~t~ ~~~.,pt( ~OO'lT<f' ) o

~~ ~tf~ ~~1j~~ ~f<I't1j~ ~f.I~~ , '


~~w~~-~ ~~~~~ ~'PI~1 ~~1 ~tf5 ~~.,~ II -lf~9flf, ~~t<{~
'1Il~Of~~9fC~<ftll<f ''<l~tfll~' ~t~'\ ~fi1l:~ ~fllt\5 ~~<f' '~Rt\5
~~ lfu;pr~ f<liifl4t-llt~~ 9fCJJliOf~ClIt~
'1~~f6 (~~: ~'Jll~lI~f~:) ~~'\ ~fi1Q1tl{l!l<l~~tf.,Q1~ t~:~1 ~tf~:
9f~~~ ~~'1 ~<t9f~ ~ ill, ~~~ R~ \!l : (the endless painful round of rebirth) I
f.f~~<fi ~G'f I <flt~'1, f.f~~ilt~~ C<ttR~~CG'f elf C'l~ ~t~~~ ~~L~~ ~Q{1-
'lCWG'ftiS <flC~il,~ Nil ~ ~ ~iif ~t~t~ ~f;{~ <l~" Cl{<lJt5l'!tR ~~tR ~<{ ~i{ ,

~~~M~ ~~G'f~~~ ~JJli ~~~t~G'f I ~t~~ RCQ ~to{~~~


, ~(f 1j~tf., ., ~~ C<l~~~9f II -~\51,81<t
~~I ~~ ~Of<t ~~~<fl <lf~mt~c"'il-
Without beginning or end, 0 monks, is this round of rebirth
And with thought thus fixed, cleansed, purged a
less, I turned my mind towards the recollection and
m)•_ Beings, sunk in ignorance and bound by thirst, are
ntly transmigrating and again' and again run to a
tion of previous modes of existence. And I called /to
birth'-~~l~f.l<fti, II, p. 187.
various lots in former lives: first one life, then two Ii
three, then four, then five, ten, twenty up to fifty liv ~I!l<t ~t~~ f.f~111!t~ l.!l~~G'f~ ~iltN ~~~ f~~9f
a hundred lives; then a thousand lives' then a U-~(t~ ~iift~~~ I!t'tt~ 'S I!t<flt~f~m9f !
thousand lives. - _ There was 1. That was' my name. /
iR"~ ~~.?i{1
family I belonged.. That was my position , that
~n,1 ~ ~<t (immortal Soul ) ~~t~ ~C~il, -:;1~t~1
occupatIon, such the weal or woe that I experienced,
-l.!l~~Re-incarnating Ego, M:~ <ufui m9f (immu-

~
*
I
<ll ~
~ ~!1fll~
~ ~
~~
(~~~1
~«i ~
) ~, ~f.!'l~<!I91~
'<l~§tf'l<fi ~
'~-e"""
:Ij~~ 'lIIttt I
hieindividual m9f) ~Ciif iSfLiif~${ f~ ~~ t1t~'1 <fC~-~
~«i ~ '&<!Qf
mfil<fi i!1 ~. m~ ~~
dl ~ .!If\!i~ ~ ~ ~llC~ ~l\' ~${ ~fll<vl l1t~'1<flC~-<fl~ <t~~~t~ ~, <fl~i{
'l~~-Of course the extreme in the direction of untainted ha •
~, ~~il ~t<t'1~, <fl~ ~~~t~ ~ 1*
as is s~id to ~e found within the heavens, we easily agree with,
c.ase, thiS much IS clear, that if there are heavens, according to the la"
tlOn, there must also be states of the opposite extreme, designated
·~ ~~~~
~'*
~'tt'l, Oi~ ~1~~
~'ttlI 9flI~m'l1 ~<e"ti.W'l1 <!<:'I\~
~'l/1 ~"9j~<!/1\i;~f\!i~~ ~
~~ dl<!~
~<:,
~qf.I-<!tD"9\f\!i Nc$ 8~
whatever form we choose to picture these states. (p 112)
~
~~ti~
dh~ i{f1lMetempsychosis-'5l~~the 'C1f ~~ 'fIlS'5l~, ~~ ~tt<t 9,i~ '5l<lJ~" f<f;~tt<t?
of the soul after death into some other body ~~. 9fi:lf<l~~~, f<luf9l~~~, ~~\! ~. ~~\! ~~ I
meta = change, and empsychosis = an animating 9f1l T ~tWt~f~~t~\! ~ I f~~ ~'Jfi <.!lr<Rtt~~ ~ il1
~~ 1.~Df<t~~i{lCft1i;'c~t"l' (constant and immuta . 9f ~ror1~, ~ ~'9i ~~'! ~t~ i{~"l{ ~~-'5ltm
1ftf.lti;~i{1,~~i{ ~t~n1 ~ti! 'It is an utterly and , ~, f<tU9f.'5lt<tnt~"t ~-~'5t~ ~ ~ I ~ ~~-
foolish idea'-~~i{ ~~t~ ~t'!l '5lf1lttWil:
C"Itt~t'€il:'!{1\1l1 f'-~i{ffW <f't"t~~ i{<ti{<t~, i{<ti{<t~ I
,
~~ut~ ~~-~~ (our real essence)-~~ '5l~~ ~~~1 ~l'1 ~~ ~~t~~~: ~: I
~:~~ 1J~0{1ffO{: <rm~~~ ~t~t~f5 II
~t'!lt9f~~, ~~ invisible, boundless, all-pervading -¥, ~1~1~1r18
f<I~tro ~i6>~tlCflt~~..-~ ~~ ~m~lCf(the adapta'
~~, <.!l~
~ i{<t~'flt-( CI!t~J~~<t:)'!t~nt ~~ f~ !
specific purposes, by the body (i{t~9f ) of the uni tlfO{tif~
~~ 't<l~31~1(<!t~l~~: ,
consciousness )-,!~i{ Metempsychosis ~~ 9J?tlt~c~ i{<ti{<t~"ll. ~~:~: ~~t~tt<t~ 9fil:~i{: '5lt~~<t,
~~t~1~ ~~tl! 9ft~ i{1I ~ ~ cw~1~~ ~~ -iS~~ ~ W;'Jfi~ ~, ~llil: i{<ti{<l ~t'flt~ ~ f<f;!
~~~ i{t~-i{~"l{ - ~~tt<f P alingenesis ~"II ~ ~<lrn'~~1'·~~ 'the indestructive germ from which
(Palin=again and genesis = birth). Palin-genesiScd the new individual arises each time.'·
J

tltf.i<li'aj~a new birth, the development of an individual ~~tt~ i3:~~ ~t-.t~ ~i{f~i{~iSf <l"Il~~~t~ I
in which it repeats that of its ancestors. ~ ~~ 'aj ~~~;rt~~~~t~ AA ~N'~O{f~0{,-~~1,'II') 0

MFI~t~-Pa1ingenesis means decomposition and renewal


entire individual; thus the dying creature perishes • ~~ ~ ~ ~ Permanent Atoms'!!"ll <\S~ ~f.lt~~. .!!~ ll"llt'fll ",os
together with its consciousnesss (~§to{-~), but there ~ I ~J"ll 9\"ll~t<J ~ll ~ c<ftll filrnz ~ ~
~lli'll~9\ .!!<\S~Physical
a germ, from which a new individual arises, together wi Permanent Atom ~ m; ~9\ ~ ~rrtm o!fI-rrnc<ftll filJ:rz ~ ~ll{i ~9\
consciousness, 'man thus, ripening like corn and ripening ~ Astral Permanent Atom .!!~ ~~ ~ c<ftll ~ ~~ ~~os ~9\

again and again'. (p. 108)


~ Mental Permanent Atom ~ftm m
I .!f f5il!i; Permanent Atom.!! ~
~. ~ {i ~ (Thoughts Desires & Action.!l'lO ~ ~R~ ~llill5ft~f.l~~ ~ I
~~<t ~~n9f'DJti!
~~JR<t1~rnt'! ~il:-~~, W\ 'Q~"ll ~ ~.., .!f f5il~ ~ ~ ~to ~~9\ ~"ll"l,~ ~lM. o!fI-rrn os ~
~ ~~~fu ~ I ~HI ~ ~ ~ </lltllm ~ ~'J.~"ll.!f'llif ~f.lt~ ~ ~ ~I
'On death, a worn-out creature has perished but con ~~~~l "ll~~f\5 Jj~9\fi!w:~~. o:Jl)
the indestructive germ from which this new existence ~ '!~il!l~~ ,~~ ~~-.!f~~ CIi~: ~~~: 'l~9\rW~ ~~~~ ~~ ~
originated: they are one being" (p. 109) ~("l~W)
~~ ~ ~t'fll ~ ~ ~ '~. ~1l19\fi~ W1 'll~ ~~ ~-
'~~ ~1Jliil:~t~~ ~ <.!l<t~
~ ~ ~~t~ i{<$1Jf1 ~ 'l{lfJ film ~/tc<f ~'1 m I .!f '~. rif? 9\llWr ~ ":(~"ll ~ ~~
I
-~il: ~~ <.!l~~~tt~~ ~~t'5t '5lt~tt~ ~~ ~~~~~-o:Jl)l~

~~lft~'tJt<f ~<tt~nl ~~~ '5lt~m ~ ~?\~~ <f'tf1 ~ ~~~: ~f9l ~.:-~R1t ~ m~ (m ~~) I ~
? ~lli:, ~9\_, OS ~ ~qft~AA~~,~9\~ OS ~~ filf'li~,~o$ 9\"ll~'J.-~~
l{llfl~1 ~O{OO9\f\3 ~~ ~W~l~~ -~~, ~1~1~l1' ~ 'Permanent Atoms' ~ ~ I
<tJ~ ~~ I!t'iC~~<tJ'6"~~m ~~il ~<t~ As regards Reincarnation, it is probably a mistake to
e that the same individual whom we know in bodily
~tt~ I ~ ~~ ~~C~ ~t<tt~ ~~ ~~~ ISVRl ~~ I l1\.
is likely to appear again, at some future date. There
~~ I!t'i~, ~a'IT;~~ ~ ~~-'5li{tfff <lita; ~~C~ ~/ .
1be exceptions, but as a rule that seems unlikely to happen.
~~c~c~I 9J?Cll~ ~'l(t~~ - il<ti{<t~'l(, ~tllt~c~~ ~ 1fbat may happen, however, is that some other portion of
~tf<1I§t<t,~~t~ ijp~ 'e ~~rn~~~ I die larger self becomes incarnate; and if so, it would be likely
to feela strong affinity, though often in a vague and puzzled
Palingenesisl!ll l!tt1rtfft~1!'I -.1, with some other portion which had been embodied pre-
(!j~ C<IPaliJ1genesis-l~CW<l <lt~t~ ~~cm tioUsly. And, again if this second incarnate portion happened
~~t~~ f~ <tC'ii{C<t~ISC~~'2Jt~~Jfif~ ~\1C\~<ttlfr
wtaf toincludesome part of what had gone to make the previous
individual,then there might not only be a sense of affinity,
~~c~~~9ft~ ~Wxfil ~~~tc~ (!j<l~C#\tt~i{~t'e~frntl{1 bat some kind of reminiscence, some memory of places and
wxf~f<t~'e~~t~ ~~~ I rroundings which had previously been familiar.
Even Hume, through 'excessively empirical' as
hauer calls him, says in his sceptical treatise on 1nm
•• * * * •• *
that this system is the only one of its kind to which phi How large a subliminal self may be, one does not know;
butone can imagine that in some cases it is very large, so that
can pay heed. It is also, according to Schopenba
itcontains the potentiality for the incarnation not only of a
postulate of Practical Reason. p. 108
lIICCession
of ordinary individuals, but of really great men. It
~~ ~'i~t~ a;~ ~~ Making of Man ~ ~ wouldbe a mistake to suppose that Dante and Tennyson were
~'l(t~ll<tttWll~tC'itDil1~ft1mif, 'i!t~~ ~Cil~~ (!j~ Palin reincarnations of Virgil, but one might, though presumptiously,
~t~tll'e ~~~fvi'i! I ~ ~MiSt~ "l~~'iil, We are e
imaginethat all three were incarnations of one great subliminal
lelf,which was able to manifest itself in different portions,
us larger than we know * * that each of us is bavinga certain family likeness, though without any necessary
partial incarnation of a larger self ~~~ '5jt~m W bodilyconsanguinity or inheritance in the ordinary sense.
-The Making of Man. PP. 1'70, 172
(!j~ f<t~t1;~ll#\~{.\!)~~~ 1!t<{)t1C\~I c~ti{ (!j~ larger
sciousness (~t~ ~~) ~~~~ ~~~~ 9J,t~ ~~ ~lJrn~MiS~ 'i;grC<I~tt<l ~~C~~ ~~~il ~ft1ta;il ~tm~
~t~~<{)t1C\~ft1~tNa; I iSt~ca;~ cw~t~· ~~ca; ~~a't._ ~~ Pa]ingenesis(!j~ ~~~ ~~ ~<1#\t~~~ i{~ f~ !
~ #\~~ (individualised consciousness) ~ ~~lft~ ~ ~. ~~
#\~C" ~~~ ~~"l-~~~
'5jf~\!) #\~~ #\\~t1l~ ~ ~t~1l1cw~~t@, ~~ ~ #\\~t~ (Round of rebirths)
~~~ <I~~~~~ ~ ~~~ ~t<tt~ ~f<t ~R~ti\~ ~tij'
I ~R ffiR~~ <tMmt~il-
~ft1a; I ~fi1a; 'e C1;R#\ti{C<t<ff<t~~- C'l1#\t~-U~~ Through not understanding, through not penetrating the
'i!t~tll I!tW~ ~t1l'l 1* noble truths . 0 Bhikkhus , we have wondered round this
longjourney-you and 1-(from the beginingless infinity
*~~ill'1fit<l'Jl.,~ Group Soul ~~ elf ~~ iS~ ~~. ~
the past).-~for~t~ ~-~o
~~;rt~l1\~t9f ~~tN<Kl1~ ~~tlT<1
<1tG'fol,
~~ ~ ~~ ~.<rt~1t ~~ <1if~ <I~ 9\~~-
·Whatever there may be, hretheren! of thin ~ ! fu~Pi ~t~~ ~ ~~ ( ~~t<l'if)
and not created, the hightest of them is the destructiota
I~ 'f~fi{ ! l1\~ ~t1lt~ '~ffp{' ~~-'5[~ I ~
circle of Sansara" ( ~~Jft~oi1F) -~~~11 R~t~, II, p. 34.
~lJt~ I ~ ~ '<{1t
~f~~ ~t<1 ~' I ~,~ ~~1
QI~ ~~ ~f;{ ~t* ~~f'f" 1lt~~9f~ •
~~ f.Pl~M~~-C\!t1lt1t~<1'($ (9f~~) ~( ~~tt~,
getting out of the circle of rebirths, out of sansara
~ • ~~t~'-c<A !
supreme goal of all sanctity I ~ ~~tt~~-E ~t~~~ ~'C~ ~~t~~ ~~~ ~~~-~ ~t1lt~ ~
is in a position to determine whether he shall be
or not I Qf c,,~~ ~~1 ~~1l1t ~~~ ~ Jft'fi{
• ~1t~1R~~1
"'~ ~ ~ 'f.r<l<lt't~~~~~' '1!l;r9f~tPrR~'t~'-
<1i~C<1,
~~ ~~m ~~~ ~~C~ 9f1fit<1(has the po ~m~1
making a future birth impossible.) I <tit~'1,
~~9f~,", ~~ '~e.'
There is the possibility of protecting ourselves AA 'R~t~ ~~'-~tt'11t R<fl1~, ~l~ 9\~iStlft~,
inscrutable essence, against a repetition of these pr '~~~' <1t~-~c1l1 ~~~ ~~~ ~~c~ ~t~~~ I
future time, that is in a new existence.
~~, f.liif~ ~t~~ R<fil1~~"IJ-
AA Jp 9fC~1tC¥\lf9f~r~ ~t'1 <1iftlt~,~f.I~ t~('''{'1' ~~~f.Rt9f~~J\t~;; ~fi{31fu 9ff9~1-~9flf
~ fil"ft~1 ~~ 9ftfu<1~- ~~~, ~~'Jli~, ~ro~R<1il1~f~-
"Rebirth is exhausted, lived out the holy life,
what was to do ; no more is this world for me". or, lUI
1S9t~ ~~~ ~~ f~ ~~9f~~'1~-~~<t~,t~
said in another passage: '(unshakable is my deliverance AA ~~~, ~R ~~ <1itll-a,~t<1i
~a, ~~ <1if~1
is the last birth, there is no more becoming anew."
on 9f~~ ~'5l~ ~
~0{1~tf5, 'Wl~~'3('5fi5B~~,~~~ ~~9)~~,
R?f,~' ~~~1,~"Pf ~ ~~t~~ I ~~*~t~ '5l~<11
~1t~~ ~'f-
-~ ~t'tjo{ ~~1~~ ~~t'tjo{
~~~ ~~",'J( R:~~ ~~~tc~,~~~ ~~f9f'!
~ 1.S~5~ 9ff9~1~'ll.lfuI
<1i~~~~<1Pt~ ~~~tt~-~t1t C<1it~f<li\ ~<1fit~ ~~-~ f!f.{ ~cm1t ~fu.~~~~R <fi~~1 <I~tl! 9\~~-
~fllrn-It is finished-Consummation est. ~ Cll ~~~ 1.S9fN~, Cl{0 Offu ~~~ ~~ I
~'5ttfilil ~~~ ~t~l ~tfi{ QfO\.~1c<fitf9t~ ~~ II
~~ ~t~ ~t~l ~~ ~~ 0I
~f.Il1\~ ~omt ~~~ ~tt~~, ~~~ 9ff~I'"I~
~~ ~~~ ~tf~ <1l~ C1l ~9f<f~ ~~ n -~f9f~~,-o
'~~t~fiR.' <ltftI '~t'ft~' ~(~~~tt1t lIt~ 1~~t~ ~ ~~ ~:~ Of!! <1l~~ tttm1 ~11ft~ ~~ Ofll-~t~ ~<fit;Q'l~
~(t~ AA ~<l"J!.'O" -~n~t1t l1\~xnl)~~
'5l~ lr{~1tI ~-~t~~
'It'll' ~""l~ ~t~ ~~ ~ C~lf ~~ I ~.. ~:.. ~t1lrn
~ c<l ~fu1I~tmtll~9f~,t~1 1l~9J..~~1 f5 1.tiOr~ ~J-l{lIf: 'e ~: ~~ ~tfi{ ~~-~~ ~~~ m iSt9f~
lffl~ ~ll'lt~~~ ~~~ ~fil '3lt'5fi't~-'3(t'l1i'l ~'if,')~
,ion of my equanimity)
~9(i1\t~ ~~ "'9\1't/ ~il1, CI!~f~ ~ •..
'~t~ 9ft9('( <111>J,'tJ)~~
~~ ~t~ 'e OOC~~'!i{~~-I!it~tt'$\1 iI1,_~1<lifil~ ( ~~ ) ,
~~1 wc::el
1!it~~Rs[fllj- ( 1{~1{fi{~~ )-1{R ~ ~ fi{f.{ fil~tt't~ C'!t~C'\~?f~, ~CVf<l ~i:!i ~t~ ~<I~
<lifij~ 9f'tut ;n , 'tude) i!l~ ~ ~4'iI~ftl~tt~iI-
~~ ~tt~ D cwWl1 5 ~1 D ~I!:
~i§,~ I qd ~~~ C6 c<{If~~C<ttlf~ ~ ~f.IC01 f5 9t~t<ltf~, ~~~~ ~
)'jt)'jt"lt~~ ~~t~,~11!11~~ ~l{ ~'t~ Il ~ 'Ifo\f~~f~1 f\§ 9(lli~tf\§' ~~~ cD c<tW~~c<ttwf'! ~ ~f.\1i{); ~
,
~~i!l~ f~~~~, AA 9J..~?ft?f~~- ,
",~PI\§; ~ 9(~tiltf\§, ~~f~~fili\§1 f~ 9(~t"lt~ I ~~~~
C5~~ ~tlff\§, ~ ~f.\ootfl! 9(~~t~, ~~t~f)'j'!1 f5 9(~~tf\§,
~uP ,UP 9ft9t 9(~~ ~~ ~t~~tl!'\ ~~ -

-~~if~ ~lIrn'~~, ~~~" ~ ~ <!1 f5 "llli~f\§ I


C'I1~~~ CDC<t~~ C<ltlff'! ~~~~~; ~~ c<ltlffs; C)'jj ~<f'Q\~ CD C<tW~~
fi{~,
~ott~~(I!it-t~), '5Rtwtil,~f~~iI; l!itilCPf"Jli, f.I1....
~J
~Jj~~ ~~ c.<ltlff\§; CJI; ~~<f~~
~~~~ D C~'If~~c<lt'lff'! f<\~~~~ ~~
~~ ~~~~ ~<I~ I ~~if~ ~~~ ~ ~<riI I -~f~lIf.r"t~, ~
~Mt~iI- f\!f.( ~flf ~~~~ C<I'If~(sensation) ~'S<I <!'~~, \!t~ ~~t~ c.<ttl!

I have in this life entered Nirvana, while


'W '5l~, ~~1 '5i~W~ (unappropriated), ~~1 \!l"lf~"lf.1f\§'I ~fW
fl C<tlf"l~<l <!'~~ I!t~ \!t~~ c~tl! ~,,-~~; ~f~J, ~~1 ~~W~,
Gautama has been extinguished.
~~~ I ~~ ~~:'Q\-~~~~~ C<l'IM\!l~<I ~t~~ '!t<t'S ~t~t~
I!I~~ filfii f.i~t'itr, fl!f~ 'already in this present ~,_~~ ~f~l, ~~1 ~~~, ~~1 ~~f'S"l1iw~ I ~~t~ ~~'S<\ ~~<ti~
actually realised comple~ deliverance from every t . , ~:~~~ ~'<ti, ~~:~-~~~~~ ~'~, f~R "r<\lj~~" (;S'lft~"I) 'Stt<\
is Anatta-has completed the gigantic task of getti
his bondage to this will (~~1 )-he has burst all the eel'! ~~~ I

'whether refined or gross'. x x x ~ C'l~ I!tt~i{ ~Q(1-~ift~iI<I~ ~t~i\~ * * ~~'(3', C\!ill,

He takes his stand as a complete stranger ( ~ I ~CVf<l'(3


~ llc'1f~ti\iVfC<Ii
<lf1:lmC§iil-
and thereby as a free ,man over against the world, ' 't~~~ D 1!I't~~~~ D '!'t;S~~~ ~~f.r~~ ~'t~~1 ~~t~~~~ )'jt~1
the elements of his own personality. 1 f! ~'t~t<ti1 \!\§ ~ f<\~~f\5 )'jt'!; ~~'t~tti\1 11l'l~C~ \!It"lili '5i~~\
(Grimm's Doctrine of the Buddha. pp. 333
~ ~~Rt'1 -1l~1If.\~~, " .
~tif~ i!l~ ~~ <l9i11
<liftl~1~~ ~~~ ~9pfI ~(t~ l!t~l1:l '(3I!it~l"l and unrepug- ( Repugnant
C)'j~
.~ottf9t
.. ~'l ! ~~ej~ <119t~~ <l19J.~~~~ <li ~lf~ ~tI!~ (~if1~iI ~C<I= with
t )_~~~r.~ <l:~iI <fim1 ~C9\"JIi<fi
m~~oo ~'iI
.J,.~•.• ~tf\§ \!l~9tM~~ ~lf~~-I1l~~ C~ ~~~ ~ct !
tqual mind ) ~1)~,\ <lifilc~~~~ - ~~ 'e ~~~til ( thoughtful
~tt<!' )'j~<t~
...
t~ C4'1t~~~~ f<l~tfil ~9tM~ c~tt~-~
'Just as, 0 Brahmin, the blue, red or white lotus d clearly conscious) ~~~1' C~~iliVf ! ~~ ~~,
originated in the water, grown up in the water, S ~ - saint ) ~~ ~fuj~~ i!l~m?f~<li\\~ I
towering above the water, untouched by the water:
I.£\~ C~ Equal Mind, ~1 ~~tt<li~ '~~' <I~~~-
o Brahmin, I am born within the world but I have 'V
the world and unspotted by the world I remain. t QIt'5t ~5J~ I i!l~ ~<l~~ ;r\1{ 'q-m~ ~'e~1-
\!l~~ I!~~ ~e>f~tV'l \!ltt9t1 ~ f~~ 11l~ 11l~~f~flf If\f~t~~~11lj~t~; ~l{~lj~:-~, 81H
<.

f~-~~J, 81')81~
'1~I)~

C~~~<f-m R~'~ 9J.~-


~'M~ I) ~r~~1) c;rt~tll~1)~t'S~ I
~ ,~~ ~~t2t~tf.f ~ RfStFf ~~~ II
~~f{~Y( ~t~~ ~,'lt~f{ ~5tiJJt~ I
~'tI~~~~t\!J~ c~~~~~f5~ II_~. ~ 1I11\
1I<fi~~<f~~ c~t~~l ~~ CiI~' 11l1l
Cl>{;~
~J m ~flll"
11l~C~~~~ ~<f'1R, '9fIJf59ft\!-PlR~~'- ~t~G'lll ~~~ ~~<t1 "f~~ ~t<ff<1~t~iI~' ~~" ~~tf~<f
at~~«, f.l~tr;'t~ ~~9f~w-t1- r~~tfur;Cfi-
~~~f<lfo{~~1 at'.ili ~"9j~c~ ~lf1-~~ •• ~I
~):!~ fifr;;l1I~{;~J~~\!) ro~t~~ ~'~ I1lCfi~ 111f§{;~,R~'fP.iS{
fif*t'l ~ 9tf1l~'1
~ I iI~<fl ~tll <ft~ ~~ ~t~l!, ~~~r;~~ Tf){~~~~ ~l${\!~
C'If~~r;~ \!l~ ~ R~'1 - ~ ~<f-m 'sensations
felt x x ~~~j ~'1 ~~ fCf ~'~11,I!t~ C~t<fI ~r\!~'6' '5~ ~ r~\
Weare not indeed yet free from them but ., ~'I!l1l~iIiI~ ; ~11~
Ci\lItt1lJJ1l
~ttm c<It\!?~
~ , 1!1.~~l <nl ~
towards them as free men ( Grimm p, 325 ).
~ ~1~9frn ~t{;~? -ti\J'!t1I ~\! ~~t<f~~~~11 Cl){;~ll('hr~
~~~'(3 ~t~~ ~~~t~ (momentum }<fc-t ~\f1if
" ~ijf ~t1U !
Xfit~-~ut9ft~~D"f ~tcCfi~~n~ .l)~fil<f~ ~~Xfm:-
·~t~Xf~t<f ~~t~. ~t11R~'(3 ~ ~ 11lG'\i\1\~iI ~'q
Until this six-senses machine has broken up at the
of the saint, in the same way that the potter's wheels' ~ ~~t~ ~ffl ill ~~, 1!1~'tq eft ~t~t~ [ lIt~~ 11l~ ~~~~t~
tIme keeps on turning, after the force that had set it in
has ceased to opera te.- The Doctrine of the Buddha, p ~~tc1t ~W~fCf ~1I~"'i ~ ill? I1l~<f ~~~<f ~~i\~ ~
C~~ ~ C<f~~l I1l ~ttCfi 'C~9f~{;Xfll' ~1 W ~~ \ ~t~J iI~ ; C~~~ ~t~~ '5tm~~CfiI
orm~ ~ ~~..~ ~~~ c9fR@{~'1' ~t\5 ~~ - C~ R~'l f<1<ft~~t~~ a; ~tll ~tijtxt ~11 ~m;'1' ~~\!J C'Jfl~ I!~~
CXfll'R~t'1' ~~~ R~t'1 'without any remnant of ~ ~~ ~~, ~t~ ~q ~~ ~, ~'(3 ~~ ~ lI~t.,tt~~
ries' I ~ ~<f~ <f~~Cfi~~l ~R~ <ff'1~I(.~~-
~~ ~J f\K~~'lt~1Ir;'1 ~~ ~~~ I ~<tlljJ9f~t~ '1~~w.-
The perfected Holy Ones, having rid themselves
upadhis are submerged in the deathless (~)-~'(9fit"" ~ ~ 'C[~~ $, ~9f'Jli~~\!ffl ~txtt~ Cf~ ~\!~ 11l<f~
I!t~

11l~9f~~'1 ~~ ~6J-~~XfmfWr;~ ~~ ~rn lS~~t~\! Cfi1lt'!iII f~~ ~t<f1 ~~~~ ~\!flM WI !


~<ftlf ~tt~, \!lCfi If''l (ml ~rnXf: 9fi:l<f~) ~1f1(Jf ~~ ~~ ~1IC"l1~ Pl~~ ~t~ mt~ ~Cfita;·9f~'t\!
~-The goal of the Buddha's doctrine w ~ ~~\!)J it<f~ ~~~'(3 ~~ 9j~~'1 ~9f~9J.~ I ~
absolute annihilation af Man ~~~ ~{;~
~~ ~~ '$j~ <ftll ~~
~~ ••• ~ iI<f~r~ ~t~ \!l<f~~
(extinction) ~~M~ ~~~ ~~ ~'JI5JI . ~~ 11l~ f.dilt
~~ ~ilt1I ~):!tfif~~ I
OfMt"f ~\!)9(l{ ~ ~, 11l~~t{;'Jf9f, 11l~~ 11l~
f<P~I1lCfi~ ~ ~~CG'f~~<f Cfi~ ~~\! ~ I \!t~9ftll11~~t~ '6{rl! ~~ '(s ~iI I M~ 11lG'\
11l<ft~
~ ~'fia; Cfi~ <fMm ~l ~~~ I • ~t~ R~ 11l~~ti\Cf l)~'If11 ~1, ~t9f~, 9f~ '(3 'e~~,~11
'51 11l<f,~~ ~\£i ilM'11 ~~~ - 'I<f ~Jt9ft1l~M 11l~
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~t9fi{ R:~~ '6l~~~~ C<fitOY
c~~tti{ '!lltfit ,
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~~~~ 1tt~t~ c~ ~~ ~1' CDifl, R~t~~i{ ~i{1ft~ ~ NC~' I
m~f%CDtC~, t5l{t;1\0{Of~ '5{t<!l"tC"t1f
~tc~ ~C~~ ~~t~ c~on ,
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~t9fif f.l:~~ ~~~1t C<liC~ ~~if ~fif ~ ~fif " .~~ C~~ ~Jt~tc<\l C~~c~ <lt~ t

9ffiffit~ ~ 9f~~ C<lC~c~~l!t~u ~~C~, 9fiilWlN1t9ftc~ ~


~~Jft1t~1ff~~ c~tca,1 ~t~t~ ~c~ ~1t ~tc~, ~~ 'i1t~ ~C1f ~t~ "of.~~ <liC1f'~~'
ftRa, ~:~ ~~, ~tca,l, 1f~,~~t~f.r, ~J[fC~ A~~C'i I
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<li{~~ ~~.,tc"f ~ ~. t~i{ c~~~i{ ~1
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m~~9ftc-t- ~~'\ ortm ~~R ~m,~~ ~cm
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~ C".f\§<tt~Dr;1l~ ~9f I . -tt~~t~ ~~ c\!l~tll ~~t'e ~~ ~~~ ,
~ f~~ C9fCm ~~? leffR! \!t~ mcif I ?;5~~~ i{t'<S ~t~tt-t, ~~ ~<f 1.~~,
~~ Qffil ~t"'tt~, ~cllif"'m I
1!\~~1 ~Clt m, C<t\!l~~9ftt-t
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if~~ ~ifrn \!t~ ~t~ ~1! ~~"I~ ~~ $~i{ I
~fit~I!ttD""n~ ~ c"lt~9f \!l~ Nlft~~~ ~~~<{. ~

P-Y'4i ~~ ~f~ I I!\~~~ $~ em f~~ @~ ,

MC~' ~Cii'J m\! ~~<li ~


~iT ~${~ c~~~~ C<ttonI
~c~~ ett~~ ~f11 ~1tt~ ~~i\t~~ I
~'f OfM C~ ~~'e c~ ~~' I
~~1. \!\~ ~";t ~t~ ~~~ CDtt~
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=
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<!l1!~~~t't~.~t-t'll~ <.!I~C<!t2lti!)J'f~t<liQ9(~ 1!Q"l~Wft\! \!~t~ ~'f1
~~tt~ <.!I~~ i!)'If~~~l"'~t<li~ ~~~t~ ~~~t'lf <.!I<\~
'1!~"fi!)
~~t~ /<:5t<\t~~
sitory and critical summary ~'If~ ~~~tt~ I 1!~1i!)'If"!t~ ~t~tt'lf~
,,~O\t~, <.!I~ 1!Q"l~~1 IS ~~Q~"'tcommentary ~t~tt'\f~ f~~ 159(~tr.:~
ttfJlt~<!l<\~C<\'lft~t~t'tJ~~~t~ t2lr.:<l"l
<1'ftl<lt~
~~~ 1!~~~1 ~ftlt~ I
$t~~ ~f~~1 ~~t~ ~t-\1~, i!)~~~,\ ~~t"l~Q ~ Ilt"fi!) t'I~1 ~t~
<1 ~~)j~ 1.~~f5i!)~~~t~"l f<1i~~t-II'<l~0\1-~9f1fJt~ <.!I9ftfJ~ W~ ~~t~
~ O\t~I ~"l~~ IS ~~t~ ~~~t~ I!il~<\tt'lf~ <.!I~-9(~~t~"t
~~~'\ ~~t~~ foI~·
P I.!l'lt~<lf-t~~t~~ <l'ijIS 'l~t~t~ ~\'<3" 1l~"lD~ D~<ir <.!I~,<.!I~~t"!~
.~ ~~\5 I ~ \5l~~tlffi!)foIf.,t~ '1!~ Il~t"tt~~~~~1 f>f~~ I \5i(~%\i!)
~~ ~~t<li~ 9J~t~Jt~ <.!I<1'1S
')~O ~~~t~ ~9(~Wt~1 ~~ 'l~~ 'l~~
m~ i" "It is a summary, expository and critical of all the
sixteen padas of the sutras. A clear idea of the entire sutra
teaching will, it is hoped, be got from it even without going
through the annotations and their translation." I <.!I~
~~~~f't<ft~
m1 $r.:~~Clll~<l~f%i!)~~~t~ I
I!~~'\ 1f~t"l~t2l~t"i!):~t5t1fJ "t~~~ "tt~~~ <:5WlJ~ ~~~'\ <1'fit~tt~~I
r.~ 'l<f"l~"l ~t~, ~tt~ ~tt~ ~ ~-~~Q ~tlfJ f\§f.{ f.{t~~ 4~ <ft~~1
I\~~tr.:~~
I ~~i!i~ t2lWi!) ~Jt~J~ '1!'4r.:~~~t5ttfJflft~~ ~l:~J ~"l~'\
~iW51f~tr~: I ~i!)<.!1<\ \S~~<!'\ W"lC~~ <.!I~m9(~~~ ~t9ffiS' '<f~1
~ 01111
~~ <.!I~'l~~~l:'tQ<.!Ii!)
~'\ 'l~-s ~~~~ ~<:5tt<l~15~~ '<ffitCi!) 5t~ I
JI"9\t'lf<f~~t"t~ 'If'lf~~~Mt<f ~ft ~H'\-~t"'tl\'l~i!) <fftll:i!)Ol, i!)l:<l9(~C<f~
9ft'll'~l:i!iQ~~~wt~ ~~l:t1 ~~i!); \5lt~1ct'fit, ~r.:~Qf~l\ 'l~~~l:'\ <.!If<l~l:~
~C"lt~~ ~~l:<l~I ~tQtlli"'t\5l~<ltt'lf~~tt~ ~~ f~~ f~~ ~~ "lN~
~., I ~~t<li '~<1'~'\' "l'i\f context \5lt~ ~Pl~l;§~~tt~, Ill>9\t'lf<f
~Q\<\1
~~ Il~~t~ ')\~I') ~<li~,~~~'\' "tr.:'i\f~~~<lt'lf ~f~~tt~~ section <.!I<l~
0

818\')'1 ~<li~t2l<fQ'\"tr.:'i\f~\5l~<lt'\f<fft1~~~ 'topic' I 818\\:7'~~~ 'l~il


-tl;~~ ~~ f<f? ~~<\tlf~ f"l~l\tt~~ 'will'-f<f~ '1!~il ~ will "l:~ I
C1l~~f'l'f <lJt9(t~ ~t~1 'thoughts' 'things'<.!I 9ffil'1i!)~l\ ~~t~ ~il-
~t5~~t~ ~ti!)1<!Q!1 ~~ ~~ilSI~ I 8181H ~<li ~~ ~W19(~~~<l"l: ,
~~C~~tt<l"! f<f ? Entering into several bodies similar to that of a
lalllp ? ~~<l1 ~tt<lt"l~ ~f Radiation? 8181')~ ~t<li '~'ft~t<lffl' ~
'ltt~~~~~ ~~ f<f ? ~'ft~-~<l~ ~1~'ft~-~t<lN3 ? ~~<1, f.{f~'f~ ~1f<l~t~-
c~tD~? '1!"9\t'lf'f"t~Qt6tr.:1TI~ ~~'lQ'\ ~~'l\1 f'<l~t~-~'lf~ <5i~~~'\ 'fftl'l\1-
C~iiI . ~~1f~ ~'f? ~~~t<li~ 81~1')'I ~<li l;§tt1tt<l't~$~"l~' ~i!)JtN <.!I<f~
~~~ ~<li' <.!I~~t<li~~ ~~'\ft~'tJ~-~9ff.{'l\t'f~~'$ ~ <.!I~ ~'If~'$<5i$~
~ti!)t\§ ,i!)~ t2lc~tCi!)~<.!I<! ~1 foi!ft~f\§ I c1l~t~ l59ffOlm~ <.!I<1~
')¢
~'~'61l

~p; <\fQ\~ "till


~~~~~ ell ~-( ~C'If ') <l: ~UlI~ ~~ here is an
pt baIt I ~t~11I J\t~O\t~ ~w ~~'\ <ti~t~~1 f~~ Qt, ~ ~~ lItf.itl\-S
lf~ 'l\lf~1 ~~9 <!It<ti'll~<\tiftNC"I~, jf~,\ ~t~tc~~ lIC'5-
"lJPi~~ ~"ll: <!l'l~~ f~~: I
~~ ~Jf\%\ .!l'l' .!l<t ~~~: D

,'(r )'{~'Il~9(~3(>;ji
e<f<\'1\!l~ ~~~, f'!iR ~-~~~-f'!iR ~~ unit ~C~,

unique I
~9\f.r~c"\f~ ~tc"It5~1 ~f~t"l C'If~1llt~, ~~~1 <!l~ 1\~'IfT;"tC<f~
~9(~
~ 't~ f't~"It<f, C'If<\t"lt<f, ~'S!t9\~Cejt<ti IS ~"'t~ 'i\"t~ ,,~t'5~ I
• ~"'tc,,~ f'5O\~ ~~-~~:, IS ~'51 I 3(t>;jif~~f-lt~1 C"lt,,: I \!l~
<::!)'1:
~.,t,,~ ~9\c~~ ~/<::!)11~~ I ~t~t~1 ~t~tC<f 3(>;ji\"t"l~, f~f~ ~ 3(>;jiC"ItC<f~
'I'll'll" (Presiding Deity)-~t1ilt'51t~ ~'-~l:IJt'll''\ ~~, ~~~C'i\~ 1\t'5,
"I~ ~~ ~~t"ltt" ~t~tC'If~~~9 3(>;ji~ ~~, ~~t~1 ~<\'ll.'6' ~<r~t~ f~~"t"l
~~ ~f~~' ~t~~"~fU C'If~9ftt'5~9\~ 'f~"\f~ '''<\''11' "t~ ~f~~,-3(>;jiC<\~
~~ ~'<\f~ I ~~tc~~ "<\t"l f<\T;"\f~:-~r'6'
I ~t~ \!l" ~~t~ W'6i ~tc~-
~~t~ O\t~ <Qi~r~J~' <Qi~W'6'~ ~~<lit~~1 C'If<\ll~ ~C~ 9\~ ~~ ·~U~~
~ 'fil~~~ ~~~1 ~ 3(>;jiC"ltc~~9\~'5 ~~, <!l"<\~
3(>;jitC'S~~'<\~~ 9\1il~ C1j~
Ciltc<li
~<\~to\ ~t~~'3(>;jiC"lt~t-t'i\1\~f~, C;~C;~'t3(>;jiC"Itt~'t9\~t: 9\~t<\t~1
~~~-<!l<\~~t1iJt~lC~ 3(>;jit~~~\5 9f~3(>;ji-m9\
9\~1\9\t~ ~f<\~ ~o\ I

~ ~"!~ ~ <fit"!
9\~: ~¢~ 'lr1i 1-'lJ~<\i, ~l\!ol<,

~~<1.,~"r"Lc'6i~1 ~ ~~G'\ ~"'tt~ 9f~t~<fttat (~~t<1., ~$Itc~='at the


end of time') 9f~-~~ ~~mC1\t'll'G'\t~~c~O{' ~9\R'l:(CW
'S 3(>;ji~~ \!l f"<\'l:(t~
~"9\~ ~9\twlIj~tt~, <!l"<\t.
~T;i\ft'i\T'S ~~,,"') ($9ffoi'l:(t~
<!l~C;"\f"<\lItotT
;sftc<\~3(>;ji-
~9\f~f~~ "{,,, ~tc~ I ~~'{'l{,\
C"\tC<f 1\~tlljC~~1lC\§<!l~C'If<\lI~9f~"evidently
means spiritual religion as contrasted with the merely cere-
monial or traditional" \!l'<\t.'Olf", "'tl ~~~ ('l{t~tf'lf'i\C" 3(>;ji~~
'ltf'!i<\t~lf C'If<\~'<\at1~~~K~),-~t~~1 ~~~'\ ~r~t"1t~~1lC'!i"mean Heno-
theistic forms of religion"! ~<\ 'l{~~ ~~<Qitfu~ ~ C;W'lllt" 9{tQ{
~\ <ft~, 'Ol~<1.,lI~~ "a pure form of theism is embraced, there is
yet a long way to traverse before one reaches the divine city" ,
\!\~ C;ll'long way to traverse' ( 'i\~"<\T~~9\Q{ )-CW~ 'l\t~, '!i~~'l:(,\1\~t"l~
~~'!i~-($'tfol'l:(t'if~ ~~ 'Oll:lTtt~ ~f'll'\5 f6~-C;'i\~~-1jt.<\tt'lf~t~t~ ~"<\~'\
~<\5\i~ ~~~tt~~, \!l<\~ ~~t~1Wc'>1~~f~1\'!i Highest Heaven·~~ '!1~~9\
~ ~{"tt'!i~ ~~ H~ ~~ ~t'll't~ 9\t~1,lt~O\I .:!t~~ ~~~M<ft~ clI\~
~Q{t~¥I 1!\~_"Can the father keep any thing from his son? • •
C9
••

I
~o~ ~fil5~
f~~ (~<\J$~)-'!lt<f~~ "tf1r~ ~~~ I (f"t. fil. ~..-t~
f~<\1'-~tR I!It~ <.!l<f<\111
~C~ C't~ <f~"1t1fI ~t~ ~'l~tJl1
~1 ~filf~ ; ~t <.!l"~ 'i~cl ~~~ I "bMc~fli c'!t~t~ 1!IIDw1"~
I <.!lclltC'l' (l't~ ~J~
~tt"ll C"lc<;fC~ <f~~t~c.,t~ <.!l~~c~ ~
'!lltt51~flfc"~ "c~,,~ <f~~1 <IN CIf'Sl1 IS~ ft~J C~ll"J '!llt~tlf.
~~ll~l I \!l~ <.!l<fi~ ~~~ ~tc"11~c~l, ~ ~c'" ~51~ ~mi<fi~l ~
if"! Cll"''lt~ I!I<\~~c~7;<:e11 <.!l<f~c~ <fi'~ ~ ~ltl ,~., ~~t~f~ ~7;1I~I
<liIf'l.~rei1l1, ~~f~ ~.,1 "f<\~t~7;a;1 <.!l~I!Itc51 Cifc~f~ <I'CIt
.,11 ~1<fl <.!l~C'tc~~ f1rc,,~ ,,~~t~C"1t~ C'l-t ll~~ ~l~ I ••~
~~.,t~.,~tit ~i\f~ ~c~·-
Q! 'i1i~a;tait~ ~ Ra;'PPtt~t
~~9ftt'if
~~fttril ~ ~ f<til~-R~
~~I

m ll~ t!t~ ~~ <.!l"n;.,t~C"I ~tfil t.>Tl" ~7;lf~-


·~c~ ~~COI ~~_·~·tf~<f1 m>1 ~a;WI"i! C~ I'

~c-t~ <H~ ~c~~ .,t~"'~-


'~Ril-~ ~-~~ ~ ~til~ c9f~ ~ I'

I f~<\'!--.mm'·~ ~Q\ll ~'~


<.!l"It~.,~ c,rcs Q\t<Ti7;<! ~<I<f'S c<\-t ~Q I
f<fi~ ,-tc~~ ~<\<f~ ,~~., ~tC"11~l .,t~ I
f5~t~ nt<t>fWtl "~tt~~1-~-ciftm~if~~" "fq~tn; ~ ~cft5f, _~t"~
~llt'1" <fif<1~t!i;~<.!l~ lf~C'l~,,~~t~ ~7;lfJC~~ ~~Jtlf1 ~t<lt~ ellt51J-'S~
~<fit-t <.!l<Ti~
'lC~ '!lltt<l5111l
'S ~~~ ~:r;~c~I
''!lltfq;§t<\'IS ff~c~tlft.,· <ffq~tn; c<I"t<fitS~"t1;'f~ ~t9jtr-lllSf5'! NIl I
-
I <.!l~"~<f~7;a;1 .,t~., C'l-t ~ClT.~ I f<1t~ <f7;~ ~7;~tlft~l '!llt~t{ ~ I
~t~ Of7;~m9f 'S ~5il1 ~ClI~~ 5l~., fu'''I1~Cl 9f7;~~ I "f'l~ ~f1r '6t~1 ~ Towards Standards of Criticism-By F. R. Leavis
117;~1.,1 ~l ~7;<lf<Ti~~ ~l"l11 -( Whishart).
fif'1.i\'<ft~"~7;<t> clf~1lltt~ f-tf$lmC~; ~-f"lil~ <ll~~t~ 'lll~t~ CI51A ABC of Reading-By Ezra Pound-( Routledge).
.,l-~<\7;<t> ~~<ll ~~ I <.!l~t7;.,ell-ll., ~tllf '9f7;lC~ C~·llC.,~<l'l~ Cll'{~
Active Anthology-By Ezra Pound,-(Faber & Faber).
"~I <.!l-<lt~~~~ l2tlft.,~: ~f~c~ I f<t>~ 1!I<\'l~ 9f~t~.,l ~ca; C'l·ll~
f.l7;~~ 9ff~1.9 m~ ~<Titllf <f~7;~ 1!19f~51~'l' I C"fC~~ell-<fi~~t~c"'1 ~ Soviet Literature-By GeorgeReavey and Marc Slonim
qC"1f~~t~'S ~"l idea ~'l''''' ~C<I~ ~ ~~ ~l \!lC~C~ ~tt\§ 1{Ci{
~ -(Wishart).
~clt~~l '!ll'l'l7;~~fif7;<ll~<Tif'l'~~., 6C"1C~I t!l~ ~~>;fi IS fif~lS~fil'\ Calendar of Modern Letters
fllf~ <lC"f~C6.,1 ~c~; ~~ ~~
\!l~ 'l~~tf.,~ C\!i1<fiPlC<fi ~<\i[ ttt 1925-27 '~<fi ~Oilfui\!i, t!l<\~ <.!l~fil'\C<t>
~~ ~t'tJ ~~ <fC~OiI <.!l~
~,,~,.,1 ell <.!l~ ~<I"ff<f~ ~~~~ '!ll~q1f<1~\!i C6\!"I1 t!l~ fllf$l)~ ~ ~"4ttlj~ f9f~co;'~ 1Jf'(i<6I1c~,\!it~ f<l6~ '!lltfil '!ll'lf'~I ~fol <t7;"1~ ell
~7;l1~ C1\ C<fitO{~ ~~~9 '!ll~i\f 1;~C51lS~c<I-f~~ <I"'C\!i~t~1 ll~ i{j I ~ tT """'"'~." ""'t~2S ~~tllJ "t~7;~ I <6It~tc~ f~~til'\Cl~ ~WI '9
"Jt~\St~ ~\ •." OI""'PI ~ "'I
~ ~<{S-~ •••

,<!t~,~t~ .,t"l, 'lIjt~~~, ut~ ~t"lt~,,~ ~ '<t.1, ~1 Il" ~


~ej ~~~ IS .,t~ ~ H.,1 '\ft~ Il"~ ut~~Pl~ \!l'f C"I~<R'f fit,,~:t
lS~t1\ .~11l f~~ ~t~t., ~'f ~t.,~ I f<\>~~t~ How to Read~
CW-s'll1'
~~nt~ f~~ ~ <\t'1t~ ~1 ~t~ ~f~1S 15l1t~t~JI I suggest
t we throw out all critics who use vague general terms.
ot 1l1erelythose who use vague terms because they are too
~orant to have a meaning; not merely the blah or the Murr-ys
fJld ays, Middleton and Gilbert, and the forty habitual writers
.round and about ~~JtN I ~WI f~~ f.it~ ~t'll~ ~l!.. "6l<1..~t~
~t~~,
~1~ ~t~ "'ll, ,.,t. ~t~1 ~~t~ I <\ti% 'lIj~t~t"/Jt'O...cQ\t<ll \!ltll ~t~
~~ .~f1, ~t';"ti5... t<\>~~t~ ~t~t~ fili5:LISt~g...cQ\t~I '\ft~~ 1l~<{s~~1
ABC of Reading\!l f~f.{ \!l<{Stfif~<\1~ <{St~~~I f~~ ~~! ~
~'lIj~1I1
~cf.n a form cut into Time \!l<\~c""tt'lf~I5l11Jtll Treatise on Metrel!l~
~~CDt'll ~~ ~Q\IIS~t~ 1l~ ~t"1-~t'lf1~ <\>t'll<l'U1 articulate sounds 15l~,
~ ~ltt~ f1jt"<\~ I These syllables have differing weights and
durations, 15lQ\<!1A classic is a classic not because it conforms
to certain structural rules or fits certain definitions, 1jt~~J
~~ language charged with meaning to the utmost possible
degree I \!lll~t~ llt~ 15l<\~ ,~~t~ ~t~ \!l"~<l'~f~<1.. \!l<I~t'lll ~t~~~
'Stllj-~1'lft~ ~~ IS~J<\~Hfor co~munication I ·f~~~ ~t~"lCi5~ ~ \!l
~m1l~" I fi5t;§~~ Practical Criticism ,<\tll~l{1~foI~~~ ~ I f9.'6t;§l\
~ ~t'llj'lf~'lIj~~j<l'~" foI,~j C<l't~tIS, f~~ ~t'lft~ ~tt~f~<l'~j IS ~t~t<\>
'1t~<\i'lIjt~f~<l' ~t.,f~<l' ~'\f ~1~ti5~ fuf<t;<1..1\1-~~<l' '0\1~t~t'11S~ <\1'\f
ClfISl\j~t'll0\11 <\~{i;t~~~~~1 <\1~~~'(ji~t~ 'O\t'l~~c'O\~-~~W~ ~lSm
Cllt~1\!l~ ~1jt~t~ ~~ l{f"f '\ftt~~ De Vulgari Eloquentia~ ~~,,~
~t~~ ~t~1 ~t~~ technicalll~t~ c~t~t~f~ f'1t~ ~t~'O\, ,~~ ~t9.t'!'"
~~ <\"ft., c9\0l.ll1<\~t'O\1<{SQjt~
~f"3l~ ~t~~~ \!l<\~~<{S<l'Q!t~~t~1 ''6~t~1I
~t~ c9\~ f1jt"<lt'\-,~tl\t~, ~tNI, ISf~i5~~t~~ll, ,~9\1{i;/\5l\.o ~~t~~,
qttl\~ fil"t\!lFl~t~, ~"t"f1t"~ 0f~~~1 <\~, <l'"\fl{'~f1j~'t~~Jtf"\fI 9\t~~~
How to Read\!l~ \5<:et~iftf~1j How to Teach Reading: A
Primer for Ezra Pound 9J..f~<\'t'll \!l f<l~'J:~tQjg <n~<{st9.~"I ~ 11<\
1'5\ll1
9\t\5'O ~"I1 <11.1l~~ ~tt'O\", c~t'f;I~lSC1\~ 11" ~t'lft~~ ~11..fol~<f
'lt~~J~ ~~ 'S ~tfW ~ ~t~"J I ~<I~ ~'O Cl{~t~f~J~t"f~ ~~ ~'St
\5t'St~t~~" \!l<\~<l'~~tt<f f\!i<i~tt'StMelopeia, phanopeia, logopeia
~'S f<l'~~ <Ii~~., O\'ll? ~~'!, 9\t~'O...~" c*~ Cl{~t'11 <l'R~ ~
f~ ~'\ f<lf~ ~ <i1\ f~1,\~ ~~~'\ <\1melopeia <t>f<l'!tll ~~ ~~,
~t~'\ <{S~,!~ <\>Q!t'll~~ ~~I!) Q!t<\it"llS 15l~'S~<I" ~'ll~ phonopeia
~1fu~~'\ <\"lt~9\t~'O...~~.,~t~ ~ll visual images C<\tt<\l." ~Q\'6imagery
~<f-~51

l!T 1j~,'ft \!l<l~~ ~t"6t(T ~'fllt~, <:!1..\!l ~'Itt~ ,,~ l'f6


HI; <\~t ~<l-'IThere
I"i" are three kinds of melop' ela, that~ 19
e wade to sing, to chant or intone; and to speak.':
be older one gets the more one believes in the first".-
~f<r~tc'l~ CllC<1'tt'l1~ ~~~O{tcQ\~ ell C<1'tt<\1 <1'~<:!t~ (Del,{ \Sttwrt ,
~ lltO{ ~t~ 9\t~'6 <\t~~l 'l3iqt"l \!l<1'~ \Stllt~ 'S \!l<1'~ <li~~ ~1l(tl.\
~ 'l'f<f\5 ~<\ ~~1l <ff~\!ll c9\C\!lO{
\S ~~ f'lt"l<\t~ llt~ C"I~t9\~ C"l~-s

~~t~ll .
~f~~tl:fJ \!l <\{9\ij5~ 159\~t5tT I \!l~~ ~~~ $~91~ <1'Q(t-e c<l~~
~~ I f<1'~ 9(tI5M~ ~t\5,{~~<i1 ~t'$<f~ \ Qlt~~ f\!lf'l c~fiI 'If ~~1f~
~~~~f<\~~~ \!l<{i~ C'Il~o{ <\~ ~~<\tIf <t't~'1 \!l<\~ Cl{C~~ C'<R'Itt~t'ln
~~t~t'l~~~ ~~~~ ~~ <1'tciif~t"lt, ~t~ ~t~ l:fwtl f\!lf"i-s ~~tfo{<f 9f%~
"niS <{it~t~O{I lltt~~ <\{'1t~ ~ ~~\S f<f'% f~fo{ fo{\!lt~~ <\1fe;5t~
lpltt~tD"t~ <ft1\o{\ ~T.'1~~C"l '5l~(Qf~f'l C'l <{iot1
~tft~\S <{it~~O{'1~t~ I
<\~t'lt~"'I1, <\;ij"ltO{'111t~~~ '1t~~J~ ~t'lt~t<\ \S 5t't'l~1\!lt~ ~tl:fJ
~<:;~t~<\Wf~ ~~~l:ft~ ~t~ \!l <\~t~~\S ~~~ I ell <u<\~t~ \!l '5l<l~ '1~<l
C'lf<\~~ 9\tl5'6 f"w~~<1' \!l<\~~t~31tl5~1'5l<\~ ~'I\t'l <t't~0{ell C"l~<f 9fnr:<1'~
~rou '1~, 9\t~<\5~ C"I~t<1'~~",1 \ 9\tI5M~ f5f<1'~1jl\!lt~ ~t~ f~~ ~f<\t'lf~
~J <H~~ c-l~' \!l~ \!l<ft$~1 'S '1t~"H ~n Active Anthologyt\5'S
~~<\T
l' '1~t~t9f <\O'lt\!lC*~ <l{9\~5t1l f~fo{ ~~ f~~ <{if<lt';f~~~ ~fi
'lt~('\<{it~t~o{~t~ 5~fo{<\5t~~f<l~ <\~<\t~<\tlf~ ~f\5' <(i~~t~f"le ~~
lfll~t~ 9\i!?t"l C5tt~ 9\i!?t<\ 9\tI5C'9~ ~f.I~ 'I'mi ~~~ ~%<\tlf-ell
~t~ C9f~tt~~ ~f\5 foIt~ ~~ ~l) <{i~t<:!1I
~~<\tCIfC'l<{itt"l C"Itt'l' fO{~~1t"l.t<t'
i!l~~%<\tt"'f~<{if<l<:!t~
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~'11 \!lt9.9fC~~t'l ~~ C<!9\t~'9 ~t~' C*~'1 dichten-conden$are ~t"I'e
~<\% ~1 ~t"l~ \!l<1'~<{if<\\!i1 ~~ '11\ \!lt~ti!?1,fti~ f"'t~ ~~ <\~ ~~t';f~
'll!f\'~~~~t<1', <{i~~t~ \!lt~ ~f~'ll 0i1 ~"I\S, 'f<lDt~<{itt"l~9ft'l\i l:ft~OiIS
~t1\ttlf~ <1'f<l~t~f"l ~9\~t~ ('if0{, <5l~~tt~t5<f, l:f~tl{~ ~tf~, 'll~ <{i'l~J:'1~
9(~~ ~~t '$ <5ltlf,,(r;<{i <lif<\\!lt~ ~\!i<{itliJ <\t"l' ClSt<\C"lWt c~~t ~~ C"It~O{,
~~O{9\t~'6 ...~~t~l \!l~<f blah <\t~' ~~t~' C'If'lI
~<\~ ~~ 'ii:<fl~~t~ <5lW<{iWI'S ot~\!l 9\tt~-~~f"l~ f'l' <!t~
<\~~tt~~ ~ '1'1 \!l<\~iSJ.t<{it~~ <11<\t~~ <\1<5lt~t~"1.f<1' ~~ 9f~1l 18'6' ~ ?
...
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tt~ ~f<\~t~ ~'1, f~~~ -s ~~fiI~ \!l<1'~,<5lf\i3~~t,'\~ 'e f~ filt"l' '1~<l1
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~~~~ ~~J
~t~1~ 1li.~<\~t~ ~tSl<ll~~tt, ft\5tf\~ ~~ ~t",~-"If you feel like that,
for God's sake go back to England and do something."
~~ ~~ <\9\'~~liillf\ liiMt\5 ~~ C'lf~~lf\ "O\1-1\t~t~1 "l{t\Wl fliifilt1
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\tf,,~ '14.4


~~mf~.,
I \ti~~ ~ilfii ~Jt~i5t~ ~t~~, ~*,-~\tin ~~"I ~~ Whom even grief neglects, but on a tomb
She mumbles (which has now become this room)
I!t~h1'<l't~J f~., i5t'6't~ ~~~1,~ 9f~\tit~~~~ ~~~~~ I ~f~ Her groping moan of pain.
I!t~~ f<l~~ ~t"l f~., I ~t"l~t~ ~~~{ <l't<lJC~<l~~'l~~ ~ Pain 1 Can lie be that wily ghost who creeps
<l'~~il~" I From corner to corner 1- Then he leaps
With pinch, thud, grip and yell j recoils and weeps
~~ ~~tC'1 9f~~ ~<ltil~
Waiting to leap again.
~~ e<l'~t<l' {f~~l 9ft~t.,~, ~f.{ ~~<l'tG'\<l'tC<lJ~~ Oh the dull mirror! Never will it hold
~~m~"I; ~t~~ ~fu~ <f~~~ ''If<t''1~~1
~C~1 9f~t~f5~~ ~1 A ~ew reflection, less deformed and old 1
15f~~ ~<l"1~~I "lft~ ~~ ~'t~'18 ~t., ~ ~f\!)~fo;ift., ~I Roll up the long scroll, far too long unrolled.
~~ ~~~ "Ii I I!t~h1' ~~tff f~., ~'W- f<l~-t1f~:~~~'lt<ltlf I ~ Throw down the toppling stone.
People move out, move in, all far away.
c"1m~~t~-f.f~ ~~t~l ~~tt"lto"'t~ ~til~t~ ~ ~~t\! 'l.f~ ~Jtt~fiI.
Is there a difference between night and day?
~~ ~51 ~~\! ~~." l!1~t~ <l't<{J~'~~f~ o"ltil ""til ~'t~~~~ ~
In which direction move the hours 1 But, stay!
~~ I ~t~t~ l.f1f<fi~~tt"11<fif<1\!)1,
~t~~ ~tt'1~ M~\! I • Who groaned 1 Ah, me ! Who groaned 1
\ti~'1il~il '<ff<{~
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~~ ~'<ftt"t~ ~1~ ~t"lt~l ~t"1il ~~~ I ~ f<l~c~~t~t ~~~ f~9f f'l~
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~cm~
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51~'t~~~ ~~t\ti ~<l't~ ~~:l I ~f~~tt~ f<lDtc~~tt'<f ~t~t~ e~ .•~-
lft"1~ 15f~'i~ <l'filt~ ~ ~~51C'<f '1~0{ "~~~to{" <1"11~'I' ~Q
~t~ l.ft~~ ~~O{~~~til~"I I ~~~ f.I'l'il-~f5, ~~M\ti 15f~ '1T1I1~
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~~, ~tN~ ~ '-5i~~~ 'It'<ltt\ti ~t~ I I!t~HI <t'R~1 ~~ ~~t~
~'<ft"t I \tit~ ~~t~ 1ftffJ ~~ ~llii ~'e"'I:lIl.ft~l 'ltlft~'t~: 9fn-~t'<f ~
<l't~; ~t"lilf Clf~0{11 ~~ ~~ f~fO{I!t~t~ 1~<l~ ~51~ <fif<l~'f~'l~c~'111
\ti'\,. ~~ f~~l 'l~ s ~f.I <l'f<l; <fit~'1~t~t~ ~~~f~ 'l~J, ~<lt \!t~t~ ~.t1
15f<l'9f~ ~ ~<l5l<ltO{I c<l'ttill~<f~ <l'Pf\tin<fif<l~~til~ ~ 'l"1..9lfi1l~
0\1I ~,~'l, ~f"~1;-~~ ~t~ Bitter Sanctuary <l'f<l\ti$ ~t"lt~11.• fflo
"t~~ ~~~'<f$! ; ~~ e'l~ ~~ttii ~ ~ <fi~l~f5~ ~ I ~~ <ff.f:5t~ ~
I!t~~ ~~tt~~ ~~., I ~~ <l'f<l~~~ ~t5l1ljlfJnMR~ I Bitter Sane-
tuary~ ~tt'1 e~t5l-tlfJ1 ~ffi~~~ ~<l'~ <fi~\!1~< ~ <l'~1~~ ,
The Sickroom
A wrinkled hag beyond the reach of gloom,

,
On Rising Early
In the legend of Troy where was 1,
Rising early and walking in the garden
1 was, in the person of . Ajax the son' of Telamo n. A n d Od ysseus cheated
B~fore the s1;mhas properly climbed the hill
me .of the pnze
. of dead AchIlles' arms. For he subo m ed T rO)an ' .
captives to
HIS r~ys gi,lding the roof, not yet tbe grass '
testify that It was he who of us all had done their city the most harm. Angered
That IS whIte with dew still,
by this, I drove Troy's whole forces single-handed from the field • B u t h e covert Iy
And not enough breeze to eddy a puff 0f disposed slaughtered sheep in the place of the dead men that 1had strewn behind
, the meadows a thick m'ISt 1ymg
And out in , smoke
yet me and so fastened on me the name of madman.
And nothmg anywhere-ill or noticeable- In the legend of Robin Hood and his Merry Men, where was 11
Thanks indeed for that. I would prefer to be written down for the Sheriff of Nottingham, Robin's
But was there ever a day with wit enough enemy. But the natural truth is that I played the part of jolly Friar Tuck. 1
To be always early, to draw the smoke up straight took and gave great buffets. I was the gross fool of the greenwood.
Even at three o'clock of an afternoon In the legend of Jesus and his companions where was 11
~I was not Jesus himself, I was not John the Baptist, nor Pontius Pilate,
To spare dullness or sweat 1 '
nor Judas Iscariot, nor even Peter. I was Lazarus sickening again in old age
Indeed, many such days I remember •
long after the Crucifixion, and knowing that this time I could not cheat death.
That were dew-white and gracious to the last
In the legend of Tobit, where was I 1
That ruled out meal-times, yet had no more h~nger I was not old Tobit himself, nor his kinsman Raguel, nor Sarah, Raguel's
Than was felt by rising a half-hour before breakfast daughter, nor the angel Raphael, nor the devil Asmodaeus. I was Tobias, in the
Nor more fatigue, Where was it then I wandered'
sight of the towers of Ecbatana, with the gall, heart and liver of the fish in a pouch
A stranger to my yesterdays, with steps
by my side.
V ntaught by the sage past 1
~<rt~ C~:£l~ ~ dl~ ~~~ 9\~t~ ~flltfl ~C!, ~ ~~1 ~~~ ~l,l
ell ~~~ ~<I'\ar<li11'l ~f<f, Cll"<:!t~t~ ~~ <l't"l$~ "~~11 ~11'lt<e~"~
<fitll~ ~tll ~~fl ~~tM\5 ~~l,(t~, ~~ ~\51 Q{ $~t<fit~ ~<fiW't~ ~~'S
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l5lt<l'llcj<fiftl~t~fl, ffl ~t~tt~~ ~~~11 t!\\§~ ~ (.ll ~'i\'11 <\f~t"l~ ~l,( I
~t<1l ~'i\t\§ ~~~-l!l~ ~~ "llJliltl!t'i\J ~tf,,<:§t~ t!\~ $~ I ~Q\D~~tt\§ ~ot-
~N~~~"l "l\iJt~ l2t~~ ilt~\§ ~<I'S I c~ll:~~ ~"9f'{(t\§J 1Itil ~l,( ~~11'l
<fi~\!i1~f5~ Cl!il ~<et"3l~ 9\t~~ ~'i\ I ftl~~lInl ~~ ~tst~ ~~tt\!i ilt~ I
'i\~~ c,~t~~ c,,~~~~t\§ ell mf.i1l1 ~~tt<l' ~w'1 <fi~~1 ~M'l,(ttfi \!it~-e
1ilf'"l~l ~l,(t~ R)'jo;f-~~ttl"'t~ 9\f~~ ~""ttf~1I ~tlJ I ~Wr~~~~r~~
<fit~l-l'j~lll t!\<fi!i;l2tlltO\-~l,(~ ~tltil\iJ~ -tlt~1 ; ~~i\t~~ ~<fitt"t <\t\iJtt~
Cl(il"'~t~~ \5{~~~'11 ~~tf.l<f <fim\§ ~~~~ ~\iJl ~~~ ~i!?~~1 \5ltt~,
<l'f~l ~~tt<f ~9!~ R:x.ttt)'j~ W!1 c<\t~\5 lI~~<ett~ ~cj ",fill,(1 c:!~f.I
lI~t~ <fitt~J ~x.ttfl'\~ <l'fit~t~ I <et~t\§ ~'lt~ '1tt'i\ ~t1; dl<l'~ ~t~
dl<l'!i;~~t"l~ ~~-C"!t<e1 lOf'i\t\!illc~~ f~o;f-~t~t~l~ ~~~ ~C!,~I 1J!:'i\~ ~
~'i\ <fi~ ~ <l'~ t!\ ~~~ 9\~ ~tcj <eftl~ 'i\~~ <l'ftl~il, ~Q\tf9f'~ 9f'~
~!i; ~~ I ~~~t~ <fit"J·)'jtf~H
1>J..cf<;!il,( t!\~ ~~9!"iit~~\5 9f'tfl\' dl~ ~l,(~
~"'~ 9\f« I ~~t~ $t~~ ~-~fD<l't~ ~pt~ CDt!l\'t."lt~1,l1C'IIt"! Qf~ m
il~-In December, In Moonlight, The Spider, An Old Road,
\$~ ~~
The Last Leaf, The Dead Bird, The Flood, The Burnt Leaves
~~8~ ) ~-~st >!)~t

"~t;G'rt~~ ~tfif '\2I1l""-~~1\ot rn~, ~:~ IS~, ~.,~


~Wl~ i1~,~t~~~ I
"~~t!{ 9lftl~t~""'-:'~~~If~~ ~tl,l,~: ~ ~1\ "lt~~'1,
"~t~t1ft~1U ~9tJ"-OIt~~1f "'fM1\ ; ~: ~"9\t~t~ l.<li~t~~1
~<t"~ ~t"l;Y rn~t~I
The Old Tree "mt11i" -~DtwD& 'f'S ; ~: ~~& "lt~t3l~ I
The wood shakes in the breeze
",~tert~ ~tit"-~ll~ijt"l ~~; ~g ~i\TISt~~, ~.,~~1\it il~I
Lifting its antlered heads' ,
Green leaf nor brown one sees "~ijt"itf~~~ ~tN CI$I"-~tf.( ~tt~ ~~~ ~t1\~ ~ ~~ ~l,l ~(1,~
But the rain's glassy beads. ~"l Q{ ~t~t~ C~~ C~~~ ~t~ 'i\il 9f~~ 9ft~ll1dt~~1l~t¥t~~ ~"lt"ltft~~
One tree-trunk in the wood ~ll~ ~9f 'e ~t'l f.i~ ~t~~~1"t <lit~f~"ll Clff~ ~<li ~t~, ~,~ ~~, ~t~
No tangled head uprears, ~IlJ ~<i>~ .n"lt"lt~~ f<li'%~t"'f'19ftD~ oft"'t"ltf~t~~.,1 ~tij~ Q1~ <\~"lj
A stump of soft touch wood
Dft1~~~1~~t~~ ~t~~ ~tl,\~t~ <ltDt~ ~ ~t~'lll~t Clfl,\'~1 f<l;~~'t
Dead to all hopes and fears.
'<f1l.,<l'U ~t9f.,TI1~t~f~<I' ~t'l ~<\~"It<m~ ~tf~~Hf~<li~ <litt~ ~'l$t~~
Even the round-faced owl
1!TI1'~ Ift~ ~t~~ <t't~ <\t~t ~1\ot <\t't~ ~il·~t~t~j~ lft., ~'Il~ ~llJ<f
That shakes out its long hooting
With the moon cheek-a-jowl ~~ C<li<l't~ <li~t<\.,'Iijt~ 9\tft1.,1,-~~~: ~t~~ ~ ~nt
C<lit.,f<lffi CD~1
Could claw there no soft footing. ~ i{j 1 .,1 c~t<f ~f~~J-QP\t<l'~9f'lfi~t~ c<I5 t., ~"l-~tfu ~<\t~~q.,1 Ci{~ell
Riddled by the worm's small shot '<fTQ\t~~1l~ 'It\~ ~til~ ~W~ ~"9f1ff.if~ ~t~t~ I ~Q\1\ ~~ CDT~ ~~t~
Ji:mpty of all desire ' Dt~~~t~ <l'~ ~t~ ~t~~ij ~~., ~t"5'llJ '''It~~''l ~~ ~-1jt~~j "l~ ~~-
It smoulders in its rot ' ~<1'S'I~Di{1<li~<\t~,~~'\t~ ~ If'lfi~~' C~ ~llt~ ~t~~ ~ ~ ~til~ ~tlf"f '11
A pillar of damp'fire. t!l~ R'I'iii~"l ~<l'fWt<l'~~&.,ttQ\~ ~ ~~ ~<l'flft<f~1St~ ~t~~, ~t~~
~tii, ;~lfl ~'I~M~ ~S;rt'S-~~ ~~ ~ \!t~tt<f ~~.,1
'I"ll !)tij f<r-fl~~ f'S~~ '~<f ''IfQt~ ~ij Dt~~~t~ '<f~ "l~" <ft~
Jj~$~ '<ft~ I ~tfil ~ llt"l"'ffit ~~ ~ mOl f~
"i~"
~9f ~fi <f~~~ ~t~~
~~Of~~ ~t~'S ,\f'\\!: 1)t"lt~
~~k~~ f.r"~<li~ ~(t9~~~ 9ftt~ ClfNt~ 9ft~ ll~., 9ff\;
Whether that popinjay . ~~ ~~~, f<f'%~~~ lltllJ (1)T~ ll~t"ltl,\~~~ ~~ f<f~ ~tt~ <l1"L~", <l1~'l
Screamed now at me or his mate ~~t~t.,~ 9f\ft~}j~'l.,~ I .
I could not rightly say, ~tftt~J ~M~ Ift~ ~t~~ ~i, ~ ~~ "i'!.,t'<f 9f~<l'~1 ~ ~.,
Not knowing was it love or was it hate. <f~~ 9ftt~ ; c<l'.,.,1 ~tf~~j '9 ~~ ~tt~ 'l~<\9f~ ~9f-<ft<f~'l~"l ~t"lll ;
I hoped it was not love f<f~ ~wf~ C'lfit~~ ~~ If-l., f~t., ~1 ~9f~~1l ~tij~ ~~ ~ I "I,~tO\~
But hate that roused that gaudy bird. ~ll ~t"I{fil~~l,l; 9f'lfit~~ ~t"'~ ~\f~'l ~1Oj~<l'f<\~~~ ~~.,t"l C~<l'
For earth I love enough ' ~fDtl,l~tt~ I QI~~ "l\!.,t~ ~t1l~1~'I ~~ ~~t~ fDC.,\s~~ 9\t~tO\, fDi{t~
To crave of her at least an anj{ry word.
9f1ftl~~., ~~., ~t~ ~t"l~t~ ~.,~~~ ~ ~ 'I~ ~~ ~"'ff"l\! ~ll t!l~ ~tlIf~
~~ ~tiRi~ <li~~ ~1S~'1~., ~~\!t-~fs~~'1 <li~t~MiI ~ ~\!.,~9f <U'=6' <l'~t~c~~t'l~ \ft~ ~t~t~ CDT~~~~ *l-~If~' m~llt~
lIlnt ~N<li cn<liJ~nl~t"f1i5i{I <li~ ~ ~nt~f.it<l'~ <\~~~t~Fe ~ ~~<li~'t ~,t!l~ ~t~~ C~ ~~.,
~t~ C~~~ <\tf~'<f~~~~'l ~~ f<\'fll1 ~t~tl,l, 'Pf~.n"lt~tft~ 'PI~~t"'f
I!l~"~~~ ~~~ '11 ~'\ ~~~"l f.;,-t!l~~ ~t~ ~~'I~ I
~~t"lt~~ ~-mt~~ <!ll:lti{
~'lfi'l~~ Cll ~~f~ ~t<l''Itt~ ~~'<f ~!l\S
~J~ ~~~ ~~ I ~~<l' llttO{ ~cf IStt« ~<l', ~t'l"~~ ~1 ~~"" I
)~
a
~] ~-"tf1n
~~, \5~ 'lji~l\..1;t~-<.!\~
~~.~<;l9ft~tlA~-ll~ ~
I!t~ ClfM,~t~~~'( ~ 5't.,tlf""l,~ -Et~t1 <n ~tl:llfi~1, ~.m-tt
~ f.,~1;~~tfllf\5 ~~ I!t~tt~ ~1 i{\ ~~ -It11 ~ ~ ,
f\&~"\'l, ~tt.,tDOft ~W., OftC~"-C~~r~~, ~;f<I~t"ltu Ql.~
~~<lt"I~ ~fl(~t~llf'l1l~~ttG~tt~, ~t~~ "l!t~i\'f·J~.c~1fr, c;tf~'5T
f<\~4'\<lJf'6i~~~t'\. 0\1~~~n-\!l<;l c~••~ ~.-il1lfftR'C1,
fiSf"OI)jco\?l -n
~~ ~t~l1\t"'~fu~ ~tl\, ~t~ <oitf1lf~ ~f~m <lfil!
~~, \!l<1~ ~9(fif ~~~ ~~t9(lf RM~l 9(~t~ 9jt~t~ ~J~ lItt
1."~m flf~tt~ I ~tlt~ ~"~Jf'lm'l-~.,t~ ~., Dt~.,tllJR ~~-f~ ~~t\~~
~t~ fi1;;§t~q~~tqj ~t<\t~ ~fit~ 9(tt"~.~t~t~ 'lliStc(f~'1tfi
~llt~~liT<1tWt ~ ~"~~J<ltt?l. \2tWl~ ~t~~f5 lj~~~ 'lllt~~f~ ~~~
9(t~ I ~~ c~llfut~~ C'l~ fo1~~""ltf~~~~ Qt-fff<\t"l!t~~ ~'1 c~
I!it~l \!l~l~ ~SI ~~.,11 c~.,.,1, \!l~ #\~~ ~ <11~~~ ~<1~~~ ~
Qt c.!l~ ~~ '~~<l1l~'l1l~~l!it~tt~ 'lti\'f~ f~? \!l<l~c.!l~'l1l~1I'lt~~f 'RJ
~~9(tt~~ \2tt~t~iI: .,t~. f<I~t<l~~t~t~iI: .,t~, \!llIil: f~ ~:t~~~ ~
.,~-\2tt~t~iI: ~tt~ C<lt~~~~ <1t'Sf, ~'lji,,.,~"\~~~ c.!l<\~ ,~,f~~~ I ~
C<ltl(~~ filgt~ ~il.~t~ \2tllt'l.,.ftl<lt~~~ <lJt~ ~~~tt~., ~t~~il" I!I~~
'l~\2t~ ~t~., f~f~"\'l"\. <oi~~ I!If~tt~ <lW~t~ ~~t~ O{t~~~'\Ql f~~
~~~K~., ~t~tt~ 'lti\'f~ .,t~ I c.!l~~~, ~<\ c"~'~\!l~ f<:i;f'e~ ~ c.~
f~§t'll ~t~., l!it~~ ~~ '~~tc( f'l't9ft~~~-\!l~ \!l~ C\~t~ <emil Clf.l1
~~t~ 9(tt~- the nexus shirt of property I fuf~"\'l1. fi\t~ I!f'ttr
'l~t~~ ~~ Cl)~l ~t~" .,t~ ~t~tt~ f<ll"~tt'l ~tll? \2t9lt~Sl ~
~~ Qt-'lllt~ ~tf9(~ ~f~1.q ~t'l" C'l~ 'lllt~~ ~~~~t1fJ ~'f I ~fir
c.!l",flfi\ ~'Sf~ ~~t~ \!l~ ~llt~<lJ<l~l fS~Nt.,~ 1l~., ~~~~ ~ Ie~
~~t~ ~~ f~f<ti1.·q fo1t~ iI:~,~t~til" 'l1l~~1l c""'ttil:l <\J~~~ I!I~~
~f""'t<\.,1 I
<!l~\2t9ft~·~<l~~ ~tt~~ C\W<\J~ ,~ rtt$l. 'lt~tI!J, If''ft"l,~~
tli~~t~ c.!l1lil: 'l"Pf1fIfl., -~ft1~t~iI: lTt~l ~~t~l 'l~"l ~tt"l~ .,toO ~~
~1lt~~ <U<l~t~~tl(J~ 9f~1llfR <lfgj~l~~~ ~~t<l C'l ~Qjl~fiI ~.1l
~n,il:1 I ttt~t~l \!l~ ~t~~ 'l~~ ~ ~f~~~ <\Jf~~<lttlf ~$l f~~
'l'W., <11.,1"",~.,. ~t~tt~
C'<lt~'t1
'l"~ fl)~'l'tt"l~ ~~ 9JfQ{~~ <lJ~
'l'n,tCf I Qt''llltt~ \2t9ft~ o{t~ ~'ll\!lCf~
'~f~
ClT-~lltt~~'ll0\1.'l~ijj ~t~m
~'l., 1t~11 f~f~1.'l1. ~flf ~~t~ ~Di\1'll~~ ~t~ll 'l~lf ~l!~~tI!" leW
~~t~ \!l~ ~Q{1 <\~<lt~\2ttllt~.,~~1!i.,1I f"",~~t~1 .,1 ~ft1'llt'€f<f ~tft1
f~fo1 ~'Sft~~ '''ltt'l'~ i!\qjtSl~ 'l~tt.,~ lft~ 'l'~t\5 9(tt~", ~t~Sl ~<lilt-
,~'Ot<f l!i~tSl ~tt~tD.,1 ~fi~1 <l~~tt~i{, c"",tc.,1\!l'l'$ ~tllf~ f<llft'll~
~~l ~~t~~'\ ~<::''l'~f~~i\1, f'l'~ ~~t~ llt~J <lW~~~~~ C~~9f"~
C'i'Ot1~ '\5t~ 'l~J~ ~'lt~t~'\ I ~~~1 ~t~l 'l\5J I f~~\!l~ 'l~'nI Qt~
~~'ll~~ \!l~~ ~""'~ ~t~'1 ~ti\ ~'ll ,~ fuf'l'1.~1.f~., 1!l~<ltt11'lI1I"
~~lll I \!l~ ~ttGQt 1.~tlll <\M~1~tt~ CDO\l""l~ I '~''l"",''l ~~ijj ~~.(
~~~ ~<\i\t~ c.!l~~i\'f~ ~fi'llt~~ 1!i~1 ~~~1-~tt<l~" ~~1 'Il:J , •• tt'd
~tt<ltti\ ~<I ~~~i\1 I
~.-~t)1,\ oM&

~ ~.~~ ~ ~~~ 9ftUl; f'1'~ e'lt~ 'ltfVf~t~ '<{~~ ~ ~~~ ~ f<l~~'1 <!l~t\! <ffit'! <ftt'lJ~ ~~-~'l ~ '6fiI~
soclahst, fem1Dlst~ humanist ~ <!It'lJlI~lltc~ ~~ ~ fil1l.~~~ &ltllt'1' e'1'~<!lfi~l ; '<l1;ift~'<rt~-<2\~~\! .• wml ~ ~ "S -mi<ft
i,s~m~ I ~~Wl~ <!If<r~~'1 5~C'! <It,,t~ ~t~ ~m ~ .•fftt C'lt~~ ~ ~"Itoil~ D~~ %~"l~~ ~~~ ~lli i,s~~tt~ I ~tll[~fil~~'~~m
~~fi1~ ~-~~"l~1 ~ ~~"f~ ~~~-~m!l1 f.lm ~if ~1 ~ jI'~l\t"~ ~fu<f~"t~ ~t~ ~t1lt~ ~t1I31~ 9f~~N'! ~~t"l~, e~ ~~~
IS ~~tf<l'1' "ili9f G'jt~ <lifilm ~tc~; f'1'~ \!l~ <lt~G'jt~~'lt~l1 l1lfl fWlll <ff'f \!l~ clI(t'1'-~tQ\1~1\t~ <!lfu~tt~if, 'lt~1 <ftC{J~f.it\! ~
~tf.l ~C5~ ~ 't'e>~,-<!l~ Cll RC~~ ~t~R~\!it~ ~nfC~I(~ ~CiS~~ ~~~tt~ 5t~ ~<ltif~ ~~ ~:t~ C~~~~ C<l"f~tt~tlf,~~~~ <$lt~ ~
11~ ~tiS~m ~M1,ltC~if \!l'1'Q/1 'l"l~ 'lt~J! t;!C'l ~Wffllf~ ~ ~ ~tt~ ~~1 ~~1,!~ ~~<l, \!l ~tlI(l ,,~1 ~~t~ if~ I
i,s9(111~ ~"l~tt~~ ~t~~J ~~ ~~t~ lI~t~t<lC'1' f~f.{ ~~ ~tr~C'! ~.
~tf.{ ~l[~ ~~1,ltt~if I \!it'S R~~"if1fJ Nt~ '1'film e<lit~t~ e~tQ/t'S ~
e ~~\51-<lt~"lJ C"f~ f"flltt~ I \!l~ ~<lt~<l'51 ~~1l1 €~t~ 'fn1 ~
5fi~~fc'l~ lllfT'~~t~ f~c~~ ~lflltc~c~ <!l~~ ~~fil'S' <!l~~ ~~1If I ..:
q~~1-<l~"ln ~~ <!l~~ c~lI(<lt~~ ~lItif lIc~t~t'l'S f~l~ ~tll1! ~qcm
- The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam
~ 'e 'li"1~~ ~t~~-<!ltC"l \!l"ili~ ~~'4 <!l~ '1't"t<!lt~~ ~t"ll "'l~11
-By Sir M. Iqbal (Oxford University Press).
<lim"! <ft~'1, e'ltlf~i, <tIH llCif <!lfil1,l~if CllR~~lI fVf~ Nm ~~~
~~C"l'S ~~ <UFtUlC<f ~~-~~lIto{-~lI~l-ll~~ \!lClftll(~ l"l~ ~tlf1
The Mystical Life-By Roger Bastide (Jonathan Cape ).
~~ "ll~ ~>:f1~~~1I ~~C<li\1 I An Examination of the Mystic Tendencies of Islam
. 'l~9jit~ ~~ ~<m~~<!f~~nl ~mi ~~t~ i§3t~Ql <!l~ ~~~, orm·~~ in the Light of the Quran and Traditions-By Prof.
~~-~:t~~ ~~ ~t~m ~fiI5i Ql "f~
'<ffol~,e~ ~lIt'1 ~'it<i>t~m 1Itt~~ ~~~ I M. M. Zuhuruddin Ahmad Andheri (Bombay).
~~~~~'1 <lti\fJt~tlfJttll~ "~tQ/~ *Dt~"lI 9j~~fil<!lt~ 9fm~~t~~ ~ ••• The Transformation of Nature in Art-By A. K.
~:~ ~t~'ll'1 ~lftift;!~ 9(it~wf~~ ~Tilf1fJ; f<1'~ ~~11~~~~ <!l1W~ Coomerswamy (Harvard University Press).
9fit-~~H( c<ftto'1G'jtf"l~~~~~ ~~~:~~ ~7J9(~~~ I em~if 'ltNn", ~
~t9\t~ D~lIm~t~ C~1"iftfJ~~tt<t ~otc~t~ <Ii~l ~t~, \!l<f, 'l<l tr~
~1Itt~~ 1I~fi{;i[,C<lm <l~~ ~~ Cll~~ 6tt1lJ ~R ~CO{l ~~m~~
lIt~tlf~~)jt'f <!If<lll~t~ll'!tC'ltlf ~31'\!~ ~~~1 Clf~ fiflltc~ I <fR~ ~~~f ~(;" 1ltl!i \!l<!l~ ~"l ~~(;~, \!l'~~ \!l<!l~'e if1 f(~ ~<l ~t~t~ fWtllI
~Qtll i,s9\tt~ ~'1$ ~~ <l~, \!i~~ \!it~ ~f\5<!ltl,\~~~t~ ~t~ ~~i\f~ 1ltl!i1
~~-e~'ttll 5~~~M~ ~~t~ ~flf~\!i~ ~~ I <!It'lJ~RC\! <fQ/t'"'ift~f.{l(~~
<iitl1~~tl1~1 ~~tG'j~ \!l~ ~~"I C~lI~~t~'l\!~ ~W~ \!l~ <ft<lJ~tf.l i,smmt'tJ 'S i,s~~t~ I ~~~ i,s~t~ ~~ ~t'1't~ c~tl1 ~l,\, f<!l~ 'If<!t\!t~ 'll'f~~~'1
~1,l1 ~~t<t I 1j~'l ~"t~~ f<l15~ 'l~tt~ I 11~~1 'e ~~ ...
"Itt~~ <ft"S (~~ \!l<l.t~~Mt~
~<l~~ rn'1' ~ e~~ ~~tc~ 5tfil9(ttlI(~ e~Tilft1fJ'"NC<f ~~ Ql f•• <ltG'j~-ll~t<!lrn \!l<l'-\!l ~t~ <!l~ e~~.c~t~t~ <!l~ I ~t~ <l~~rQj~ \!l~
<f~ ot~t<l ~~1 ~tf<l<f I ~l'S 9(il~lI elf "ili9f<ff<l \!l<!ltt<lJe ~t1 1jllttG'jt~l <f'll~, 'Olt5~ ~t~J<f <l~~tf.i~ ~'4 1j~tt"lt5if1 'l~<t, i,sfD\5'e
~Mmt~if, ~t~t~e ~"lifl f<l~"l I c2t~t1l~ ~t1jt~ C1{~lN"l \!l'1' 6ttlU if1l:- C<ltlf~l,\, f<!l~ C1l~~~ i,s~~ ~1'§ Cif~ I ~~t~~ <It'l~"t~~ ~~ <f~t&l'l-
~~ .• tt"lH~C\ C1It~'li"1t.;'t- ~tlft~'l~~ ~tmll ~~ ~if-mlft"!'\ f<l~ ~~ '1..~<l,~~~ ~t<lt'" ~1 ~~
~t~J<f <l~\!l~ ~1fJtlf1 ~~tt~ ~Q/<!l~lltt"lt5,,1 M~<l I \!i~ ~ ,,~ I
~~ c~ ~il 'ltO! '1:Qf ~ <rot
C'il ~~, '1:Qf ~~ <rof;
~tt~ ~ Rtl,\ ~tt"lt6if1 ~<ftQj \!l~ c<lill~<!lt1l~~51ijt~ I ~tqi~
Clit~ ~"l'f1I ~ $fI~ ",,'il
"ffiT 1- 9f~ ~ ~~<m~ ~to2t~t~~J~ ~ClfJ \!l'1'~<!l~ ~~<ft~ ~~if ~Qj I f<'lS~
IftciI1! 'llltm llt~ ~1, \5!~ <>tuf ~, \!l~ ~1 C"f~~ C~~ tf~~ ~wf'!~ ~<f ~~1jf~~1j1, \!l~ ~t~J ,,1 ~
~ ~'lt\ ~~ ~ 9ft~mnl <lt5t"l~, ,,1 ~ ~r~Rw~t~ ~<l~, if1 ~~ ~f~<ltt1f~ ~31'~11 ~rQ/~~
~t'Wl lfl~ \$I '{<ffit~ ~~ fu><t, ~tfGt'1' ~~<l'{t", ~ \!l~ lI~t'5tC<l~ e<1lt" <!lttfJ.'1't~'1 ~ ~7J9(g if~ I
~ ~ ~~ (irtQf (~ iii 9ft~ lWtl
\!l~ -e~~<!lJ <If't<f~~~tt~~ ~(~~\5 if~, ~-'l~lI IS ~,,~t~t~'lt<!l
~'il iSm~ ~ C'il~ m~-
'" em ~ Qft~ ClfttQf ~~ ~'tt$ ~till
~~~ ~~ .,~,,(c~~ ~tf~~ C'I<\" <f~t"tif1 .,~ I \!l~ e<!l~~G'jt'1' f.I~,

~o

,
,~8~] ~.-",m~ ~t
[
Cl!~R' ~t~o;\51, ~~ tlf'f ,~~ c;\51lR' ~J~~\! ~fi;JlJ ~C1~ ~"t'\-
~~~~, 9fIfIfM~ lffittc!i~ \~Jt'SJt~ ~Q'j~ ~~1 ~'.{I ~~ il~ ~
<ettC~Q'l~ ~I)~ lIff'6i ~t~ c~tut ~CQt'1~\5 <1~I I:!tt<lf ~;;~ ~
~"I~, ~"l1 <\1~"'J ~~ ~C~C'l ~O{ ~~fi{~ 'l.'eJ~ ~l:'f ~
i1\.,1ft"l 'l'eJ\5~ ~i~\!1 ~t9fo; 'l~'l' '-5\t1/~-lj'eJ~ lfttill <t'lltt-s ~
~~tQ'j~t~ ~~ 'et~~ ~~~ ~fl:! ~~t~ ~1I)cQ'j I
~Ci\~ ~tfill i5t: ~~<\tc"'~ ~f'!l9ft~ ~i\ ~~-
~c~tt9f 15{~1If ~~ C~C<If~il \S f~~ ~C~ ~~~ ~
DC"( ~t~f~Q'j I ~~ ~(~~1 ~~~ m, ~.,~
'If-f0{ ~C\5 ~~(~
The truth is that the religious and scientific processes, though invol-
ing different methods, are indentical in their final aim, Both aim at reaching
IS ~<1t'lf~ 9f'lfN~~~ttil~ ?f6~ 't ~
~ttft~t'\ ~<11\5I Pl~'" 1If1!t<WtCI! :he most real and to both the way to pure objectivety lies through what may
<lflltOO~~~ ~ttft~C't~ <fitt~ ~~ C~ <1'lfCQ'j,15{~(~ ~Q'j <\~~, ~l ~ be called the purification of experience.
<1t~~, <1t~~ ~~i\ '<{$I,I5{tlf-f<1t1f
~'" fi~tM~l£.l f<lf~ C~ ~I5JI!1 ~~ Ql~
~~ ~~<1JIS~15{{9f~~~ <fi'~.,t~ ~W ~f\B~\!tt~ ~fo; c~9t Pl:et'>t
c<l'til ~~~ fD~~t~ ~~ 9ftt~ il1 I I:!t~ ~C~ ~ CQ/C~~. Aliotta1/ ~
<fic~c~.,-as a natural fact, significant of the ~or~ally observa-
~~S1 Idealistic Reaction against Science <ett~f~", I ~C~1/ 1It~'t
ble behaviour of reality and experience as slgmficant of the
~~ ~t\!ful;~1~~ ~~~,I!C<1 f\i;:j ~ f<tw~ ~9f 'tt~'\~t~~'" ~ ~ 1k9flt
inner ]Jature of reality I ~~IS~ ~~ C~ I5{f'e~~t~ l..~\!)o; 1lt0\~<fi'
'l~~\Bt., ~t~C\ <fi~C~~O{~'.l' I
~~to{ c~~'t11
~r.il1/ ~f5 ~~t~~ ~~t~'.{ ~
IS~<l' ~~.,1 't~~ ~c." fq~'hlS~ ~~ C\!~o; 15{~t1l~ I5{t~ftl<f~t1f~'$ ,

~ (Jft~'-s 9f~1 IS ~9f~t~~t1/ ~m 9fN<1'J~"" f<fi~ (<fit;; 9ftf('l ~ ~t~9fl iSt: ~~<\t'" <\t"'t~-
. Th 't'fic and the religious processes are in a sense parallel to
~~o; CQ/c~ f<1f~:{~~ fo; I f<t~il 'l"'~ I5{t~tClf1/~tt~ ~lIf'lf~t9f ~i{ e sClen I , h' d'ff
each other. Both are really descriptions of the same worl~ wI,th t IS I ~r-
~*I:,~~til~ ~fD~ ~m~I f<fi~ ~~t~~ fllf'fjitQ 'R~tt~1/ ~t!Jf ~
ence only- that in the scientific process the ego's st~nd pOint ~s necessa~ly
~~ttlf~ 'l~~ f~1 ISCiRt ~9f~1 ~~t~ 'ltfil~ ~'" I ~t~'\ ~~0{1""~ ~'Sm . h 'the religious process the ego Integrates ItS competing
exclUSive w ereas In , . k' d f
~~o; ~~

~~~1 ~~~
~t~ ~
IS mechanistic
C;;~ I '-5{t1f~1<ett~ ~t~t~'.{ ~.,f<t~...,.~~~~
lItilt\Bt<fC<l'~'\ <fi't~~ I
~~
"'t'e ~\!~ ~rn~ ~t~.,1,
I ~t1f~1 I5{t~Jtf~<fi Pl~tt~ ~'l1 <fi'ftlt~ f~~~1 C~C~ ~~
r.. tendenci:S and develops a single inclusive attitude resulting In a In 0 syn-
thetic transfiguration
~~ synthetic
of his experiences.
transfiguration~ ~'" 'tc1f~ ~ <fi'ot1
- ~<I~ ~~-
rrc~ f"'tt~~, o;~il o;~il <f"'<fi~1, o;~o; N'S~1!3 ~\!~ <fi'~& il1; I5{t~ttlfl ~W~ iS1: ~~.,t'" <\~to\ Psychology of ReligionC<1'-f<lclIf~'!l: 0\<\ ~-
~C~J ~t~1 \SC'lft""'~~<1~ ~tt~ \!t~l ~riS~~., ~'t'l
9fc~ ~~~ f<t~ttol~~ f<I§tCo;~ Analytical Psychologyt<\' 15{~'1.9f"lC<15il1
<fiC~o;I A careful
'>t"'~ Clf~C~o{,~.,~ ~fD 1S~lSf<fi7$l<1Jt~Jl <fi~~" ~t~C~<1tt-«1/ ~I:!tll~ 1m I study 'of the nature and purpose of these re~lIy complementar!
ISCIf~ '>t~~ ~Cil~, ~t~tt'lf1/ "!tf~1f ~t~ ~}j'mCo;~ I C<l' ~tf\! ~~'lrt~ that both of them are dIrected to the pun-
processes s h ow S . _1< t,
~1\t'1 <I'~C\!<\J~ C<{I5{t~~t'S ~<1~tfol<l' ~C\! 9ftrn, <ett~tt\f1/'S ~'lf 15{~ ~~ fication of experience in their respectIve spheres-I5{'<\tl:, <\Ml<fi IS
C}j ~'lf~ ~t!Jf C\!t1ftt\f~ ~tl1fil<fi'\!~ f<t~tc.,~ '>t~f1Ii\ CO\(, filG'J~~, Qf ~Rg~<fi' <lJ~~t~ I l..c~t'(j>·~9ftCl.{i5t: ~~<ltG'J9f~'Jlit,.,<fi' ~t., <.!l<\~f<l~1f
~tf\!~ 9fC1Jli"~ fl)~ <If~<\t~ I5{f\!f~'iji ...,.fu. ~t<fi1~<1 I ~~ttlf~ fR1 ~\'ilt<lf ~~~'.{ <fit~C~" I i5t: ~<f<\tt"'1/ ~~~~ 'et~, l5{'>ttlf9ftf'S'!lJ ClfC~
<1~ ~C~c~ I 15{~1)~C\!)J<f 'fJfu.~~ <fi'-e<1J~"l ~~\Btc~ fD~1 <fi'~1-~~
C<{.,~~ CIf'Sll ~t<l' il1 C<lftil? C~ <I~~f"l 9fC~ ~1f$l ~ ~"I <fi11f1
~
~
~~fi1C\! "lf~ fl)~t1/ ~t9f <1~t;; I ~<fi~ ~1/c'l~ ~t9f il'.l', C<ft~'t
C<1~, C<fitl1lt'S
<fi1f-f<fi~ ~tc~-~~~~~
<1'e'<lJC<l'~~, ~t'S <I",f~il1 I
I5{tf1ll'~~ I C"l~<fiClf1/Pl~ 't
=1 ~C~ ~~ I iSt: ~~<1t"t <\C"'C~o; ~ <\;ti1l1o;l}j"'~t., ~~tt~ ~~.,t~
~ / Q'\\!~~{tl:, Constant
ixperience
Appeal
~t~ lIt11 ~~
of Nature, History, Reason
<1'1/1~~t~ <fi;ti<\1 I I5lt~~ f<\'l!tlj ~~
<fi;tiqJIS~~}jlltC~IS ~CtfJllClfJ"3l~'1 <fi~C'" 1f"lf ~'.{ ~1 I C<ft~tc'l1/ <nt~Jt'.l'
1St.~~<1ti\ <fi<::ebl~.,$<fi f<fi'~"l..,t1l!t~~t~ ~t1lt~ ~5t1/ <fi~<\t1/'Jli1f'!l1Cil~ I
~~ 1f~'if\f ~<fi'<1tC"l~
1ft\! ~~"l~ ~ IS ~\!t~ ~C!Jf ~;ti1ft~ f<1~ f~ ~~Q'\t1(}j\Bl~l ~~C~ ~tfil ~1 f<tc'lfliil<\~ 9f~ffi \!t1t c~tt~ ~tfil <$~
C<fit;; ~~f1/<l' f"Cllt~ c;;~ I <fi'WI~'" ~IS-The birth of Islam is the
<\cfO\t1/
~~(., <fi'ft1t\!9ftft11
birth of the inductive intellect, ~~~ c<l't1ttt'l I5{t~ constant
Bastide~~ <1~~tfO{~~~~1 ~~ ~ \!tt\! mystical "5lf'e~tt<\'
appeals to Reason, History, Nature and Experience I ~~ ~
f<l~tt;;~ f>t~ cC!fC<l'''If~1 ~~t~-·the book is planned to be one of
C~<fi' '~~o; ~}j.,t1{ ~;t~ ~<1f"l~J~~ concrete, finite ~<I~ objective
t{Ciltst'l, ~f~~tt~~ flf<fi' CC!fC<fi' C\!~fi{ '>t~~"'1:!1, '-5{~\!t1t f1f~ ~
pure science' I <1"'1 <\~"'J c~ ~~t~'.{ ~~tto;1/ ~..t~~., ~<1~t~ <f
...
[
9tqj~ I ~~f.r<f 9!~f! ~<ftfll'<f ~'<ftt~~, ~t~ ~l:~TC<ftil~ ~ f5i§~fqj 9t~~1 '<f~C~ ~t<1 f.lt~t'<f ~tll (Jlt'lO{1), ~~~ ~~ ~
~iIf ~~ C~'<f~ f~5t~ '<f~l15t"1"Ii-~llt~ f<l5t~ ~~ I Bas f<lt"l~ ~tm~iI I <tt~iS... ~tC'<f subsconcious ~t'l~ ~ ~ m
C~~'!l'l"l~ '<fl:~~iI ~ ~ilt~"l'<f 9tqj~ ~"l1 5t"I I ~ ~~ ~t'S~ O{i.{ I iI.:

'!l~"'~ ~~W~ '<ft~ ~~ - ~~O{ Masson-Oursel\!l~ Cornparati ~l ~i:j Mysticism \!l<t~ f<I~ttil~ 1\l:~J9tqjf~ ~Jltt~ ~(t~ methodo-
Philosophy I ~~til, '~"l~R, C'l~ 'S ~O\f. ( C"!~'<fC~'6' ~ ~l q logically, 9!N''fJ <I'llI ~9!"Cf~'\~tll <>IN"CfJ I5Itt~' '61~ ~ '1tt'e-
9tt('<fJ~~ ~i.{f~t~ <H~O{"Ii) fil1!~~ ~'lil~~~ '6Itt"l~~ '<f~ • transcend "Oneself and the world, and then, if the transcendent
f.I~MfQj~Plqjtt~ ~9t~~ ~~m~- ... is found, to apprehend it with a triumphant intuition, ~lll~

~tt1l fiI"! 9f~ I '!lt~O{~t~O{ '6IW<I'~'l~ ~~n'f<l' f.lt~~ 'S ,flllm ~1{1
Indeed in all Mysticism, there is an indentical psychological experience
••.I am almost inclined to make this experience consist of a certain inward '!If\!~1{ '<f~0{ O{l? ~~ C~ intuition~~ ~t~T~ ~t~~ ~ll, \!l~~ ~~
sentiment in which there are two distinct elements: on the one hand a sense ~t'i ~f.I ~ 15I~~'(ji '!ltO{iIf <>Ito{
~ '<f~t~IS~<t't"l ~ I ~t~ '!lt~t~ ~O{~ll
of depersonalization, or annihilation of the self, which being emptied of its Mysticism-!ll1 f<ttllf~"lft~ '!l~~~ O{~,iSt: ~~"'ltt'i~ <;!;tllt~synthetic
normal thoughts and emotions causes the mystic to feel that he is living a tranwguration of experience~ I ~~ '!If<;!;~\!)n1 ~t~tQlTI~~~~ 'S 9tftl·
life quite different from his usual one. On the other hand he does ~ • 'l~o{~ quality ~5t~ '<f~<1t~~~~1 '6It~~ c;O{~-'<ft~'1~"t"l~ 1{tti{~
cause of this lose himself in an utter void: other emotions and thoughts rise
Mysticism\!l~ '!lf~~1"'l~ 9tc~ ~ll O{j,~1 '!l~~ '<f~<lt~~~ ~t~0{1'<f~~
within him. But he does not feel them to be his own: they seem foreign
to him and he submits to them passively. .
~~ I ~t<t ~~W~~ ~t~1{1'f~tt~t<l~ ~ Mysticism.!l~ <lofil1 9tt~ 151~~
\!l~ ~lS ~t~t~ ~wf~ ~~~ ~~~t~ '6ItC'it5O{t~9tl:~ "lt~iS...~~ ~~'t1 ~m~,~~~~<11~~ ~iI synthesis, transformation~~ quality
C~ fil~~ '!lFs~~t~ ~~1l ~~ti.{ O{Rt~'<ft~~t~'<f~ ~~ ~t'<fl:"!'S 9tfi't! l!ltt~1 'lJt9f'<f,'!lt~l ~~~ <;!;tt"'l~~~~l,{ I fiI~<f l!lf~1 <lJ'6'<I'~1 11('6',
'6I<I~ti.{
c~~fgj ~~ lltll I C'<f<l"!
~~1IfC<litO{ '!l~~t~ <;!;t~tll
'!lt~~ c"If,€l,{l
~tlll ~~ <t>f<I\!)1 ~C"! ~CiI
~i.{~ O{~W~O{, \ ~Wt~~ ~qj "l{~, ~O{ttll~-~c~t~~~qj lS9t.• ~ilf~ I C'<fti\
The crises and raptures which are part of mystical experience are
not constantly recurring factor of Mysticism but something that is merely ~'i 2.~c;O{~
~~ ~t~J; ~t'<f~tt~ ~tlS f~fil~ I
ephemeral. Its very essence is that it is a method of life and knowledge, iSt: ~~t~"l{t~~ ~t~ '!ltl{ IS folli~~~~~ '!If<;!;~1~~ '!If<;!;~~1O{~,
an attempt by man to conquer man, and an effort towards negation as well
\!l'<f~'!lf~l I f\!)fil'!It'1'<ff"lfO{
,~t~ <It"!'6It~t~ C~<;!;t~\!)<ll:~~
Ql~'lfJ~~
as towards liberation. Finally, it is an heroic attempt to transcend oneself
and the world, and then, if the transcendent is found, to apprehend it with a ISD~t~ f9t~to{~tt~ cllt~ I ~~ <I~~tfolt~f~fO{C~~~~~t~~ ~'<R "Cft~~O{
~t~~<l~, &t., t"lft"ll1'!lt~/l1 ~~~ fui.{ I <1ft~t~~3l1'lfiC't~
( ~, ~'I ) ~~ ~"l,
triumphant intuition.
~~t~~~ ~t~, \!lM~til'!ltth ~"'~~ I
I talicised ~~~M~ ~f~ 9tnl:'<f~ ~~ '!lt~('1 '<f~f~- ~~l!: "It is in imitation ( ~f\!i ) of the angelic ( (~ ) works of art ( fio1~lf.1) that
~'<flS ~9tt~, ~~9!~ ~<lO{-lltl!it~ ~<I~~O{~ \s9!tl, C"t~ ~~ ~<lill:'<f'6If~- any work of art (f"m) is accomplished (~fil~) here: for exa~ple, ~ clay
~~ '<f~t~ \s9!tll I <I~CiS~effort towards negation as well as elephant, a brazen object, a garment, a gold object, and a mule-chanot are works
towards liberation iSt: ~<f<ltt"!~ purification of experience-\!l~ of art.' A work of art ( f"m ) indeed, is accomplished in him who comprehends
'<fllt1"'3l~'1'<fftllllClfllI ~~~ <I~~t"l~ C~ f<\~tcil~ '!l~ftl'(ji ~"I, f<ti~<tl this. For these (angelic) works of art (fimif.l, viz., the metrical si1p~ te~ts). are
an integration of the self (~~~~f\!i) j and by them the sacrificer likeWIse 1I1te-
'R~O{~ <I~ IS9!qj~ c~t'<f ~~~ ~"!, \!l~o{C'<fto{ '<ft{l CiI~I Instros-
grates himself ( ~1'm'\'ll'l~,¥~ ) in the mode of rythm ( ~Nll ). .
pection ~ 9f~Nf<\~tCi\~IS~9ffilfu~ 9!qjf~ ~<t'lIf1'!lt~"t"l ~'lt~ ~W{,
~<I~ Experimental Psychology~'S ~lIf~mtot <lJ~~ ~~, ~t?, ~U '!It''l.l-~~''ff~l!lt~ iSt: ~'<f<ltt-e(~purification of experience ~'<f~
9tt'Sm~tl Woodworth\!l~ Contemporary Schools of Psychologyt'S I <l~ I '61~~<\f'l~, ~~~~ ~<I~ C~R1fJ-5btt~~~Tfu~ ~'<f~ ~1 ~<ltf~~
Woodworth ~tC'<f Existential School ~~t~, ~C~~ ~~ <;!;t'l ~li!2 I ~i\t~t"t~ '<f"ltf<l~IS~'f <1f<I'~~ ~." ~<li~<;!;"tt~ ~wf6t<t' C~C~
'<f~ C"If~l:"I~C<lt<\l1 m<l ~ Introspection\!l~ C"If~~fgj
~i1 <t'~l ~'&~, '!It"lf~<t't{l-~~ 9t~f~ I ~~tco{~ c~tl!i ~fqj~
~"*~~
~n;
~t~tt1fJ
~9ft1
\!lt~t~O{I ~il '<f~fVfO{ ~~ '6Iti\ifRlt~ ~'i'<f-\!l~<;!;t~~<\~'h
C~RtiJ<;!~ 'R~tll
~<I'~1<I~9t~ I ~tt~'S ~~ imi ta tion of Na ture\!l~ ~~ \!l"Cf~~'<ft~ '1'f'S~1
-~'<f ~tl~~ f<l5t~ - f~~ll ~~ I Mysticism~IS ~t~ <l"ll ~, ~tllt~ I i5t: ~~~~"l{t~~ <1~~1f~ Meister Eckhart O{tt1{ C'l\<U~~ ~~

, «
[ '.1"8') ] ~-1I\~5l.I

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~~'tJ IJI~ C~~~~/~ ~tO{~~~t>f fu>rt<fitc"t ~~f'l~, f~~"'ll ~~"'l~ ~ ~ "'"tll f01I ~tf~J '11 'f"t'tOl~ Oltt1l '\~tc~ Cl\ C1l<fi"'~ C<fitOl~<{ ~, '!1
ili1 ~'1 <fiC~ ~tc~~ <fi"lt~~ '€ N~ ~~~'1 .~~, ~t~~ .~,~~ c«~ -s ~t'1 ~1 Cl{ llt~t~~' llt01 \5t~ i!lfW\5tf51'f ~tlA~, \51 i\~tll c~
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Eric Gill c!t1t Ol~ <l~ Art~ \!l~~ <fi~ <It''1C~ I ~rtOl~~ ~~il'~ ~~fu<fi ~~ ~<fi 9ft~<fi~1{t~, - ffl ~ttlf~ lItlfJ clit51·~ C~llOl <fit~ ~f~tl
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tt~l ~tcOlOl ~ ~<fit"1<fit~ ~tO{<f~~t~~ ~~~~t'S fq'¢t~ ~t1tO{ ~ 111_ '61~ttl'f~ ~ ~~o1 C<fit~t~, ~ ~~G'1\51f~.,Ol1 '1"11 ~~t~ ~~J~, f~~
empathy f<e:{IftWWt ~ ~~~t'1 ~ts ~~~ ~0l11 ~~tc9f~ C~~ '61t~~~ tli1<lto{~ <1~\~ '€ <\~f~1\ ~"tt"t1t ~"lOltl ~~~t'l1 ~<lOl-~~1
~t~~tll IJI~ ll~J\~lI lItOlt<ett't~ ~-t<\~ ~c~ ~c~t~ I Mari tainlJl1t Art ~ ~tOl<fi 1I~i!lf, ~t01~ ~~il ~il, CJj 'l"~1 "l{\<fit~011 <fit~ lltt<fii~~ ill I
and Scholasticism <l~~ IJI~ ~Jjc~ 9ffi15t~1t 9f~~<l~ t>f~1! ~~Clt •• ~~~~ ~51~ \!l~ ~<lfDi!lJ'€ ~t9f<fiI!~ ~ 1lt~Clf~ ~t~ ll~t~~ ~~'S
<fi~f~ I ~~tc9f-fqt"t~::!l'tt'fI '5lti!lf<fitilNeo-Thomsim~"1t ~1{C"lt'51ct= t1l<fi~t~ ~1{0l ~Wil ~c~ ~t~t~, ~W~ -C\S1l~ ~t~f"t~ '€ ~lI"t{ ~Cll
<fi~'1 C<lt~~lI IJI~ ~ ~~ttO{~ Art, Science, PhilosphYIJl1t lIt~J ~fl~ ~~"'9f~~ 9f~"9\c~~ <fitt~ ~t~t<lT <fit~ ~t"1t~ 1JI<l~ ~"!t~ I '5ltc~ ~f'6i~
Fl<ltCI'f~tO{~ C~Q\-~~<lt~ ~i!lf Fl~ I .~ <tJf'6'~ ~ ~~~ f~"!, \!itC\5 t1'It~Jt<fi~~<lJ~~ ~~tt"t~ ~<l<fit"t ~"I-
~tll~ <l'6i'tJ IJI~C~ ~tcs '€ Fl~Ol ~,~~ Cll Transformation '61ttli<fit"!<1J~~ '1jt~ <lJ~ ~~"9\"t/~t~ ~'f<\t~, ISt~ <llfC..,~tl1fO{~ ~1{t~
~tflflS ~1I C~~ ~~fOlt~~ 1JI<l~~t~~ 1lCOlt~t<l~t"1 <fit1t ~tcllt5Ol1 <fi~t'l.• ~~~1 ~t~ ~tl,lttlitOl~ "t~ IJI~~ C~ ~t~ttlio{ oWt~t1t (5g1 I 1JI<fi
C5tc~ ~t<l I C<fi<l"lIS~ 0l1l,-~1{0l c~~-t>fqjf~t\5, C\511~~ Fl~e <fiott~, ~ti!lf<fitll ~t~t~~ ~C~~ lltlfT <tJ~~ P1<fitllf ~if, C~ ~~~~
fD~~~, purification' of experience 011~til C<fitO{~<fit~ Jjt\5B~ ~~Jl ~~t~f~t\5 <til1 5t"! economic, <\t~"It~ ~~O\flS<fi ~til <:et~~~511 ~
t>ft'S1I1
~ 011I 1JI<l~
IJI~ purifica tion~1t ~t~OltlI ~ffi~
\S ~~"'t"1t ~\!R C1lCilOl1I
~tll~o{ I ~9f<fi~C'19ft{<fiJ ~<fit"l'S 9fqjf~t\5 C<fitO{~t{<fiJ COl~I ~~\!: \!it~ ~til ~~ ll~t~ "tt~ ~~tlfJ ~t1 ~~,~, IJI~~C1l~ ~~lfJ\!itt<fi
~tlft~ C5tc~ ~t1t~\5: ~~1 9f~~ 011I ~tt~1 <ltf'¥C~C\!itt"!C1l1~<fi\5t~,~t~ I f.,~g iSott'Iftt01,~5Ol1-~~tl! <11~~51~tO{
~ ~M~<;;1~~<\~tOlOl'f, CJf<f~ 'it" f~ IJI~ ~t't~~ ~t~T C1l1~<fi\51 c~~t~
If-til ~~ C'lfiti!l~ ~tl1fOl<fi'~t~~ ~C~ '€U>, <{tt<fi\!l'l" <fi~ <\"l15t"! ~tt\'f~,"ll
(precious) I '61t~<fi ~tf~~J ~tO{<fi~~tlI \!lIS<fi~01IJI~~ l'filill1lCOl~', ~t~
~t"<fi~t~ <fit~'1 lJI~tcO{~C1ltll, f<1l'~<fiM~~Ci5~<\\Si<\Jf<lell\lf~<\ 'f"t to{~
~~~ I CJjP1lfC~ ~t~1 <till 5til ~ ~"tt~ ~t~J~ \S ~<ltO{~ ~t~ ~t~-
An Essay on Philosophical Method-By R. G. Colling-
fu~t'lf~ IJI"~ ~~tOl <fi~'1 ~t~ ~tlf\~ 1'~~\511 .I.~~tO{~ ~<fitt"t ~-it~
wood. (Oxford: Clarendon Press)
(symbol) ~<\~~1I, ~t~ fq~.,~ ~t'll'C"lJ \~ '1ft'"!~<fi~t-s ~~ ~tc<lo{
~~~Ol 'If''t1;0l~Jjt~ ~ "t~<lt~ ~~ <fiM~~Ci5~(Collingwood) ~ I'f1'ItOl~~<fi ~J<t~t~ ~t~01 I
Oltll~tcI'f~ <fitc~l"tc~~ ~~tO{l OlllI <l~~ "M~~ ~~c~ "l"115til C~c9f"ttl'ftit <fiM~~tl5~ 1lt~J C~ C~~~ ~ ~t" ~H 11~ Cil~~ ~~J, IJI~~
I'ft"ttii<fi~tll\1 ~~t~'€ ~~ ~f\5~~ '€ ~<et<l ~f;{<fi~1~~~c~'-'5lW c~to{ ~t5J <\~~tf.1C\5 ~fO{ ~~,,~ <\~C~ ~1N ~ Cl'ff~m~ I ~t~
<l~~~ <fi~1 ~t<fi ~t~ 011~t~, (Speculum Mentis) c"'9f~'1t1{ Cll~CJj1t"it1t ~'e<\J ~~ ~ I'f-R ~~~~ ~~~\5~tf~J C~llo{~<\tOl~ ~f~~\!tl ~f\!$'!
~t~'1 9f~~ llt~J'e ~t<fi~ i!lftcO{Ol
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I ~W ~'" 1'f"t"01<t1 }jtfu\5~ ~~~t., ~lf~ '"<fito{
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<ffG'\~~~ f~l,{ f<I\Stt~ ~f't~~ ~trt~ I 8tm I!\ <!tm"t~ f~
~~~il1-~~~~n ~~~rn ~ ~t9\oitQ Clf ~~"t Cl{t~~, 1\'If'l f.l"5~\!i1-f<1'i!$ C}j R"5~~t€ ~t~~R~ (hypothetical), ~Ol;
9jfiD~ }j~~~ \!it~ <1'tt~ e~t~~~J ~t'l I (assumptions) clllt~ I!\~mi ~AA~ '5lt~~, I!\~~ ~:fll~ (axiom) ""~~
I!\ }j1l~ <1'Q\~f<l~ ~ ~O{~ ~fe; ~<1i ~~t~ 9ftt~ ClI~Q/1 ~fil~~ ~t~ \!it~ ~f~ I ~t~ C"l\f'l~tt~ '5l~~1 e~1t~~, 'f'i3 (data) <t1 ~t~~~ 'lt~
~~tO\\ il~ I ~t~ ~~'S f~R ~il<1'~l f1ft~ (6gl <ft~~il, f<1'~ C}j~ ~t1I }j'll'.\iRti5~, f~'% I!\t~t\l\'S '5lt1l~ ~ 1!\~':Ilf~\!)tt~ 'l~~ '5lf~l!\i~
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clllt<f "ll\!i:f}jt~\!lt~1 ~t~ il1-1!\t'lfit\l\\9 ~ttil~ 9ffi'\f~ \!l9f~t<\~~, ~rt~tfi'1'
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